Guyana Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014

Publication date: 2015

GUYANA Monitoring the situation of children and women Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 Guyana Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 The Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Round 5 (MICS5) was carried out in 2014 by the Bureau of Statistics,as part of the global MICS programme. Technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). UNICEF, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the Government of Guyana provided financial support. The global MICS programme was developed by UNICEF in the 1990s as an international household survey programme to support countries in the collection of internationally comparable data on a wide range of indicators on the situation of children and women. MICS surveys measure key indicators that allow countries to generate data for use in policies and programmes, and to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. The Guyana MICS 2014 results will be critically important for final MDG reporting in 2015, and are expected to form part of the baseline data for the post-2015 era. Suggested citation: Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Public Health and UNICEF. 2015. Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014, Final Report. Georgetown, Guyana: Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Public Health and UNICEF. Summary Table of Survey Implementation and the Survey Population, Guyana, 2014 Survey implementation Sample frame - Updated Guyana 2012 Population and Housing Census February-March 2014 Questionnaires Household Women (age 15-49) Men (age 15-49) Children under five Interviewer training March 2014 Fieldwork April-July 2014 Survey sample Households - Sampled - Occupied - Interviewed - Response rate (Per cent) 5,904 5,526 5,077 91.9 Children under five - Eligible - Mothers/caretakers interviewed - Response rate (Per cent) 3,482 3,358 96.4 Women - Eligible for interviews - Interviewed - Response rate (Per cent) 5,809 5,076 87.4 Men - Eligible for interviews - Interviewed - Response rate (Per cent) 2,526 1,682 66.6(+) (+) Due to the low response rate among men further analysis will be done and results should be interpreted with caution. Survey population Average household size 3.8 Percentage of population living in - Urban areas - Rural areas - Barima-Waini (Region 1) - Pomeroon-Supenaam (Region 2) - Essequibo Islands-West Demerara (Region 3) - Demerara-Mahaica (Region 4) - Mahaica-Berbice (Region 5) - East Berbice-Corentyne (Region 6) - Cuyuni-Mazaruni& Potaro-Siparuni (Regions 7&8) - Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo (Region 9) - Upper Demerara-Berbice (Region 10) 27.2 72.8 1.9 5.5 15.7 44.3 6.8 14.7 2.7 3.4 5.0 Percentage of population under: - Age 5 - Age 18 9.6 36.0 Percentage of women age 15-49 years with at least one live birth in the last 2 years 15.2 Housing characteristics Household or personal assets Percentage of households with - Electricity - Finished floor - Finished roofing - Finished walls 86.9 81.2 97.0 93.2 Percentage of households that own - A television - A refrigerator - Agricultural land - Farm animals/livestock 88.0 78.1 13.6 18.8 Mean number of persons per room used for sleeping 1.87 Percentage of households where at least a member has or owns a - Mobile phone - Car or truck 88.6 23.1 iiiMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Summary Table of Findings1 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, Guyana, 2014 CHILD MORTALITY Early childhood mortalitya MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 1.1 Neonatal mortality rate Probability of dying within the first month of life 23 1.2 MDG 4.2 Infant mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and the first birthday 32 1.3 Post-neonatal mortality rate Difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates 9 1.4 Child mortality rate Probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays 8 1.5 MDG 4.1 Under-five mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday 39 aRates refer to the 5-year period preceding the survey. NUTRITION Nutritional status MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 2.1a 2.1b MDG 1.8 Underweight prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for age of the WHO standard 8.5 2.2 2.2a 2.2b Stunting prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median height for age of the WHO standard 12.0 3.4 2.3a 2.3b Wasting prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for height of the WHO standard 6.4 1.7 2.4 Overweight prevalence Percentage of children under age 5 who are above two standard deviations of the median weight for height of the WHO standard 5.3 Breastfeeding and infant feeding 2.5 Children ever breastfed Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who breastfed their last live-born child at any time 89.0 2.6 Early initiation of breastfeeding Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who put their last newborn to the breast within one hour of birth 49.2 2.7 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who are exclusively breastfed 23.3 2.8 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishmentduring the previous day 36.2 2.9 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year Percentage of children age 12-15 months who received breast milk during the previous day 55.6 2.10 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years Percentage of children age 20-23 months who received breast milk during the previous day 40.9 2.11 Median duration of breastfeeding The age in months when 50 percent of children age 0-35 months did not receive breast milk during the previous day 14.1 1 See Appendix E for a detailed description of MICS indicators iv 2.12 Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months appropriately fed during the previous day 40.5 2.13 Introduction of solid, semi- solid or soft foods Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day 80.9 2.14 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children Percentage of non-breastfed children age 6-23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings during the previous day 83.9 2.15 Minimum meal frequency Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid and soft foods (plus milk feeds for non-breastfed children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day 61.6 2.16 Minimum dietary diversity Percentage of children age 6–23 months who received foods from 4 or more food groups during the previous day 65.2 2.17a 2.17b Minimum acceptable diet (a) Percentage of breastfed children age 6–23 months who had at least the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day (b) Percentage of non-breastfed children age 6–23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings and had at least the minimum dietary diversity not including milk feeds and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day 30.1 54.0 2.18 Bottle feeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle during the previous day 69.5 Salt iodization 2.19 Iodized salt consumption Percentage of households with salt testing 15 parts per million or more of iodide/iodate 19.8 Low-birthweight 2.20 Low-birthweight infants Percentage of most recent live births in the last 2 years weighing below 2,500 grams at birth 13.6 2.21 Infants weighed at birth Percentage of most recent live births in the last 2 years who were weighed at birth 93.9 CHILD HEALTH Vaccinations MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 3.1 Tuberculosis immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received BCG vaccine by their first birthday 94.5 3.2 Polio immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of OPV vaccine (OPV3) by their first birthday 90.2 3.3 3.5 3.6 Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT), Hepatitis B (HepB) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) immunization coverage (Pentavalent) Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of DPT vaccine (DPT3), Hepatitis B (HepB) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) by their first birthday 89.4 3.4 MDG 4.3 Measles immunization coverage Percentage of children age 24-35 months who received measles vaccine by their second birthday 93.4 3.7 Yellow fever immunization coverage Percentage of children age 24-35 months who received yellow fever vaccine by their second birthday 92.3 3.8 Full immunization coverage Percentage of children age 24-35 months who received all vaccinations recommended in the national immunization schedule by their first birthday (measles and yellow fever by second birthday) 68.9 CHILD MORTALITY Early childhood mortalitya MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 1.1 Neonatal mortality rate Probability of dying within the first month of life 23 1.2 MDG 4.2 Infant mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and the first birthday 32 1.3 Post-neonatal mortality rate Difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates 9 1.4 Child mortality rate Probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays 8 1.5 MDG 4.1 Under-five mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday 39 aRates refer to the 5-year period preceding the survey. NUTRITION Nutritional status MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 2.1a 2.1b MDG 1.8 Underweight prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for age of the WHO standard 8.5 2.2 2.2a 2.2b Stunting prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median height for age of the WHO standard 12.0 3.4 2.3a 2.3b Wasting prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for height of the WHO standard 6.4 1.7 2.4 Overweight prevalence Percentage of children under age 5 who are above two standard deviations of the median weight for height of the WHO standard 5.3 Breastfeeding and infant feeding 2.5 Children ever breastfed Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who breastfed their last live-born child at any time 89.0 2.6 Early initiation of breastfeeding Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who put their last newborn to the breast within one hour of birth 49.2 2.7 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who are exclusively breastfed 23.3 2.8 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishmentduring the previous day 36.2 2.9 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year Percentage of children age 12-15 months who received breast milk during the previous day 55.6 2.10 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years Percentage of children age 20-23 months who received breast milk during the previous day 40.9 2.11 Median duration of breastfeeding The age in months when 50 percent of children age 0-35 months did not receive breast milk during the previous day 14.1 1 See Appendix E for a detailed description of MICS indicators vMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Tetanus toxoid 3.9 Neonatal tetanus protection Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were given at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine within the appropriate interval prior to the most recent birth 22.3 Diarrhoea - Children with diarrhoea Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks 8.3 3.10 Care-seeking for diarrhoea Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 60.9 3.S1 Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORS 42.5 3.12 Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORT (ORS packet, pre-packaged ORS fluid, recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) and continued feeding during the episode of diarrhoea 28.9 Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) symptoms - Children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks 2.2 3.13 Care-seeking for children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 83.6 3.14 Antibiotic treatment for children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks who received antibiotics 30.9 Solid fuel use 3.15 Use of solid fuels for cooking Percentage of household members in households that use solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy to cook 6.9 Malaria / Fever - Children with fever Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks 13.7 3.16a 3.16b Household availability of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) Percentage of households with (a) at least one ITN (b) at least one ITN for every two people 5.3 2.8 3.18 MDG 6.7 Children under age 5 who slept under an ITN Percentage of children under age 5 who slept under an ITN the previous night 7.4 3.19 Population that slept under an ITN Percentage of household members who slept under an ITN the previous night 3.8 3.20 Care-seeking for fever Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 70.7 3.21 Malaria diagnostics usage Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks who had a finger or heel stick for malaria testing 12.0 3.22 MDG 6.8 Anti-malarial treatment of children under age 5 Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks who received any antimalarial treatment 7.4 3.23 Treatment with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) among children who received anti- malarial treatment Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks who received ACT (or other first-line treatment according to national policy) (0.0) 3.24 Pregnant women who slept under an ITN Percentage of pregnant women who slept under an ITN the previous night 6.9 () Based on 25-49 unweighted cases MIC S indicator 3.11 is not REPORTED because Zinc in Guyana is not provided as standard treatment for diarrhea. Instead, indicator 3.S1 is included to report the single treatment with ORS which is the recommended treatment. vi WATER AND SANITATION MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 4.1 MDG 7.8 Use of improved drinking water sources Percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water 94.2 4.2 Water treatment Percentage of household members in households using unimproved drinking water who use an appropriate treatment method 27.4 4.3 MDG 7.9 Use of improved sanitation Percentage of household members using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared 86.9 4.4 Safe disposal of child’s faeces Percentage of children age 0-2 years whose last stools were disposed of safely 43.0 4.5 Place for handwashing Percentage of households with a specific place for hand washing where water and soap or other cleansing agent are present 78.8 4.6 Availability of soap or other cleansing agent Percentage of households with soap or other cleansing agent 79.4 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Contraception and unmet need MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value - Total fertility rate Total fertility ratefor women age 15-49 years 2.6 5.1 MDG 5.4 Adolescent birth rate Age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19 years 74 5.2 Early childbearing Percentage of women age 20-24 years who had at least one live birth before age 18 15.8 5.3 MDG 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a (modern or traditional) contraceptive method 34.1 5.4 MDG 5.6 Unmet need Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union who are fecund and want to space their births or limit the number of children they have and who are not currently using contraception 28.0 Maternal and newborn health 5.5a 5.5b MDG 5.5 MDG 5.5 Antenatal care coverage Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended during their last pregnancy that led to a live birth (a) at least once by skilled health personnel (b) at least four times by any provider 90.7 86.7 5.6 Content of antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who had their blood pressure measured and gave urine and blood samples during the last pregnancy that led to a live birth 93.6 5.7 MDG 5.2 Skilled attendant at delivery Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended by skilled health personnel during their most recent live birth 92.4 5.8 Institutional deliveries Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years whose most recent live birth was delivered in a health facility 92.7 5.9 Caesarean section Percentage of women age 15-49 years whose most recent live birth in the last 2 years was delivered by caesarean section 16.9 viiMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Post-natal health checks 5.10 Post-partum stay in health facility Percentage of women age 15-49 years who stayed in the health facility for 12 hours or more after the delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years 98.0 5.11 Post-natal health check for the newborn Percentage of last live births in the last 2 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery 95.4 5.12 Post-natal health check for the mother Percentage of women age 15-49 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years 93.0 CHILD DEVELOPMENT MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 6.1 Attendance to early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an early childhood education programme 61.0 6.2 Support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 87.2 6.3 Father’s support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological father has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 15.9 6.4 Mother’s support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological mother has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 54.8 6.5 Availability of children’s books Percentage of children under age 5 who have three or more children’s books 47.3 6.6 Availability of playthings Percentage of children under age 5 who play with two or more types of playthings 68.5 6.7 Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once in the last week 5.0 6.8 Early child development index Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in at least three of the following four domains: literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning 85.6 LITERACY AND EDUCATION MICS Indicator Description Value 7.1 MDG 2.3 Literacy rate among young people Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education (a) women (b) men 98.0 97.7 7.2 School readiness Percentage of children in first grade of primary school who attended pre-school during the previous school year 84.9 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education Percentage of children of school-entry age who enter the first grade of primary school 83.3 7.4 MDG 2.1 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of primary school age currently attending primary or secondary school 97.0 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary school or higher 84.5 7.6 MDG 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach last grade 96.4 Indicator viii Post-natal health checks 5.10 Post-partum stay in health facility Percentage of women age 15-49 years who stayed in the health facility for 12 hours or more after the delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years 98.0 5.11 Post-natal health check for the newborn Percentage of last live births in the last 2 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery 95.4 5.12 Post-natal health check for the mother Percentage of women age 15-49 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years 93.0 CHILD DEVELOPMENT MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 6.1 Attendance to early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an early childhood education programme 61.0 6.2 Support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 87.2 6.3 Father’s support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological father has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 15.9 6.4 Mother’s support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological mother has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 54.8 6.5 Availability of children’s books Percentage of children under age 5 who have three or more children’s books 47.3 6.6 Availability of playthings Percentage of children under age 5 who play with two or more types of playthings 68.5 6.7 Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once in the last week 5.0 6.8 Early child development index Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in at least three of the following four domains: literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning 85.6 LITERACY AND EDUCATION MICS Indicator Description Value 7.1 MDG 2.3 Literacy rate among young people Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education (a) women (b) men 98.0 97.7 7.2 School readiness Percentage of children in first grade of primary school who attended pre-school during the previous school year 84.9 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education Percentage of children of school-entry age who enter the first grade of primary school 83.3 7.4 MDG 2.1 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of primary school age currently attending primary or secondary school 97.0 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary school or higher 84.5 7.6 MDG 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach last grade 96.4 Indicator 7.7 Primary completion rate Number of children attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) divided by number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) 109.1 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school Number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year who are in the first grade of secondary school during the current school year divided by number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year 95.9 7.9 MDG 3.1 Gender parity index (primary school) Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 1.00 7.10 MDG 3.1 Gender parity index (secondary school) Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 1.08 CHILD PROTECTION Birth registration MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 8.1 Birth registration Percentage of children under age 5 whose births are reported registered 88.7 Child labour 8.2 Child labour Percentage of children age 5-17 years who are involved in child labour 18.3 Child discipline 8.3 Violent discipline Percentage of children age 1-14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment during the last one month 69.7 Early marriage and polygyny 8.4 Marriage before age 15 Percentage of people age 15-49 years who were first married or in union before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 4.4 1.0 8.5 Marriage before age 18 Percentage of people age 20-49 years who were first married or in union before age 18 (a) Women (b) Men 26.9 6.6 8.6 Young people age 15- 19 years currently married or in union Percentage of young people age 15-19 years who are married or in union (a) Women (b) Men 13.3 13.4 8.7 Polygyny Percentage of people age 15-49 years who are in a polygynous union (a) Women (b) Men 3.3 4.2 8.8a 8.8b Spousal age difference Percentage of young women who are married or in union and whose spouse is 10 or more years older, (a) among women age 15-19 years, (b) among women age 20-24 years 15.5 15.1 ixMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Attitudes towards domestic violence 8.12 Attitudes towards domestic violence Percentage of people age 15-49 years who state that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the following circumstances: (1) she goes out without telling him, (2) she neglects the children, (3) she argues with him, (4) she refuses sex with him, (5) she burns the food (a) Women (b) Men 10.2 9.6 Children’s living arrangements 8.13 Children’s living arrangements Percentage of children age 0-17 years living with neither biological parent 10.0 8.14 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead Percentage of children age 0-17 years with one or both biological parents dead 7.0 8.15 Children with at least one parent living abroad Percentage of children 0-17 years with at least one biological parent living abroad 5.7 HIV/AIDS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value - Have heard of AIDS Percentage of people age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS (a) Women (b) Men 97.5 97.4 9.1 MDG 6.3 Knowledge about HIV prevention among young people Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who correctly identify ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, and who reject major misconceptions about HIV transmission (a) Women (b) Men 51.5 40.2 9.2 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV Percentage of people age 15-49 years who correctly identify all three means of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (a) Women (b) Men 52.5 34.6 9.3 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV Percentage of people age 15-49 years expressing accepting attitudes on all four questions toward people living with HIV (a) Women (b) Men 23.2 23.0 HIV testing 9.4 People who know where to be tested for HIV Percentage of people age 15-49 years who state knowledge of a place to be tested for HIV (a) Women (b) Men 90.0 87.6 9.5 People who have been tested for HIV and know the results Percentage of people age 15-49 years who have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and who know their results (a) Women (b) Men 26.3 24.9 9.6 Sexually active young people who have been tested for HIV and know the results Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who have had sex in the last 12 months, who have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and who know their results (a) Women (b) Men 40.8 26.5 x 9.7 HIV counselling during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they received counselling on HIV during antenatal care 66.7 9.8 HIV testing during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they were offered and accepted an HIV test during antenatal care and received their results 84.8 Sexual behaviour 9.9 Young people who have never had sex Percentage of never married young people age 15-24 years who have never had sex (a) Women (b) Men 79.0 55.8 9.10 Sex before age 15 among young people Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who had sexual intercourse before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 4.9 12.6 9.11 Age-mixing among sexual partners Percentage of women age 15-24 years who had sex in the last 12 months with a partner who was 10 or more years older 11.8 9.12 Multiple sexual partnerships Percentage of people age 15-49 years who had sexual intercourse with more than one partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 1.9 13.8 9.13 Condom use at last sex among people with multiple sexual partnerships Percentage of people age 15-49 years who report having had more than one sexual partner in the last 12 months who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex (a) Women (b) Men 42.2 59.0 9.14 Sex with non-regular partners Percentage of sexually active young people age 15-24 years who had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabitating partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 12.0 36.7 9.15 MDG 6.2 Condom use with non- regular partners Percentage of young people age 15-24 years reporting the use of a condom during the last sexual intercourse with a non-marital, non-cohabiting sex partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 57.2 87.5 ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND ICT Access to mass media MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 10.1 Exposure to mass media Percentage of people age 15-49 years who, at least once a week, read a newspaper or magazine, listen to the radio, and watch television (a) Women (b) Men 39.9 41.3 Use of information/communication technology 10.2 Use of computers Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who used a computer during the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 62.2 67.6 xiMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | 10.3 Use of internet Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who used the internet during the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 66.6 66.5 SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 11.1 Life satisfaction Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their life, overall (a) Women (b) Men 93.0 95.1 11.2 Happiness Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat happy (a) Women (b) Men 93.6 92.6 11.3 Perception of a better life Percentage of young people age 15-24 years whose life improved during the last one year, and who expect that their life will be better after one year (a) Women (b) Men 81.9 83.3 TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE Tobacco use MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 12.1 Tobacco use Percentage of people age 15-49 years who smoked cigarettes, or used smoked or smokeless tobacco products at any time during the last one month (a) Women (b) Men 2.1 20.7 12.2 Smoking before age 15 Percentage of people age 15-49 years who smoked a whole cigarette before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 1.7 9.4 Alcohol use 12.3 Use of alcohol Percentage of people age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month (a) Women (b) Men 26.0 63.0 12.4 Use of alcohol before age 15 Percentage of people age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 5.1 20.0 9.7 HIV counselling during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they received counselling on HIV during antenatal care 66.7 9.8 HIV testing during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they were offered and accepted an HIV test during antenatal care and received their results 84.8 Sexual behaviour 9.9 Young people who have never had sex Percentage of never married young people age 15-24 years who have never had sex (a) Women (b) Men 79.0 55.8 9.10 Sex before age 15 among young people Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who had sexual intercourse before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 4.9 12.6 9.11 Age-mixing among sexual partners Percentage of women age 15-24 years who had sex in the last 12 months with a partner who was 10 or more years older 11.8 9.12 Multiple sexual partnerships Percentage of people age 15-49 years who had sexual intercourse with more than one partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 1.9 13.8 9.13 Condom use at last sex among people with multiple sexual partnerships Percentage of people age 15-49 years who report having had more than one sexual partner in the last 12 months who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex (a) Women (b) Men 42.2 59.0 9.14 Sex with non-regular partners Percentage of sexually active young people age 15-24 years who had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabitating partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 12.0 36.7 9.15 MDG 6.2 Condom use with non- regular partners Percentage of young people age 15-24 years reporting the use of a condom during the last sexual intercourse with a non-marital, non-cohabiting sex partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 57.2 87.5 ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND ICT Access to mass media MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 10.1 Exposure to mass media Percentage of people age 15-49 years who, at least once a week, read a newspaper or magazine, listen to the radio, and watch television (a) Women (b) Men 39.9 41.3 Use of information/communication technology 10.2 Use of computers Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who used a computer during the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 62.2 67.6 xii Summary Table of Survey Implementation and Survey Population. iii Summary Table of Findings . iv Table of Contents . xiii List of Tables .xv Appendices . xxi List of Figures .xxiii List of Abbreviations . xxv Foreword . xxvi Message from the Ministry of Public Health . xxvi Message from the Ministry of Finance .xxviii Message from the Bureau of Statistics . xxix Message from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) . xxx Acknowledgements.xxxii Executive Summary.xxxiii I. Introduction .45 Background .45 Survey Objectives .46 II. Sample and Survey Methodology .49 Sample Design.49 Questionnaires.50 Training and Fieldwork .51 Data Processing .51 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents .53 Sample Coverage.53 Characteristics of Households .55 Characteristics of Female and Male Respondents 15-49 Years of Age and Children Under-5 .58 Housing characteristics, asset ownership, and wealth quintiles .63 IV. Child Mortality .69 V. Nutrition .77 Low Birth Weight.77 Nutritional Status .80 Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding .84 Salt Iodization.99 Contents xiiiMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | VI. Child Health.103 Vaccinations .103 Neonatal Tetanus Protection .109 Care of Illness .111 Diarrhoea .113 Acute Respiratory Infection .121 Solid Fuel Use .125 Malaria Fever .130 VII. Water and Sanitation .147 Use of Improved Water Sources .147 Use of Improved Sanitation .156 Handwashing .167 VIII. Reproductive Health .173 Fertility.173 Contraception .179 Unmet Need .183 Antenatal Care .186 Assistance at Delivery .189 Place of Delivery .194 Post-natal Health Checks .196 IX. Child Development .209 Early Childhood Care and Education .209 Quality of Care .211 Developmental Status of Children .217 X. Literacy and Education .221 Literacy among Young Women and Men .221 School Readiness .221 Primary and Secondary School Participation .224 XI. Child Protection .239 Birth Registration .239 Child Labour .242 Child Discipline .248 Early Marriage and Polygyny .253 Attitudes toward Domestic Violence .264 Children’s Living Arrangements .269 XII. HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour .271 Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV .271 Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV .279 Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care .283 Sexual Behaviour Related to HIV Transmission .292 HIV Indicators for Young Women and Young Men .293 Contents xiv XIII. Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology .307 Access to Mass Media .307 Use of Information/Communication Technology .310 XIV. Subjective Well-being.315 XV. Tobacco and Alcohol Use .327 Tobacco Use .327 Alcohol Use .335 appendices: Appendix A. Sample Design .339 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey .343 Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors.345 Appendix D. Data Quality Tables .363 Appendix E. MICS5 Indicators: Numerators and Denominators .383 Appendix F. Questionnaires .395 LIST OF TABLES Table HH.1: Results of household, women’s, men’s and under-5 interviews . 54 Table HH.2: Age distribution of household population by sex . 55 Table HH.3: Household composition . 57 Table HH.4: Women’s background characteristics . 60 Table HH.4M: Men’s background characteristics . 61 Table HH.5: Under-5’s background characteristics . 62 Table HH.6: Housing characteristics . 64 Table HH.7: Household and personal assets . 66 Table HH.8: Wealth quintiles . 67 Table CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates . 69 Table CM.2: Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics . 71 Table CM.3: Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics . 72 Contents xvMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | Table NU.1: Low birth weight infants . 78 Table NU.2: Nutritional status of children . 81 Table NU.3: Initial breastfeeding . 86 Table NU.4: Breastfeeding . 89 Table NU.5: Duration of breastfeeding . 91 Table NU.6: Age-appropriate breastfeeding . 93 Table NU.7: Introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods . 94 Table NU.8: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices . 95 Table NU.9: Bottle feeding . 97 Table NU.10: Iodized salt consumption . 99 Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first years of life . 104 Table CH.2: Vaccinations by background characteristics . 107 Table CH.3: Neonatal tetanus protection . 110 Table CH.4: Reported disease episodes . 112 Table CH.5: Care-seeking during diarrhoea . 114 Table CH.6: Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 115 Table CH.7: Oral rehydration solutions . 116 Table CH.8: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments . 118 Table CH.9: Source of ORS . 120 Table CH.10: Care-seeking for and antibiotic treatment of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) . 122 Table CH.11: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia . 123 Table CH.12: Solid fuel use . 126 Table CH.13: Solid fuel use by place of cooking . 129 Contents xvi Table CH.14: Household availability of insecticide treated nets .131 Table CH.15: Access to an insecticide treated net (ITN) - number of household members .132 Table CH.16: Access to an insecticide treated net (ITN) - background characteristics .133 Table CH.17: Use of ITNs .135 Table CH.18: Children sleeping under mosquito nets .136 Table CH.19: Use of mosquito nets by the household population .137 Table CH.20: Care-seeking during fever .138 Table CH.21: Treatment of children with fever .140 Table CH.22: Diagnostics and anti-malarial treatment of children .142 Table CH.23: Pregnant women sleeping under mosquito nets .144 Table WS.1: Use of improved water sources .148 Table WS.2: Household water treatment .151 Table WS.3: Time to source of drinking water .154 Table WS.4: Person collecting water .155 Table WS.5: Types of sanitation facilities .157 Table WS.6: Use and sharing of sanitation facilities .158 Table WS.7: Drinking water and sanitation ladders .163 Table WS.8: Disposal of child’s faeces .165 Table WS.9: Water and soap at place for handwashing .168 Table WS.10: Availability of soap or other cleansing agent .170 Table RH.1: Fertility rates .173 Table RH.2: Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate .175 Table RH.3: Early childbearing .176 Contents xviiMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | Table RH.4: Trends in early childbearing . 177 Table RH.5: Use of contraception . 180 Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception . 184 Table RH.7: Antenatal care coverage . 185 Table RH.8: Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 187 Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care . 190 Table RH.10: Assistance during delivery and caesarean section . 192 Table RH.11: Place of delivery . 195 Table RH.12: Post-partum stay in health facility . 197 Table RH.13: Post-natal health checks for newborns . 199 Table RH.14: Post-natal care visits for newborns within one week of birth . 202 Table RH.15: Post-natal health checks for mothers . 203 Table RH.16: Post-natal care visits for mothers within one week of birth . 206 Table RH.17: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborns . 207 Table CD.1: Early childhood education . 210 Table CD.2: Support for learning . 212 Table CD.3: Learning materials . 215 Table CD.4: Inadequate care . 216 Table CD.5: Early child development index . 218 Table ED.1: Literacy (young women) . 222 Table ED.1M: Literacy (young men) . 223 Table ED.2: School readiness . 224 Table ED.3: Primary school entry . 225 Contents xviii Table ED.4: Primary school attendance and out of school children . 226 Table ED.5: Secondary school attendance and out of school children . 229 Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school . 231 Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school . 233 Table ED.8: Education gender parity . 234 Table ED.9: Out of school gender parity . 235 Table CP.1: Birth registration . 240 Table CP.2: Children’s involvement in economic activities . 243 Table CP.3: Children’s involvement in household chores . 245 Table CP.4: Child labour . 247 Table CP.5: Child discipline . 249 Table CP.6: Attitudes toward physical punishment . 252 Table CP.7: Early marriage and polygyny (women) . 254 Table CP.7M: Early marriage and polygyny (men) . 256 Table CP.8: Trends in early marriage (women) . 258 Table CP.8M: Trends in early marriage (men) . 260 Table CP.9: Spousal age difference . 263 Table CP.10 Attitudes toward domestic violence (women) . 265 Table CP.10M: Attitudes toward domestic violence (men) . 266 Table CP.11: Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood . 268 Table CP.12: Children with parents living abroad . 269 Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission (women) . 272 Contents xixMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | Table HA.1M: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission (men) . .274 Table HA.2: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission (women) . 277 Table HA.2M: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission (men) . 278 Table HA.3: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV (women) . 280 Table HA.3M: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV (men) . 281 Table HA.4: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing (women) . 282 Table HA.4M: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing (men) . 286 Table HA.5: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care . 289 Table HA.6: Sex with multiple partners (women) . 291 Table HA.6M: Sex with multiple partners (men) . 293 Table HA.7: Key HIV and AIDS indicators (young women) . 296 Table HA.7M: Key HIV and AIDS indicators (young men) . 298 Table HA.8: Key sexual behaviour indicators (young women) . 300 Table HA.8M: Key sexual behaviour indicators (young men) . 302 Table MT.1: Exposure to mass media (women) . 308 Table MT.1M: Exposure to mass media (men) . 309 Table MT.2: Use of computers and internet (women) . 311 Table MT.2M: Use of computers and internet (men) . 312 Table SW.1: Domains of life satisfaction (women) . 316 Table SW.1M: Domains of life satisfaction (men) . 318 Table SW.2: Overall life satisfaction and happiness (women) . 321 Table SW.2M: Overall life satisfaction and happiness (men) . 322 Contents xx Table SW.3: Perception of a better life (women) . 323 Table SW.3M: Perception of a better life (men) . 324 Table TA.1: Current and ever use of tobacco (women) . 328 Table TA.1M: Current and ever use of tobacco (men) . 330 Table TA.2: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use (women) . 333 Table TA.2M: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use (men) . 335 Table TA.3: Use of alcohol (women) . 337 Table TA.3M: Use of alcohol (men) . 338 APPENDICES Table SD.1: Allocation of Sample Clusters (Primary Sampling Units) to Sampling Strata . 340 DQ.1: Age distribution of household population . 363 DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 364 DQ.3: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 365 DQ.4: Age distribution of children in household and under-5 questionnaires . 365 DQ.5: Birth date reporting: Household population . 366 DQ.6: Birth date and age reporting: Women . 367 DQ.7: Birth date and age reporting: Men . 367 DQ.8: Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s . 368 DQ.9: Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people . 368 DQ.10: Birth date reporting: First and last births . 369 DQ.11: Completeness of reporting . 370 DQ.12: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Underweight . 371 Contents xxiMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | DQ.13: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Stunting . 371 DQ.14: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Wasting . 372 DQ.15: Heaping in anthropometric measurements . 373 DQ.16: Observation of birth certificates . 374 DQ.17: Observation of vaccination cards . 374 DQ.18: Observation of women’s health cards . 375 DQ.19: Observation of bednets and places for handwashing . 376 DQ.20: Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire . 376 DQ.21: Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules . 377 DQ.22: School attendance by single age . 378 DQ.23: Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living . 379 DQ.24: Births in years preceding the survey . 380 DQ.25: Reporting of age at death in days . 381 DQ.26: Reporting of age at death in months . 382 Table SE.1: Indicators selected for sampling error calculations . 346 Table SE.2: Sampling errors: Total sample . 347 Table SE.3: Sampling errors: Urban . 348 Table SE.4: Sampling errors: Rural . 349 Table SE.5: Sampling errors: Coastal . 350 Table SE.6: Sampling errors: Urban Coastal . 351 Table SE.7: Sampling errors: Rural Coastal . 352 Table SE.8: Sampling errors: Interior . 353 Table SE.9: Sampling errors: Region 1 . 354 Contents xxii Table SE.10: Sampling errors: Region 2 . 355 Table SE.11: Sampling errors: Region 3 . 356 Table SE.12: Sampling errors: Region 4 . 357 Table SE.13: Sampling errors: Region 5 . 358 Table SE.14: Sampling errors: Region 6 . 359 Table SE.15: Sampling errors: Regions 7&8 . 360 Table SE.16: Sampling errors: Region 9 . 361 Table SE.17: Sampling errors: Region 10 . 362 LIST OF FIGURES Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population . Figure CM.1: Early child mortality rates . 70 Figure CM.2: Under-5 mortality rates by area and region . 73 Figure CM.3: Trend in under-5 mortality rates . 74 Figure NU.1: Underweight, stunted, wasted and overweight children under age 5 (moderate and severe) . 84 Figure NU.2: Initiation of breastfeeding . 88 Figure NU.3: Infant feeding patterns by age . 90 Figure NU.4: Consumption of iodized salt . 100 Figure CH.1: Vaccinations by age 12 months (measles by 24 months) . 105 Figure CH.2: Children under-5 with diarrhoea who received ORS . 117 Figure CH.3: Percentage of household population with access to an ITN in the household . 134 Figure WS.1: Percent distribution of household members by source of drinking water . 150 Figure WS.2: Percent distribution of household members by use and sharing of sanitation facilities .162 Contents xxiiiMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | Figure WS.3: Use of improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation facilities by household members .164 Figure RH.1: Age-specific fertility rates by area .174 Figure RH.2: Differentials in contraceptive use .182 Figure RH.3: Person assisting at delivery .191 Figure ED.1: Education indicators by sex .236 Figure CP.1: Children under-5 whose births are registered .241 Figure CP.2: Child disciplining methods, children age 1-14 years .250 Figure CP.3: Early marriage among women .262 Figure HA.1: Women and men with comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission .276 Figure HA.2: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS .283 Figure HA.3: Sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection, young people age 15-24 .304 Figure TA.1: Ever and current smokers .332 Appendix: Figure DQ.1: Number of household population by single ages .364 Figure DQ.2: Weight and height/length measurements by digits reported for the decimal points .373 Contents AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ANC Antenatal care ASFR Age-specific fertility rate BCG Bacillis-Cereus-Geuerin (Tuberculosis) BoS Bureau of Statistics CBR Crude birth rate CNCD Chronic non-communicable disease CRC Committee on the Rights of the Child CSPro Census and Survey Processing System DPT Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus ED Enumeration District EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization GARPR Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting GFR General fertility rate GPI Gender Parity Index GRO General Register Office HepB Hepatitis B Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus IDD Iodine Deficiency Disorders ILO International Labour Organization IPT Intermittent Preventive Treatment IPV Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine ITN Insecticide Treated Net IUD Intrauterine Device JMP Joint Monitoring Programme LLIN Long-lasting insecticidal treated net Contents MDG Millennium Development Goals MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS5 Fifth global round of Multiple Indicator Clusters Surveys programme MMR Measles, Mumps, and Rubella MoPH Ministry of Public Health MTCT Mother-to-child transmission NAR Net Attendance Rate OPV Oral Poliovirus Vaccine ORS Oral rehydration salts ORT Oral rehydration treatment PLHA People living with HIV PNC Post-natal care PNHC Post-natal health check ppm Parts Per Million SP Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences STI Sexually transmitted infection TFR Total fertility rate UNAIDS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund WFFC World Fit for Children WHO World Health Organization LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xxvMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | FOREWORD Budgeting for the social sector remains a priority for our Government as we address issues of poverty reduction while bridging the divide between the coast and hinterland. Notably, Budget 2016 allocated one third of the budget to the health and education sectors, in recognition of both sectors being critical to national development and essential for the development of our children – our future. As the Government of Guyana pursues national development, the data collected by the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) will be integral in identifying within sectors and cross-sectoral strategic goals, and informing planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating related development programmes and projects. Our Government is moving to results-based budgeting and intends to develop robust monitoring and evaluation systems to support these reforms. The limited data sets within CARICOM and our country remain an area of serious concern for informing policy formulation. Indeed, the availability and use of sound data must be driven by robust methodologies and systems for collecting, collating and analyzing data. As such, the Bureau of Statistics must play a strong leadership role in the data generation and statistical presentation as our Government expects to drive policy from an evidence- based platform. In this regard, every effort is undertaken to strengthen the Bureau of Statistics in terms of structure, resources capabilities, and capacity to ensure a strong, dynamic institution that leads the effort to provide an evidence based platform. The release of the most recent Census coupled with the upcoming Labour Force and other surveys, which are targeted over the next twelve months are some of the initiatives to support availability of data for the national evidence-led performance initiative. Indeed, the release of the MICS, conducted during 2014, will add to the suite of data available, inter alia, to Government, private sector, civil society, researchers and students. The next budget is at hand. The related planning initiative will be undergirded by the use of data supplied by the MICS from which the national budget will be culled. Our Government will craft policies that refine and target programmes and projects with greater confidence in outcomes to benefit our people across our ten regions in keeping with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). I extend my thanks to UNICEF for its support in the conduct of this survey, as well as to the Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Health for their technical leadership in conducting the survey and the completion of the report. We encourage and support the use of the MICS report. Honourable Minister of Finance Mr. Winston Jordan xxvi MESSAGE FROM THE MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH GOVERNANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MICS The Ministry of Public Health is pleased to be one of the leaders in the conduct of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) round 5 in Guyana. Previously, Guyana implemented rounds 1 and 3, and had sufficiently experienced the capacity of this survey in monitoring human development. For many countries, MICS surveys are among the most important sources of data used for policy decisions and programme interventions, and for influencing public opinion on the situation of children and women. Since 1995, UNICEF has supported the implementation of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), assisting countries in generating high quality data on the situation of children and women in areas such as Health, Education and Protection, especially for the most disadvantaged. For Guyana, prior to the conduct of MICS 5 most household and other national surveys had their own unique designs. For instance, the AIDS Indicator Survey 2005 (National), MICS 2006 (disaggregated by region clusters) and Demographic and Health Survey 2009 (disaggregated by the 10 regions), thus posing data harmonization issues. In 2013, when the MICS 5 survey was being designed, deliberate steps were taken to ensure that the content and disaggregation mirrored, as much as possible, the Demographic and Household Survey. A decision was taken that it would be recommended that all other national surveys be harmonised accordingly. As a consequence, in the MICS 5 survey, all ten Administrative Regions were engaged; a questionnaire on men was included and the data are disaggregated by individual regions, for most regions. Government’s commitment to the implementation of the MICS survey was demonstrated through its financial and in-kind support. A suitable space, renovated by the MoPH and furnished by UNICEF, was used exclusively as a research centre for the conduct of the MICS 5 survey. In future, National level surveys will be managed from this centre. As part of the recommended governance structure for MICS, two Technical Committees were established, one with oversight for the conduct of the MICS, and one comprising of subject matter experts. Both committees were chaired by the Chief Medical Officer. The survey targeted 6000 households which were subdivided into 300 clusters, i.e. 20 households per cluster. However, due to refusals and other challenges during the fieldwork, 5904 households were enumerated from 1 April, 2014 to 10 July, 2014. For this survey, four questionnaires were used; Households, Men aged 15-49, Women aged 15-49 and Children under five, thus ensuring data for all critical populations in Guyana. The findings of the MICS 5 Survey will be used to inform the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of health related programmes at the national and subnational levels. Hon. Dr. Karen Cummings Minister of Public Health xxviiMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | MESSAGE FROM THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE Addressing the issues of social development within the communities across our country and ensuring their economic viability remains a priority focus within our Government’s national development agenda. As stated in our manifesto, our Government committed to rebuild Guyana’s family structure and support Guyana’s children. In order to achieve our goals effectively we must understand the problems on the ground by way of evidence. The data in this report is an important step forward in being able to determine and address the challenges more effectively. The findings within the MICS will aid the analysis of the situation of our children in several areas including, inter alia, child health, nutrition, child development and child development. Further, it will support our ability to assess our achievements within the context of the MDGs and more especially, the SDGs as we go forward. My thanks to the UNICEF and GOG teams for their work in completing this important exercise. Honourable Minister within the Ministry of Finance Mr. Jaipaul Sharma xxviii MESSAGE FROM THE BUREAU OF STATISTICS It is with a significant sense of satisfaction that I acknowledge the completion of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) Report of the 2014 which will be symbolically acknowledged with the formal launch and dissemination of the Report. This is the third occasion in which the Bureau of Statistics, as the Central Statistical Organization of Government has been centrally involved in the planning, design and execution of this Survey, a road that began some sixteen (16) years ago when the Bureau, with the full support of UNICEF, Guyana Office, was able to first observe the organization and operations of the MICS in the Dominican Republic and was able to return and recommend to Government that Guyana should get fully involved in this international household survey programme that generates such a plethora of key indicators on a significant portion of a country’s population. The Bureau has now participated in three (3) rounds of the MICS, in years 2000, 2006 and 2014 and every Round of participation has further strengthened the strong working relationship with its sister and lead-agency in this exercise, the Ministry of Health as well as with UNICEF’s Office in Georgetown. Needless to say, one direct spin-off has been the institutional memory and capacity that the Bureau has been able to build over the years in this particular sphere of survey activity, aided by the Technical support provided by the UNICEF Georgetown Office. This is the first time that the Survey in Guyana has contained a module for Men and even though the response rate has been lower than expected a start has been made. It is also the first time in the three (3) Surveys now completed that a Survey commenced under one Administration and the formal presentation of the results is being effected under another. It would therefore be remiss of me not to mention the individuals who were central to the team work which saw the latest MICS to a successful conclusion, among them being Mr. Michael Gillis, Technical Specialist, UNICEF Georgetown, Dr. Shamdeo Persaud, Chief Medical Officer, Ministry of Public Health and Mr. Ian Manifold, Head of Division, Surveys, Bureau of Statistics. The results and interpretation of the Survey’s findings will be further complemented by the results of Census 2012 when roll-out commences later this year. Lennox Benjamin, Chief Statistician. xxixMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | MESSAGE FROM THE UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF) Making sure that we reach all children, especially the most disadvantaged is at the heart of UNICEF’s work and programming. MICS 5 provides us with the up to date evidence needed to analyse the situation of children and women, to make informed policy decisions and influence public opinion. This new round of MICS data reveals a compelling story about the issues that impact children’s lives and wellbeing in the areas of health, education and protection among others, and allows us as a country office to effectively focus resources on programmes which respond to their needs and make a difference for them. MICS 5 has enabled Guyana to produce statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates on a range of child-related indicators in the areas of child health, education, protection, water and sanitation and HIV and AIDS. The leadership of the Government of Guyana, through the Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Public Health, has been essential in ensuring the prioritisation of children issues during this round of MICS. We are also pleased to acknowledge the partnership with other UN agencies and developmental partners, who provided technical and financial support for this survey. Children’s rights to survival, development, protection and participation are enshrined in the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC), and the inalienable rights of women are articulated in the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). UNICEF continues to work towards the realisation of these rights, which remain at the centre of the post-2015 agenda. The completion of MICS is a fundamental step towards eradicating inequities and enhancing inter- generational equity. It is also an essential tool in strengthening children’s ability to reach their full potential as productive, engaged, and capable citizens. UNICEF envisages a future where the data generated by the MICS surveys in Guyana is at the heart of decision making in health, education, child protection and other critical areas, and that this data is used to actively inform sustainable programmes for the wellbeing of children and women, in all ten administrative regions of Guyana. Marianne Flach Representative for Guyana and Suriname United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) xxx @UNICEF Guyana xxxiMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | The Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey round 5 (MICS5) was carried out in 2014 by the Government of Guyana, through the Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Health, as part of the global MICS programme. Technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). UNICEF, the Inter- American Development Bank (IDB) and the Government of Guyana provided financial support. It is important to acknowledge the training and technical support provided during this survey process by UNICEF staff from the global MICS Office in New York, the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, in Panama and the Guyana and Suriname Country Office. The collaboration of multiple Government Ministries and Departments in Guyana is also deeply appreciated. Furthermore the invaluable assistance of consultants on this project is noted. The decisive role in the adaptation of the MICS 5 questionnaires and manuals, by the members of the Technical Steering Committee as well as the overall management of the survey by the MICS 5 steering committee is also noteworthy. It is expected that this situation survey will pave the way for periodic monitoring of the situation of children and women living in Guyana. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xxxii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF in the 1990s. MICS is designed to collect statistically sound, internationally comparable estimates of key indicators that are used to assess the situation of children, women and men in the areas such as health, education, child protection, and HIV/AIDS. MICS also provides a tool to monitor the progress towards national goals and global commitments aimed at promoting the welfare of children, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).2 Since the inception of MICS, four rounds of survey have been carried out globally in 1995, 2000, 2005-6 and 2009 respectively. The current round (MICS5) was launched in 2012. MICS5 was conducted in Guyana in 2014 by the Guyana Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Public Health, with technical support from UNICEF. The Guyana Multiple Indicator Survey 2014 (Guyana MICS5 2014) is the third of its kind in Guyana, the first being in 2000 and the second being in 2006. Guyana MICS5 2014 is a nationally representative sample survey of households and was designed to provide statistically reliable estimates on a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the two geographic sub-areas defined as interior areas and coastal areas. The main objectives of the survey included the following: • Collect internationally comparable data on a wide range of indicators on the situation of children and women; • Generate data for use in policies and programmes; • Monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Four types of questionnaires – a household questionnaire, a questionnaire for women aged 15-49 years, a questionnaire for men aged 15-49 years and a questionnaire for children under 5 – were used to conduct face-to-face interviews. The respondent to the household questionnaire was any knowledgeable adult member (i.e. aged 15 years or older) living in 2Additional information on the global MICS project can be obtained via http://mics.unicef.org/ the household. Women and men questionnaires were administered to eligible women and selected eligible men living in the household respectively. The questionnaire for children under age five was administered to the mother/caretaker of the child. The survey initially targeted 6,000 households in 300 Enumeration Districts (EDs), i.e. 20 households per ED. However, four of the targeted EDs located in the interior areas were inaccessible during the fieldwork period. At the end, the survey sampled 5,904 households, of which 5,526 were found to be occupied. Of those occupied, 5,077 were successfully interviewed, resulting in a household response rate of 92 percent. The response rates for women, men and children were 87, 67 and 96 percent, respectively. HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION  In the 5,077 households interviewed, 19,321 household members (9,326 males and 9,995 females) were listed, indicating a mean household size of 3.8.  Seventy-two (72) percent of households are from the rural areas. Just 12 percent are from the interior areas. Almost two-thirds (64%) of the population are aged 15-65 years while only six (6) percent are 65 years and older. Over one-third (36%) of the population is below 18 years of age. About one- third (34%) of the sampled households are headed by females. CHILD MORTALITY Based on the methodology used, the survey provides estimates for the five years preceding the survey.  The probability of a child dying before his/her first birthday (i.e. infant mortality rate - IMR) is estimated at 32 per 1,000 live births, while the probability of dying within the first month of life (i.e. neonatal mortality rate - NMR) is 23 deaths per 1,000 live births. Therefore, the post-neonatal mortality rate (i.e. the difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates) is 9 per 1,000 live births. The IMR and the NMR are much lower in the urban and interior areas than in the rural and the coastal areas xxxiiiMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | respectively.  The probability of a child dying between birth and his/her fifth birthday (i.e. under-five mortality rate - U5MR) is 39 deaths per 1,000 live births. Considering the above-mentioned IMR, 82 percent of under-five deaths are infant deaths.  Childhood mortality rates are higher among boys and children born to mothers younger than 20 years of age than among other children.  The estimates from this survey, in line with previous surveys in Guyana, indicate stabilization in childhood mortality during the last 15 years. NUTRITION Low birth weight  Overall, 94 percent of births in Guyana were weighed at birth and approximately one in seven (14 %) infants is estimated to have low birth weight, i.e. they weigh less than the recommended 2,500 grams at birth. There are only small disparities in the prevalence of low birth weight by the various background characteristics covered in this survey. nutritional status  Children under age five in Guyana are more likely to be stunted (i.e. too short for their age) than underweight (i.e. low weight for age), wasted (i.e. low weight for height) or overweight (i.e. high weight for height). Twelve (12) percent of children are moderately or severely stunted, nine (9) percent moderately or severely underweight, six (6) percent moderately or severely wasted, and five (5) percent overweight. Stunting is more prevalent among boys, children from the interior areas, those who live in the poorest households and those whose mother has no education. There are only small variations by the various background characteristics covered in this survey, in the prevalence of underweight, wasting or overweight among under-five children. Breastfeeding and infant feeding  While close to nine in ten (89%) last-born children in the two years preceding the survey were ever breastfed, only about half (49%) are breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth and over three- quarters (77%) within one day. The recommended practice of breastfeeding within one hour of birth is most prevalent in the interior areas. While this practice is similar among births delivered at home and those delivered at a health facility, newborns delivered in public health facilities are almost three times more likely to be breastfed within one hour of birth than those delivered in private health facilities.  Nationally, less than one in four children (23%) younger than six months are exclusively breastfed, while more than one in three are predominantly breastfed (36%). Compared to the national average, exclusive breastfeeding is nearly double in the regional grouping 1, 7, 8 and 9, and 11 percentage points higher in the interior areas.  Among children younger than three years, the median duration for any breastfeeding is 14.1 months, for exclusive breastfeeding 0.6 month, and for predominant breastfeeding 1.4 months.  Children aged 6-23 months are considered to be appropriately fed if they are receiving breast milk and solid, semi-solid or soft foods. In Guyana, only 46 percent of children of this age group are appropriately fed, primarily due to low prevalence of breastfeeding.  Solid, semi-solid, or soft foods were given to 81 percent of infants aged 6-8 months at least once during the day preceding the survey. Infants currently being breastfed are less likely to receive these foods than those who are not.  Sixty-two (62) percent of the children aged 6-23 months received solid, semi-solid and soft foods (plus milk feeds for non-breastfed children) four times or more during the day preceding the survey (i.e. minimum meal frequency), while approximately two-thirds (65%) received foods from four or more food groups during the day preceding the survey (minimum dietary diversity3). Only four out of ten (40%) achieved the minimum acceptable diet.  Bottle-feeding is prevalent, with 70 percent of children aged 0-23 months being fed using a bottle with a nipple. This practice is most prevalent among children 6-23 months, those who reside in Regions 3 and 4, and those in the richest households. Salt iodization  The level of iodine contained in salt consumed in the households was found to be appropriate (i.e. contain 15 parts per million (ppm) or more) in 20 percent of households in Guyana. The use of iodized salt increases with the household wealth, 3The indicator is based on consumption of any amount of food from at least 4 out of the 7 following food groups: 1) grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables. xxxiv 4It should be noted that the administrative records at the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Guyana, relative to tetanus vaccination coverage, are based on information on women aged 15-40 years, whereas the MICS5 targets women aged 15-49 years. and was found to be lowest in Region 9 (3%) and highest in Regions 3 and 7 & 8 (27% in each case). CHILD HEALTH Vaccinations  Overall, 95 percent of children aged 12-23 months received their BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and 96 percent received the first dose of DPT, while 94 percent and 89 percent received the subsequent doses respectively. The same proportion of children who received the three doses of DPT also received the three doses of Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines, since in Guyana, protection against DPT, Hepatitis B and Hib antigens is provided via the Pentavalent vaccine. Additionally, 90 percent received the three doses of Polio vaccine, 88 percent received the three doses of rotavirus vaccine, and 87 percent received the three doses of pneumococcal vaccine.  In Guyana, protection against measles is provided by the MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) vaccine, and the national immunization schedule requires that children be given the MMR and yellow fever vaccinations at or after age 12 months, but before age 24 months. Approximately 93 percent of the children aged 24-35 months received the MMR vaccine and 92 percent received the yellow fever vaccine by age 24 months.  For each vaccine, the coverage increases with mother’s education and is lower in the interior areas than on the coast. Overall, 69 percent of children aged 24-35 months had all the recommended vaccinations by their second birthday (fully vaccinated). The percentage of children receiving no vaccinations at all is three (3) percent of children aged 12-23 months and two (2) percent of children aged 24-35 months. neonatal tetanus protection4  Just over one in five women (22%) who had a live birth within the two years preceding the survey were protected against tetanus.The coverage was highest among women in the interior areas (27%), those in the richest households (28%) and those with higher education (26%). Care of Illness Diarrhoea  Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death among children under five worldwide. Most diarrhoea- related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. In the present survey, eight (8) percent of under-five children were reported to have had an episode of diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey. More than twice as many cases were reported in the interior areas (16%) compared to the coast (6%). Of the diarrhoea cases reported, 82 percent of those reported in the interior were seen by a health facility or provider compared to only 46 percent of those on the coast. Overall, 61 percent of cases were seen by a health facility or provider.  Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) – can prevent many of these deaths. Forty-three (43) percent of children with diarrhoea received the recommended treatment. This was more common in interior areas (52%) than coastal areas (36%). Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. Twenty-nine (29) percent of children received ORT (ORS or increased fluids) and continued feeding. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI)  Symptoms of ARI were collected in the present survey to capture pneumonia disease, the leading cause of death in children under five, globally. Overall, two (2) percent of under-five children were reported to have had symptoms of ARI in the two weeks preceding the survey. Eighty-four (84) percent of children aged 0-59 months with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks preceding the survey were taken to a qualified provider, and 31 percent were given antibiotics.  Thirty-eight (38) percent of mothers/caretakers know at least one of the two danger signs of pneumonia – fast and/or difficult breathing. xxxvMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Malaria/Fever  Malaria is a major cause of death of children under age five worldwide. Preventive measures and treatment with an effective antimalarial can dramatically reduce malaria mortality rates among children. In Guyana, the coastal areas are considered to be malaria-free, while the interior areas are considered to be high-risk malaria areas. At the country level, five (5) percent of households have at least one insecticide treated net (ITN), and three (3) percent have at least one ITN for every two household members. During the night preceding the survey, 72 percent of ITNs were used, and four (4) percent of household members, seven (7) percent of children under five, and seven (7) percent of pregnant women slept under an ITN.  In the high-risk regions (1, 7, 8 and 9), 53 percent of households have at least one ITN and 27 percent have at least one ITN for every two household members. During the night preceding the survey, 70 percent of ITNs were used, and 33 percent of household members, 42 percent of children under five, and 45 percent of pregnant women slept under an ITN.  Overall, 14 percent of children under five reported an episode of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey, this period-prevalence being 21 percent in interior areas and 12 percent in coastal areas. Among these children, 71 percent sought advice from a health facility or a qualified health care provider, and 12 percent had blood taken from a finger or heel for malaria testing. Seven (7) percent received an antimalarial, and three (3) percent were treated the same day the fever started or the next, but none of them was treated with an artemisinin- based combination therapy (ACT).  In the high-risk regions (1, 7, 8, and 9), 86 percent children under five with fever sought advice from a health facility or a qualified health care provider, and nearly one-third of children were tested for malaria (31%).Five (5) percent were given antimalarial drugs, four (4) percent the same day the fever started or the next, but none of them was treated with an ACT. Solid fuel use  Overall, only seven (7) percent of the household population use solid fuels for cooking. Almost one-third (31%) of households in the interior areas utilise this source of energy, compared to three (3) percent in coastal areas.  Thirty-one (31) percent of the population living in households using solid fuels for cooking, cook in a separate room that is used as a kitchen and 28 percent cook in a separate building. WATER AND SANITATION use of improved water sources  Overall, 94 percent of the population use an improved source of drinking water,5 albeit with differences between the areas and location of residence (99% urban, 93% rural, 98% coastal and 71% interior).The situation in Region 9 is considerably worse than in other the Regions with only 42 percent in this Region compared to over 65 percent in each of the other regions and regional grouping. The drinking water source is on premises for 92 percent of the household population. For one (1) percent of the household population, it takes the household 30 minutes or more to go and get drinking water from the source.  Only 27 percent of households that use unimproved sources of drinking water use an appropriate water treatment method, with this practice being similar between coastal and interior areas. use of improved sanitation  Ninety-five (95) percent of the population are living in households using improved sanitation facilities,6 with differences between the areas and location of residence (98% urban, 94% rural, 97% coastal and 86% interior). Forty-three (43) percent of children aged 0-2 years had their stools disposed safely.7 The most common means of disposal of child’s faeces in Guyana is throwing into garbage (42%), which is currently not classified as a safe means of disposal. 5The population using improved sources of drinking water are those using any of the following types of supply: piped water (into dwelling, compound, yard or plot, to neighbour, public tap/standpipe), tube well/borehole, protected well, protected spring, and rainwater collection. Bottled water is considered as an improved water source only if the household is using an improved water source for handwashing and cooking. 6Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal are flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank, or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit latrine, and pit latrine with slab. 7Safe disposal is defined as disposing of the stool, by the child using a toilet or by rinsing the stool into a toilet or latrine. Note that putting disposable diapers in the garbage is not considered a safe method of disposal of a child’s faeces in MICS5. xxxvi  Eighty-three (83) percent of household population have access to both an improved source of drinking water and an improved sanitation facility, with considerable differences between the areas and location of residence (90% urban, 81% rural, 88% coastal and 55% interior). Handwashing  The majority of households (79%) in Guyana have a specific place for handwashing where water and soap or other cleansing agent are present. This proportion is higher by 15 percentage points in the coastal areas (81%) than in the interior areas (66%), and highest in Region 5 (91%) and lowest in Regions 7 & 8 and 10 (58% in each case).  Seventy-nine (79) percent of households reported availability of soap or other cleansing agent anywhere in the dwelling. This proportion is higher on the coast (with 81% compared with 72% in the interior), and in Regions 5, 6 and 9 (with 90-92% compared with 62-83% in the other regions). REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Fertility  The total fertility rate (TFR) for the three years (2012-2014) preceding the Guyana MICS5 is 2.6 births per woman, with notable differences between the areas and location of residence (2.3 urban, 2.7 rural, 2.4 coastal and 4.3 interior). Fertility is relatively low among adolescents (15-19 years) at 74 births per 1,000 women, increases to a peak of 148 births per 1,000 among women aged 20-24 years, and declines thereafter to 2 births per 1,000 women for the 45-49 age group. The adolescent birth rate in the regional grouping 1, 7, 8 and 9 is almost three times that of other regions/regional grouping, at 187 births per 1,000 women.  Fifteen (15) percent of women aged 15-19 years have begun childbearing: 11 percent have already had a birth, and four (4) percent are pregnant with their first child. Less than one percent (0.3%) of women aged 15-19 years have had a live birth before age 15; however, 16 percent of women aged 20-24 years have had a live birth before age 18.  The percentage of women aged 20-24 years who have had a live birth before age 18 is twice as high in interior areas (29%) than in coastal areas (14%). Contraception  In Guyana, the proportion of women currently married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a modern or traditional contraceptive method is more than one in three (34%). The most common contraception method used is the male condom, with nine (9) percent, followed by the pill, with eight (8) percent. Twenty-eight (28) percent of women aged 15-49 years currently married or in union have unmet need for contraception/ family planning. Of these, 16 percent have unmet need for spacing, and 12 percent for limiting. The demand for contraception is satisfied for 55 percent of women. antenatal care (anC)  Overall, 91 percent of women with a live birth in the two years prior to the survey were attended at least once by skilled health personnel8 during their last pregnancy, and a majority (87%) of these had at least four visits.  The vast majority (94%) of pregnant women who received ANC, received it in compliance with WHO guidelines, i.e. they had their blood pressure measured and samples of urine and blood taken. In addition, 41 percent of women have been tested for malaria (54% of those in interior areas and 37 % on the coast). assistance during delivery  Ninety-two (92) percent of births in the two years preceding the survey were delivered by skilled personnel, though the figure drops to 72 percent in interior areas.  Seventeen (17) percent of women who delivered in the two years preceding the survey had a C-section. C-sections are three times (25%) more likely among women aged 35-49 than those younger than 20 years. Forty-two (42) percent of the births in private health facilities were delivered by C-section compared to 14 percent in public facilities. Place of delivery  Ninety-three (93) percent of births are delivered in a health facility; only six (6) percent of births take place at home. In interior areas, 74 percent of deliveries take place in a health facility, and 25 percent at home. 8In Guyana MICS5, skilled health personnel refer to any of the following health professionals: medical doctor, nurse/midwife, single midwife or Medex. xxxviiMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Post-natal health checks  Almost all the women (98%) who gave birth in a health facility stay 12 hours or more in the facility after delivery.  For 92 percent of live births, both the mothers and their newborns received either a health check following birth or a timely post-natal care (PNC) visit (i.e. visit within 2 days of birth), whereas for four (4) percent of births, neither received health checks or timely visits. For 15 percent of births in interior areas, neither the mother nor the newborn received any post-natal health check. Nearly half of home births (46%) did not receive any post-natal health checks. CHILD DEVELOPMENT Early childhood care and education  Sixty-one (61) percent of children aged 36-59 months are attending an organised early childhood education programme. Children in the older age group (85% versus 38% aged 36-47 months), and those on the coast (64% versus 49% in the interior) are more likely than others to attend such programmes. Quality of care  For almost nine out of ten (87%) children aged 36- 59 months, an adult household member engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness during the three days preceding the survey, with a mean number of activities of 5.1. The father’s involvement in four or more activities was somewhat limited (16%), with a mean number of 1.3 activities, compared to that of the mother (55%), with a mean number of 3.4 activities.  Almost one-half (47%) of children aged 0-59 months live in households where at least three children’s books are present for the child. Sixty- nine (69) percent of children aged 0-59 months had two or more types of playthings to play with in their homes.  A total of five (5) percent of children under five years of age were left with inadequate care during the past week, either by being left alone or in the care of another child for more than an hour. Developmental status of children  According to the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI), 86 percent of children aged 36-59 months are developmentally on track. The analysis of four domains of child development shows that 97 percent of children are on track in the physical domain, 95 percent in the learning domain, but much less on track in social-emotional (75%) and literacy-numeracy (63%) domains. LITERACY AND EDUCATION Literacy9 among young women and men  The great majority (98%) of young women and men aged 15-24 years were found to be literate. School readiness  Eighty-five (85) percent of children, regardless of age, who are currently attending the first grade of primary school10 attended nursery school the previous year. Primary and secondary school participation  Of children who are of primary school entry age (i.e. 6 years old), 83 percent have attended the first grade of primary school at least once in the school year of the survey. The proportion of children entering primary school at the entry age is slightly higher in rural areas (85%) than in urban areas (78%). Additionally, the great majority of children (97%) of primary school age (i.e. ages 6 to 11 years) have attended school at least once in the school year of the survey. Secondary school attendance (i.e. percentage of children of secondary school age who are currently attending or have attended secondary or higher education at least once in the current school year) is not as high as for primary school, with 85 percent.  Of all children starting grade 1, the majority (96%) will eventually reach grade 6. Primary school completion rate is 109 percent. Ninety-six (96) percent of the children who were attending the last grade of primary school in the previous school year were found to be attending the first grade of secondary school in the school year of the survey. Gender Parity Index (GPI) for primary school is 1.00, 9In Guyana MICS5 2014, the literacy rate among young people is defined as the percentage respondents (women and men) aged 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education. 10In MICS5, school attendance is considered to be the percentage of children who were attending school regardless of the frequency of attendance. 11In MICS5, a child is considered to be involved in child labour activities if, during the week preceding the survey, he/she performed: i. age 5-11: 1 hour or more of economic work OR 28 hours or more of household chores OR ANY hazardous work per week; ii. age 12-14: 14 hours or more of economic work OR 28 hours or more of household chores OR ANY hazardous work per week; iii. age 15-17: 43 hours or more of economic work OR 43 hours or more of household chores OR ANY hazardous work per week work. 12It should be noted that the percentages do not add up to the total child labour figures, since children may be involved in both economic activities and household chores. xxxviii indicating no difference in the participation of girls and boys to primary school. The indicator increases to 1.08 for secondary education, indicating a slightly higher participation of girls than boys. CHILD PROTECTION Birth registration  The births of 89 percent of children under five years have been registered, while one (1) percent of children are registered, but do not have a birth certificate. Children living in the interior areas (81%), those in the poorest households (84%) and those in Region 1 (67%) are less likely than others to have their births registered.  Sixteen (16) percent of mothers or caretakers of children whose birth was not registered know how to register births. Mothers or caretakers of unregistered children living in the interior areas (20%) are more likely than those living in the coastal areas (14%) to have knowledge of how to register a child. Child labour11  Overall, 18 percent of children aged 5-17 years are engaged in child labour activities. Ten (10) percent are involved in economic activities above the age-specific threshold, one (1) percent performs household chores above the age-specific threshold, and 13 percent work under hazardous conditions.12 Children living in interior areas are more likely to be engaged in all forms of labour activities than other children, resulting in 37 percent of them engaged in child labour, with 30 percent working under hazardous conditions. Child discipline  Seventy (70) percent of children aged 1-14 years were subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by household members during the month prior to the survey. While 58 percent of children experienced psychological aggression, 51 percent experienced physical punishment, and six (6) percent of children were subjected to the most severe forms of physical punishment.13 Only one in five children experienced only non-violent discipline.  Twenty (20) percent of respondents believe that physical punishment is a necessary part of child-rearing. This perception is prevalent among mothers (22%) and among more educated persons (24% with higher education versus 14% with no education). Early marriage14 and polygyny15  In Guyana, the proportion of young women aged 15-19 years who are currently married/ in union is the same as that of young men in the same age group (13%). Women are more likely than men to be married/in union at a young age: four (4) percent of women aged 15-49 years compared to one (1) percent of men in the same age group were married before age 15; 27 percent of women aged 20-49 years compared to seven (7) percent of men in the same age group were married before age 18.  Polygynous unions concern four (4) percent of men aged 15-49 years and three (3) percent of women aged 15-49 years.  Among women aged 15-19 years and 20-24 years who are currently married/in union, approximately one in six (16% and 15%, respectively) has a husband or partner who is ten years or more older. For women aged 15-19 years, the proportion of women married to/in union with a man older by ten years or more is greater in urban areas (22%) than rural areas (13%), but is similar between coastal and interior areas (16% for both). For women aged 20-24 years, there are no notable urban-rural and coastal-interior differences. attitude towards domestic violence  Attitude towards domestic violence in Guyana is the same regardless of the sex of the respondent. Ten (10) percent of women and the same proportion of men feel that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife/partner in at least one of the following five situations: neglecting children, arguing with the husband, going out without telling him, refusing to have sex with him, or burning the food. This belief is most prevalent among both women and men in the rural areas as well as interior areas. 13In MICS5, the most severe forms of physical punishment include hitting or slapping the child on the head, ears or face, or hitting the child repeatedly as hard as one could. 14Early marriage, or child marriage, is defined as marriage or informal union before the age of 18. 15In MICS5, polygyny is the practice of having more than one spouse/partner at the same time. xxxixMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Children’s living arrangements  A little over half (55%) of children aged 0-17 years live with both their parents, 28 percent live with mothers only, and four (4) percent live with fathers only. Eight (8) percent live with neither of their biological parents while both of them are alive. Almost one in four children (24%) live with their mothers only while the biological father is alive, and only three (3) percent live with their fathers only while the biological mother is alive. Older children are less likely than younger children to live with both parents and are more likely than younger children to live with neither biological parent.  Seven (7) percent of children aged 0-17 years have lost one or both parents, and one (1) percent has lost both parents. The percentage of children who have lost one or both parents is lowest in Region 9 (2%) and highest in Regions 5 and 6 (9% in each case).  Six (6) percent of children aged 0-17 years have one or both parents living abroad: four (4) percent have a father living abroad, one (1) percent have a mother living abroad, and the remaining one (1) percent have both mother and father living abroad. The highest percentages of children with at least one parent living abroad are in Region 10 (13%), in urban areas (9%), among children in the richest households (10%), and among those living in households with an African (9%) or mixed race (8%) household head. For all background characteristics, however, the proportion of children with both parents living abroad remains very small, and fathers being abroad are more common than mothers being abroad. HIV/AIDS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Knowledge about HIV transmission and misconceptions about HIV  A large majority of women and men aged 15-49 years have heard of AIDS - 98 percent and 97 percent, respectively. However, the percentage of those who know of both main ways of preventing HIV transmission – having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time – is only 75 percent for women and 74 percent for men. Knowledge of both main ways to prevent HIV transmission is lower in interior areas (66% for women, 67% for men) than coastal areas (76% for women, 75% for men), and in rural areas (73% for women, 72% for men) than urban areas (82% 16People who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention include those who know of the two main ways of HIV prevention (having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time), who know that a healthy looking person can be HIV positive, and who reject the two most common misconceptions in Guyana (HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites and by sharing food with someone with HIV). for women, 79% for men). For both women and men, the percentages of those who know of both main ways to prevent HIV transmission increase with the level of education and the socio-economic status of the household.  Overall, comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention16 is higher among females aged 15-49 years than among their male counterparts, with 56 percent of female and 49 percent of male. Men who were never married/in union (40%) are less likely to have comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention than those who were ever married/in union (53%). In the case of women, marital status shows little or no correlation with comprehensive knowledge.  Ninety-two (92) percent of women and 84 percent of men know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. However, only 53 percent of women and 35 percent men know all three ways of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Additionally, six (6) percent of women and 13 percent of men did not know of any specific way. The least known method of MTCT among both women and men is during transmission during delivery, with 62 percent and 50 percent respectively. accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV  Only 23 percent of women and men respectively expressed accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV based on all four statements (would care for a family member with AIDS in own home; would buy fresh vegetables from a vendor who is HIV positive; thinks that a female teacher who is HIV positive should be allowed to teach in school; and would not want to keep it a secret if a family member is HIV positive). However, the great majority of women (98%) and men (99%) who have heard of AIDS agree with at least one accepting statement. Knowledge of a place for HIV testing, counselling and testing during antenatal care  Ninety (90) percent of women and 88 percent of men knew where to get tested for HIV, while 64 percent and 56 percent, respectively, have actually been tested, and 61 percent of women and 52 percent of men, know the result of their most recent test.  Sixty-seven (67) percent of women who had a live birth in the last two years received HIV counselling during antenatal care and 85 percent were tested xl for HIV during antenatal care and received the results. Sexual behaviour related to HIV transmission  Two (2) percent of women and 14 percent of men aged 15-49 years report having sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months. Of those, 42 percent of women and 59 percent of men report using a condom when they had sex the last time. HIV indicators for young women and young men  Comprehensive knowledge, knowledge of mother- to-child transmission, knowledge of a place to get tested, and accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV are generally less prevalent in the population age 15-24 years than that of age 15-49 years as a whole.  Forty-one (41) percent of young women and 27 percent of young men who are sexually active, have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and know the result.  A larger proportion of young men (13%) than young women (5%) reported having sex before age 15, and also a much larger proportion of young men (15%) than young women (2%) reported having multiple sex partners in the 12 months preceding the survey. Twelve (12) percent of the young women and 37 percent of the young men who had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey reported that it involved a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner; of those, 57 percent of women and 88 percent of men used a condom the last time. Twelve (12) percent of women aged 15-24 years had sex with a man ten or more years older in the last 12 months. ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND USE OF INFORMATION/COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY access to mass media  Exposure/access to mass media is similar among women and men aged 15-49 years. The majority of women and men (95% in each case) are exposed to at least one type of media, while 40 percent of women and 41 percent of men are exposed to all three types of media (newspaper/magazine, radio, television) on a weekly basis, and five (5) percent of each sex do not have regular exposure to any of the three media. For both women and men, exposure to all three types of media tends to increase with household wealth and education. Women and men who reside in the rural areas and in the interior areas are less likely than others to be exposed to all three types of media. use of Information/Communication Technology  The use of computers and the internet is similar among young women and men aged 15-24 years. Fifty-two (52) percent of young women and 55 percent of young men have used one at least once a week during the month preceding the survey. In addition, 74 percent of young women and 73 percent of young men have ever used the internet, while 67 percent of young women and the same proportion of young men have used it during the year preceding the survey, and 58 percent of young women and 56 percent of young men have used it at least once a week during the month prior to the survey. SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING  High proportions of young women (87-95%) and men (91-96%) aged 15-24 years report being very or somewhat satisfied in different areas of their lives, in particular the way they look, their health, and their family life. The great majority of young women and men are also very or somewhat satisfied with school for those attending school (95 and 93%, respectively), with their job for those who have a job (89% in each case), and with their current income for those who have an income (80 and 82%, respectively).  Ninety-three (93) percent of young women and 95 percent of young men are satisfied with their life overall, and 94 percent of young women and 93 percent of young men report being very or somewhat happy. Overall life satisfaction and happiness among young women as well as among young men do not seem to have any clear relationship with household wealth.  The proportions of women and men aged 15-24 years who think that their lives improved during the last one year and who expect that their lives will get better after one year are similar, with 82 percent of women and 83 percent of men. Perception of a better life differs by area and location of residence among both women and men: it is slightly higher among coastal women (82%) and coastal men (85%) than those in the interior areas (78 and 73%, respectively). 17In MICS5, current tobacco users are those who smoked cigarettes, or used smoked or smokeless tobacco products on one or more days during the last one month. xliMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | TOBACO USE AND ALCOHOL USE Tobacco use  Ever and current use of tobacco products17 is much more common among men than among women: 21 percent of men and two (2) percent of women are current tobacco users. Close to nine in ten women (87%) and one-half of men (50%) have never smoked cigarettes or used any other tobacco products.  Nine (9) percent of men and two (2) percent of women smoked a whole cigarette for the first time before age 15. Education level does not appear to be associated with smoking before age 15 for women, as almost the same proportion with no education and those with higher education smoked a cigarette before age 15 (4% versus 3%). On the other hand, men with up to primary education are twice as more likely than more educated men to smoke a cigarette before age 15 (16% versus 8-9% with secondary or higher education).  Among women and men who are current smokers, seven (7) percent of women and 22 percent of men smoked more than 20 cigarettes in the last 24 hours. alcohol use  Alcohol use is considerably higher among men than among women. Twenty-six (26) percent of women and 63 percent of men had at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the month prior to the survey.  Five (5) percent of women and 20 percent of men had at least one drink of alcohol before the age of 15. The proportion of women in the youngest age group (15-19 years) who had at least one drink of alcohol before age 15 is much higher than among the older age groups (13% versus 1-5% among the other age groups). Similarly, the proportion of men in the youngest age group (15-19 years) who had at least one drink of alcohol before age 15 is higher than among the older age groups (30% versus 11-24% among the other age groups).  Alcohol use is similar across levels of education, for both women and men. Though there is no clear pattern with regards to the household wealth, use of alcohol is most prevalent in the richest households for both women and men. xlii @UNICEF Guyana xliiiMultiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana I. INTRODUCTION Background This report is based on the Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Round 5 (Guyana MICS5), conducted in 2014 by the Bureau of Statistics (BoS) and the Ministry of Public Health. The survey provides statistically sound and internationally comparable data essential for developing evidence-based policies and programmes, and for monitoring progress toward national goals and global commitments. Among these global commitments are those emanating from the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action, the goals of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, the Education for All Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action of the World Fit for Children (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary- General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” 45MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2014 | In Guyana, commitments to national, regional and global priorities have been demonstrated through development and implementation of plans and strategies such as Health Vision 2020, a National Health Strategy for Guyana 2013-2020, National Education Strategic Plan 2014-2019, the Child Protection, Sexual Offences and Prevention of Violence Acts, the Strategic Plan of Action for Prevention and Control of Non Communicable Diseases for countries of the Caribbean Community (2011-2015),the Regional Health Framework of the Caribbean Cooperation in Health III (CCH III) 2010 - 2015, the Health Agenda for the Americas 2008 - 2017, and the MDGs for 2015. MICS findings will provide data for monitoring and reporting on progress towards these goals and commitments. The Guyana MICS5 2014 results will be critically important for final MDG reporting in 2015, and are expected to form part of the baseline data for the post- 2015 era. Guyana MICS5 2014 is expected to contribute to the evidence base of several other important initiatives, including Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed, a global movement to end child deaths from preventable causes, and the accountability framework proposed by the Commission on Information and Accountability for the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. This final report presents the results of the indicators and topics covered in the survey. Survey Objectives The Guyana MICS5 2014 has as its primary objectives:  To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Guyana;  To generate data for the critical assessment of the progress made in various areas, and to put additional efforts in those areas that require more attention;  To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action;  To collect disaggregated data for the identification of disparities, to allow for evidence based policy- making aimed at social inclusion of the most vulnerable;  To contribute to the generation of baseline data for the post-2015 agenda;  To validate data from other sources and the results of focused interventions. 46 @UNICEF Guyana 47Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 48 Sample Design The sample for the Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Round 5 2014 (Guyana MICS5 2014) was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas separately and for the two geographic sub-areas defined as interior and coastal areas. Relative to the urban/rural and interior/coastal distinction, it should be noted that all the urban areas are located on the coast and all the interior areas are considered rural. The coastal and interior areas were identified as the main sampling strata and the sample was selected in two stages. Within each stratum, a specified number of census Enumeration Districts (EDs)/ Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. Before the fieldwork commenced, listing of the households in the selected EDs was conducted from the 27th of January to 30th of March 2014, for the EDs in the coastal areas. For the EDs in the interior areas, the household listing was carried out by the data collection teams and the household sample was drawn in the field, prior to conducting the interviews. Note that EDs that fell in the sample with less than 100 households were combined with neighbouring ED/EDs to form PSUs. The listing process allowed the division of households into two (2) groups as follows: households with children under five years and households without children under five years. From these two groups, twelve (12) and eight (8) households respectively were selected using random systematic sampling, giving a total of 20 households per ED. A total of 6,000 households, i.e. 20 households per ED, were selected for interviews in 300 EDs. Four (4) of the selected EDs/PSUs in the interior areas were not visited because they were inaccessible during the fieldwork period due to administrative issues with the local authority, very low water levels in the access rivers, relocation of entire communities as a result of a shift in economic activities, and extremely high travel costs due to a sparse population spread. The sample was stratified by region and interior and coastal areas, and was not self- weighted. For reporting national level results, sample weights are used. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A, Sample Design. II. SAMPLE AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY 49Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | The Household Questionnaire was used to collect basic demographic information on all de jure household members (usual residents), the household, and the dwelling, and included the following modules:  List of Household Members  Education  Child Labour  Child Discipline  Household Characteristics  Insecticide Treated Nets  Water and Sanitation  Handwashing  Salt Iodization The Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households, and included the following modules:  Woman’s Background  Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/ Communication Technology  Fertility/Birth History  Desire for Last Birth  Maternal and Newborn Health  Post-natal Health Checks  Illness Symptoms  Contraception  Unmet Need  Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence  Marriage/Union  Sexual Behaviour  Prevention  HIV/AIDS  Tobacco and Alcohol Use  Chronic Illness Control  Life Satisfaction The Questionnaire for Individual Men was administered, in ten (10) of the 20 households, to all men aged 15-49 years as follows: six (6) of the 12 households in each ED, with children under five years and four (4) of the eight (8) households without children under five years, and included the following modules: 18The model MICS5 questionnaires can be found at http://www.childinfo.org/mics5_questionnaire.html 19The terms “children under five”, “children age 0-4 years”, and “children age 0-59 months” are used interchangeably in this report. Questionnaires The questionnaires are based on the MICS5 model questionnaire18. From the MICS5 model English version, the questionnaires were customised and were pre-tested in three (3) locations in both urban and rural areas including a community in the interior areas during February 2014. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording of the questionnaires. A copy of the Guyana MICS5 2014 questionnaires is provided in Appendix F. Four (4) sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire; 2) a questionnaire for individual women; 3) a questionnaire for individual men; and 4) a questionnaire for children under five years of age19.  Man’s Background  Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/ Communication Technology  Fertility  Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence  Marriage/Union  Sexual Behaviour  HIV/AIDS  Tobacco and Alcohol Use  Chronic Illness Control  Life Satisfaction The Questionnaire for Children Under Five was administered to mothers (or caretakers) of children under five years of age living in the households. Normally, the questionnaire was administered to mothers of under-five children; however, in cases when the mother was not a member of the household (i.e. was not listed in the household roster), a primary caretaker for the child was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules:  Age  Birth Registration  Early Childhood Development  Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake  Immunization  Care of Illness  Anthropometry For children aged 0-2 years with a completed Questionnaire for Children Under Five, whose clinic card was not available at home at the time of the interview and whose mother/primary caretaker indicated that a copy of the card was at the health facility, an additional form, the Questionnaire Form For Vaccination Records At Health Facility, was used to record vaccinations from the registers at health facilities. 50 Training and Fieldwork Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 15 days (three work-weeks) between the 25th of February and 18th of March 2014. The training methodologies included lectures on interviewing techniques utilising each of the questionnaires and role-play modelling the various functions interchangeably. As part of the selection process, participants were observed during the role-plays and scored. Quizzes were also administered to participants. Once the questionnaires were finalised and the teams were selected, the survey implementation was piloted. During this process, trainees spent a day in the field in six (6) locations in both urban and rural areas, to ensure that the processes of the fieldwork would work as close as possible to how it was envisioned during the training. Both the pilot and training were conducted in the coastal regions and therefore the interior areas were visited at the time of the listing and enumeration. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, fieldwork teams tested the salt used for cooking in the households for iodine content, observed the place for handwashing, and measured the weights and heights of children age under five years. Details and findings of these observations and measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report. The data were collected by 14 teams; each was comprised of four (4) interviewers, one (1) editor, one (1) measurer, one (1) supervisor and one (1) driver. Fieldwork began in April 2014 and concluded in July 2014. Data Processing The data were entered using the CSPro software, Version 5.0. The data were entered on nine (9) desktop computers and carried out by nine (9) data entry operators and one (1) data entry supervisor. For quality assurance purposes, all questionnaires were double-entered and internal consistency checks were conducted. The procedures and standard programs developed by the global MICS programme, informed the adaption of Guyana MICS5 2014 questionnaires, and guided the process throughout. Data processing began just after the second week of data collection in April 2014 and was completed in mid-December 2014. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 21. The model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were customised and used for this purpose. 51Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | III. SAMPLE COVERAGE AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS@UNICEF Guyana 52 Sample Coverage Of the 5,904 households selected for the sample, 5,526 were found to be occupied. Of these, 5,077 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 91.9 percent. In the interviewed households, 5,809 women (age 15-49 years) were interviewed. Of these, 5,076 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 87.4 percent within the interviewed households. The survey also sampled men (age 15-49 years), but required only a subsample. All men (age 15-49 years) were identified in every other household. Two thousand five hundred and twenty-six (2,526) men (age 15-49 years) were listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 1,682 eligible men, corresponding to a response rate of 66.6 percent within eligible interviewed households. There were 3,482 children under age five listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 3,358 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 96.4 percent within the households that were interviewed. Overall response rates of 80.3 percent, 61.2 percent, and 88.6 percent are calculated for the individual interviews of women, men, and under-five’s, respectively (Table HH.1). As can be seen in Table HH.1, response rates for women, men, children under five as well as for households, were slightly lower in urban areas compared to rural areas, and in interior areas compared to coastal areas. Region 1 had consistently lower response rates compared to other regions, except for that of children under five in Regions 7 & 8, which was slightly lower with 92 percent compared to 96 percent in Region 1. Men’s response rates were generally very low, ranging from 52 to 76 percent across areas and location of residence, and from 30 to 79 percent across regions. This is partly due to the absence of men in the households at the time of interview, even though they were there at the time of listing and in many cases more than the three standard call-backs were made. Results for men should therefore be interpreted with caution. In addition, response rates of less than 85 percent were experienced for women in interior areas (80%), Regions 1 (69%), 7 & 8 (77%) and 9 (83%); therefore, these should also be interpreted with caution. Except for results for under-five children, all disaggregated results for Region 1 should generally be interpreted with caution. The regions are defined as follows: Barima-Waini (Region 1) Pomeroon-Supenaam (Region 2) Essequibo Islands-West Demerara (Region 3) Demerara-Mahaica (Region 4) Mahaica-Berbice (Region 5) East Berbice-Corentyne (Region 6) Cuyuni-Mazaruni (Regions 7) Potaro-Siparuni (Regions 8) Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo (Region 9) Upper Demerara-Berbice (Region 10) III. SAMPLE COVERAGE AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS Map of Guyana Showing Regions 53Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s, w om en , m en , a nd c hi ld re n un de r 5 b y re su lts o f t he h ou se ho ld , w om en 's , m en 's a nd u nd er -5 's in te rv ie w s, a nd h ou se ho ld , w om en 's , m en 's a nd u nd er -5 's re sp on se ra te s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 To ta l A re a Lo ca tio n R eg io n U rb an R ur al C oa st al U rb an C oa st al R ur al C oa st al In te rio r R eg io n 1 R eg io n 2 R eg io n 3 R eg io n 4 R eg io n 5 R eg io n 6 R eg io ns 7 & 8 R eg io n 9 R eg io n 10 H ou se ho ld s S am pl ed 5, 90 4 1, 39 8 4, 50 6 4, 11 7 1, 20 9 32 0 72 0 34 0 39 8 O cc up ie d 5, 52 6 1, 31 0 4, 21 6 3, 89 2 1, 13 0 29 8 68 2 31 8 37 6 In te rv ie w ed 5, 07 7 1, 16 5 3, 91 2 3, 63 2 99 3 29 7 66 4 31 2 34 8 H ou se ho ld re sp on se ra te 91 .9 88 .9 92 .8 93 .3 87 .9 99 .7 97 .4 98 .1 92 .6 W om en E lig ib le 5, 80 9 1, 36 7 4, 44 2 4, 15 5 1, 14 7 30 0 77 3 34 0 39 5 In te rv ie w ed 5, 07 6 1, 16 7 3, 90 9 3, 76 0 96 9 29 5 71 6 31 9 34 9 W om en 's re sp on se ra te 87 .4 85 .4 88 .0 90 .5 84 .5 98 .3 92 .6 93 .8 88 .4 W om en 's o ve ra ll re sp on se ra te 80 .3 75 .9 81 .7 84 .4 74 .2 98 .0 90 .2 92 .1 81 .8 M en E lig ib le 2, 52 6 55 4 1, 97 2 1, 76 0 47 1 14 7 30 8 14 9 14 3 In te rv ie w ed 1, 68 2 36 4 1, 31 8 1, 28 2 30 6 11 3 23 7 10 6 96 M en 's re sp on se ra te 66 .6 65 .7 66 .8 72 .8 65 .0 76 .9 76 .9 71 .1 67 .1 M en 's o ve ra ll re sp on se ra te 61 .2 58 .4 62 .0 68 .0 57 .1 76 .6 74 .9 69 .8 62 .1 C hi ld re n un de r 5 E lig ib le 3, 48 2 73 3 2, 74 9 2, 25 1 60 7 17 4 35 6 21 7 25 1 M ot he rs /c ar et ak er s in te rv ie w ed 3, 35 8 68 7 2, 67 1 2, 18 2 57 1 17 3 34 9 21 4 23 7 U nd er -5 's re sp on se ra te 96 .4 93 .7 97 .2 96 .9 94 .1 99 .4 98 .0 98 .6 94 .4 U nd er -5 's o ve ra ll re sp on se ra te 88 .6 83 .4 90 .2 90 .5 82 .7 2, 90 8 2, 76 2 2, 63 9 95 .5 3, 00 8 2, 79 1 92 .8 88 .7 1, 28 9 97 6 75 .7 72 .3 1, 64 4 1, 61 1 98 .0 93 .6 1, 78 7 1, 63 4 1, 44 5 88 .4 1, 65 4 1, 31 6 79 .6 70 .4 76 6 40 0 52 .2 46 .2 1, 23 1 1, 17 6 95 .5 84 .5 42 0 41 8 32 6 78 .0 39 5 27 1 68 .6 53 .5 17 9 53 29 .6 23 .1 28 2 26 8 95 .0 74 .1 99 .1 95 .4 2, 06 1 1, 95 5 1, 75 7 89 .9 2, 08 2 1, 80 8 86 .8 78 .0 87 7 60 5 69 .0 62 .0 1, 12 1 1, 07 3 95 .7 86 .0 96 .8 76 0 72 1 68 3 94 .7 73 3 69 3 94 .5 89 .6 32 8 25 9 79 .0 74 .8 42 4 41 7 98 .3 93 .2 48 8 43 1 38 5 89 .3 47 4 36 3 76 .6 68 .4 23 9 12 0 50 .2 44 .9 36 1 33 3 92 .2 82 .4 39 7 32 7 30 5 93 .3 31 7 26 2 82 .6 77 .1 15 6 93 59 .6 55 .6 29 6 29 4 99 .3 92 .6 87 .4 Ta bl e H H .1 : R es ul ts o f h ou se ho ld , w om en 's , m en 's a nd u nd er -5 in te rv ie w s 54 Table HH.2: Age distribution of household population by sex Percent and frequency distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, dependency age groups, and by child (age 0-17 years) and adult populations (age 18 or more), by sex, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Total Males Females Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Total 19,321 100.0 9,326 100.0 9,995 100.0 Age 0-4 1,851 9.6 948 10.2 903 9.0 5-9 1,857 9.6 960 10.3 898 9.0 10-14 1,931 10.0 960 10.3 971 9.7 15-19 11.1 1,071 11.5 1,072 10.7 20-24 1,677 8.7 811 8.7 866 8.7 25-29 1,440 7.5 704 7.5 737 7.4 30-34 1,151 6.0 534 5.7 617 6.2 35-39 1,237 6.4 579 6.2 658 6.6 40-44 1,287 6.7 599 6.4 687 6.9 45-49 1,039 5.4 459 4.9 580 5.8 50-54 1,089 5.6 527 5.7 562 5.6 55-59 800 4.1 379 4.1 421 4.2 60-64 554 2.9 252 2.7 303 3.0 65-69 483 2.5 245 2.6 238 2.4 70-74 299 1.5 116 1.2 183 1.8 75-79 177 0.9 68 0.7 110 1.1 80-84 144 0.7 49 0.5 95 0.9 85+ 109 0.6 43 0.5 66 0.7 Missing/DK 53 0.3 23 0.2 30 0.3 Dependency age groups 0-14 5,639 29.2 2,868 30.8 2,771 27.7 15-64 12,418 64.3 5,915 63.4 6,504 65.1 65+ 1,211 6.3 521 5.6 691 6.9 Missing/DK 53 0.3 23 0.2 30 0.3 Child and adult populations Children age 0-17 years 6,959 36.0 3,508 37.6 3,451 34.5 Adults age 18+ years 12,310 63.7 5,795 62.1 6,515 65.2 Missing/DK 53 0.3 23 0.2 30 0.3 2,143 Characteristics of Households The weighted age and sex distribution of the survey population is provided in Table HH.2. The distribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1 below. In the 5,077 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 19,321 household members were listed. Of these, 9,326 were males, and 9,995 were females. It should be noted that extensive oversampling and under sampling of households were done as part of the sample design. Oversampling was carried out in the rural areas particularly in the interior areas, specifically in Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 and 10, while under sampling was carried out in the other regions. As shown in Table HH.2 above, there are no variations in the sex distribution of the population by five-year age groups. The predominant group consists of people in the 15-19 age group (11%) followed by 10-14, 5-9 and 0-4 age groups, with ten (10) percent in each case. Almost two-thirds of the population in Guyana (62% total: 64% males and 61% females) is under 35 years of age and one-third (33% total: 33% males and 33% females) is between the ages of 15 and 35 years (youth). The distribution of age groups 0-14 (29% total: 31% males and 28% females), 15-64 (64% total: 63% males and 65% females) and 65+ (6% total: 6% males and 7% females) is in line with the results of the DHS 200920 findings, with 34, 61 and six (6) percent, respectively. Children under 18 years of age make up 36 percent of the population - 38 percent males and 35 percent females. 20 Ministry of Health, Bureau of Statistics, and ICF Macro.2010. Guyana Demographic and Health Survey 2009. 55Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85+ Per cent Age Males Females Note: 53 household members with missing age and/or sex are excluded Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Tables HH.3, HH.4, HH.4M and HH.5 provide basic information on the households, female respondents aged 15- 49 years, male respondents aged 15-49 years, and children under five years of age respectively. Both unweighted and weighted numbers are presented, which are essential for the interpretation of findings presented later in the report and provide background information on the representativeness of the survey sample. The remaining tables in this report are presented only with weighted numbers.21 Table HH.3 provides basic background information on the households, including the sex of the household head, region, area, number of household members, education of household head, and ethnicity22 of the household head. Data disaggregated by region has been included in the report, despite the fact that regions were not considered as reporting domains in the sample design. Hence, regional estimates must be taken with extreme caution considering the large sampling errors for some regions due to their low sample sizes. These background characteristics are used in subsequent tables in this report; the figures in the table are also intended to show the numbers of observations by major categories of analysis in the report. 21See Appendix A: Sample Design, for more details on sample weights. 22This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head. 56 Table HH.3: Household composition Percent and frequency distribution of households by selected characteristics, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Weighted percent Number of households Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 5,077 5,077 Sex of household head Male 65.6 3,330 3,490 Female 34.4 1,747 1,587 Region Region 1 1.3 66 326 Region 2 5.6 287 297 Region 3 16.2 821 664 Region 4 44.2 2,244 1,757 Region 5 6.8 343 312 Region 6 16.1 817 683 Regions 7 & 8 2.1 105 385 Region 9 2.5 127 305 Region 10 5.3 267 348 Area Urban 27.6 1,404 1,165 Rural 72.4 3,673 3,912 Location Coastal 87.6 4,448 3,632 Urban Coastal 24.0 1,218 993 Rural Coastal 63.6 3,231 2,639 Interior 12.4 629 1,445 Number of household members 1 12.7 644 408 2 17.1 871 588 3 19.3 978 871 4 19.0 963 1,000 5 13.9 703 823 6 8.2 417 563 7 4.5 227 336 8 2.3 119 197 9 1.4 70 125 10+ 1.7 85 166 Education of household head None 2.1 108 110 Primary 32.1 1,632 1,597 Secondary 53.4 2,713 2,797 Higher 10.0 510 455 Missing/DK 2.2 114 118 Ethnicity of household heada East Indian 45.8 2,323 1,851 African 31.5 1,598 1,419 Amerindian 6.3 320 786 Mixed Race 15.9 809 993 Others/Missing/DK (0.6) 28 28 Mean household size 3.8 5,077 5,077 a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head. 57Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | The ‘weighted’ and ‘unweighted’ total numbers of households are equal, since sample weights were normalized.4 The table also shows the weighted mean household size estimated by the survey. Two-thirds of the households are headed by males (66%) and one-third by females (34%). The largest proportion of the households is in Region 4 (44%), followed by Regions 3 and 6 (16% in each case) and then by Region 5 (7%). Each of the other Regions account for less than six (6) percent with the smallest proportion of household in Region 1 (1%). Almost three-quarters of households (72%) are found in rural areas and just over a quarter are found in the urban areas. Whereas 88 percent of households are on the coastal areas (24% in the urban coastal and 64% in the rural coastal), only 12 percent of households are in interior areas. More than half of households (53%) have a household head with a secondary education and almost one-third (32%) with primary education. Only one-tenth has higher education, while two (2) percent have no education. Nearly one-half of the households are headed by an East Indian (46%), one- third by an African (32%), 16 percent by a person of mixed race, and six (6) percent by an Amerindian. The most common household composition is three or four persons, with 19 percent in each case. More than eight out of ten households (82%) have between one and five persons. The mean household size is 23 Ministry of Health (MOH), Bureau of Statistics (BOS), and ICF Macro. 2010. Guyana Demographic and Health Survey 2009. Georgetown, Guyana: MOH, BOS, and ICF Macro. 24 Bureau of Statistics. 2014. Guyana Population and Housing Census 2012 Preliminary Report. Georgetown, Guyana (http://www.statisticsguyana.gov. gy/census.html; accessed on 26 May 2015). 3.8, which is in line with the DHS 200923 (3.7) and 2012 Census24 finding (3.6). It noteworthy that the household composition found in this MICS relative to sex of household head and number of household members is generally similar to that found in DHS 20096. Characteristics of Female and Male Respondents 15-49 years of age and Children under Five Tables HH.4, HH.4M and HH.5 provide information on the background characteristics of female and male respondents 15-49 years of age and of children under age five respectively. In all three tables, the total numbers of weighted and unweighted observations are equal, since sample weights have been normalized (standardized).4 In addition to providing useful information on the background characteristics of women, men, and children under age five, the tables are also intended to show the numbers of observations in each background category. These categories are used in the subsequent tabulations of this report. The background characteristics of female respondents aged 15-49 years are presented in Table HH.4. It includes information on the distribution of women according to region, area, age, marital/union status, motherhood status, births in last two years, education25, wealth index quintiles26, 27, and ethnicity of the household head. 25Throughout this report, unless otherwise stated, “education” refers to highest educational level ever attended by the respondent when it is used as a background variable. 26The wealth index is a composite indicator of wealth. To construct the wealth index, principal components analysis is performed by using information on the ownership of consumer goods, dwelling characteristics, water and sanitation, and other characteristics that are related to the household’s wealth, to generate weights (factor scores) for each of the items used. First, initial factor scores are calculated for the total sample. Then, separate factor scores are calculated for households in urban and rural areas. Finally, the urban and rural factor scores are regressed on the initial factor scores to obtain the combined, final factor scores for the total sample. This is carried out to minimize the urban bias in the wealth index values. Each household in the total sample is then assigned a wealth score based on the assets owned by that household and on the final factor scores obtained as described above. The survey household population is then ranked according to the wealth score of the household they are living in, and is finally divided into 5 equal parts (quintiles) from lowest (poorest) to highest (richest). In Guyana MICS5 2014, the following assets were used in these calculations: main material of dwelling’s floor, roof and exterior walls, main types of fuel used for cooking, presence in the household of electricity, a radio, landline telephone, refrigerator, stop that works with solar energy, computer (desktop, laptop, tablet), connection to cable TV, land dredge for mining, tractor/combine, mattress for sleeping, set of table and chairs, solar panel, generator, washing machine; ownership by a household member of a watch, mobile telephone, bicycle, motorcycle or scooter, car or truck, boat with a motor, bus, digital photo camera; possession of a bank account; source of drinking water, location of water source; type of sanitation facility, presence of water and soap at place for handwashing. Urban and rural factor scores also include possession of agricultural land and animals. The wealth index is assumed to capture the underlying long-term wealth through information on the household assets, and is intended to produce a ranking of households by wealth, from poorest to richest. The wealth index does not provide information on absolute poverty, current income or expenditure levels. The wealth scores calculated are applicable for only the particular data set they are based on. Further information on the construction of the wealth index can be found in Filmer, D. and Pritchett, L., 2001. “Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data – or tears: An application to educational enrolments in states of India”. Demography 38(1): 115-132. Rutstein, S.O. and Johnson, K., 2004. The DHS Wealth Index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro and Rutstein, S.O., 2008. The DHS Wealth Index: Approaches for Rural and Urban Areas. DHS Working Papers No. 60. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc. 27When describing survey results by wealth quintiles, appropriate terminology is used when referring to individual household members, such as for instance “women in the richest population quintile”, which is used interchangeably with “women in the wealthiest survey population”, “women living in households in the richest population wealth quintile”, and similar. 58 @UNICEF Guyana 59Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of women age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Weighted percent Number of women Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 5,076 5,076 Region Region 1 1.5 75 271 Region 2 5.0 253 295 Region 3 17.4 883 716 Region 4 44.8 2,274 1,808 Region 5 6.3 322 319 Region 6 15.1 767 693 Regions 7 & 8 2.5 128 363 Region 9 2.4 123 262 Region 10 4.9 251 349 Area Urban 27.3 1,387 1,167 Rural 72.7 3,689 3,909 Location Coastal 87.5 4,442 3,760 Urban Coastal 23.7 1,201 969 Rural Coastal 63.9 3,241 2,791 Interior 12.5 634 1,316 Age 15-19 20.2 1,025 916 20-24 16.6 843 959 25-29 14.1 718 889 30-34 11.7 594 722 35-39 12.8 648 602 40-44 13.3 673 546 45-49 11.3 575 442 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union/visiting relationship 68.0 3,450 3,758 Widowed 1.7 88 52 Divorced 0.9 45 32 Separated 4.4 225 222 No longer in a visiting relationship 2.7 139 135 Never married/in union 22.2 1,128 877 Motherhood and recent births Never gave birth 34.5 1,752 1,303 Ever gave birth 65.5 3,324 3,773 Gave birth in last two years 15.2 769 1,258 No birth in last two years 50.3 2,555 2,516 Education None 1.1 57 81 Primary 13.5 683 750 Secondary 73.8 3,744 3,726 Higher 11.7 592 519 Wealth index quintile Poorest 17.0 864 1,330 Second 18.5 938 949 Middle 19.8 1,007 892 Fourth 22.3 1,132 962 Richest 22.4 1,135 943 Ethnicity of household heada East Indian 45.6 2,314 1,857 African 30.1 1,526 1,428 Amerindian 6.8 344 721 Mixed Race 17.3 877 1,051 Others/Missing/DK 0.3 16 19 a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head. Almost three-quarters (73%) of the women aged 15-49 years reside in the rural areas, while just over one-quarter (27%) resides in the urban areas. Close to nine out of ten women (88%) are from the coastal areas, with 24 percent from the urban coastal areas and 64 percent from the rural coastal areas. Just 12 percent are from the interior areas. The largest percentage of women is in Region 4 (45%), followed by Regions 3 (17%) then by Region 6 (15%). Each of the other regions account for five (5) percent or less with the smallest percentage in Region 1 (2%). The percentage of women in each age group decreases with age. Women aged 15-19 years represent one-fifth (20%) of the total number of women aged 15- 49 years, while the other age groups range from 11 to 17 percent. Whereas 68 percent of women are currently married, in a union or in a visiting relationship, 22 percent have never been married or in union. Two-thirds of women (66%) have given birth, of which 15 percent have given birth in the two years preceding the survey. The majority of women are from households headed by an East Indian (46%), an African (30%) and a person of mixed race (17%), while seven (7) percent are from households headed by an Amerindian. Almost three- quarters of women (74%) have secondary education, and 12 percent have higher education. Only one (1) percent has no education, and 14 percent have primary education. 60 Table HH.4M: Men's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of men age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Weighted percent Number of men Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 1,682 1,682 Region Region 1 1.6 27 53 Region 2 5.4 90 113 Region 3 16.5 278 237 Region 4 44.9 755 605 Region 5 7.3 122 106 Region 6 15.1 254 259 Regions 7 & 8 2.4 40 120 Region 9 2.6 43 93 Region 10 4.4 74 96 Area Urban 26.2 441 364 Rural 73.8 1,241 1,318 Location Coastal 87.7 1,475 1,282 Urban Coastal 23.2 390 306 Rural Coastal 64.5 1,085 976 Interior 12.3 207 400 Age 15-19 22.3 374 335 20-24 15.2 255 224 25-29 15.1 253 271 30-34 11.5 194 263 35-39 13.4 226 254 40-44 12.6 212 186 45-49 10.0 168 149 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union/visiting 59.6 1,002 1,124 Widowed 0.1 1 2 Divorced 0.4 7 5 Separated 2.7 45 38 No longer in a visiting relationship 2.7 45 42 Never married/in union 34.6 582 470 Missing 0.0 1 1 Fatherhood status Has at least one living child 50.4 848 1,014 Has no living children 49.5 833 665 Missing/DK 0.1 1 3 Education None 0.5 9 15 Primary 13.6 229 238 Secondary 71.9 1,210 1,231 Higher 13.8 232 197 Missing/DK 0.1 2 1 Wealth index quintile Poorest 18.2 307 414 Second 22.1 372 348 Middle 20.6 347 314 Fourth 16.5 278 283 Richest 22.5 378 323 Ethnicity of household heada East Indian 47.9 806 722 African 30.2 508 434 Amerindian 7.2 122 241 Mixed Race 14.1 238 274 Others/Missing/DK 0.5 9 11 a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head Similarly, Table HH.4M provides background characteristics of male respondents 15-49 years of age. The table shows information on the distribution of men according to region, area, age, marital status, fatherhood status, education, wealth index quintiles, and ethnicity of the household head. The background characteristics of males are similar to women’s relative to area, location, region, and age group. Almost three- quarters (74%) of the men aged 15-49 years reside in the rural areas, while just over one-quarter (26%) resides in the urban areas. As was the case with women, close to nine out of ten men (88%) are from the coastal areas, with 23 percent from the urban coastal areas and 65 percent from the rural coastal areas; 12 percent are from the interior areas. The largest percentage of men is in Region 4 (45%), followed by Region 3 (17%) then by Region 6 (15%). Each of the other regions account for seven (7) percent or less, with the smallest percentage in Region 1 (2%). The largest proportion of men is aged 15-19 years with 22 percent, followed by those aged 20- 24 and 25-29 years, with 15 percent in each case. The percentages of men in the other age groups range from 10 to 13 percent. While 60 percent of men are currently married, in a union or in a visiting relationship, 35 percent have never been married or in union. One- half of them (50%) have at least one living child. Ethnicity of household head 61Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table HH.5: Under-5's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of children under five years of age by selected characteristics, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Weighted percent Number of under-5 children Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 3,358 3,358 Sex Male 51.3 1,722 1,702 Female 48.7 1,636 1,656 Region Region 1 2.9 96 268 Region 2 5.5 185 173 Region 3 13.5 452 349 Region 4 41.1 1,382 1,073 Region 5 7.0 236 214 Region 6 13.2 443 417 Regions 7 & 8 4.9 164 333 Region 9 5.9 198 294 Region 10 6.0 202 237 Area Urban 24.9 838 687 Rural 75.1 2,520 2,671 Location Coastal 78.4 2,634 2,182 Urban Coastal 21.2 711 571 Rural Coastal 57.3 1,923 1,611 Interior 21.6 724 1,176 Age 0-5 months 9.7 326 290 6-11 months 10.8 362 346 12-23 months 20.4 686 688 24-35 months 19.3 648 684 36-47 months 20.3 683 672 48-59 months 19.5 653 678 Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire Mother 92.2 3,095 3,129 Other primary caretaker 7.8 263 229 Mother’s educationa None 1.9 64 88 Primary 14.4 483 573 Secondary 74.0 2,485 2,385 Higher 9.6 321 307 Missing/DK 0.1 4 5 Wealth index quintile Poorest 29.9 1,003 1,264 Second 22.5 755 640 Middle 18.3 616 524 Fourth 14.5 486 463 Richest 14.8 497 467 Ethnicity of household headb East Indian 33.3 1,118 997 African 30.9 1,037 868 Amerindian 14.6 492 766 Mixed Race 20.7 697 713 Others/Missing/DK 0.5 15 14 a In this table and throughout the report, mother's education refers to educational attainment of mothers as well as caretakers of children under 5, who are the respondents to the under-5 questionnaire if the mother is deceased or is living elsewhere. b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head. and men’s educational background are similar to those of women: 72 percent of men have secondary education, and 14 percent have higher education. Only one (1) percent has no education, and 14 percent have primary education. The majority of men are from households headed by an East Indian (48%), an African (30%) and a person of mixed race (17%), while seven (7) percent are from households headed by an Amerindian. Background characteristics of children under five are presented in Table HH.5. These include the distribution of children by several attributes: sex, region and area, age in months, respondent type, mother’s (or caretaker’s) education, household wealth and ethnicity of household head. The proportions of male and female children under five years of age are 51 and 49 percent, respectively. The age distribution of children is quite balanced among all age groups, with 19-20 percent in each group. Three-quarters (75%) of children reside in the rural areas. While 78 percent are from the coastal areas, with 21 percent from the urban coastal areas and 57 percent from the rural coastal areas, 22 percent are from the interior areas. The largest percentage of children is in Region 4 (41%) and the smallest percentage is in Region 1 (3%). The majority (74%) of children have a mother with secondary education; ten (10) percent and 14 percent have a mother with higher education and primary education respectively; only two (2) percent have a mother with no education. The largest proportions of children are from households headed by an East Indian (33%), an African (31%) and a person of mixed race (21%), while 15 percent are from households headed by an Amerindian. As for wealth quintiles, larger proportions of children live in poorer households, with 30 percent living in the poorest households, 23 percent in the second quintile, and between 15 and 18 percent living in the remaining quintiles. 62 Housing characteristics, asset ownership, and wealth quintiles Tables HH.6, HH.7 and HH.8 provide further details on household level characteristics. Table HH.6 presents characteristics of housing, disaggregated by area, location and region, distributed by whether the dwelling has electricity, the main materials of the flooring, roof, and exterior walls, as well as the number of rooms used for sleeping. Overall, 87 percent of households in Guyana have electricity, and while the great majority of households in both urban and rural areas (94 and 84%, respectively) have electricity, only 56 percent of households in interior areas do, compared to 91 percent in coastal areas. Large differences are observed across regions: 25 percent in Region 9, 27 percent in Region 1, and 47 percent in Regions 7 & 8, compared with between 78 and 94 percent of households in the other regions. With respect to the main material for dwelling floors, the most prevalent type is finished floor (81%), followed by rudimentary floors (16%). Only two (2) percent of the households have natural floors. This pattern is similar by area and location, except that natural floors are generally only used in the interior areas and that only 62 percent of the households in the interior have finished floors. Households with finished floor in the urban areas outnumbered those in the rural areas by ten (10) percentage points, while such households in the coastal areas (84%) outnumbered those in the interior areas (62%) by 22 percentage points. The percentages are lower in Regions 1 (21%), Region 2 (42%), Regions 7 & 8 (55%) and Region 9 (42%), compared to the remaining regions (78-98%). Relative to the main roofing material of dwellings, 97 percent of households have finished roofing. While 99 to 100 percent of households in Regions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 have finished roofing, Region 1, 7 & 8, and 9 have much lower percentages, with 74, 84 and 40 percent respectively. It is noteworthy that 60 percent of households in Region 9 have natural roofing, compared with 22 and 10 percent for Regions 1 and 7 & 8 respectively. As for the main material of exterior walls, similar trends relative to area, location and regions of residence are observed. While 93 percent of households in Guyana have finished walls and the percentage in the coastal areas is 95, that in interior areas is only 78. Lower proportions are found in Region 1 (79%), Regions 7 & 8 (80%), and Region 9 (42%), in contrast with the remaining regions that have between 92 and 99 percent of households with finished walls. In Region 9, more than half of households (52%) have rudimentary walls, as compared with 18 percent in Region 1 and ten (10) percent in Regions 7 & 8. Overall, 75 percent of households have two or more rooms used for sleeping (38% with 2 rooms and 36% with 3 or more rooms). There are no marked differences among those with two rooms based on area, location and region of residence. However, relative to households with three or more rooms, Region 4 has the largest proportion with 41 percent, and Regions 1, 7 & 8 and 9 have the smallest proportion, with 22- 23 percent in each case. While the mean number of persons per room used for sleeping is 1.9, it is higher in the interior areas (2.5) with Regions 1, 7 & 8, and 9 having more than three persons sleeping in a room. In Table HH.7, households are distributed according to ownership of assets by households and by individual household members. This also includes ownership of dwelling. Mattress is the most common item among households, with 98 percent of households owning a mattress. Other common items are television (88%), table and chairs (84%) and refrigerator (78%). For each of the other items, ownership ranges from one (1) to 58 percent. Lower percentages of ownership are observed in rural and interior households and in Regions 1, 7 & 8, and 9, for the following items: radio, television, landline telephone, refrigerator, computer (desktop, laptop or tablet), washing machine, and tables and chairs. Cable TV ownership follows a similar pattern, except that it is highest in Regions 7 & 8 (21%), well above the national average of 13 percent. On the other hand, some items are more commonly owned by rural and interior households: land dredge, solar panel and generator. A stove that works with solar energy is not a common item among households, regardless of the area, location or region of residence. In terms of land ownership, 14 percent of households own agricultural land, with twice the proportion in rural areas (16%) than in urban areas (8%), and almost four times the proportion in interior areas (39%) than in coastal areas (10%). Region 9 (63%) has the highest proportion of households with agricultural land, followed by Region 7 & 8 (52%), while the lowest proportion is in Region 4 (7%). Overall, 19 percent of households own farm animals or livestock, with greater ownership in rural (22%) than urban (10%) households, in interior (29%) than coastal (17%) households, and the highest ownership in Region 9 (70%). Watch (82%) and mobile telephone (89%) are assets commonly owned by at least one member of a 63Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | 59 Ta bl e H H .6 : H ou si ng c ha ra ct er is tic s P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld s by s el ec te d ho us in g ch ar ac te ris tic s, a cc or di ng to a re a of re si de nc e an d re gi on s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 To ta l A re a Lo ca tio n R eg io n U rb an R ur al C oa st al U rb an C oa st al R ur al C oa st al In te rio r R eg io n 1 R eg io n 2 R eg io n 3 R eg io n 4 R eg io n 5 R eg io n 6 R eg io ns 7 & 8 R eg io n 9 R eg io n 10 El ec tr ic ity Ye s 86 .9 94 .4 84 .0 91 .2 94 .2 90 .1 92 .8 93 .7 N o 13 .0 5. 6 15 .9 8. 7 5. 8 9. 8 7. 1 6. 3 M is si ng /D K 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 Fl oo rin g N at ur al fl oo r 2. 3 0. 0 3. 2 0. 6 0. 0 0. 8 2. 3 0. 4 R ud im en ta ry fl oo r 16 .0 12 .0 17 .5 15 .1 13 .2 15 .8 5. 5 13 .9 Fi ni sh ed fl oo r 81 .2 87 .7 78 .8 83 .9 86 .7 82 .9 91 .8 85 .3 O th er 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 M is si ng /D K 0. 3 0. 1 0. 4 0. 3 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 0. 4 R oo f N at ur al ro of in g 2. 1 0. 2 2. 8 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 R ud im en ta ry ro of in g 0. 6 0. 2 0. 7 0. 5 0. 2 0. 7 0. 0 0. 9 Fi ni sh ed ro of in g 97 .0 99 .6 96 .0 99 .0 99 .5 98 .9 99 .6 98 .4 O th er 0. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 M is si ng /D K 0. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 0. 4 Ex te rio r w al ls N at ur al w al ls 0. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 R ud im en ta ry w al ls 6. 0 3. 4 7. 0 4. 3 3. 1 4. 8 7. 1 5. 0 Fi ni sh ed w al ls 93 .2 96 .1 92 .0 95 .3 96 .9 94 .7 92 .3 94 .7 O th er 0. 4 0. 5 0. 3 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 M is si ng /D K 0. 3 0. 0 0. 4 0. 3 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 0. 2 R oo m s us ed fo r s le ep in g 1 21 .6 16 .1 23 .7 20 .7 16 .1 22 .5 20 .4 18 .9 2 38 .4 39 .1 38 .1 38 .2 38 .5 38 .1 42 .5 36 .6 3 or m or e 36 .3 41 .6 34 .3 37 .4 41 .8 35 .7 32 .6 40 .7 M is si ng /D K 3. 7 3. 1 3. 9 3. 7 3. 6 3. 7 4. 5 3. 8 To ta l 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s 5, 07 7 1, 40 4 3, 67 3 4, 44 8 1, 21 8 3, 23 1 82 1 2, 24 4 M ea n nu m be r of p er so ns pe r r oo m u se d fo r s le ep in g 1. 9 1. 7 1. 9 1. 8 1. 7 1. 8 56 .2 43 .7 0. 1 14 .4 22 .3 62 .2 0. 7 0. 4 16 .0 0. 7 82 .2 0. 9 0. 2 1. 7 17 .4 77 .8 2. 8 0. 3 27 .7 39 .9 28 .7 3. 7 10 0. 0 62 9 2. 5 26 .5 73 .0 0. 5 0. 2 77 .9 20 .6 0. 8 0. 5 21 .9 1. 1 74 .2 2. 6 0. 2 2. 1 17 .6 79 .4 0. 2 0. 7 30 .7 39 .7 22 .8 6. 8 10 0. 0 66 3. 3 77 .6 22 .4 0. 0 0. 0 57 .6 42 .1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 3 0. 2 99 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 97 .9 0. 0 0. 0 24 .0 41 .9 31 .2 3. 0 10 0. 0 28 7 1. 9 1. 8 1. 8 83 .3 16 .7 0. 0 0. 0 2. 2 97 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 2 94 .7 0. 1 0. 0 23 .2 37 .9 37 .8 1. 1 10 0. 0 34 3 1. 9 85 .7 13 .7 0. 6 0. 0 21 .8 77 .6 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 4 99 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 98 .7 0. 0 0. 4 25 .2 36 .9 33 .9 4. 0 10 0. 0 81 7 1. 8 46 .9 53 .1 0. 0 16 .8 26 .0 55 .2 0. 7 1. 4 9. 9 2. 0 83 .7 3. 3 1. 1 4. 9 9. 9 79 .9 4. 2 1. 1 36 .6 30 .6 22 .7 10 .1 10 0. 0 10 5 3. 1 25 .2 74 .8 0. 0 56 .8 0. 8 42 .4 0. 0 0. 0 59 .0 1. 1 39 .9 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 51 .8 42 .0 3. 9 0. 0 36 .8 37 .7 22 .4 3. 1 10 0. 0 12 7 3. 2 88 .4 11 .5 0. 1 0. 2 8. 8 89 .6 1. 3 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 99 .8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 5 5. 2 91 .3 3. 1 0. 0 17 .0 44 .7 38 .0 0. 3 10 0. 0 26 7 1. 7 64 household, though to a lesser extent in interior areas including Regions 1, 7 & 8 and 9. Bicycles are owned by 55 percent of households, and more commonly owned by rural (59%) than urban (45%) households, and by coastal (57%) than interior (40%) households. It is most prevalent among households in Regions 9 (77%) and 6 (74%), and least prevalent in Region 1 (10%). One in ten households own a motorcycle or scooter (10%). This proportion is the same in interior and coastal areas. However, ownership among households in urban areas (13%) is greater those in rural areas (9%). Regions 9 (23%) and 2 (18%) have the highest proportions of households with a motorcycle or scooter, and Region 1 the lowest (6%). Only a very small proportion (2%) of households in Guyana own a cattle/donkey/horse cart. Ownership is found highest in Region 9, with 17 percent. As for car or truck, owned by 23 percent of households, it is more commonly owned by coastal (25%) than interior (11%) households. Regions 2, 3 and 4 have the highest proportions of households that own a car or truck with 27, 25 and 27 percent respectively, while Region 9 has the lowest proportion (5%). While only three (3) percent of households own a boat with a motor, this figure is tripled (9%) among households in the interior areas, and highest among households in Regions 1 and 7 & 8 (17-18%). Buses are only owned by three (3) percent of households, and ownership varies little across areas and location of residence. However, it is noteworthy that six (6) percent of households in Region 5 own a bus and that this proportion is more than doubled that in most of the other regions. Digital photo cameras are owned by 27 percent of households, with greater ownership in urban (35%) than rural (24%) households, and in coastal (28%) than interior (19%) households. Ownership is highest in Regions 4 (31%), 10 (29%), and 3 (27%),and lowest in Region 9 (10%) and 1 (12%). Bank accounts are owned by 68 percent of households, with greater ownership in urban (75%) than rural (65%) households, and in coastal (71%) than interior (45%) households. It is most prevalent in Region 6, with 79 percent, and least prevalent in Region 9, with 21 percent. More than three-quarters (77%) of dwellings are owned by a household member, while 12 percent are rented. Dwelling ownership is higher in rural (80%) than urban (71%) areas, and in interior (84%) than coastal (76%) areas. Over 90 percent of households in Regions, 1, 7 & 8, and 9 own their dwellings. The highest proportions of households with rented dwellings are in Regions 10 (16%) and 4 (15%), while the lowest is in Region 9 (2%). 65Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e H H .7 : H ou se ho ld a nd p er so na l a ss et s P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld s by o w ne rs hi p of s el ec te d ho us eh ol d an d pe rs on al a ss et s, a nd p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n by o w ne rs hi p of d w el lin g, a cc or di ng to a re a of re si de nc e an d re gi on s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 To ta l A re a Lo ca tio n R eg io n U rb an R ur al C oa st al U rb an C oa st al R ur al C oa st al In te rio r R eg io n 1 R eg io n 2 R eg io n 3 R eg io n 4 R eg io n 5 R eg io n 6 R eg io ns 7 & 8 R eg io n 9 R eg io n 10 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s th at o w n a R ad io 68 .9 52 .6 59 .5 69 .4 55 .7 40 .5 12 .4 60 .8 56 .3 62 .6 57 .3 53 .0 30 .6 25 .9 57 .9 Te le vi si on 92 .5 86 .3 91 .1 92 .9 90 .4 66 .4 63 .5 84 .3 93 .1 94 .1 82 .5 84 .5 56 .8 35 .4 86 .2 La nd lin e te le ph on e 73 .8 51 .4 61 .7 74 .1 57 .1 28 .4 6. 9 32 .2 44 .4 69 .4 55 .4 65 .9 14 .7 2. 9 59 .2 R ef rig er at or 85 .9 75 .2 81 .8 86 .1 80 .1 52 .3 47 .1 71 .9 83 .8 85 .4 69 .5 75 .0 41 .9 16 .6 78 .2 S to ve th at w or ks w ith s ol ar e ne rg y 0. 2 0. 4 0. 3 0. 2 0. 4 0. 3 0. 7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 5 0. 3 0. 0 1. 0 0. 8 0. 0 C om pu te r ( D es kt op /L ap to p/ Ta bl et ) 51 .7 36 .5 42 .5 51 .9 39 .0 27 .5 16 .2 37 .5 42 .2 47 .4 28 .4 34 .6 22 .2 11 .8 44 .6 C ab le T V 19 .6 9. 9 12 .9 21 .0 9. 9 10 .4 8. 5 15 .6 10 .3 16 .6 5. 6 6. 5 20 .8 9. 9 9. 5 La nd d re dg e 1. 4 1. 1 0. 8 1. 2 0. 6 3. 7 7. 5 0. 6 0. 3 1. 2 0. 2 0. 3 12 .5 0. 7 1. 8 Tr ac to r/C om bi ne 1. 2 2. 3 2. 0 1. 3 2. 3 1. 7 2. 0 10 .4 2. 0 0. 2 4. 6 3. 1 0. 7 2. 1 1. 8 M at tre ss 99 .5 97 .8 99 .2 99 .5 99 .1 91 .8 91 .5 98 .5 98 .5 99 .4 99 .0 99 .0 86 .2 80 .2 99 .4 Ta bl e an d ch ai rs 92 .2 81 .2 86 .5 92 .4 84 .3 68 .0 55 .8 91 .6 83 .6 87 .1 84 .3 84 .8 53 .3 50 .2 88 .1 S ol ar p an el 0. 9 8. 4 1. 7 0. 8 2. 1 38 .8 58 .5 9. 7 2. 2 1. 5 8. 7 0. 5 45 .1 86 .7 4. 0 G en er at or 8. 1 11 .0 8. 2 9. 0 7. 8 24 .8 59 .2 14 .2 7. 3 8. 0 10 .8 9. 8 31 .2 18 .8 9. 7 W as hi ng m ac hi ne 46 .9 29 .4 35 .5 46 .1 31 .5 25 .5 11 .0 32 .9 33 .3 37 .2 25 .1 35 .6 17 .8 6. 5 46 .8 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s th at o w n A gr ic ul tu ra l l an d 7. 8 15 .9 10 .0 7. 3 11 .1 39 .3 38 .7 36 .1 11 .6 7. 0 16 .5 10 .4 51 .8 62 .6 13 .6 Fa rm a ni m al s/ Li ve st oc k 10 .2 22 .1 17 .3 8. 9 20 .5 29 .4 8. 1 34 .6 16 .9 11 .4 39 .9 18 .9 25 .5 70 .2 18 .0 Pe rc en ta ge o f ho us eh ol ds w he re a t le as t o ne m em be r o w ns o r h as a W at ch 82 .7 81 .4 83 .2 82 .7 83 .3 71 .9 61 .3 90 .8 86 .8 80 .3 81 .1 83 .9 70 .1 62 .3 82 .6 M ob ile te le ph on e 93 .6 86 .7 90 .5 94 .3 89 .1 74 .7 89 .5 93 .1 93 .3 91 .5 86 .2 84 .6 52 .3 53 .8 90 .0 B ic yc le 44 .9 59 .2 57 .4 45 .5 61 .9 39 .6 9. 8 53 .0 57 .2 49 .9 67 .6 73 .6 26 .1 76 .6 37 .0 M ot or cy cl e or s co ot er 12 .9 8. 7 9. 9 13 .4 8. 5 10 .1 6. 1 18 .0 9. 1 8. 4 8. 0 11 .5 8. 8 23 .1 9. 1 C at tle /D on ke y/ H or se C ar t 1. 2 2. 9 2. 3 1. 3 2. 6 3. 6 0. 3 1. 4 2. 1 1. 3 6. 9 2. 8 1. 3 16 .6 0. 8 C ar o r t ru ck 27 .1 21 .6 24 .9 29 .1 23 .3 10 .5 8. 3 26 .7 25 .0 27 .4 14 .3 20 .3 12 .5 5. 0 13 .9 B oa t w ith a m ot or 1. 7 4. 1 2. 6 1. 9 2. 9 9. 4 17 .6 5. 5 4. 7 1. 9 2. 9 2. 9 17 .2 3. 1 3. 9 B us 2. 0 3. 4 3. 1 2. 1 3. 5 2. 0 2. 2 2. 8 3. 0 3. 3 5. 9 1. 9 1. 8 0. 7 2. 1 D ig ita l p ho to c am er a 34 .8 23 .5 27 .7 35 .2 24 .8 19 .2 12 .2 22 .5 27 .4 31 .4 21 .8 20 .4 17 .6 9. 7 29 .0 B an k ac co un t 75 .0 64 .8 70 .8 74 .7 69 .4 44 .8 22 .4 66 .0 70 .9 69 .7 55 .4 78 .5 36 .4 20 .7 69 .2 O w ne rs hi p of d w el lin g O w ne d by a h ou se ho ld m em be r 70 .7 79 .7 76 .3 71 .0 78 .3 83 .6 91 .3 85 .0 79 .6 74 .3 85 .7 73 .4 90 .0 95 .0 69 .6 N ot o w ne d 29 .2 20 .1 23 .5 28 .9 21 .5 16 .3 8. 3 15 .0 20 .0 25 .5 14 .3 26 .6 10 .0 5. 0 30 .2 R en te d 17 .8 10 .3 12 .9 17 .6 11 .1 8. 7 6. 0 7. 4 10 .8 15 .3 5. 4 12 .1 6. 2 2. 4 16 .4 O th er 11 .4 9. 9 10 .7 11 .3 10 .4 7. 6 2. 4 7. 7 9. 2 10 .2 8. 9 14 .5 3. 8 2. 6 13 .8 M is si ng /D K 0. 1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 To ta l 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s 57 .1 88 .0 57 .6 78 .1 0. 3 40 .7 12 .6 1. 1 2. 0 98 .3 84 .3 6. 3 10 .2 34 .3 13 .6 18 .8 81 .8 88 .6 55 .2 9. 9 2. 4 23 .1 3. 4 3. 0 26 .6 67 .6 77 .2 22 .6 12 .4 10 .3 0. 2 10 0. 0 5, 07 7 1, 40 4 3, 67 3 4 ,4 48 1, 21 8 3 ,2 31 62 9 66 28 7 82 1 2 ,2 44 34 3 81 7 10 5 12 7 26 7 66 Table HH.8: Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the household population by wealth index quintiles, according to area of residence and regions, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Wealth index quintiles Total Number of household members Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 19,321 Area Urban 13.3 16.8 18.6 25.1 26.2 100.0 5,263 Rural 22.5 21.3 20.5 18.1 17.7 100.0 14,058 Location Coastal 12.8 21.6 21.5 21.5 22.6 100.0 16,526 Urban Coastal 13.0 16.7 17.7 24.4 28.2 100.0 4,594 Rural Coastal 12.8 23.4 22.9 20.4 20.5 100.0 11,932 Interior 62.4 10.9 11.0 11.1 4.6 100.0 2,795 Region Region 1 85.6 10.7 2.5 1.0 0.3 100.0 358 Region 2 34.2 30.0 14.7 12.4 8.8 100.0 1,070 Region 3 10.5 21.1 23.7 23.6 21.0 100.0 3,040 Region 4 9.5 18.9 20.6 22.9 28.0 100.0 8,555 Region 5 21.4 27.6 23.2 16.9 10.9 100.0 1,322 Region 6 20.4 22.4 22.8 18.6 15.8 100.0 2,831 Regions 7 & 8 69.8 7.9 6.4 7.7 8.3 100.0 523 Region 9 93.1 2.9 1.3 2.1 0.7 100.0 648 Region 10 23.3 19.4 22.6 24.7 10.0 100.0 974 Table HH.8 shows how the household populations in areas and regions are distributed according to household wealth quintiles. Whereas 13 percent of the urban population and 23 percent of the rural population are in the poorest quintile, 26 percent of the urban population and 18 percent of the rural population are in the richest quintile. The contrast is greater between coastal and interior populations: 13 percent of the coastal population is in the poorest quintile, while 62 percent of the interior population is in the poorest quintile; only five (5) percent of the interior population is in the richest quintile, compared to 23 percent of the coastal population. Distribution across regions shows considerable inequalities among them: the population in the poorest quintile is concentrated in Region 9 (93%), Region 1 (86%), Region 7 & 8 (70%), while the population from the richest quintile is concentrated in Region 4 (28%). 67Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 68 One of the overarching goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to reduce infant and under-five mortality. Specifically, the MDGs call for the reduction of under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Monitoring progress towards this goal is an important but difficult objective. Mortality rates presented in this chapter are calculated from information collected in the birth histories of the Women’s Questionnaires. All interviewed women were asked whether they had ever given birth, and if yes, they were asked to report the number of sons and daughters who live with them, the number who live elsewhere, and the number who have died. In addition, they were asked to provide a detailed birth history of live births of children in chronological order starting with the firstborn. Women were asked whether births were single or multiple, the sex of the children, the date of birth (month and year), and survival status. Further, for children still alive, they were asked the current age of the child and, if not alive, the age at death. Childhood Table CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for five year periods preceding the survey, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Neonatal mortality rate1 Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Years preceding the survey 0-4 23 9 32 8 39 5-9 19 11 30 3 34 10-14 16 12 28 6 34 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a mortality rates are expressed by conventional age categories and are defined as follows: • Neonatal mortality (NN): probability of dying within the first month of life • Post-neonatal mortality (PNN): difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates • Infant mortality (1q0): probability of dying between birth and the first birthday • Child mortality (4q1): probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays • Under-five mortality (5q0): the probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday Rates are expressed as deaths per 1,000 live births, except in the case of child mortality, which is expressed as deaths per 1,000 children surviving to age one, and post-neonatal mortality, which is described as the difference between infant mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate. Table CM.1 and Figure CM.1 present neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality rates for the three most recent five-year periods before the survey. Neonatal mortality in the most recent five-year period is estimated at 23 per 1,000 live births, while the post-neonatal mortality rate is estimated at nine (9) per 1,000 live births. IV. CHILD MORTALITY 69Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | 16 12 28 6 34 19 11 30 3 34 23 9 32 8 39 Neonatal mortality rate Post-neonatal mortality rate Infant mortality rate Child mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Years preceding the survey Note: Indicator values are per 1,000 live births 10-14 5-9 0-4 Figure CM.1: Ear ly chi ldhood mortal i ty rates, Guyana MICS5, 2014 The infant mortality rate in the five years preceding the survey is 32 per 1,000 live births and under-five mortality is 39 deaths per 1,000 live births for the same period, indicating that 82 percent of under-five deaths are infant deaths. The table and figure above also show generally low childhood mortality rates in Guyana that have been relatively stable at the national level, during the last 15 years, with under-five mortality at 34 per 1,000 live births during the 10-14 year period preceding the survey, and 39 per 1,000 live births during the most recent five-year period, roughly referring to the years 2009 - 2014. A similar pattern is observed in the other indicators except for post neo-natal mortality rates, where there was a declining trend from 12 to nine (9) deaths per 1000 live births over the past 15 years. 70 Table CM.2: Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the five year period preceding the survey, by socioeconomic characteristics, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Total 23 9 32 8 39 Area Urban 6 1 7 (4) (11) Rural 28 11 39 9 48 Location Coastal 27 8 35 6 41 Urban Coastal 7 (0) (7) (0) (7) Rural Coastal 34 10 45 9 53 Interior 7 13 20 13 33 Mother's educationb None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Primary 64 13 77 18 93 Secondary or Higher 18 8 24 6 30 Wealth indexc Poorest 40% 23 11 33 5 38 Richest 60% 23 7 30 11 40 Ethnicity of household headd East Indian 43 5 48 6 55 African 15 9 24 4 29 Amerindian 3 15 18 12 30 Mixed Race 15 9 24 4 29 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates b Categories "Secondary" and "Higher" have been merged because of the small number of cases in individual categories c Wealth index have been grouped into two categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile d This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Rates based on 250 to 499 unweighted exposed persons (*) Rates based on fewer than 250 unweighted exposed persons 71Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CM.3: Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the five year period preceding the survey, by demographic characteristics, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2,a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Total 23 9 32 8 39 Sex of child Male 27 8 35 9 44 Female 18 10 28 7 35 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 41 8 49 10 59 20-34 12 9 21 5 26 35-49 (58) (9) (67) (*) (*) Birth order 1 29 6 35 8 42 2-3 14 7 20 5 25 4-6 40 13 53 (14) (67) 7+ (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Previous birth intervalb < 2 years 29 10 40 6 45 2 years 2 12 14 (4) (18) 3 years (2) (7) (9) (0) (9) 4+ years 32 5 36 (18) (54) 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates b Excludes first order births ( ) Rates based on 250 to 499 unweighted exposed persons (*) Rates based on fewer than 250 unweighted exposed persons Tables CM.2 and CM.3 provide estimates of child mortality by socio-economic and demographic characteristics respectively. There are some differences in the probability of dying among children up to age five years based on certain background characteristics, such as place of residence, mother’s education, sex of child, and ethnicity of household head. Whereas childhood mortality rates in coastal areas show a similar pattern as the national averages, with infant deaths accounting for 85 percent of under-five deaths, in interior areas, infant deaths account for 61 percent of under-five deaths. whereas the post- neonatal mortality rate and child mortality rate (13 per 1,000 live births in each case) are higher in interior areas than in coastal areas (8 and 6 per 1,000 live births respectively). The under-five mortality rate is 33 per 1,000 live births in interior areas and 41 per 1,000 live births in coastal areas. As expected, mother’s education appears to play a major role in reducing childhood mortality. All the indicators of childhood mortality are much higher among children whose mothers only have primary education compared to those whose mothers have secondary or higher education. For example, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-five mortality rates among children with mothers with primary education are over three times higher than those with mothers with secondary or higher education. 72 The probabilities of dying among children are generally lower for females than for males. Children born to mothers aged less than 20 at the time of birth have much higher mortality rates than those born to mothers aged between 20 and 34 years. The neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, child mortality rate and under-five mortality rate among children born to F igure CM.2: Under-5 morta l i ty rates by area, Guyana MICS5, 2014 ( ) Rates based on 250 to 499 unweighted exposed persons 39 (11) 48 41 (7) 53 33 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Guyana Area Urban Rural Location Coastal Urban Coastal Rural Coastal Interior Under-5 Mortality Rates per 1,000 Births mothers aged less than 20 is more than two to three times higher than that among those born to mothers aged between 20 and 34 years. Mortality rates are generally low for children born second or third, whereas the highest mortality rates are found among those born fourth to sixth. 73Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Figure CM.3 compares the findings of Guyana MICS5 2014 on under-five mortality rates with those from other data sources in Guyana, namely MICS 2000, MICS 2006, and DHS 2009. Guyana MICS5 2014 findings are obtained from Table CM.1. The Guyana MICS5 2014 estimates indicate stabilization in mortality during the last 15 years. The trend indicated by the MICS5 results is in broad agreement with those estimated in 2009 from the previous DHS survey (DHS 2009). It should be noted that while MICS5 and DHS surveys used direct estimates, previous MICS surveys (MICS2 2000, MICS3 2006) used indirect estimates. F igure CM.3: Trend in under -5 morta l i ty rates , Guyana 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 Per 1,000 live births Year MICS2 2000 MICS3 2006 DHS 2009 MICS5 2014 74 @UNICEF Guyana 75Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 76 Low Birth Weight Weight at birth is a good indicator not only of a mother’s health and nutritional status but also the newborn’s chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. Low birth weight (defined as less than 2,500 grams) carries a range of grave health risks for children. Babies who were undernourished in the womb face a greatly increased risk of dying during their early days, months and years. Those who survive may have impaired immune function and increased risk of disease; they are likely to remain undernourished, with reduced muscle strength, throughout their lives, and suffer a higher incidence of diabetes and heart disease in later life. Children born with low birth weight also risk a lower IQ and cognitive disabilities, affecting their performance in school and their job opportunities as adults. In the developing world, low birth weight stems primarily from the mother’s poor health and nutrition. Three factors have most impact: the mother’s poor nutritional status before conception, short stature (due mostly to under nutrition and infections during her childhood), and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy is particularly important since it accounts for a large proportion of foetal growth retardation. Moreover, diseases such as diarrhoea and malaria, which are common in many developing countries, can significantly impair foetal growth if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. In the industrialized world, cigarette smoking during pregnancy is the leading cause of low birth weight. In developed and developing countries alike, teenagers who give birth when their own bodies have yet to finish growing run a higher risk of bearing low birth weight babies. One of the major challenges in measuring the incidence of low birth weight is that more than half of infants in the developing world are not weighed at birth. In the past, most estimates of low birth weight for developing countries were based on data compiled from health facilities. However, these estimates are biased for most developing countries because the majority of newborns are not delivered in facilities, and those who are represent only a selected sample of all births. Because many infants are not weighed at birth and those who are weighed may be a biased sample of all births, the reported birth weights usually cannot be used to estimate the prevalence of low birth weight among all children. Therefore, the percentage of births weighing below 2500 grams is estimated from two items in the questionnaire: the mother’s assessment of the child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth.28 28For a detailed description of the methodology, see Boerma J.T., Weinstein K.I., Rutstein S.O., Sommerfelt A.E.(1996). Data on Birth Weight in Developing Countries: Can Surveys Help? Bulletin of the World Health Organization 74(2):209-16. V. NUTRITION 77Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e N U .1 : L ow b irt h w ei gh t i nf an ts P er ce nt ag e of la st li ve -b or n ch ild re n in th e la st tw o ye ar s th at a re e st im at ed to h av e w ei gh ed b el ow 2 ,5 00 g ra m s at b irt h an d pe rc en ta ge o f l iv e bi rth s w ei gh ed a t b irt h, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of b irt hs b y m ot he r's a ss es sm en t o f s iz e at b irt h To ta l Pe rc en ta ge o f l iv e bi rt hs : N um be r o f l as t liv e- bo rn c hi ld re n in th e la st tw o ye ar s V er y sm al l S m al le r t ha n av er ag e A ve ra ge La rg er th an a ve ra ge or v er y la rg e D K B el ow 2 ,5 00 gr am s1 W ei gh ed a t b irt h2 To ta l 8. 4 10 .3 59 .5 19 .6 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .6 93 .9 76 9 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 ye ar s 11 .6 11 .6 56 .3 18 .8 1. 7 10 0. 0 15 .0 91 .6 15 1 20 -3 4 ye ar s 7. 1 9. 8 61 .2 19 .8 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .0 94 .8 52 3 35 -4 9 ye ar s 10 .9 10 .6 55 .4 20 .1 3. 0 10 0. 0 14 .5 92 .1 95 B irt h or de r 1 7. 1 8. 1 64 .4 17 .9 2. 5 10 0. 0 12 .7 95 .4 25 6 2- 3 7. 8 10 .7 57 .2 22 .6 1. 7 10 0. 0 13 .3 93 .9 33 7 4- 5 9. 1 15 .4 60 .0 15 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 .5 95 .7 11 5 6+ 16 .0 7. 3 51 .2 18 .5 7. 0 10 0. 0 16 .9 83 .8 61 R eg io n R eg io n 1 14 .9 9. 2 51 .3 23 .2 1. 4 10 0. 0 15 .4 80 .7 25 R eg io n 2 6. 5 2. 3 87 .3 3. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 .2 96 .2 40 R eg io n 3 3. 6 10 .0 68 .0 16 .9 1. 5 10 0. 0 11 .4 95 .8 10 7 R eg io n 4 8. 5 10 .3 58 .9 19 .8 2. 5 10 0. 0 13 .7 95 .5 32 7 R eg io n 5 12 .9 4. 1 61 .7 21 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 .1 95 .8 52 R eg io n 6 8. 6 11 .7 49 .3 26 .3 4. 0 10 0. 0 13 .9 92 .7 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 8. 7 20 .1 53 .0 13 .9 4. 3 10 0. 0 16 .2 93 .7 36 R eg io n 9 15 .3 20 .0 42 .9 20 .6 1. 2 10 0. 0 17 .9 78 .0 44 R eg io n 10 5. 4 4. 6 63 .7 25 .4 .8 10 0. 0 11 .2 97 .8 44 A re a U rb an 5. 1 7. 8 60 .5 24 .4 2. 2 10 0. 0 11 .6 97 .6 18 4 R ur al 9. 5 11 .0 59 .2 18 .2 2. 1 10 0. 0 14 .2 92 .7 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 7. 5 9. 6 60 .4 20 .2 2. 2 10 0. 0 13 .1 95 .3 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 5. 2 8. 3 59 .2 24 .7 2. 6 10 0. 0 11 .7 97 .1 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 8. 3 10 .0 60 .8 18 .7 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .6 94 .6 45 3 In te rio r 11 .8 12 .7 56 .3 17 .4 1. 7 10 0. 0 15 .4 88 .6 16 1 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e 7. 4 30 .4 53 .9 8. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 17 .0 95 .7 13 P rim ar y 10 .6 8. 6 59 .6 16 .0 5. 1 10 0. 0 14 .6 88 .6 95 S ec on da ry 8. 3 10 .3 59 .1 20 .4 1. 9 10 0. 0 13 .5 94 .0 59 0 H ig he r 6. 4 8. 2 64 .2 20 .6 .6 10 0. 0 11 .8 99 .0 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 1 2. 0 12 .8 56 .4 16 .9 1. 8 10 0. 0 15 .4 90 .0 22 7 S ec on d 11 .0 8. 2 54 .3 25 .1 1. 3 10 0. 0 14 .2 93 .1 17 6 M id dl e 8. 4 10 .4 56 .4 22 .1 2. 7 10 0. 0 13 .6 96 .4 15 2 Fo ur th 3. 1 7. 9 71 .8 16 .0 1. 2 10 0. 0 11 .0 97 .4 10 4 R ic he st 2. 1 10 .2 66 .9 16 .6 4. 1 10 0. 0 11 .2 96 .2 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 9. 5 9. 5 60 .8 17 .0 3. 2 10 0. 0 14 .0 93 .7 25 4 A fri ca n 5. 7 8. 4 62 .9 22 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 11 .9 97 .7 23 5 A m er in di an 13 .3 15 .1 50 .9 18 .6 2. 2 10 0. 0 16 .4 83 .8 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 7. 5 10 .9 58 .2 21 .2 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .5 95 .3 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 0 - L ow -b irt hw ei gh t i nf an ts 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 1 - I nf an ts w ei gh ed a t b irt h a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 78 Ta bl e N U .1 : L ow b irt h w ei gh t i nf an ts P er ce nt ag e of la st li ve -b or n ch ild re n in th e la st tw o ye ar s th at a re e st im at ed to h av e w ei gh ed b el ow 2 ,5 00 g ra m s at b irt h an d pe rc en ta ge o f l iv e bi rth s w ei gh ed a t b irt h, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of b irt hs b y m ot he r's a ss es sm en t o f s iz e at b irt h To ta l Pe rc en ta ge o f l iv e bi rt hs : N um be r o f l as t liv e- bo rn c hi ld re n in th e la st tw o ye ar s V er y sm al l S m al le r t ha n av er ag e A ve ra ge La rg er th an a ve ra ge or v er y la rg e D K B el ow 2 ,5 00 gr am s1 W ei gh ed a t b irt h2 To ta l 8. 4 10 .3 59 .5 19 .6 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .6 93 .9 76 9 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 ye ar s 11 .6 11 .6 56 .3 18 .8 1. 7 10 0. 0 15 .0 91 .6 15 1 20 -3 4 ye ar s 7. 1 9. 8 61 .2 19 .8 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .0 94 .8 52 3 35 -4 9 ye ar s 10 .9 10 .6 55 .4 20 .1 3. 0 10 0. 0 14 .5 92 .1 95 B irt h or de r 1 7. 1 8. 1 64 .4 17 .9 2. 5 10 0. 0 12 .7 95 .4 25 6 2- 3 7. 8 10 .7 57 .2 22 .6 1. 7 10 0. 0 13 .3 93 .9 33 7 4- 5 9. 1 15 .4 60 .0 15 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 .5 95 .7 11 5 6+ 16 .0 7. 3 51 .2 18 .5 7. 0 10 0. 0 16 .9 83 .8 61 R eg io n R eg io n 1 14 .9 9. 2 51 .3 23 .2 1. 4 10 0. 0 15 .4 80 .7 25 R eg io n 2 6. 5 2. 3 87 .3 3. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 .2 96 .2 40 R eg io n 3 3. 6 10 .0 68 .0 16 .9 1. 5 10 0. 0 11 .4 95 .8 10 7 R eg io n 4 8. 5 10 .3 58 .9 19 .8 2. 5 10 0. 0 13 .7 95 .5 32 7 R eg io n 5 12 .9 4. 1 61 .7 21 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 .1 95 .8 52 R eg io n 6 8. 6 11 .7 49 .3 26 .3 4. 0 10 0. 0 13 .9 92 .7 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 8. 7 20 .1 53 .0 13 .9 4. 3 10 0. 0 16 .2 93 .7 36 R eg io n 9 15 .3 20 .0 42 .9 20 .6 1. 2 10 0. 0 17 .9 78 .0 44 R eg io n 10 5. 4 4. 6 63 .7 25 .4 .8 10 0. 0 11 .2 97 .8 44 A re a U rb an 5. 1 7. 8 60 .5 24 .4 2. 2 10 0. 0 11 .6 97 .6 18 4 R ur al 9. 5 11 .0 59 .2 18 .2 2. 1 10 0. 0 14 .2 92 .7 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 7. 5 9. 6 60 .4 20 .2 2. 2 10 0. 0 13 .1 95 .3 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 5. 2 8. 3 59 .2 24 .7 2. 6 10 0. 0 11 .7 97 .1 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 8. 3 10 .0 60 .8 18 .7 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .6 94 .6 45 3 In te rio r 11 .8 12 .7 56 .3 17 .4 1. 7 10 0. 0 15 .4 88 .6 16 1 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e 7. 4 30 .4 53 .9 8. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 17 .0 95 .7 13 P rim ar y 10 .6 8. 6 59 .6 16 .0 5. 1 10 0. 0 14 .6 88 .6 95 S ec on da ry 8. 3 10 .3 59 .1 20 .4 1. 9 10 0. 0 13 .5 94 .0 59 0 H ig he r 6. 4 8. 2 64 .2 20 .6 .6 10 0. 0 11 .8 99 .0 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 1 2. 0 12 .8 56 .4 16 .9 1. 8 10 0. 0 15 .4 90 .0 22 7 S ec on d 11 .0 8. 2 54 .3 25 .1 1. 3 10 0. 0 14 .2 93 .1 17 6 M id dl e 8. 4 10 .4 56 .4 22 .1 2. 7 10 0. 0 13 .6 96 .4 15 2 Fo ur th 3. 1 7. 9 71 .8 16 .0 1. 2 10 0. 0 11 .0 97 .4 10 4 R ic he st 2. 1 10 .2 66 .9 16 .6 4. 1 10 0. 0 11 .2 96 .2 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 9. 5 9. 5 60 .8 17 .0 3. 2 10 0. 0 14 .0 93 .7 25 4 A fri ca n 5. 7 8. 4 62 .9 22 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 11 .9 97 .7 23 5 A m er in di an 13 .3 15 .1 50 .9 18 .6 2. 2 10 0. 0 16 .4 83 .8 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 7. 5 10 .9 58 .2 21 .2 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .5 95 .3 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 0 - L ow -b irt hw ei gh t i nf an ts 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 1 - I nf an ts w ei gh ed a t b irt h a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e N U .1 : L ow b irt h w ei gh t i nf an ts P er ce nt ag e of la st li ve -b or n ch ild re n in th e la st tw o ye ar s th at a re e st im at ed to h av e w ei gh ed b el ow 2 ,5 00 g ra m s at b irt h an d pe rc en ta ge o f l iv e bi rth s w ei gh ed a t b irt h, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of b irt hs b y m ot he r's a ss es sm en t o f s iz e at b irt h To ta l Pe rc en ta ge o f l iv e bi rt hs : N um be r o f l as t liv e- bo rn c hi ld re n in th e la st tw o ye ar s V er y sm al l S m al le r t ha n av er ag e A ve ra ge La rg er th an a ve ra ge or v er y la rg e D K B el ow 2 ,5 00 gr am s1 W ei gh ed a t b irt h2 To ta l 8. 4 10 .3 59 .5 19 .6 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .6 93 .9 76 9 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 ye ar s 11 .6 11 .6 56 .3 18 .8 1. 7 10 0. 0 15 .0 91 .6 15 1 20 -3 4 ye ar s 7. 1 9. 8 61 .2 19 .8 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .0 94 .8 52 3 35 -4 9 ye ar s 10 .9 10 .6 55 .4 20 .1 3. 0 10 0. 0 14 .5 92 .1 95 B irt h or de r 1 7. 1 8. 1 64 .4 17 .9 2. 5 10 0. 0 12 .7 95 .4 25 6 2- 3 7. 8 10 .7 57 .2 22 .6 1. 7 10 0. 0 13 .3 93 .9 33 7 4- 5 9. 1 15 .4 60 .0 15 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 .5 95 .7 11 5 6+ 16 .0 7. 3 51 .2 18 .5 7. 0 10 0. 0 16 .9 83 .8 61 R eg io n R eg io n 1 14 .9 9. 2 51 .3 23 .2 1. 4 10 0. 0 15 .4 80 .7 25 R eg io n 2 6. 5 2. 3 87 .3 3. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 .2 96 .2 40 R eg io n 3 3. 6 10 .0 68 .0 16 .9 1. 5 10 0. 0 11 .4 95 .8 10 7 R eg io n 4 8. 5 10 .3 58 .9 19 .8 2. 5 10 0. 0 13 .7 95 .5 32 7 R eg io n 5 12 .9 4. 1 61 .7 21 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 .1 95 .8 52 R eg io n 6 8. 6 11 .7 49 .3 26 .3 4. 0 10 0. 0 13 .9 92 .7 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 8. 7 20 .1 53 .0 13 .9 4. 3 10 0. 0 16 .2 93 .7 36 R eg io n 9 15 .3 20 .0 42 .9 20 .6 1. 2 10 0. 0 17 .9 78 .0 44 R eg io n 10 5. 4 4. 6 63 .7 25 .4 .8 10 0. 0 11 .2 97 .8 44 A re a U rb an 5. 1 7. 8 60 .5 24 .4 2. 2 10 0. 0 11 .6 97 .6 18 4 R ur al 9. 5 11 .0 59 .2 18 .2 2. 1 10 0. 0 14 .2 92 .7 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 7. 5 9. 6 60 .4 20 .2 2. 2 10 0. 0 13 .1 95 .3 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 5. 2 8. 3 59 .2 24 .7 2. 6 10 0. 0 11 .7 97 .1 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 8. 3 10 .0 60 .8 18 .7 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .6 94 .6 45 3 In te rio r 11 .8 12 .7 56 .3 17 .4 1. 7 10 0. 0 15 .4 88 .6 16 1 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e 7. 4 30 .4 53 .9 8. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 17 .0 95 .7 13 P rim ar y 10 .6 8. 6 59 .6 16 .0 5. 1 10 0. 0 14 .6 88 .6 95 S ec on da ry 8. 3 10 .3 59 .1 20 .4 1. 9 10 0. 0 13 .5 94 .0 59 0 H ig he r 6. 4 8. 2 64 .2 20 .6 .6 10 0. 0 11 .8 99 .0 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 1 2. 0 12 .8 56 .4 16 .9 1. 8 10 0. 0 15 .4 90 .0 22 7 S ec on d 11 .0 8. 2 54 .3 25 .1 1. 3 10 0. 0 14 .2 93 .1 17 6 M id dl e 8. 4 10 .4 56 .4 22 .1 2. 7 10 0. 0 13 .6 96 .4 15 2 Fo ur th 3. 1 7. 9 71 .8 16 .0 1. 2 10 0. 0 11 .0 97 .4 10 4 R ic he st 2. 1 10 .2 66 .9 16 .6 4. 1 10 0. 0 11 .2 96 .2 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 9. 5 9. 5 60 .8 17 .0 3. 2 10 0. 0 14 .0 93 .7 25 4 A fri ca n 5. 7 8. 4 62 .9 22 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 11 .9 97 .7 23 5 A m er in di an 13 .3 15 .1 50 .9 18 .6 2. 2 10 0. 0 16 .4 83 .8 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 7. 5 10 .9 58 .2 21 .2 2. 1 10 0. 0 13 .5 95 .3 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 0 - L ow -b irt hw ei gh t i nf an ts 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 1 - I nf an ts w ei gh ed a t b irt h a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s 79Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Overall, 94 percent of births were weighed at birth and 14 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2,500 grams at birth (Table NU.1). The proportion of infants weighed at birth is lower in Regions 1 and 9 (81% and 78%, respectively) compared to other regions (93-98%). Infants born sixth in the family or after (83% compared with 93-96% of the other birth orders), from interior areas (87% compared with 95% from the coastal areas), and from households with an Amerindian household head (84% compared with 94-98% of the others), are slightly less likely to be weighed at birth than others. The likelihood of a child being weighed at birth increases with household wealth, with 96 percent of richest children measured compared with 90 percent of the poorest children. The prevalence of low birth weight decreases marginally with mother’s education and household wealth, and increases slightly with birth order. Region 9 has the highest percentage of low birth weight infants, with 18 percent of live births, while Regions 2, 3 and 10 have the lowest percentage, with 11 percent in each case. Nutritional Status Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health, feeding and care. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they are more likely to reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. Undernutrition is associated with about half of all under- five deaths worldwide. Undernourished children are more likely to die from common childhood ailments, and for those who survive, have recurring sicknesses and faltering growth. Three-quarters of children who die from causes related to malnutrition were only mildly or moderately malnourished – showing no outward sign of their vulnerability. The Millennium Development Goal target (1, C) is to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger between 1990 and 2015. A reduction in the prevalence of malnutrition will also assist in the goal to reduce child mortality. In a well-nourished population, there is a reference distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Under-nourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to a reference population. The reference population used in this report is based on the WHO growth standards29. Each of the three nutritional status indicators – weight-for-age, height- for-age, and weight-for-height - can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of the reference population. Weight-for-age is a composite measure capturing acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Weight-for-height can be used to assess wasting and overweight status. Children whose weight-for- height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator of wasting may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. Children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations above the median reference population are classified as moderately or severely overweight. In MICS5, weights and heights of all children under five years of age were measured using the anthropometric equipment recommended30 by UNICEF. Findings in this section are based on the results of these measurements. Table NU.2 shows percentages of children classified into each of the above described categories, based on the anthropometric measurements that were taken during fieldwork. Additionally, the table includes mean z-scores for all three anthropometric indicators. 29http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/technical_report 30See MICS Supply Procurement Instructions here: http://www.childinfo.org/mics5_planning.html 80 Ta bl e N U .2 : N ut rit io na l s ta tu s of c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y nu tri tio na l s ta tu s ac co rd in g to th re e an th ro po m et ric in di ce s: w ei gh t f or a ge , h ei gh t f or a ge , a nd w ei gh t f or h ei gh t, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 W ei gh t f or a ge N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 H ei gh t f or a ge N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 W ei gh t f or h ei gh t N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 U nd er w ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) St un te d M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) W as te d O ve rw ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt a bo ve - 2 S D 1 - 3 S D 2 - 2 S D 3 - 3 S D 4 - 2 S D 5 - 3 S D 6 + 2 S D 7 To ta l 8. 5 2. 2 -0 .4 3 ,1 31 12 .0 3. 4 -0 .4 3 ,0 57 6. 4 1. 7 5. 3 -0 .2 3 ,0 41 Se x M al e 9. 6 2. 1 -0 .4 1 ,6 03 13 .3 3. 6 -0 .5 1 ,5 65 6. 7 1. 7 5. 7 -0 .1 1 ,5 57 Fe m al e 7. 4 2. 2 -0 .4 1 ,5 28 10 .7 3. 2 -0 .4 1 ,4 93 6. 2 1. 7 4. 8 -0 .2 1 ,4 85 R eg io n R eg io n 1 6. 2 3. 3 -0 .3 7 6 18 .4 5. 7 -1 .0 7 3 3. 3 1. 0 7. 1 0. 3 7 2 R eg io n 2 4. 3 0. 7 -0 .2 1 78 15 .2 5. 3 -0 .6 1 70 3. 6 1. 0 8. 6 0. 0 1 66 R eg io n 3 9. 3 0. 7 -0 .4 4 30 11 .8 1. 8 -0 .4 4 33 8. 7 1. 5 5. 5 -0 .3 4 32 R eg io n 4 7. 8 2. 5 -0 .3 1 ,3 09 9. 4 2. 5 -0 .3 1 ,2 84 5. 8 1. 7 5. 4 -0 .2 1 ,2 81 R eg io n 5 9. 4 2. 5 -0 .2 2 19 11 .3 1. 9 -0 .4 2 14 6. 2 2. 2 3. 8 -0 .1 2 12 R eg io n 6 10 .1 2. 1 -0 .4 4 29 8. 4 3. 3 -0 .3 4 19 9. 1 2. 2 4. 2 -0 .3 4 14 R eg io ns 7 & 8 11 .6 5. 2 -0 .6 1 46 28 .0 11 .3 -1 .1 1 33 5. 3 1. 6 7. 3 0. 0 1 33 R eg io n 9 11 .6 2. 0 -0 .6 1 76 26 .6 9. 6 -1 .2 1 67 6. 5 1. 7 4. 1 0. 0 1 64 R eg io n 10 5. 8 1. 6 -0 .3 1 69 9. 5 1. 4 -0 .2 1 64 4. 2 1. 5 3. 4 -0 .2 1 67 A re a U rb an 7. 0 2. 1 -0 .3 7 57 9. 8 2. 6 -0 .3 7 35 5. 1 1. 6 6. 5 -0 .1 7 30 R ur al 8. 9 2. 2 -0 .4 2 ,3 75 12 .8 3. 7 -0 .5 2 ,3 23 6. 8 1. 8 4. 9 -0 .2 2 ,3 11 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 8. 5 2. 0 -0 .3 2 ,4 93 10 .0 2. 7 -0 .3 2 ,4 51 6. 8 1. 8 5. 3 -0 .2 2 ,4 35 U rb an C oa st al 7. 4 2. 0 -0 .3 6 41 10 .7 3. 0 -0 .4 6 23 5. 1 1. 5 7. 2 -0 .1 6 14 R ur al C oa st al 8. 9 2. 0 -0 .4 1 ,8 52 9. 7 2. 6 -0 .3 1 ,8 28 7. 3 1. 9 4. 7 -0 .2 1 ,8 21 In te rio r 8. 5 2. 6 -0 .5 6 38 20 .4 6. 5 -0 .9 6 07 5. 0 1. 5 4. 9 0. 0 6 06 A ge 0- 5 m on th s 10 .2 6. 6 -0 .4 2 99 14 .9 5. 3 -0 .3 2 88 7. 3 2. 3 4. 5 -0 .3 2 77 6- 11 m on th s 9. 5 0. 6 -0 .3 3 37 6. 4 2. 4 -0 .1 3 33 7. 7 1. 9 3. 3 -0 .3 3 34 12 -1 7 m on th s 6. 6 1. 0 -0 .1 3 40 13 .6 2. 5 -0 .5 3 31 6. 5 1. 9 6. 7 0. 1 3 30 18 -2 3 m on th s 5. 1 1. 7 -0 .3 3 06 15 .1 4. 5 -0 .7 2 98 3. 9 1. 4 4. 5 0. 1 2 97 24 -3 5 m on th s 8. 6 2. 4 -0 .3 6 08 13 .2 4. 1 -0 .5 5 89 5. 9 1. 2 9. 0 0. 0 5 83 36 -4 7 m on th s 8. 7 1. 9 -0 .5 6 45 12 .4 4. 3 -0 .5 6 34 5. 1 1. 1 6. 1 -0 .2 6 37 48 -5 9 m on th s 9. 6 1. 7 -0 .6 5 97 9. 9 1. 4 -0 .5 5 84 8. 5 2. 5 1. 7 -0 .5 5 82 M ot he r’s e du ca tio na N on e 12 .4 0. 8 -0 .8 6 1 17 .3 6. 7 -1 .1 5 8 8. 2 0. 0 5. 4 -0 .2 5 9 P rim ar y 10 .9 4. 4 -0 .6 4 47 15 .8 4. 6 -0 .7 4 34 5. 4 2. 1 3. 5 -0 .2 4 35 S ec on da ry 8. 4 1. 6 -0 .4 2 ,3 33 11 .9 3. 2 -0 .4 2 ,2 81 6. 8 1. 8 5. 6 -0 .2 2 ,2 62 H ig he r 3. 8 3. 1 0. 0 2 85 6. 6 3. 1 -0 .1 2 80 3. 9 0. 9 4. 9 0. 1 2 82 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 12 .3 3. 4 -0 .6 92 8 21 .0 6. 8 -0 .9 89 9 7. 1 2. 1 5. 1 -0 .2 88 7 S ec on d 9. 6 2. 4 -0 .5 69 8 11 .6 3. 8 -0 .6 68 7 9. 3 1. 6 4. 0 -0 .3 69 1 M id dl e 6. 8 1. 8 -0 .2 59 6 7. 3 1. 6 -0 .2 58 5 4. 2 1. 7 5. 0 -0 .2 58 2 Fo ur th 7. 2 1. 2 -0 .2 45 0 5. 6 0. 5 -0 .2 44 4 5. 1 1. 0 5. 5 0. 0 44 1 R ic he st 2. 6 0. 6 0. 0 45 9 7. 2 1. 2 -0 .1 44 3 4. 9 1. 8 7. 6 0. 1 44 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db , c E as t I nd ia n 11 .5 2. 9 -0 .5 1 ,0 72 11 .0 2. 8 -0 .4 1 ,0 44 10 .9 2. 4 5. 8 -0 .4 1 ,0 38 A fri ca n 5. 5 1. 5 -0 .2 9 59 8. 2 2. 7 -0 .2 9 55 3. 6 1. 3 6. 0 -0 .1 9 55 A m er in di an 10 .2 2. 7 -0 .6 4 34 24 .7 8. 3 -1 .1 4 09 4. 6 1. 0 4. 7 0. 1 4 06 M ix ed R ac e 7. 1 1. 6 -0 .3 6 53 11 .4 2. 5 -0 .4 6 37 4. 6 1. 6 3. 8 -0 .1 6 28 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 a an d M D G in di ca to r 1 .8 - U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 b - U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 3 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 a - S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 4 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 b - S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (s ev er e) 5 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 a - W as tin g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 6 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 b - W as tin g pr ev al en ce (s ev er e) 7 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .4 - O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e a C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s b Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d c C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue ) 81Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e N U .2 : N ut rit io na l s ta tu s of c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y nu tri tio na l s ta tu s ac co rd in g to th re e an th ro po m et ric in di ce s: w ei gh t f or a ge , h ei gh t f or a ge , a nd w ei gh t f or h ei gh t, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 W ei gh t f or a ge N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 H ei gh t f or a ge N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 W ei gh t f or h ei gh t N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 U nd er w ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) St un te d M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) W as te d O ve rw ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt a bo ve - 2 S D 1 - 3 S D 2 - 2 S D 3 - 3 S D 4 - 2 S D 5 - 3 S D 6 + 2 S D 7 To ta l 8. 5 2. 2 -0 .4 3 ,1 31 12 .0 3. 4 -0 .4 3 ,0 57 6. 4 1. 7 5. 3 -0 .2 3 ,0 41 Se x M al e 9. 6 2. 1 -0 .4 1 ,6 03 13 .3 3. 6 -0 .5 1 ,5 65 6. 7 1. 7 5. 7 -0 .1 1 ,5 57 Fe m al e 7. 4 2. 2 -0 .4 1 ,5 28 10 .7 3. 2 -0 .4 1 ,4 93 6. 2 1. 7 4. 8 -0 .2 1 ,4 85 R eg io n R eg io n 1 6. 2 3. 3 -0 .3 7 6 18 .4 5. 7 -1 .0 7 3 3. 3 1. 0 7. 1 0. 3 7 2 R eg io n 2 4. 3 0. 7 -0 .2 1 78 15 .2 5. 3 -0 .6 1 70 3. 6 1. 0 8. 6 0. 0 1 66 R eg io n 3 9. 3 0. 7 -0 .4 4 30 11 .8 1. 8 -0 .4 4 33 8. 7 1. 5 5. 5 -0 .3 4 32 R eg io n 4 7. 8 2. 5 -0 .3 1 ,3 09 9. 4 2. 5 -0 .3 1 ,2 84 5. 8 1. 7 5. 4 -0 .2 1 ,2 81 R eg io n 5 9. 4 2. 5 -0 .2 2 19 11 .3 1. 9 -0 .4 2 14 6. 2 2. 2 3. 8 -0 .1 2 12 R eg io n 6 10 .1 2. 1 -0 .4 4 29 8. 4 3. 3 -0 .3 4 19 9. 1 2. 2 4. 2 -0 .3 4 14 R eg io ns 7 & 8 11 .6 5. 2 -0 .6 1 46 28 .0 11 .3 -1 .1 1 33 5. 3 1. 6 7. 3 0. 0 1 33 R eg io n 9 11 .6 2. 0 -0 .6 1 76 26 .6 9. 6 -1 .2 1 67 6. 5 1. 7 4. 1 0. 0 1 64 R eg io n 10 5. 8 1. 6 -0 .3 1 69 9. 5 1. 4 -0 .2 1 64 4. 2 1. 5 3. 4 -0 .2 1 67 A re a U rb an 7. 0 2. 1 -0 .3 7 57 9. 8 2. 6 -0 .3 7 35 5. 1 1. 6 6. 5 -0 .1 7 30 R ur al 8. 9 2. 2 -0 .4 2 ,3 75 12 .8 3. 7 -0 .5 2 ,3 23 6. 8 1. 8 4. 9 -0 .2 2 ,3 11 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 8. 5 2. 0 -0 .3 2 ,4 93 10 .0 2. 7 -0 .3 2 ,4 51 6. 8 1. 8 5. 3 -0 .2 2 ,4 35 U rb an C oa st al 7. 4 2. 0 -0 .3 6 41 10 .7 3. 0 -0 .4 6 23 5. 1 1. 5 7. 2 -0 .1 6 14 R ur al C oa st al 8. 9 2. 0 -0 .4 1 ,8 52 9. 7 2. 6 -0 .3 1 ,8 28 7. 3 1. 9 4. 7 -0 .2 1 ,8 21 In te rio r 8. 5 2. 6 -0 .5 6 38 20 .4 6. 5 -0 .9 6 07 5. 0 1. 5 4. 9 0. 0 6 06 A ge 0- 5 m on th s 10 .2 6. 6 -0 .4 2 99 14 .9 5. 3 -0 .3 2 88 7. 3 2. 3 4. 5 -0 .3 2 77 6- 11 m on th s 9. 5 0. 6 -0 .3 3 37 6. 4 2. 4 -0 .1 3 33 7. 7 1. 9 3. 3 -0 .3 3 34 12 -1 7 m on th s 6. 6 1. 0 -0 .1 3 40 13 .6 2. 5 -0 .5 3 31 6. 5 1. 9 6. 7 0. 1 3 30 18 -2 3 m on th s 5. 1 1. 7 -0 .3 3 06 15 .1 4. 5 -0 .7 2 98 3. 9 1. 4 4. 5 0. 1 2 97 24 -3 5 m on th s 8. 6 2. 4 -0 .3 6 08 13 .2 4. 1 -0 .5 5 89 5. 9 1. 2 9. 0 0. 0 5 83 36 -4 7 m on th s 8. 7 1. 9 -0 .5 6 45 12 .4 4. 3 -0 .5 6 34 5. 1 1. 1 6. 1 -0 .2 6 37 48 -5 9 m on th s 9. 6 1. 7 -0 .6 5 97 9. 9 1. 4 -0 .5 5 84 8. 5 2. 5 1. 7 -0 .5 5 82 M ot he r’s e du ca tio na N on e 12 .4 0. 8 -0 .8 6 1 17 .3 6. 7 -1 .1 5 8 8. 2 0. 0 5. 4 -0 .2 5 9 P rim ar y 10 .9 4. 4 -0 .6 4 47 15 .8 4. 6 -0 .7 4 34 5. 4 2. 1 3. 5 -0 .2 4 35 S ec on da ry 8. 4 1. 6 -0 .4 2 ,3 33 11 .9 3. 2 -0 .4 2 ,2 81 6. 8 1. 8 5. 6 -0 .2 2 ,2 62 H ig he r 3. 8 3. 1 0. 0 2 85 6. 6 3. 1 -0 .1 2 80 3. 9 0. 9 4. 9 0. 1 2 82 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 12 .3 3. 4 -0 .6 92 8 21 .0 6. 8 -0 .9 89 9 7. 1 2. 1 5. 1 -0 .2 88 7 S ec on d 9. 6 2. 4 -0 .5 69 8 11 .6 3. 8 -0 .6 68 7 9. 3 1. 6 4. 0 -0 .3 69 1 M id dl e 6. 8 1. 8 -0 .2 59 6 7. 3 1. 6 -0 .2 58 5 4. 2 1. 7 5. 0 -0 .2 58 2 Fo ur th 7. 2 1. 2 -0 .2 45 0 5. 6 0. 5 -0 .2 44 4 5. 1 1. 0 5. 5 0. 0 44 1 R ic he st 2. 6 0. 6 0. 0 45 9 7. 2 1. 2 -0 .1 44 3 4. 9 1. 8 7. 6 0. 1 44 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db , c E as t I nd ia n 11 .5 2. 9 -0 .5 1 ,0 72 11 .0 2. 8 -0 .4 1 ,0 44 10 .9 2. 4 5. 8 -0 .4 1 ,0 38 A fri ca n 5. 5 1. 5 -0 .2 9 59 8. 2 2. 7 -0 .2 9 55 3. 6 1. 3 6. 0 -0 .1 9 55 A m er in di an 10 .2 2. 7 -0 .6 4 34 24 .7 8. 3 -1 .1 4 09 4. 6 1. 0 4. 7 0. 1 4 06 M ix ed R ac e 7. 1 1. 6 -0 .3 6 53 11 .4 2. 5 -0 .4 6 37 4. 6 1. 6 3. 8 -0 .1 6 28 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 a an d M D G in di ca to r 1 .8 - U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 b - U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 3 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 a - S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 4 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 b - S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (s ev er e) 5 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 a - W as tin g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 6 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 b - W as tin g pr ev al en ce (s ev er e) 7 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .4 - O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e a C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s b Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d c C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e N U .2 : N ut rit io na l s ta tu s of c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y nu tri tio na l s ta tu s ac co rd in g to th re e an th ro po m et ric in di ce s: w ei gh t f or a ge , h ei gh t f or a ge , a nd w ei gh t f or h ei gh t, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 W ei gh t f or a ge N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 H ei gh t f or a ge N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 W ei gh t f or h ei gh t N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r a ge 5 U nd er w ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) St un te d M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) W as te d O ve rw ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt b el ow P er ce nt a bo ve - 2 S D 1 - 3 S D 2 - 2 S D 3 - 3 S D 4 - 2 S D 5 - 3 S D 6 + 2 S D 7 To ta l 8. 5 2. 2 -0 .4 3 ,1 31 12 .0 3. 4 -0 .4 3 ,0 57 6. 4 1. 7 5. 3 -0 .2 3 ,0 41 Se x M al e 9. 6 2. 1 -0 .4 1 ,6 03 13 .3 3. 6 -0 .5 1 ,5 65 6. 7 1. 7 5. 7 -0 .1 1 ,5 57 Fe m al e 7. 4 2. 2 -0 .4 1 ,5 28 10 .7 3. 2 -0 .4 1 ,4 93 6. 2 1. 7 4. 8 -0 .2 1 ,4 85 R eg io n R eg io n 1 6. 2 3. 3 -0 .3 7 6 18 .4 5. 7 -1 .0 7 3 3. 3 1. 0 7. 1 0. 3 7 2 R eg io n 2 4. 3 0. 7 -0 .2 1 78 15 .2 5. 3 -0 .6 1 70 3. 6 1. 0 8. 6 0. 0 1 66 R eg io n 3 9. 3 0. 7 -0 .4 4 30 11 .8 1. 8 -0 .4 4 33 8. 7 1. 5 5. 5 -0 .3 4 32 R eg io n 4 7. 8 2. 5 -0 .3 1 ,3 09 9. 4 2. 5 -0 .3 1 ,2 84 5. 8 1. 7 5. 4 -0 .2 1 ,2 81 R eg io n 5 9. 4 2. 5 -0 .2 2 19 11 .3 1. 9 -0 .4 2 14 6. 2 2. 2 3. 8 -0 .1 2 12 R eg io n 6 10 .1 2. 1 -0 .4 4 29 8. 4 3. 3 -0 .3 4 19 9. 1 2. 2 4. 2 -0 .3 4 14 R eg io ns 7 & 8 11 .6 5. 2 -0 .6 1 46 28 .0 11 .3 -1 .1 1 33 5. 3 1. 6 7. 3 0. 0 1 33 R eg io n 9 11 .6 2. 0 -0 .6 1 76 26 .6 9. 6 -1 .2 1 67 6. 5 1. 7 4. 1 0. 0 1 64 R eg io n 10 5. 8 1. 6 -0 .3 1 69 9. 5 1. 4 -0 .2 1 64 4. 2 1. 5 3. 4 -0 .2 1 67 A re a U rb an 7. 0 2. 1 -0 .3 7 57 9. 8 2. 6 -0 .3 7 35 5. 1 1. 6 6. 5 -0 .1 7 30 R ur al 8. 9 2. 2 -0 .4 2 ,3 75 12 .8 3. 7 -0 .5 2 ,3 23 6. 8 1. 8 4. 9 -0 .2 2 ,3 11 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 8. 5 2. 0 -0 .3 2 ,4 93 10 .0 2. 7 -0 .3 2 ,4 51 6. 8 1. 8 5. 3 -0 .2 2 ,4 35 U rb an C oa st al 7. 4 2. 0 -0 .3 6 41 10 .7 3. 0 -0 .4 6 23 5. 1 1. 5 7. 2 -0 .1 6 14 R ur al C oa st al 8. 9 2. 0 -0 .4 1 ,8 52 9. 7 2. 6 -0 .3 1 ,8 28 7. 3 1. 9 4. 7 -0 .2 1 ,8 21 In te rio r 8. 5 2. 6 -0 .5 6 38 20 .4 6. 5 -0 .9 6 07 5. 0 1. 5 4. 9 0. 0 6 06 A ge 0- 5 m on th s 10 .2 6. 6 -0 .4 2 99 14 .9 5. 3 -0 .3 2 88 7. 3 2. 3 4. 5 -0 .3 2 77 6- 11 m on th s 9. 5 0. 6 -0 .3 3 37 6. 4 2. 4 -0 .1 3 33 7. 7 1. 9 3. 3 -0 .3 3 34 12 -1 7 m on th s 6. 6 1. 0 -0 .1 3 40 13 .6 2. 5 -0 .5 3 31 6. 5 1. 9 6. 7 0. 1 3 30 18 -2 3 m on th s 5. 1 1. 7 -0 .3 3 06 15 .1 4. 5 -0 .7 2 98 3. 9 1. 4 4. 5 0. 1 2 97 24 -3 5 m on th s 8. 6 2. 4 -0 .3 6 08 13 .2 4. 1 -0 .5 5 89 5. 9 1. 2 9. 0 0. 0 5 83 36 -4 7 m on th s 8. 7 1. 9 -0 .5 6 45 12 .4 4. 3 -0 .5 6 34 5. 1 1. 1 6. 1 -0 .2 6 37 48 -5 9 m on th s 9. 6 1. 7 -0 .6 5 97 9. 9 1. 4 -0 .5 5 84 8. 5 2. 5 1. 7 -0 .5 5 82 M ot he r’s e du ca tio na N on e 12 .4 0. 8 -0 .8 6 1 17 .3 6. 7 -1 .1 5 8 8. 2 0. 0 5. 4 -0 .2 5 9 P rim ar y 10 .9 4. 4 -0 .6 4 47 15 .8 4. 6 -0 .7 4 34 5. 4 2. 1 3. 5 -0 .2 4 35 S ec on da ry 8. 4 1. 6 -0 .4 2 ,3 33 11 .9 3. 2 -0 .4 2 ,2 81 6. 8 1. 8 5. 6 -0 .2 2 ,2 62 H ig he r 3. 8 3. 1 0. 0 2 85 6. 6 3. 1 -0 .1 2 80 3. 9 0. 9 4. 9 0. 1 2 82 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 12 .3 3. 4 -0 .6 92 8 21 .0 6. 8 -0 .9 89 9 7. 1 2. 1 5. 1 -0 .2 88 7 S ec on d 9. 6 2. 4 -0 .5 69 8 11 .6 3. 8 -0 .6 68 7 9. 3 1. 6 4. 0 -0 .3 69 1 M id dl e 6. 8 1. 8 -0 .2 59 6 7. 3 1. 6 -0 .2 58 5 4. 2 1. 7 5. 0 -0 .2 58 2 Fo ur th 7. 2 1. 2 -0 .2 45 0 5. 6 0. 5 -0 .2 44 4 5. 1 1. 0 5. 5 0. 0 44 1 R ic he st 2. 6 0. 6 0. 0 45 9 7. 2 1. 2 -0 .1 44 3 4. 9 1. 8 7. 6 0. 1 44 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db , c E as t I nd ia n 11 .5 2. 9 -0 .5 1 ,0 72 11 .0 2. 8 -0 .4 1 ,0 44 10 .9 2. 4 5. 8 -0 .4 1 ,0 38 A fri ca n 5. 5 1. 5 -0 .2 9 59 8. 2 2. 7 -0 .2 9 55 3. 6 1. 3 6. 0 -0 .1 9 55 A m er in di an 10 .2 2. 7 -0 .6 4 34 24 .7 8. 3 -1 .1 4 09 4. 6 1. 0 4. 7 0. 1 4 06 M ix ed R ac e 7. 1 1. 6 -0 .3 6 53 11 .4 2. 5 -0 .4 6 37 4. 6 1. 6 3. 8 -0 .1 6 28 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 a an d M D G in di ca to r 1 .8 - U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 b - U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 3 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 a - S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 4 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 b - S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (s ev er e) 5 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 a - W as tin g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 6 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 b - W as tin g pr ev al en ce (s ev er e) 7 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .4 - O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e a C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s b Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d c C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s 82 Children whose full birth date (month and year) were not obtained, and children whose measurements are outside a plausible range are excluded from Table NU.2. Children are excluded from one or more of the anthropometric indicators when their weights and heights have not been measured, whichever applicable. For example, if a child has been weighed but his/her height has not been measured, the child is included in underweight calculations, but not in the calculations for stunting and wasting. Percentages of children by age and reasons for exclusion are shown in the data quality Tables DQ.12, DQ.13, and DQ.14 in Appendix D. The tables show that due to incomplete dates of birth, implausible measurements, and/or missing weight and/or height, eight (8) percent of children have been excluded from calculations of the weight-for-age indicator, 11 percent from the height-for-age indicator, and 12 percent for the weight-for-height indicator. It should be noted that while the reported digits are evenly distributed for weight measurements, there is a notable heaping for digit 0 for height measurements (Table DQ.15), which may affect anthropometric indicators. Therefore, anthropometric results should be interpreted with caution. Almost one in ten children under age five in Guyana are moderately or severely underweight (9%) and two (2) percent are classified as severely underweight (Table NU.2). Moreover, 12 percent of children are moderately or severely stunted or too short for their age and six (6) percent are moderately or severely wasted or too thin for their height. On the other hand, five (5) percent are overweight or too heavy for their height. Boys appear to be slightly more likely to be underweight and stunted than girls. However, there are no variations by sex relative to wasting. Greater proportions of children in Regions 7 & 8 and 9 are found to be moderately or severely underweight (12%) and moderately or severely stunted (27-28%) compared to other regions. Regions 7 & 8 also have the highest proportions of children who are severely underweight, with five (5) percent, as well as severely stunted, with 11 percent. In contrast, the percentage wasted is highest in Regions 3 and 6 (9%). While the differences are relatively small for underweight and wasting prevalence between the areas of residence for both urban-rural and interior-coastal disaggregation, as it relates to stunting, children in interior areas (20%) are twice as likely as those in coastal areas (10%). Mother’s education and household wealth are clearly associated with the nutritional status of children relative to underweight, stunting, and wasting: as household wealth and mother’s education increase, the likelihood of the children to be moderately or severely underweight, stunted, and wasted decreases. The highest proportions of children who are underweight (12%) and wasted (11%) are found among children in households with an East Indian household head. Stunting, on the other hand, is most prevalent among children in households with an Amerindian household head (25%). Children in households with an African household head are least likely to be underweight (6%), stunted (8%) or wasted (4%). These differences may possibly reflect socio-cultural differences in infant and young child feeding practices. A higher percentage of children aged 0-5 months are severely undernourished according to all three indices in comparison with older children. This may be due to data quality issue discussed above, and needs to be interpreted with caution. Figure NU.1 below shows age pattern of all three indices. The percentage of overweight children is highest in Region 2 (9%). There are no notable differences in overweight prevalence according to the mother’s education. Children in the richest households, 24-35 months old, and in urban areas are slightly more likely to be overweight than the other children. 83Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | F igure NU.1: Underweight , s tunted, wasted and overweight ch i ldren under age 5 (moderate and severe) , Guyana MICS5, 2014 Underweight Stunted Wasted Overweight 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 12 24 36 48 60 Pe r c en t Age in months 31UNICEF (2013). Improving Child Nutrition: The achievable imperative for global progress. Breastfeeding and Infant and young Child Feeding Proper feeding of infants and young children can increase their chances of survival; it can also promote optimal growth and development, especially in the critical window from birth to two years of age. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and sustained breastfeeding up to two years of age protect children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers don’t start to breastfeed early enough, do not breastfeed exclusively for the recommended six months or stop breastfeeding too soon31. There are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition, and can be unsafe, if hygienic conditions including safe drinking water are not readily available. Studies have shown that, in addition to continued breastfeeding, consumption of appropriate, adequate and safe solid, semi-solid and soft foods from the age of six months onwards leads to better health and growth outcomes, with potential to reduce stunting during the first two years of life.32 UNICEF and WHO recommend that infants be breastfed within one hour of birth, breastfed exclusively for the first six months of life and continue to be breastfed up to two years of age and beyond.33 Starting at six months (180 days old), breastfeeding should be combined with safe, age-appropriate feeding of solid, semi-solid and soft foods.34 32Bhutta Z.A., Das J.K., Rizvi A. et al. (2013). Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost? The Lancet 382(9890):452-77. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60996-4. 33WHO (2003). Implementing the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding: report of a technical meeting, Geneva, 3-5 February 2003. 34WHO (2003). Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. 84 35PAHO (2003). Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. 36WHO (2005). Guiding principles for feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months of age. A summary of key guiding principles35, 36 for feeding 6-23 month olds is provided in the table below along with proximate measures for these guidelines collected in this survey. The guiding principles for which proximate measures and indicators exist are: i. continued breastfeeding; ii. appropriate frequency of meals (but not energy density); and iii. appropriate nutrient content of food. Feeding frequency is used as proxy for energy intake, requiring children to receive a minimum number of meals/snacks (and milk feeds for non-breastfed children) for their age. Dietary diversity is used to ascertain the adequacy of the nutrient content of the food (not including iron) consumed. For dietary 37WHO (2008). Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices.Part 1: Definitions. 38 Food groups used for assessment of this indicator are 1) grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables. diversity, seven food groups were created for which a child consuming at least four of these is considered to have a better quality diet. In most populations, consumption of at least four food groups means that the child has a high likelihood of consuming at least one animal-source food and at least one fruit or vegetable, in addition to a staple food (grain, root or tuber).37 These three dimensions of child feeding are combined into an assessment of the children who received appropriate feeding, using the indicator of “minimum acceptable diet”. To have a minimum acceptable diet in the previous day, a child must have received: i. the appropriate number of meals/snacks/milk feeds; ii. food items form at least four (4) food groups; and iii. breastmilk or at least two (2) milk feeds (for non- breastfed children). Guiding Principle (age 6-23 months) Proximate measures Table Continue frequent, on-demand breastfeeding for two years and beyond Breastfed in the last 24 hours NU.4 Appropriate frequency and energy density of meals Breastfed children Depending on age, two or three meals/snacks provided in the last 24 hours Non-breastfed children Four meals/snacks and/or milk feeds provided in the last 24 hours NU.6 Appropriate nutrient content of food Four food groups38 eaten in the last 24 hours NU.6 Appropriate amount of food No standard indicator exists na Appropriate consistency of food No standard indicator exists na Use of vitamin-mineral supplements or fortified products for infant and mother No standard indicator exists na Practice good hygiene and proper food handling While it was not possible to develop indicators to fully capture programme guidance, one standard indicator does cover part of the principle: Not feeding with a bottle with a nipple NU.9 Practice responsive feeding, applying the principles of psycho-social care No standard indicator exists na 85Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table NU.3 is based on mothers’ reports of what their last-born child, born in the last two years, was fed in the first few days of life. It indicates the proportion of children who were ever breastfed, those who were first breastfed within one hour and one day of birth, and those who received a prelacteal feed.39 Although a very important step in management of lactation and establishment of a physical and emotional relationship between the baby and the mother, only about half (49%) of babies are breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth, while 77 percent of newborns in Guyana start breastfeeding within one day of birth. In addition, 17 percent of newborns received a prelacteal 39Prelacteal feed refers to the provision any liquid or food, other than breastmilk, to a newborn during the period when breastmilk flow is generally being established (estimated here as the first three days of life). feed, meaning that they were given any liquid or food, other than breast milk before initiation of breastfeeding (i.e. within the first three days of life). The percentages of children ever breastfed, breastfed within one hour and within one day of birth, are all higher in interior areas compared to coastal areas. Nevertheless, the proportion of children who received prelacteal feed is similar for newborns in coastal and interior areas, with 17 percent in each case. The percentage of children breastfed within one hour of birth is highest in Region 5 (69%), followed by Region 2 (66%), and then by Regions 7 & 8 (62%); the lowest is in Region 1 (30%). The findings are presented in Figure NU.2 Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years who were ever breastfed, breastfed within one hour of birth, and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage who were ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last live-born children in the last two years Within one hour of birth2 Within one day of birth Total 89.0 49.2 76.7 16.5 769 Region Region 1 97.1 29.9 83.8 13.1 25 Region 2 87.9 65.6 83.4 6.0 40 Region 3 84.7 51.8 75.6 13.6 107 Region 4 87.2 42.6 70.9 21.8 327 Region 5 94.9 69.1 86.3 12.3 52 Region 6 88.3 47.6 82.0 8.4 94 Regions 7 & 8 95.5 62.1 80.3 14.6 36 Region 9 95.6 58.7 85.4 10.3 44 Region 10 91.8 47.9 78.5 25.9 44 Area Urban 89.0 42.8 73.9 22.2 184 Rural 89.0 51.2 77.6 14.7 585 Location Coastal 86.9 48.1 74.6 16.5 608 Urban Coastal 87.2 41.1 72.2 20.4 155 Rural Coastal 86.8 50.5 75.5 15.1 453 Interior 97.0 53.4 84.6 16.7 161 Months since last birth 0-11 months 88.8 48.2 74.2 17.3 389 12-23 months 89.2 50.2 79.3 15.7 380 Assistance at delivery Skilled attendant 89.1 49.7 77.0 17.0 700 Traditional birth attendant (*) (*) (*) (*) 1 Other 97.8 49.9 84.2 11.0 48 No one/Missing (64.3) (33.9) (45.7) (14.5) 20 Place of deliverya Home 96.4 48.8 83.8 14.5 46 Health facility 89.2 49.8 76.8 16.8 713 Public 91.1 55.3 82.5 12.9 605 Private 78.5 18.7 45.5 38.3 108 Mother’s education None (95.6) (25.4) (90.1) (3.3) 13 Primary 91.6 48.5 76.8 22.5 95 Secondary 88.8 52.0 77.7 15.0 590 Higher 86.1 31.6 65.7 23.7 71 Wealth index quintile Poorest 93.9 57.8 85.1 11.0 227 Second 89.8 58.7 78.1 13.7 176 Middle 87.4 42.0 78.0 18.9 152 Fourth 87.3 47.5 74.4 14.9 104 Richest 81.4 28.0 57.7 30.5 110 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 84.5 43.7 70.0 20.3 254 African 91.8 51.0 82.3 12.5 235 Amerindian 96.0 56.2 83.6 10.0 113 Mixed Race 87.2 49.9 74.1 20.8 164 1 MICS indicator 2.5 - Children ever breastfed 2 MICS indicator 2.6 - Early initiation of breastfeeding a Category "Other/DK/Missing" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table NU.3: Initial breastfeeding (Continued) 86 by region and area. The practice of giving prelacteal feed is most prevalent in Region 10, with more than a quarter (26%) of children, followed by Region 4, with 22 percent. Infants living in urban areas (22% compared with 15% in rural areas) and those delivered in private health facilities (38% compared with 13% in public facilities) are more likely than the others to receive prelacteal feed. Recommended breastfeeding practices are least followed by women who delivered in private facilities, with only 19 percent breastfeeding within one hour of birth, compared to 55 percent for those who delivered in public facilities. The more educated the women and wealthier the household, the less they practice breastfeeding in general and early initiation of breastfeeding in particular. Women living in households with an Amerindian household head are more likely to breastfeed their children and initiate breastfeeding early, than others. Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years who were ever breastfed, breastfed within one hour of birth, and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage who were ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last live-born children in the last two years Within one hour of birth2 Within one day of birth Total 89.0 49.2 76.7 16.5 769 Region Region 1 97.1 29.9 83.8 13.1 25 Region 2 87.9 65.6 83.4 6.0 40 Region 3 84.7 51.8 75.6 13.6 107 Region 4 87.2 42.6 70.9 21.8 327 Region 5 94.9 69.1 86.3 12.3 52 Region 6 88.3 47.6 82.0 8.4 94 Regions 7 & 8 95.5 62.1 80.3 14.6 36 Region 9 95.6 58.7 85.4 10.3 44 Region 10 91.8 47.9 78.5 25.9 44 Area Urban 89.0 42.8 73.9 22.2 184 Rural 89.0 51.2 77.6 14.7 585 Location Coastal 86.9 48.1 74.6 16.5 608 Urban Coastal 87.2 41.1 72.2 20.4 155 Rural Coastal 86.8 50.5 75.5 15.1 453 Interior 97.0 53.4 84.6 16.7 161 Months since last birth 0-11 months 88.8 48.2 74.2 17.3 389 12-23 months 89.2 50.2 79.3 15.7 380 Assistance at delivery Skilled attendant 89.1 49.7 77.0 17.0 700 Traditional birth attendant (*) (*) (*) (*) 1 Other 97.8 49.9 84.2 11.0 48 No one/Missing (64.3) (33.9) (45.7) (14.5) 20 Place of deliverya Home 96.4 48.8 83.8 14.5 46 Health facility 89.2 49.8 76.8 16.8 713 Public 91.1 55.3 82.5 12.9 605 Private 78.5 18.7 45.5 38.3 108 Mother’s education None (95.6) (25.4) (90.1) (3.3) 13 Primary 91.6 48.5 76.8 22.5 95 Secondary 88.8 52.0 77.7 15.0 590 Higher 86.1 31.6 65.7 23.7 71 Wealth index quintile Poorest 93.9 57.8 85.1 11.0 227 Second 89.8 58.7 78.1 13.7 176 Middle 87.4 42.0 78.0 18.9 152 Fourth 87.3 47.5 74.4 14.9 104 Richest 81.4 28.0 57.7 30.5 110 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 84.5 43.7 70.0 20.3 254 African 91.8 51.0 82.3 12.5 235 Amerindian 96.0 56.2 83.6 10.0 113 Mixed Race 87.2 49.9 74.1 20.8 164 1 MICS indicator 2.5 - Children ever breastfed 2 MICS indicator 2.6 - Early initiation of breastfeeding a Category "Other/DK/Missing" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years who were ever breastfed, breastfed within one hour of birth, and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage who were ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last live-born children in the last two years Within one hour of birth2 Within one day of birth Total 89.0 49.2 76.7 16.5 769 Region Region 1 97.1 29.9 83.8 13.1 25 Region 2 87.9 65.6 83.4 6.0 40 Region 3 84.7 51.8 75.6 13.6 107 Region 4 87.2 42.6 70.9 21.8 327 Region 5 94.9 69.1 86.3 12.3 52 Region 6 88.3 47.6 82.0 8.4 94 Regions 7 & 8 95.5 62.1 80.3 14.6 36 Region 9 95.6 58.7 85.4 10.3 44 Region 10 91.8 47.9 78.5 25.9 44 Area Urban 89.0 42.8 73.9 22.2 184 Rural 89.0 51.2 77.6 14.7 585 Location Coastal 86.9 48.1 74.6 16.5 608 Urban Coastal 87.2 41.1 72.2 20.4 155 Rural Coastal 86.8 50.5 75.5 15.1 453 Interior 97.0 53.4 84.6 16.7 161 Months since last birth 0-11 months 88.8 48.2 74.2 17.3 389 12-23 months 89.2 50.2 79.3 15.7 380 Assistance at delivery Skilled attendant 89.1 49.7 77.0 17.0 700 Traditional birth attendant (*) (*) (*) (*) 1 Other 97.8 49.9 84.2 11.0 48 No one/Missing (64.3) (33.9) (45.7) (14.5) 20 Place of deliverya Home 96.4 48.8 83.8 14.5 46 Health facility 89.2 49.8 76.8 16.8 713 Public 91.1 55.3 82.5 12.9 605 Private 78.5 18.7 45.5 38.3 108 Mother’s education None (95.6) (25.4) (90.1) (3.3) 13 Primary 91.6 48.5 76.8 22.5 95 Secondary 88.8 52.0 77.7 15.0 590 Higher 86.1 31.6 65.7 23.7 71 Wealth index quintile Poorest 93.9 57.8 85.1 11.0 227 Second 89.8 58.7 78.1 13.7 176 Middle 87.4 42.0 78.0 18.9 152 Fourth 87.3 47.5 74.4 14.9 104 Richest 81.4 28.0 57.7 30.5 110 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 84.5 43.7 70.0 20.3 254 African 91.8 51.0 82.3 12.5 235 Amerindian 96.0 56.2 83.6 10.0 113 Mixed Race 87.2 49.9 74.1 20.8 164 1 MICS indicator 2.5 - Children ever breastfed 2 MICS indicator 2.6 - Early initiation of breastfeeding a Category "Other/DK/Missing" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table NU.3: Initial breastfeeding 87Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | F igure NU.2: In itiation of breastfeeding, Guyana MICS5, 2014 84 83 76 71 86 82 80 85 79 74 78 75 72 75 85 77 30 66 52 43 69 48 62 59 48 43 51 48 41 50 53 49 0 20 40 60 80 100 Pe r c en t Within one day Within one hour The set of Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators reported in tables NU.4 through NU.8 are based on the mother’s report of consumption of food and fluids during the day or night prior to being interviewed. Data are subject to a number of limitations, some related to the respondent’s ability to provide a full report on the child’s liquid and food intake due to recall errors as well as lack of knowledge in cases where the child was fed by other individuals. In Table NU.4, breastfeeding status is presented for both Exclusively breastfed and Predominantly breastfed; referring to infants aged less than six months who are breastfed, distinguished by the former only allowing vitamins, mineral supplements, and medicine and the latter allowing also plain water and non-milk liquids. The table also shows continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 and 20-23 months of age. As shown in Table NU.4, less than one in four children aged less than six months (23%) are exclusively breastfed. With 36 percent predominantly breastfed, it is evident that water-based liquids are displacing feeding of breastmilk to some degree. By age 12-15 months, 56 percent of children are breastfed, and by age 20-23 months, 41 percent are breastfed. While the proportions of exclusively breastfed children are similar between boys and girls aged less than six months (24% and 22%, respectively), the proportions of those predominantly breastfed at one year and breastfed at two years are consistently higher among girls compared to boys, with continued breastfeeding at two years among girls outnumbering that among boys by 14 percentage points (34% boys and 48% girls). The percentage of exclusively breastfed children is much higher in interior areas (34%) compared to coastal areas (20%), and in rural 88 Table NU.4: Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Children age 0-5 months Children age 12-15 months Children age 20-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Percent predominantly breastfed2 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year)3 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 2 years)4 Number of children Total 23.3 36.2 326 55.6 208 40.9 182 Sex Male 24.4 34.2 156 52.8 95 33.6 87 Female 22.2 38.0 169 57.9 113 47.7 94 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 45.3 62.7 45 (83.5) 26 53.8 28 Regions 2, 3 (26.5) (34.4) 67 (59.4) 55 (42.0) 24 Region 4 10.0 21.2 132 50.7 84 38.1 76 Regions 5, 6 (33.1) (52.7) 55 (42.8) 37 (37.5) 39 Region 10 (23.1) (35.9) 27 (*) 5 (*) 14 Area Urban 13.7 28.0 82 (48.5) 45 (43.4) 39 Rural 26.5 38.9 244 57.6 164 40.2 142 Location Coastal 19.8 32.0 246 50.1 172 37.4 132 Urban Coastal (10.9) (25.7) 65 (49.6) 41 (44.9) 30 Rural Coastal 22.9 34.2 181 50.2 131 35.1 102 Interior 34.1 49.2 79 81.7 36 50.3 50 Mother’s educationb, c None (*) (*) 2 (*) 10 (*) 4 Primary (29.2) (37.0) 47 (59.7) 27 (36.4) 23 Secondary or Higher 22.0 35.7 277 53.9 171 41.5 154 Wealth indexd Poorest 30.9 56.0 97 77.0 55 51.8 60 Middle 40% 21.4 26.9 146 53.5 104 36.6 65 Richest 40% 17.7 29.4 83 (36.0) 49 34.1 56 Ethnicity of household heade, f East Indian 17.7 29.6 99 42.9 65 32.8 57 African 22.8 35.5 103 63.6 54 31.6 56 Amerindian 38.3 59.6 47 79.8 36 56.2 33 Mixed Race 22.9 30.2 72 (45.7) 52 (54.2) 36 1 MICS indicator 2.7 - Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2 MICS indicator 2.8 - Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 3 MICS indicator 2.9 - Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 4 MICS indicator 2.10 - Continued breastfeeding at 2 years a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b Categories "Secondary" and "Higher" have been merged because of the small number of cases in individual categories c Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases d Wealth index have been grouped into three categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile eThis is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head fCategory "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 89Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | areas (27%) compared to urban areas (14%). The percentages of children breastfed at one year and two years remain much higher in interior areas, compared to coastal areas. A higher proportion of children living in the poorest households are breastfed at all ages, compared to those in wealthier households. Children in households with an Amerindian household head are more likely than others to be exclusively breastfed (38%), predominantly breastfed (60%) and breastfed at one year (80%) and two years (56%). Figure NU.3 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding by the child’s age in months. Even at the early ages, a large proportion of children are receiving liquids other than breast milk, with other milk and formula being of highest prevalence, even at the early age of 0-1 month. At age 4-5 months old, the percentage of children exclusively breastfed is below 20 percent. Most children who are exclusively breastfed are weaned by age 8-9 months. About 40 percent of children are receiving breast milk at age two years. Table NU.5 shows the median duration of breastfeeding by selected background characteristics. Among children under age three years, the median duration is 14.1 months for any breastfeeding, only 0.6 months for exclusive breastfeeding, and 1.4 months for predominant breastfeeding. The duration of any breastfeeding ranges between 9.8 months in Region 6 and 25.0 months in Region 1. The duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding does not vary greatly between urban and rural areas; however, predominant breastfeeding is longer in rural areas compared to urban areas. Duration of any breastfeeding decreases as mother’s education and the household wealth increase. In addition, as mother’s education increases, predominant breastfeeding decreases. Children in households with an Amerindian household head are breastfed the longest (25.2 months for any breastfeeding), whereas those in households with an East Indian household head the shortest (7.7 months). The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding is very short, regardless of the background characteristics. It is just above two (2) months in Regions 1, 2, 7 & 8, and 9 (2.0-2.5 months), whereas it is between 0 and 1.1 month in the other regions. F igure NU.3: Infant feeding patterns by age, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Exclusively breastfed Breastfed and complementary foods Weaned (not breastfed) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 Age in months Exclusively breastfed Breastfed and plain water only Breastfed and non-milk liquids Breastfed and other milk / formula Breastfed and complimentary foods Weaned (not breastfed)complementary 90 Table NU.5: Duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children age 0-35 months, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Median duration (in months) of: Number of children age 0- 35 months Any breastfeeding1 Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Median 14.1 0.6 1.4 2,021 Sex Male 13.4 0.8 1.7 999 Female 14.9 0.5 0.9 1,022 Region Region 1 25.0 2.0 2.4 59 Region 2 18.3 2.3 6.4 111 Region 3 14.7 0.5 0.5 293 Region 4 11.0 0.5 0.9 825 Region 5 16.7 0.7 0.7 133 Region 6 9.8 0.0 2.3 266 Regions 7 & 8 23.2 2.5 4.0 94 Region 9 21.4 2.4 5.1 123 Region 10 15.0 1.1 1.3 118 Area Urban 13.5 0.6 0.7 505 Rural 14.4 0.6 1.6 1,516 Mother’s education None (25.1) (0.0) (8.7) 35 Primary 20.7 1.4 2.0 267 Secondary 13.9 0.6 1.2 1,531 Higher 10.1 1.2 1.2 189 Wealth index quintile Poorest 22.1 0.6 3.7 597 Second 13.3 0.5 0.6 453 Middle 13.5 1.5 1.6 369 Fourth 7.5 0.7 1.3 307 Richest 7.1 0.4 0.4 295 Ethnicity of household heada East Indian 7.7 0.5 0.7 680 African 14.4 1.4 2.0 623 Amerindian 25.2 1.8 3.6 307 Mixed Race 18.4 0.5 0.5 401 Mean 17.1 1.6 3.0 2,021 1 MICS indicator 2.11 - Duration of breastfeeding a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 91Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | The age-appropriateness of breastfeeding of children under age 24 months is provided in Table NU.6. Different criteria of feeding are used depending on the age of the child. For infants aged 0-5 months, exclusive breastfeeding is considered as age-appropriate feeding, while children aged 6-23 months are considered to be appropriately fed if they are receiving breastmilk and solid, semi-solid or soft food. As a result of feeding patterns, only 46 percent of children aged 6-23 months are currently breastfed and receive solid, semi-solid or soft foods, and age-appropriate breastfeeding among all children aged 0-23 months drops to 41 percent. This percentage is much higher in interior areas (52%) than in coastal areas (38%), and also higher in rural areas (43%) than in urban areas (35%), and ranges between 33 percent (Region 4) and 59 percent (Region 1). It is strongly and inversely correlated with the household wealth. The largest proportion of children who are appropriately breastfed according to age is in households with an Amerindian household head (57%), while the smallest is in households with an East Indian household head (29%). On the other hand, there is no clear pattern relative to mother’s education and no difference according to sex. 92 Table NU.6: Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Number of children Percent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children Percent appropriately breastfed2 Number of children Total 23.3 326 45.9 1,048 40.5 1,373 Sex Male 24.4 156 44.5 513 39.8 669 Female 22.2 169 47.2 535 41.2 705 Region Region 1 (*) 9 67.3 29 58.5 38 Region 2 (*) 21 47.1 60 47.0 81 Region 3 (17.2) 46 52.1 144 43.7 190 Region 4 10.0 132 39.7 445 32.9 577 Region 5 (*) 24 43.7 68 39.8 92 Region 6 (36.4) 32 42.4 142 41.3 173 Regions 7 & 8 (49.8) 19 62.1 42 58.3 61 Region 9 (48.8) 18 61.0 58 58.1 76 Region 10 (23.1) 27 50.7 58 42.0 85 Area Urban 13.7 82 41.3 261 34.7 342 Rural 26.5 244 47.4 787 42.5 1,031 Location Coastal 19.8 246 42.7 838 37.5 1,084 Urban Coastal (10.9) 65 39.7 218 33.1 283 Rural Coastal 22.9 181 43.7 620 39.0 801 Interior 34.1 79 58.8 210 52.0 290 Mother’s educationa None (*) 2 (63.3) 22 (62.9) 24 Primary (29.2) 47 42.1 132 38.8 179 Secondary 23.0 249 46.8 797 41.1 1,046 Higher (*) 28 40.2 96 34.2 124 Wealth index quintile Poorest 30.9 97 59.8 284 52.5 380 Second 17.2 78 49.3 250 41.7 328 Middle 26.2 68 42.3 201 38.2 268 Fourth (13.6) 39 36.1 161 31.7 200 Richest (21.3) 44 29.5 153 27.7 196 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 17.7 99 31.9 346 28.8 446 African 22.8 103 49.7 328 43.3 431 Amerindian 38.3 47 63.2 149 57.2 196 Mixed Race 22.9 72 50.4 222 43.6 294 1 MICS indicator 2.7 - Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2 MICS indicator 2.12 - Age-appropriate breastfeeding a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 93Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table NU.7: Introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods during the previous day, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods1 Number of children age 6-8 months Total 73.0 144 96.1 75 80.9 219 Sex Male 81.1 72 (94.1) 40 85.7 112 Female 65.0 72 (98.3) 35 75.8 107 Area Urban (*) 30 (*) 26 (83.9) 56 Rural 72.7 114 (96.4) 49 79.9 163 Location Coastal 76.7 113 96.7 71 84.4 184 Urban Coastal (*) 23 (*) 23 (81.9) 47 Rural Coastal 79.3 90 (96.3) 48 85.3 138 Interior (59.8) 31 (*) 3 61.8 34 1 MICS indicator 2.13 - Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Overall, 81 percent of infants aged 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods at least once during the previous day (Table NU.7). Among those currently breastfeeding, this percentage is 73, while it is 96 among those currently not breastfeeding. Boys aged 6-8 months, regardless if they are breastfeeding or not, are more likely to receive solid, semi-solid, or soft foods, with 86 percent, than their female counterparts, with 76 percent. This pattern is similar among those who are currently breastfeeding. In general, coastal children are more likely (84%) than those in the interior (62%) to receive solid, semi-solid, or soft foods. Table NU.8 shows the percentage of children aged 6-23 months who received appropriate liquids and solid, semi-solid, or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, by breastfeeding status. Overall, approximately two- thirds of the children aged 6-23 months were receiving the minimum meal frequency (receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods the minimum number of times), with 62 percent, and the minimum dietary diversity (received foods from at least four food groups), with 65 percent. The overall assessment using the indicator of minimum acceptable diet reveals that 40 percent of children were benefitting from a diet sufficient in both diversity and frequency. Higher proportions of boys were achieving the minimum meal frequency (68% boys and 56% girls) compared to girls. This resulted in a higher proportion of boys than girls achieving the minimum acceptable diet (45% and 35%, respectively). A higher proportion of older (12-23 month old) children were achieving the minimum dietary diversity, minimum dietary frequency, and minimum acceptable diet, compared to younger (6-11 month old) children. The proportion of children achieving minimum acceptable diet was highest in Region 2 (59%), and lowest in Region 9, with only 14 percent. Minimum acceptable diet was slightly less achieved in rural areas (39%) compared to urban areas (44%), and in interior areas (30%) compared to coastal areas (43%). The proportion of children achieving minimum acceptable diet is clearly associated with mother’s education and the household’s socio-economic status. 94 Ta bl e N U .8 : I nf an t a nd y ou ng c hi ld fe ed in g (IY C F) p ra ct ic es P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed a pp ro pr ia te li qu id s an d so lid , s em i-s ol id , o r s of t f oo ds th e m in im um n um be r o f t im es o r m or e du rin g th e pr ev io us d ay , b y br ea st fe ed in g st at us , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 C ur re nt ly b re as tfe ed in g C ur re nt ly n ot b re as tfe ed in g A ll Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et 1, c M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et 2, c A t l ea st 2 m ilk fe ed s3 M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity 4, a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy 5, b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et c To ta l 55 .3 43 .8 30 .1 54 6 79 .0 86 .6 54 .0 83 .9 38 9 65 .2 61 .6 40 .0 1, 04 8 Se x M al e 57 .6 49 .8 34 .4 25 5 80 .2 90 .1 58 .2 87 .2 20 2 66 .6 67 .6 44 .9 51 3 Fe m al e 53 .2 38 .5 26 .4 29 1 77 .7 82 .7 49 .4 80 .4 18 7 63 .8 55 .8 35 .4 53 5 A ge 6- 8 m on th s 34 .1 48 .1 22 .4 14 4 46 .3 93 .1 31 .3 91 .2 55 39 .4 60 .5 24 .9 21 9 9- 11 m on th s 51 .0 35 .9 24 .8 87 (6 9. 0) (9 8. 8) (4 3. 7) (9 5. 6) 35 57 .3 54 .1 30 .2 14 3 12 -1 7 m on th s 61 .1 38 .4 29 .1 17 1 89 .7 87 .6 69 .8 85 .4 15 4 73 .6 61 .7 48 .3 35 4 18 -2 3 m on th s 72 .1 50 .5 42 .3 14 5 82 .3 80 .1 48 .2 76 .8 14 5 76 .7 65 .3 45 .3 33 2 R eg io n R eg io n 1 55 .0 43 .7 30 .5 24 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 57 .3 50 .7 32 .4 29 R eg io n 2 (7 5. 3) (4 6. 8) (4 6. 8) 34 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 25 83 .3 67 .8 58 .9 60 R eg io n 3 59 .6 40 .4 30 .1 79 (7 7. 8) (8 7. 6) (5 2. 8) (8 3. 8) 49 65 .3 58 .4 38 .8 14 4 R eg io n 4 53 .0 46 .6 29 .2 20 5 81 .4 92 .3 58 .3 88 .6 18 4 67 .2 68 .2 42 .9 44 5 R eg io n 5 (6 5. 8) (7 3. 0) (5 2. 9) 31 (8 4. 1) (6 1. 8) (4 1. 5) (6 5. 3) 34 73 .2 67 .1 46 .9 68 R eg io n 6 46 .8 39 .9 25 .2 68 (6 1. 6) (8 3. 5) (4 4. 9) (8 2. 2) 47 54 .4 57 .8 33 .3 14 2 R eg io ns 7 & 8 55 .5 44 .3 32 .5 31 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 58 .6 54 .2 34 .3 42 R eg io n 9 31 .6 29 .0 12 .5 44 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 40 .3 32 .7 13 .9 58 R eg io n 10 (7 9. 4) (2 9. 9) (2 8. 5) 30 (8 3. 0) (8 4. 2) (5 5. 5) (8 4. 3) 27 81 .3 55 .6 41 .3 58 A re a U rb an 62 .5 39 .3 31 .8 12 6 81 .0 87 .6 60 .1 87 .0 10 2 71 .1 60 .9 44 .4 26 1 R ur al 53 .1 45 .1 29 .6 42 1 78 .3 86 .2 51 .8 82 .9 28 7 63 .3 61 .8 38 .6 78 7 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 56 .4 46 .9 32 .0 39 8 79 .0 87 .4 55 .4 84 .8 33 6 66 .7 65 .4 42 .7 83 8 U rb an C oa st al 58 .2 42 .9 33 .8 10 4 79 .3 87 .2 61 .6 85 .6 82 68 .2 62 .4 46 .1 21 8 R ur al C oa st al 55 .8 48 .3 31 .3 29 4 79 .0 87 .5 53 .4 84 .5 25 4 66 .1 66 .4 41 .5 62 0 In te rio r 52 .3 35 .6 25 .2 14 9 78 .5 81 .2 44 .9 78 .5 53 59 .4 47 .6 30 .4 21 0 M ot he r’s e du ca tio nd N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) 17 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 (3 8. 2) (4 1. 2) (2 3. 3) 22 P rim ar y 46 .9 37 .1 28 .8 76 (7 3. 9) (8 8. 5) (5 1. 5) (8 7. 8) 40 57 .1 54 .7 36 .6 13 2 S ec on da ry 55 .5 44 .1 28 .7 41 3 78 .1 86 .6 51 .1 82 .9 30 0 64 .7 61 .9 38 .1 79 7 H ig he r 75 .5 53 .3 47 .8 40 (9 5. 2) (9 1. 1) (8 0. 8) (9 1. 1) 45 86 .7 73 .2 65 .2 96 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 50 .3 40 .8 30 .0 20 0 71 .4 83 .7 40 .7 74 .4 68 55 .5 51 .8 32 .8 28 4 S ec on d 49 .1 53 .2 26 .7 13 8 76 .7 84 .6 48 .3 82 .7 88 58 .2 65 .5 35 .1 25 0 M id dl e 57 .0 34 .2 25 .1 98 84 .0 81 .2 55 .2 79 .0 82 69 .2 55 .6 38 .8 20 1 Fo ur th 68 .9 41 .1 33 .3 62 79 .4 87 .8 54 .9 87 .9 74 76 .3 66 .5 45 .0 16 1 R ic he st 72 .5 51 .9 46 .2 49 82 .5 95 .9 70 .0 95 .4 77 77 .7 78 .8 60 .8 15 3 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de ,f E as t I nd ia n 55 .8 41 .7 31 .2 12 9 72 .2 93 .2 50 .1 90 .9 16 9 66 .5 70 .9 41 .9 34 6 A fri ca n 56 .7 42 .7 28 .6 18 0 86 .6 76 .3 56 .3 76 .0 10 8 66 .5 55 .3 39 .0 32 8 A m er in di an 49 .0 43 .6 30 .0 11 7 (7 8. 2) (7 5. 5) (4 3. 1) (7 0. 3) 23 54 .0 48 .8 32 .1 14 9 M ix ed R ac e 58 .6 47 .6 30 .9 11 9 82 .6 89 .2 61 .7 83 .8 88 69 .0 65 .3 44 .0 22 2 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 7a - M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et (b re as tfe d) 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 7b - M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et (n on -b re as tfe d) 3 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 4 - M ilk fe ed in g fr eq ue nc y fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n 4 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 6 - M in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty 5 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 5 - M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy a M in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g fo od s fro m a t l ea st 4 o f 7 fo od g ro up s: 1 ) g ra in s, ro ot s an d tu be rs , 2 ) l eg um es a nd n ut s, 3 ) d ai ry p ro du ct s (m ilk , y og ur t, ch ee se ), 4) fl es h fo od s (m ea t, fis h, p ou ltr y an d liv er /o rg an m ea ts ), 5) e gg s, 6 ) v ita m in -A ri ch fr ui ts a nd v eg et ab le s, a nd 7 ) o th er fr ui ts a nd v eg et ab le s. b M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy a m on g cu rre nt ly b re as tfe ed in g ch ild re n is d ef in ed a s ch ild re n w ho a ls o re ce iv ed s ol id , s em i-s ol id , o r s of t f oo ds 2 ti m es o r m or e da ily fo r c hi ld re n ag e 6- 8 m on th s an d 3 tim es o r m or e da ily fo r c hi ld re n ag e 9- 23 m on th s. F or n on -b re as tfe ed in g ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s it is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g so lid , s em i-s ol id o r s of t f oo ds , o r m ilk fe ed s, a t l ea st 4 ti m es . c Th e m in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et fo r b re as tfe d ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g th e m in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty a nd th e m in im um m ea l f re qu en cy , w hi le it fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n fu rth er re qu ire s at le as t 2 m ilk fe ed in gs a nd th at th e m in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty is a ch ie ve d w ith ou t c ou nt in g m ilk fe ed s. d C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 95Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e N U .8 : I nf an t a nd y ou ng c hi ld fe ed in g (IY C F) p ra ct ic es P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed a pp ro pr ia te li qu id s an d so lid , s em i-s ol id , o r s of t f oo ds th e m in im um n um be r o f t im es o r m or e du rin g th e pr ev io us d ay , b y br ea st fe ed in g st at us , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 C ur re nt ly b re as tfe ed in g C ur re nt ly n ot b re as tfe ed in g A ll Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et 1, c M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et 2, c A t l ea st 2 m ilk fe ed s3 M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity 4, a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy 5, b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et c To ta l 55 .3 43 .8 30 .1 54 6 79 .0 86 .6 54 .0 83 .9 38 9 65 .2 61 .6 40 .0 1, 04 8 Se x M al e 57 .6 49 .8 34 .4 25 5 80 .2 90 .1 58 .2 87 .2 20 2 66 .6 67 .6 44 .9 51 3 Fe m al e 53 .2 38 .5 26 .4 29 1 77 .7 82 .7 49 .4 80 .4 18 7 63 .8 55 .8 35 .4 53 5 A ge 6- 8 m on th s 34 .1 48 .1 22 .4 14 4 46 .3 93 .1 31 .3 91 .2 55 39 .4 60 .5 24 .9 21 9 9- 11 m on th s 51 .0 35 .9 24 .8 87 (6 9. 0) (9 8. 8) (4 3. 7) (9 5. 6) 35 57 .3 54 .1 30 .2 14 3 12 -1 7 m on th s 61 .1 38 .4 29 .1 17 1 89 .7 87 .6 69 .8 85 .4 15 4 73 .6 61 .7 48 .3 35 4 18 -2 3 m on th s 72 .1 50 .5 42 .3 14 5 82 .3 80 .1 48 .2 76 .8 14 5 76 .7 65 .3 45 .3 33 2 R eg io n R eg io n 1 55 .0 43 .7 30 .5 24 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 57 .3 50 .7 32 .4 29 R eg io n 2 (7 5. 3) (4 6. 8) (4 6. 8) 34 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 25 83 .3 67 .8 58 .9 60 R eg io n 3 59 .6 40 .4 30 .1 79 (7 7. 8) (8 7. 6) (5 2. 8) (8 3. 8) 49 65 .3 58 .4 38 .8 14 4 R eg io n 4 53 .0 46 .6 29 .2 20 5 81 .4 92 .3 58 .3 88 .6 18 4 67 .2 68 .2 42 .9 44 5 R eg io n 5 (6 5. 8) (7 3. 0) (5 2. 9) 31 (8 4. 1) (6 1. 8) (4 1. 5) (6 5. 3) 34 73 .2 67 .1 46 .9 68 R eg io n 6 46 .8 39 .9 25 .2 68 (6 1. 6) (8 3. 5) (4 4. 9) (8 2. 2) 47 54 .4 57 .8 33 .3 14 2 R eg io ns 7 & 8 55 .5 44 .3 32 .5 31 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 58 .6 54 .2 34 .3 42 R eg io n 9 31 .6 29 .0 12 .5 44 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 40 .3 32 .7 13 .9 58 R eg io n 10 (7 9. 4) (2 9. 9) (2 8. 5) 30 (8 3. 0) (8 4. 2) (5 5. 5) (8 4. 3) 27 81 .3 55 .6 41 .3 58 A re a U rb an 62 .5 39 .3 31 .8 12 6 81 .0 87 .6 60 .1 87 .0 10 2 71 .1 60 .9 44 .4 26 1 R ur al 53 .1 45 .1 29 .6 42 1 78 .3 86 .2 51 .8 82 .9 28 7 63 .3 61 .8 38 .6 78 7 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 56 .4 46 .9 32 .0 39 8 79 .0 87 .4 55 .4 84 .8 33 6 66 .7 65 .4 42 .7 83 8 U rb an C oa st al 58 .2 42 .9 33 .8 10 4 79 .3 87 .2 61 .6 85 .6 82 68 .2 62 .4 46 .1 21 8 R ur al C oa st al 55 .8 48 .3 31 .3 29 4 79 .0 87 .5 53 .4 84 .5 25 4 66 .1 66 .4 41 .5 62 0 In te rio r 52 .3 35 .6 25 .2 14 9 78 .5 81 .2 44 .9 78 .5 53 59 .4 47 .6 30 .4 21 0 M ot he r’s e du ca tio nd N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) 17 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 (3 8. 2) (4 1. 2) (2 3. 3) 22 P rim ar y 46 .9 37 .1 28 .8 76 (7 3. 9) (8 8. 5) (5 1. 5) (8 7. 8) 40 57 .1 54 .7 36 .6 13 2 S ec on da ry 55 .5 44 .1 28 .7 41 3 78 .1 86 .6 51 .1 82 .9 30 0 64 .7 61 .9 38 .1 79 7 H ig he r 75 .5 53 .3 47 .8 40 (9 5. 2) (9 1. 1) (8 0. 8) (9 1. 1) 45 86 .7 73 .2 65 .2 96 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 50 .3 40 .8 30 .0 20 0 71 .4 83 .7 40 .7 74 .4 68 55 .5 51 .8 32 .8 28 4 S ec on d 49 .1 53 .2 26 .7 13 8 76 .7 84 .6 48 .3 82 .7 88 58 .2 65 .5 35 .1 25 0 M id dl e 57 .0 34 .2 25 .1 98 84 .0 81 .2 55 .2 79 .0 82 69 .2 55 .6 38 .8 20 1 Fo ur th 68 .9 41 .1 33 .3 62 79 .4 87 .8 54 .9 87 .9 74 76 .3 66 .5 45 .0 16 1 R ic he st 72 .5 51 .9 46 .2 49 82 .5 95 .9 70 .0 95 .4 77 77 .7 78 .8 60 .8 15 3 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de ,f E as t I nd ia n 55 .8 41 .7 31 .2 12 9 72 .2 93 .2 50 .1 90 .9 16 9 66 .5 70 .9 41 .9 34 6 A fri ca n 56 .7 42 .7 28 .6 18 0 86 .6 76 .3 56 .3 76 .0 10 8 66 .5 55 .3 39 .0 32 8 A m er in di an 49 .0 43 .6 30 .0 11 7 (7 8. 2) (7 5. 5) (4 3. 1) (7 0. 3) 23 54 .0 48 .8 32 .1 14 9 M ix ed R ac e 58 .6 47 .6 30 .9 11 9 82 .6 89 .2 61 .7 83 .8 88 69 .0 65 .3 44 .0 22 2 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 7a - M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et (b re as tfe d) 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 7b - M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et (n on -b re as tfe d) 3 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 4 - M ilk fe ed in g fr eq ue nc y fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n 4 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 6 - M in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty 5 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 5 - M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy a M in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g fo od s fro m a t l ea st 4 o f 7 fo od g ro up s: 1 ) g ra in s, ro ot s an d tu be rs , 2 ) l eg um es a nd n ut s, 3 ) d ai ry p ro du ct s (m ilk , y og ur t, ch ee se ), 4) fl es h fo od s (m ea t, fis h, p ou ltr y an d liv er /o rg an m ea ts ), 5) e gg s, 6 ) v ita m in -A ri ch fr ui ts a nd v eg et ab le s, a nd 7 ) o th er fr ui ts a nd v eg et ab le s. b M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy a m on g cu rre nt ly b re as tfe ed in g ch ild re n is d ef in ed a s ch ild re n w ho a ls o re ce iv ed s ol id , s em i-s ol id , o r s of t f oo ds 2 ti m es o r m or e da ily fo r c hi ld re n ag e 6- 8 m on th s an d 3 tim es o r m or e da ily fo r c hi ld re n ag e 9- 23 m on th s. F or n on -b re as tfe ed in g ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s it is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g so lid , s em i-s ol id o r s of t f oo ds , o r m ilk fe ed s, a t l ea st 4 ti m es . c Th e m in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et fo r b re as tfe d ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g th e m in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty a nd th e m in im um m ea l f re qu en cy , w hi le it fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n fu rth er re qu ire s at le as t 2 m ilk fe ed in gs a nd th at th e m in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty is a ch ie ve d w ith ou t c ou nt in g m ilk fe ed s. d C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e N U .8 : I nf an t a nd y ou ng c hi ld fe ed in g (IY C F) p ra ct ic es P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed a pp ro pr ia te li qu id s an d so lid , s em i-s ol id , o r s of t f oo ds th e m in im um n um be r o f t im es o r m or e du rin g th e pr ev io us d ay , b y br ea st fe ed in g st at us , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 C ur re nt ly b re as tfe ed in g C ur re nt ly n ot b re as tfe ed in g A ll Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Pe rc en t o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et 1, c M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et 2, c A t l ea st 2 m ilk fe ed s3 M in im um di et ar y di ve rs ity 4, a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy 5, b M in im um ac ce pt ab le di et c To ta l 55 .3 43 .8 30 .1 54 6 79 .0 86 .6 54 .0 83 .9 38 9 65 .2 61 .6 40 .0 1, 04 8 Se x M al e 57 .6 49 .8 34 .4 25 5 80 .2 90 .1 58 .2 87 .2 20 2 66 .6 67 .6 44 .9 51 3 Fe m al e 53 .2 38 .5 26 .4 29 1 77 .7 82 .7 49 .4 80 .4 18 7 63 .8 55 .8 35 .4 53 5 A ge 6- 8 m on th s 34 .1 48 .1 22 .4 14 4 46 .3 93 .1 31 .3 91 .2 55 39 .4 60 .5 24 .9 21 9 9- 11 m on th s 51 .0 35 .9 24 .8 87 (6 9. 0) (9 8. 8) (4 3. 7) (9 5. 6) 35 57 .3 54 .1 30 .2 14 3 12 -1 7 m on th s 61 .1 38 .4 29 .1 17 1 89 .7 87 .6 69 .8 85 .4 15 4 73 .6 61 .7 48 .3 35 4 18 -2 3 m on th s 72 .1 50 .5 42 .3 14 5 82 .3 80 .1 48 .2 76 .8 14 5 76 .7 65 .3 45 .3 33 2 R eg io n R eg io n 1 55 .0 43 .7 30 .5 24 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 57 .3 50 .7 32 .4 29 R eg io n 2 (7 5. 3) (4 6. 8) (4 6. 8) 34 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 25 83 .3 67 .8 58 .9 60 R eg io n 3 59 .6 40 .4 30 .1 79 (7 7. 8) (8 7. 6) (5 2. 8) (8 3. 8) 49 65 .3 58 .4 38 .8 14 4 R eg io n 4 53 .0 46 .6 29 .2 20 5 81 .4 92 .3 58 .3 88 .6 18 4 67 .2 68 .2 42 .9 44 5 R eg io n 5 (6 5. 8) (7 3. 0) (5 2. 9) 31 (8 4. 1) (6 1. 8) (4 1. 5) (6 5. 3) 34 73 .2 67 .1 46 .9 68 R eg io n 6 46 .8 39 .9 25 .2 68 (6 1. 6) (8 3. 5) (4 4. 9) (8 2. 2) 47 54 .4 57 .8 33 .3 14 2 R eg io ns 7 & 8 55 .5 44 .3 32 .5 31 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 58 .6 54 .2 34 .3 42 R eg io n 9 31 .6 29 .0 12 .5 44 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 40 .3 32 .7 13 .9 58 R eg io n 10 (7 9. 4) (2 9. 9) (2 8. 5) 30 (8 3. 0) (8 4. 2) (5 5. 5) (8 4. 3) 27 81 .3 55 .6 41 .3 58 A re a U rb an 62 .5 39 .3 31 .8 12 6 81 .0 87 .6 60 .1 87 .0 10 2 71 .1 60 .9 44 .4 26 1 R ur al 53 .1 45 .1 29 .6 42 1 78 .3 86 .2 51 .8 82 .9 28 7 63 .3 61 .8 38 .6 78 7 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 56 .4 46 .9 32 .0 39 8 79 .0 87 .4 55 .4 84 .8 33 6 66 .7 65 .4 42 .7 83 8 U rb an C oa st al 58 .2 42 .9 33 .8 10 4 79 .3 87 .2 61 .6 85 .6 82 68 .2 62 .4 46 .1 21 8 R ur al C oa st al 55 .8 48 .3 31 .3 29 4 79 .0 87 .5 53 .4 84 .5 25 4 66 .1 66 .4 41 .5 62 0 In te rio r 52 .3 35 .6 25 .2 14 9 78 .5 81 .2 44 .9 78 .5 53 59 .4 47 .6 30 .4 21 0 M ot he r’s e du ca tio nd N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) 17 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 (3 8. 2) (4 1. 2) (2 3. 3) 22 P rim ar y 46 .9 37 .1 28 .8 76 (7 3. 9) (8 8. 5) (5 1. 5) (8 7. 8) 40 57 .1 54 .7 36 .6 13 2 S ec on da ry 55 .5 44 .1 28 .7 41 3 78 .1 86 .6 51 .1 82 .9 30 0 64 .7 61 .9 38 .1 79 7 H ig he r 75 .5 53 .3 47 .8 40 (9 5. 2) (9 1. 1) (8 0. 8) (9 1. 1) 45 86 .7 73 .2 65 .2 96 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 50 .3 40 .8 30 .0 20 0 71 .4 83 .7 40 .7 74 .4 68 55 .5 51 .8 32 .8 28 4 S ec on d 49 .1 53 .2 26 .7 13 8 76 .7 84 .6 48 .3 82 .7 88 58 .2 65 .5 35 .1 25 0 M id dl e 57 .0 34 .2 25 .1 98 84 .0 81 .2 55 .2 79 .0 82 69 .2 55 .6 38 .8 20 1 Fo ur th 68 .9 41 .1 33 .3 62 79 .4 87 .8 54 .9 87 .9 74 76 .3 66 .5 45 .0 16 1 R ic he st 72 .5 51 .9 46 .2 49 82 .5 95 .9 70 .0 95 .4 77 77 .7 78 .8 60 .8 15 3 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de ,f E as t I nd ia n 55 .8 41 .7 31 .2 12 9 72 .2 93 .2 50 .1 90 .9 16 9 66 .5 70 .9 41 .9 34 6 A fri ca n 56 .7 42 .7 28 .6 18 0 86 .6 76 .3 56 .3 76 .0 10 8 66 .5 55 .3 39 .0 32 8 A m er in di an 49 .0 43 .6 30 .0 11 7 (7 8. 2) (7 5. 5) (4 3. 1) (7 0. 3) 23 54 .0 48 .8 32 .1 14 9 M ix ed R ac e 58 .6 47 .6 30 .9 11 9 82 .6 89 .2 61 .7 83 .8 88 69 .0 65 .3 44 .0 22 2 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 7a - M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et (b re as tfe d) 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 7b - M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et (n on -b re as tfe d) 3 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 4 - M ilk fe ed in g fr eq ue nc y fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n 4 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 6 - M in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty 5 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 5 - M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy a M in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g fo od s fro m a t l ea st 4 o f 7 fo od g ro up s: 1 ) g ra in s, ro ot s an d tu be rs , 2 ) l eg um es a nd n ut s, 3 ) d ai ry p ro du ct s (m ilk , y og ur t, ch ee se ), 4) fl es h fo od s (m ea t, fis h, p ou ltr y an d liv er /o rg an m ea ts ), 5) e gg s, 6 ) v ita m in -A ri ch fr ui ts a nd v eg et ab le s, a nd 7 ) o th er fr ui ts a nd v eg et ab le s. b M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy a m on g cu rre nt ly b re as tfe ed in g ch ild re n is d ef in ed a s ch ild re n w ho a ls o re ce iv ed s ol id , s em i-s ol id , o r s of t f oo ds 2 ti m es o r m or e da ily fo r c hi ld re n ag e 6- 8 m on th s an d 3 tim es o r m or e da ily fo r c hi ld re n ag e 9- 23 m on th s. F or n on -b re as tfe ed in g ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s it is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g so lid , s em i-s ol id o r s of t f oo ds , o r m ilk fe ed s, a t l ea st 4 ti m es . c Th e m in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et fo r b re as tfe d ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s is d ef in ed a s re ce iv in g th e m in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty a nd th e m in im um m ea l f re qu en cy , w hi le it fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n fu rth er re qu ire s at le as t 2 m ilk fe ed in gs a nd th at th e m in im um d ie ta ry d iv er si ty is a ch ie ve d w ith ou t c ou nt in g m ilk fe ed s. d C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 96 The continued practice of bottle-feeding is a concern because of the possible contamination due to unsafe water and lack of hygiene in preparation. Table NU.9 shows that bottle-feeding is prevalent in Guyana. Overall, 70 percent of children aged 0-23 months are fed using a bottle with a nipple. Bottle feeding is practiced regardless of the sex of the child. This practice is most prevalent among children 6-11 months old, with 74 percent. It is noteworthy that while this practice is least prevalent among children under six months, the proportion is very high at 61 percent. Bottle feeding is least practiced in Region 9, with less than one in three children (31%) being bottle fed, whereas it concerns more than three-quarters of children in Regions 3 and 4 (77% and 79%, respectively). Urban children are more likely to be bottle fed (75%) than rural children (68%), and coastal children (75%) considerably more than interior children (51%). Bottle feeding is clearly associated with mother’s education and the household’s socio-economic status; the great majority of educated women and those living in the richest households, bottle feed their children. It is also most prevalent among children in households with an East Indian household head (78%), and least prevalent among those in households with an Amerindian household head (47%). Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children age 0-23 months Total 69.5 1,373 Sex Male 70.0 669 Female 69.0 705 Age 0-5 months 61.1 326 6-11 months 73.8 362 12-23 months 71.1 686 Region Region 1 49.8 38 Region 2 56.1 81 Region 3 76.5 190 Region 4 79.4 577 Region 5 63.6 92 Region 6 67.5 173 Regions 7 & 8 45.8 61 Region 9 31.0 76 Region 10 69.4 85 Area Urban 74.6 342 Rural 67.8 1,031 Location Coastal 74.5 1,084 Urban Coastal 74.3 283 Rural Coastal 74.5 801 Interior 50.8 290 Mother’s educationa None (54.7) 24 Primary 63.8 179 Secondary 69.3 1,046 Higher 82.3 124 Wealth index quintile Poorest 50.7 380 Second 72.7 328 Middle 75.9 268 Fourth 77.7 200 Richest 83.2 196 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 77.7 446 African 71.1 431 Amerindian 46.5 196 Mixed Race 69.5 294 1 MICS indicator 2.18 - Bottle feeding a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table NU.9: Bottle feeding (Continued) 97Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children age 0-23 months Total 69.5 1,373 Sex Male 70.0 669 Female 69.0 705 Age 0-5 months 61.1 326 6-11 months 73.8 362 12-23 months 71.1 686 Region Region 1 49.8 38 Region 2 56.1 81 Region 3 76.5 190 Region 4 79.4 577 Region 5 63.6 92 Region 6 67.5 173 Regions 7 & 8 45.8 61 Region 9 31.0 76 Region 10 69.4 85 Area Urban 74.6 342 Rural 67.8 1,031 Location Coastal 74.5 1,084 Urban Coastal 74.3 283 Rural Coastal 74.5 801 Interior 50.8 290 Mother’s educationa None (54.7) 24 Primary 63.8 179 Secondary 69.3 1,046 Higher 82.3 124 Wealth index quintile Poorest 50.7 380 Second 72.7 328 Middle 75.9 268 Fourth 77.7 200 Richest 83.2 196 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 77.7 446 African 71.1 431 Amerindian 46.5 196 Mixed Race 69.5 294 1 MICS indicator 2.18 - Bottle feeding a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children age 0-23 months Total 69.5 1,373 Sex Male 70.0 669 Female 69.0 705 Age 0-5 months 61.1 326 6-11 months 73.8 362 12-23 months 71.1 686 Region Region 1 49.8 38 Region 2 56.1 81 Region 3 76.5 190 Region 4 79.4 577 Region 5 63.6 92 Region 6 67.5 173 Regions 7 & 8 45.8 61 Region 9 31.0 76 Region 10 69.4 85 Area Urban 74.6 342 Rural 67.8 1,031 Location Coastal 74.5 1,084 Urban Coastal 74.3 283 Rural Coastal 74.5 801 Interior 50.8 290 Mother’s educationa None (54.7) 24 Primary 63.8 179 Secondary 69.3 1,046 Higher 82.3 124 Wealth index quintile Poorest 50.7 380 Second 72.7 328 Middle 75.9 268 Fourth 77.7 200 Richest 83.2 196 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 77.7 446 African 71.1 431 Amerindian 46.5 196 Mixed Race 69.5 294 1 MICS indicator 2.18 - Bottle feeding a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table NU.9: Bottle feeding 98 Table NU.10: Iodized salt consumption Percent distribution of households by consumption of iodized salt, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of households in which salt was tested Number of households Percent of households with: Total Number of households in which salt was tested or with no salt No salt Salt test result Not iodized 0 PPM >0 and <15 PPM 15+ PPM1 Total 92.1 5,077 4.7 51.7 23.7 19.8 100.0 4,909 Region Region 1 93.1 66 5.0 60.2 20.8 14.1 100.0 64 Region 2 96.7 287 1.9 56.6 24.4 17.1 100.0 283 Region 3 94.2 821 2.2 41.5 29.6 26.6 100.0 791 Region 4 90.3 2,244 7.1 42.2 27.5 23.2 100.0 2,182 Region 5 95.1 343 1.7 67.3 18.7 12.3 100.0 332 Region 6 94.9 817 1.4 78.8 10.9 8.8 100.0 786 Regions 7 & 8 86.1 105 3.9 38.5 30.3 27.4 100.0 94 Region 9 98.7 127 0.4 90.1 6.8 2.7 100.0 126 Region 10 82.4 267 12.2 39.9 23.3 24.6 100.0 251 Area Urban 86.9 1,404 9.9 45.5 26.3 18.3 100.0 1,354 Rural 94.1 3,673 2.8 54.1 22.7 20.4 100.0 3,556 Location Coastal 92.5 4,448 4.6 51.3 24.1 20.0 100.0 4,313 Urban Coastal 87.6 1,218 9.6 45.3 27.7 17.4 100.0 1,181 Rural Coastal 94.4 3,231 2.6 53.6 22.7 21.0 100.0 3,132 Interior 89.1 629 6.1 54.6 20.6 18.7 100.0 597 Wealth index quintile Poorest 93.2 946 4.0 63.6 19.2 13.3 100.0 918 Second 92.2 1,051 4.1 56.8 21.3 17.7 100.0 1,011 Middle 91.8 1,068 4.7 49.3 24.3 21.7 100.0 1,029 Fourth 91.1 1,028 6.5 46.8 26.2 20.5 100.0 1,001 Richest 92.3 984 4.4 42.7 27.1 25.8 100.0 950 1 MICS indicator 2.19 - Iodized salt consumption Salt Iodization Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is the world’s leading cause of preventable mental retardation and impaired psychomotor development in young children. In its most extreme form, iodine deficiency causes cretinism. It also increases the risks of stillbirth and miscarriage in pregnant women. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with goitre. IDD takes its greatest toll in impaired mental growth and development, contributing in turn to poor school performance, reduced intellectual ability, and impaired work performance. The indicator is the percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt (≥15 parts per million). 99Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | F igure NU.4: Consumption of iodized sa l t , Guyana MICS5, 2014 35 41 56 51 31 20 58 9 48 45 43 44 45 44 39 32 39 46 47 53 43 14 17 27 23 12 9 27 3 25 18 20 20 17 21 19 13 18 22 21 26 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Re gi on 1 Re gi on 2 Re gi on 3 Re gi on 4 Re gi on 5 Re gi on 6 Re gi on s 7 & 8 Re gi on 9 Re gi on 1 0 U rb an Ru ra l Co as ta l U rb an C oa st al Ru ra l C oa st al In te rio r Po or es t Se co nd M id dl e Fo ur th Ri ch es t Gu ya na Pe r c en t Any iodine 15+ PPM of iodine In 92 percent of households, salt used for cooking was tested for iodine content by using salt test kits and testing for the presence of potassium iodide. Table NU.10 shows that in five (5) percent of households, there was no salt available. These households are included in the denominator of the indicator. In 20 percent of households, salt was found to contain 15 parts per million (ppm) or more of iodine. Use of iodized salt was lowest in Region 9 (3%) and highest in Regions 3 and 7 & 8 (27% in each case). There are no notable urban-rural and coastal-interior differences in terms of iodized salt consumption. The richest households are twice more likely than the poorest households to consume iodized salt (26% and 13%, respectively). The consumption of adequately iodized salt is graphically presented in Figure NU.4 together with the percentage of salt containing less the 15 ppm. 100 @Shutterstock 101Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 102 Vaccinations The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. Immunization plays a key part in this goal. In addition, the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) was endorsed by the 194 Member States of the World Health Assembly in May 2012 to achieve the Decade of Vaccines vision by delivering universal access to immunization. Immunization has saved the lives of millions of children in the four decades since the launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Worldwide, there are still millions of children not reached by routine immunization and as a result, vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than two million deaths every year. The WHO Recommended Routine Immunizations for Children40 include both a set for all children and an additional set recommended only for children residing in certain regions of the world or living in certain high- risk population groups. Those vaccines recommended for all children under age five include i) BCG to protect against tuberculosis, ii) DPT containing vaccine to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, iii) Polio vaccine, iv) Measles containing vaccination, v) Hepatitis B containing vaccine, vi) Haemophilus influenza type b containing vaccine, vii) Pneumococcal (Conjugate), viii) Rotavirus, and ix) Rubella containing vaccine. All doses in the primary series are recommended to be completed before the child’s first birthday, although depending on the epidemiology of disease in a country, the first dose of measles and rubella containing vaccines may be recommended at 12 months or later. The recommended number and timing of most other doses also varies slightly with local epidemiology. The vaccination schedule followed by the Guyana National Immunization Programme at the Ministry of Public Health provides all the above-mentioned 40http://www.who.int/entity/immunization/policy/Immunization_routine_table2.pdf (updated 30 May 2014) vaccinations as follows: • BCG vaccine to be administered at birth or within 8 weeks of birth; • three doses of the Pentavalent vaccine (containing DPT, Hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) antigens), three doses of Polio vaccine (OPV or IPV), three doses of Pneumococcal (conjugate) vaccine, three doses of rotavirus vaccine, all to be administered by age six months; • MMR vaccine containing measles, mumps, and rubella antigens, and yellow fever vaccine, both of which should be received at age 12 months. Taking into consideration this vaccination schedule, the estimates for full immunization coverage from the Guyana MICS5 are based on children age 24-35 months. MICS5 collected information on vaccination coverage for all children under three years of age. All mothers or caretakers were asked to show the Take Home Child Health Card, which has vaccination information. If the Take Home Child Health Card for a child was available, interviewers copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS questionnaire. If no Take Home Child Health Card was available for the child, the interviewer proceeded to ask the mother to recall whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations, and for Polio, Pentavalent, Rotavirus and Pneumococcal, how many doses were received. Information was also obtained from vaccination records at health facilities if the Take Home Child Health Card was not available at home - a copy of the WHO New Growth Chart that comprises vaccination information and is kept at the health facility was reviewed to gather the relevant information on the child. Finally, vaccination coverage estimates are based on information obtained from the Take Home Child Health Card and the mother’s report of vaccinations received by the child. VI. CHILD HEALTH 103Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first years of life Percentage of children age 12-23 months and 24-35 months vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases at any time before the survey and by their first birthday (measles and yellow fever by second birthday),Guyana MICS5, 2014 Children age 12-23 months: Children age 24-35 months: Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to: Vaccinated by 12 months of agea Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to: Vaccinated by 12 months of age (measles and yellow fever by age 24 months)a Vaccination card or health facility records Mother's report Either Vaccination card or health facility records Mother's report Either Antigen BCG1 87.8 6.7 94.5 94.5 92.2 4.5 96.7 95.6 Polio 1 89.9 6.7 96.7 96.6 93.4 4.6 98.0 97.1 2 89.0 6.4 95.4 95.1 93.0 4.5 97.5 94.8 32 87.4 4.4 91.9 90.2 91.7 3.8 95.4 91.0 DPT 1 89.9 6.3 96.2 96.1 93.7 3.6 97.4 96.6 2 89.0 5.7 94.7 94.4 93.5 3.5 96.9 94.2 33 87.5 3.4 90.9 89.4 91.9 3.1 95.0 90.7 HepB 1 89.9 6.3 96.2 96.1 93.7 3.6 97.4 96.6 2 89.0 5.7 94.7 94.4 93.5 3.5 96.9 94.2 34 87.5 3.4 90.9 89.4 91.9 3.1 95.0 90.7 Hib 1 89.9 6.3 96.2 96.1 93.7 3.6 97.4 96.6 2 89.0 5.7 94.7 94.4 93.5 3.5 96.9 94.2 35 87.5 3.4 90.9 89.4 91.9 3.1 95.0 90.7 Rotavirus 1 88.6 4.4 93.0 92.9 87.5 3.8 91.3 90.6 2 87.8 3.7 91.5 91.3 86.8 3.3 90.1 88.3 3 86.2 2.7 88.9 87.6 84.2 3.0 87.2 83.8 Pneumococcal 1 87.0 4.6 91.6 91.4 86.4 3.5 89.9 89.4 2 86.0 4.4 90.5 89.6 85.0 3.3 88.3 87.0 3 84.3 3.1 87.3 86.7 82.4 3.0 85.4 81.9 Yellow fever6 73.3 4.3 77.6 na 89.5 4.0 93.5 92.3 Measles (MMR)7 74.1 5.7 79.8 na 90.4 4.1 94.5 93.4 Fully vaccinated8, b na na na na 75.5 2.8 78.3 68.9 No vaccinations 0.0 2.7 2.7 2.7 0.0 1.6 1.6 1.6 Number of children 686 686 686 686 648 648 648 648 1 MICS indicator 3.1 - Tuberculosis immunization coverage 2 MICS indicator 3.2 - Polio immunization coverage 3 MICS indicator 3.3 - Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) immunization coverage 4 MICS indicator 3.5 - Hepatitis B immunization coverage 5 MICS indicator 3.6 - Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) immunization coverage 6 MICS indicator 3.7 - Yellow fever immunization coverage 7 MICS indicator 3.4; MDG indicator 4.3 - Measles immunization coverage 8 MICS indicator 3.8 - Full immunization coverage na: not applicable a MICS indicators 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5, 3.6, and 3.7 refer to results of this column in the left panel; MICS indicators 3.4 and 3.8 refer to this column in the right panel b Includes: BCG, Polio3, DPT3, HepB3, Hib3 (DPT, HepB and Hib combined in the Pentavalent vaccine), Rotavirus3, Pneumococcal3 administered before age 1, Yellow fever and Measles (MCV1) administered at or after 12 months but before age 24 months, as per the vaccination schedule in Guyana 104 The percentage of children aged 12-23 months and 24-35 months who have received each of the specific vaccinations by source of information (vaccination card or vaccination records at health facilities and mother’s recall) is shown in Table CH.1 and Figure CH.1. The denominators for the table are comprised of children aged 12-23 months and 24-35 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the first three columns in each panel of the table, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination card or the vaccination records at health facilities or the mother’s report. In the last column in each panel, only those children who were vaccinated before their first birthday for all the vaccines except for measles (MMR) and Yellow Fever in which case, were vaccinated by age 24 months, as recommended, are included. For children without vaccination cards/ records, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards/records. Tables CH.1 shows that 95 percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months, and the first dose of Pentavalent, which includes DPT, HepB and Hib antigens, was given to 96 percent. The percentage declined to 89 percent for the third dose of Pentavalent. Similarly, 97 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 90 percent by the third dose. The coverage of rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccinations also remains generally high. The first dose of rotavirus was given to 93 percent of children aged 12-23 months by the age of 12 months, the third dose to 88 percent, and the first dose of pneumococcal to 91 percent and the third dose to 87 percent. In addition, 92 percent of children aged 23-35 months received yellow fever vaccination by age 24 months, while 93 percent received MMR by the same age. The percentage of children receiving no vaccinations at all is very small (3% of children aged 12-23 months and 2% of children aged 24-35 months). As shown in Table CH.1, the proportion of children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey is similar to the proportion that was vaccinated by their first/second birthday as per the immunization schedule. This suggests that the national immunization schedule is usually followed in Guyana. Overall, the percentage of children who had all the recommended vaccinations by their second birthday is 69 percent (fully vaccinated). The individual coverage figures for children aged 24-35 months are generally similar to those aged 12-23 months, suggesting that immunization coverage has been, on average, stable in Guyana between 2011 and 2013. F igure CH.1: Vacc inations by age 12 months (meas les and yel low fever by 24 months) , Guyana MICS5, 2014 94 96 97 95 91 97 94 91 91 88 84 89 87 82 92 93 69 97 90 96 94 89 93 91 91 90 87 3 2 88 95 105Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.2 presents vaccination coverage estimates among children aged 12-23 (and 24-35 months for measles and yellow fever) by background characteristics. The figures indicate children receiving the vaccinations at any time up to the date of the survey, and are based on information from both the vaccination cards or health facility records and mothers’/caretakers’ reports. Vaccination cards have been seen by the interviewer for 90 percent of children aged 12-23 months and 94 percent of children aged 24-35 months. Overall, 78 percent of children aged 24-35 months were vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood disease (fully vaccinated) in Guyana, at any time before the survey. This percentage varies across background characteristics except for the sex of the child, where approximately the same proportion was vaccinated (78-79%). Children from the urban areas and those on the coast are more likely than their rural and interior counterparts to be fully vaccinated. It is noteworthy that the likelihood of children in the coastal areas to be fully vaccinated is 29 percentage points greater than those in the interior areas, with 85 percent and 56 percent respectively. Full vaccination coverage is associated with the mother’s education, with improved coverage for those whose mothers have secondary or higher education, compared to those whose mothers have only primary education. There does not appear to be a clear association with the socio-economic status of the household - the highest proportion of vaccinated children are living in second richest households (87%), while the smallest proportion are in the poorest households (69%). Children aged 24-35 months living in households with an Amerindian household head are least likely to be fully vaccinated compared to others. In Regions 1, 6, and 10, the percentages of non- vaccinated children aged 12-23 months are the highest among the regions, with six (6), nine (9), five (5) percent, respectively. In Region 1, although more than 90 percent of children aged 12-23 months receive the first dose of each vaccine, the dropout over the successive doses is greater than other regions, with a decline of 14 to 22 percentage points by the third dose. Regions 1 and 9 show the lowest full vaccination coverage, with 45 and 41 percent of children aged 24- 35 months fully vaccinated, respectively. 106 Ta bl e CH .2 : V ac ci na ti on s b y ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is ti cs Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s c ur re nt ly v ac ci na te d ag ai ns t v ac ci ne p re ve nt ab le c hi ld ho od d ise as es (2 4- 35 m on th s f or m ea sle s a nd y el lo w fe ve r) , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : Percentage with vaccination card seen Number of children age 12-23 months Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : Percentage with vaccination card seen Number of children age 24-35 months BC G Po lio DP T/ He pB /H ib Ro ta vi ru s Pn eu m oc oc ca l N on e 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 M ea sle s (M M R) Ye llo w fe ve r Fu lla N on e To ta l 94 .5 96 .7 95 .4 91 .9 96 .2 94 .7 90 .9 93 .0 91 .5 88 .9 91 .6 90 .5 87 .3 2. 7 90 .2 68 6 94 .5 93 .5 78 .3 1. 6 93 .7 64 8 Se x M al e 95 .2 97 .5 96 .8 93 .4 96 .7 95 .2 90 .9 90 .8 89 .6 87 .4 91 .3 90 .5 87 .5 2. 3 88 .7 33 0 94 .3 94 .2 78 .6 1. 8 93 .1 33 0 Fe m al e 93 .9 95 .9 94 .1 90 .4 95 .8 94 .2 90 .9 95 .0 93 .3 90 .3 92 .0 90 .5 87 .2 3. 0 91 .6 35 7 94 .7 92 .8 77 .9 1. 4 94 .3 31 8 Re gi on Re gi on 1 94 .4 93 .1 85 .0 78 .6 94 .3 85 .6 75 .0 91 .1 80 .0 69 .8 91 .4 82 .5 68 .8 5. 6 81 .5 19 81 .7 83 .8 44 .7 10 .3 78 .7 21 Re gi on 2 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) 44 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (9 2. 0) (0 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) 29 Re gi on 3 93 .3 10 0. 0 95 .5 89 .7 10 0. 0 95 .5 93 .0 93 .2 88 .7 86 .2 97 .7 93 .2 90 .7 0. 0 97 .7 93 95 .6 97 .1 91 .5 0. 0 98 .9 10 3 Re gi on 4 95 .2 97 .7 97 .7 92 .9 96 .9 96 .3 91 .9 95 .3 94 .7 91 .7 92 .4 91 .8 88 .0 2. 1 88 .1 27 9 93 .3 92 .0 81 .0 2. 0 93 .2 24 7 Re gi on 5 (9 8. 1) (9 7. 8) (9 7. 8) (9 7. 8) (9 8. 2) (9 8. 2) (8 9. 3) (8 7. 5) (8 7. 5) (8 7. 5) (8 9. 7) (8 9. 7) (8 8. 5) (0 .0 ) (8 9. 1) 50 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (9 0. 8) (0 .0 ) (9 0. 7) 40 Re gi on 6 90 .7 91 .4 89 .9 88 .4 89 .8 89 .8 89 .8 91 .2 91 .2 91 .2 83 .7 83 .7 83 .7 8. 6 87 .8 88 95 .5 95 .1 83 .0 0. 9 96 .2 93 Re gi on s 7 & 8 92 .6 93 .9 92 .9 89 .8 89 .8 88 .2 84 .0 74 .2 73 .2 70 .1 79 .2 76 .8 72 .0 2. 4 90 .7 33 89 .6 94 .5 63 .0 4. 9 88 .1 33 Re gi on 9 91 .8 94 .1 91 .8 90 .6 97 .7 91 .8 87 .0 95 .7 92 .3 84 .5 92 .6 92 .6 88 .0 2. 3 87 .8 40 95 .1 81 .7 41 .0 0. 0 92 .8 48 Re gi on 1 0 94 .6 94 .6 93 .2 90 .2 94 .6 94 .6 90 .0 93 .1 91 .7 88 .6 91 .9 91 .9 87 .8 5. 4 89 .3 42 (9 8. 0) (9 8. 0) (6 5. 6) (2 .0 ) (8 8. 2) 33 Ar ea U rb an 94 .3 96 .8 95 .6 92 .2 95 .9 94 .7 90 .6 93 .4 91 .9 91 .0 93 .7 93 .7 91 .1 3. 2 86 .0 15 5 92 .6 91 .4 81 .5 1. 0 93 .2 16 3 Ru ra l 94 .6 96 .6 95 .3 91 .8 96 .3 94 .7 91 .0 92 .9 91 .4 88 .3 91 .0 89 .5 86 .3 2. 5 91 .4 53 1 95 .1 94 .2 77 .2 1. 8 93 .8 48 5 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 94 .9 97 .2 96 .1 92 .6 96 .6 95 .5 92 .1 93 .8 92 .6 90 .9 92 .1 90 .9 88 .6 2. 5 90 .3 53 7 95 .0 94 .6 84 .6 1. 2 95 .0 50 4 U rb an C oa st al 93 .0 96 .1 95 .0 90 .8 95 .0 93 .5 88 .9 91 .9 90 .5 89 .3 92 .2 92 .2 89 .0 3. 9 83 .3 12 6 91 .6 90 .3 83 .4 1. 1 93 .4 14 5 Ru ra l C oa st al 95 .5 97 .5 96 .5 93 .1 97 .1 96 .1 93 .1 94 .4 93 .3 91 .4 92 .0 90 .5 88 .5 2. 0 92 .5 41 1 96 .3 96 .3 85 .1 1. 2 95 .7 36 0 In te rio r 93 .0 94 .7 92 .7 89 .3 94 .9 91 .9 86 .5 90 .0 87 .4 81 .8 90 .1 88 .8 82 .8 3. 3 89 .8 14 9 92 .9 89 .9 56 .0 3. 1 89 .1 14 4 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on b N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 Pr im ar y 91 .1 95 .9 94 .7 88 .3 96 .1 92 .2 89 .2 90 .0 89 .1 86 .0 90 .4 89 .6 86 .5 2. 3 87 .2 90 87 .5 89 .1 60 .1 4. 4 86 .5 88 Se co nd ar y 94 .4 96 .4 95 .8 92 .8 95 .8 95 .3 91 .6 93 .4 92 .5 90 .0 91 .3 90 .9 88 .0 3. 0 90 .3 51 6 96 .4 95 .1 82 .0 0. 8 94 .9 48 4 Hi gh er 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 95 .7 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 93 .7 97 .5 97 .5 93 .7 98 .9 97 .9 92 .7 0. 0 92 .9 61 97 .0 94 .0 81 .4 1. 9 95 .7 64 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le Po or es t 93 .6 95 .7 92 .4 90 .6 95 .1 90 .7 87 .9 91 .0 87 .2 84 .5 90 .0 87 .1 83 .5 2. 9 91 .6 19 6 94 .6 92 .2 68 .8 2. 0 91 .5 21 7 Se co nd 93 .8 99 .0 97 .8 92 .2 97 .3 97 .2 91 .3 91 .7 90 .3 88 .6 93 .0 92 .7 89 .7 0. 9 89 .2 16 2 94 .2 95 .3 86 .5 2. 3 94 .1 12 4 M id dl e 92 .9 94 .1 94 .1 90 .1 94 .1 92 .7 91 .0 92 .7 92 .7 90 .2 89 .5 89 .5 87 .8 5. 9 88 .3 13 3 94 .7 95 .4 83 .4 0. 2 95 .6 10 1 Fo ur th 95 .5 96 .8 96 .5 93 .2 97 .8 97 .8 93 .4 97 .8 97 .5 94 .1 95 .6 94 .7 91 .5 2. 2 89 .6 10 8 94 .8 93 .9 82 .4 1. 1 94 .8 10 8 Ri ch es t 98 .9 98 .1 98 .1 95 .2 98 .1 98 .1 93 .8 94 .3 94 .3 90 .9 91 .0 90 .1 85 .6 1. 1 92 .5 87 94 .1 91 .7 78 .6 1. 7 95 .0 99 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d Ea st In di an 94 .9 96 .8 96 .2 93 .0 95 .9 95 .7 93 .5 95 .9 95 .5 93 .7 93 .8 93 .3 90 .9 3. 2 90 .7 21 4 94 .1 94 .8 84 .9 1. 0 97 .2 23 4 Af ric an 93 .3 97 .2 96 .5 92 .7 96 .6 96 .6 91 .2 90 .5 89 .7 88 .3 89 .7 89 .2 86 .8 2. 3 87 .9 21 1 95 .5 94 .5 84 .5 1. 6 92 .8 19 3 Am er in di an 91 .5 94 .2 92 .4 89 .5 94 .5 90 .6 85 .9 87 .5 84 .5 78 .9 88 .8 87 .4 82 .1 3. 0 90 .9 10 3 93 .0 88 .8 54 .3 3. 1 88 .3 11 1 M ix ed R ac e 97 .5 97 .3 94 .5 90 .7 97 .3 93 .3 90 .1 95 .7 92 .9 89 .6 93 .0 90 .2 86 .4 2. 3 92 .0 15 6 95 .0 93 .8 76 .7 1. 2 93 .1 10 8 a In cl ud es : B CG , P ol io 3, D PT 3, H ep B3 , H ib 3 (D PT , H ep B an d Hi b co m bi ne d in th e Pe nt av al en t v ac ci ne ), Ro ta vi ru s3 , P ne um oc oc ca l3 a dm in ist er ed b ef or e ag e 1, Y el lo w fe ve r a nd M ea sle s ( M CV 1) a dm in ist er ed a t o r a ft er 1 2 m on th s b ut be fo re a ge 2 4 m on th s, a s p er th e va cc in ati on sc he du le in G uy an a b Ca te go ry "M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 107Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e CH .2 : V ac ci na ti on s b y ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is ti cs Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s c ur re nt ly v ac ci na te d ag ai ns t v ac ci ne p re ve nt ab le c hi ld ho od d ise as es (2 4- 35 m on th s f or m ea sle s a nd y el lo w fe ve r) , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : Percentage with vaccination card seen Number of children age 12-23 months Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : Percentage with vaccination card seen Number of children age 24-35 months BC G Po lio DP T/ He pB /H ib Ro ta vi ru s Pn eu m oc oc ca l N on e 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 M ea sle s (M M R) Ye llo w fe ve r Fu lla N on e To ta l 94 .5 96 .7 95 .4 91 .9 96 .2 94 .7 90 .9 93 .0 91 .5 88 .9 91 .6 90 .5 87 .3 2. 7 90 .2 68 6 94 .5 93 .5 78 .3 1. 6 93 .7 64 8 Se x M al e 95 .2 97 .5 96 .8 93 .4 96 .7 95 .2 90 .9 90 .8 89 .6 87 .4 91 .3 90 .5 87 .5 2. 3 88 .7 33 0 94 .3 94 .2 78 .6 1. 8 93 .1 33 0 Fe m al e 93 .9 95 .9 94 .1 90 .4 95 .8 94 .2 90 .9 95 .0 93 .3 90 .3 92 .0 90 .5 87 .2 3. 0 91 .6 35 7 94 .7 92 .8 77 .9 1. 4 94 .3 31 8 Re gi on Re gi on 1 94 .4 93 .1 85 .0 78 .6 94 .3 85 .6 75 .0 91 .1 80 .0 69 .8 91 .4 82 .5 68 .8 5. 6 81 .5 19 81 .7 83 .8 44 .7 10 .3 78 .7 21 Re gi on 2 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) 44 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (9 2. 0) (0 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) 29 Re gi on 3 93 .3 10 0. 0 95 .5 89 .7 10 0. 0 95 .5 93 .0 93 .2 88 .7 86 .2 97 .7 93 .2 90 .7 0. 0 97 .7 93 95 .6 97 .1 91 .5 0. 0 98 .9 10 3 Re gi on 4 95 .2 97 .7 97 .7 92 .9 96 .9 96 .3 91 .9 95 .3 94 .7 91 .7 92 .4 91 .8 88 .0 2. 1 88 .1 27 9 93 .3 92 .0 81 .0 2. 0 93 .2 24 7 Re gi on 5 (9 8. 1) (9 7. 8) (9 7. 8) (9 7. 8) (9 8. 2) (9 8. 2) (8 9. 3) (8 7. 5) (8 7. 5) (8 7. 5) (8 9. 7) (8 9. 7) (8 8. 5) (0 .0 ) (8 9. 1) 50 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (9 0. 8) (0 .0 ) (9 0. 7) 40 Re gi on 6 90 .7 91 .4 89 .9 88 .4 89 .8 89 .8 89 .8 91 .2 91 .2 91 .2 83 .7 83 .7 83 .7 8. 6 87 .8 88 95 .5 95 .1 83 .0 0. 9 96 .2 93 Re gi on s 7 & 8 92 .6 93 .9 92 .9 89 .8 89 .8 88 .2 84 .0 74 .2 73 .2 70 .1 79 .2 76 .8 72 .0 2. 4 90 .7 33 89 .6 94 .5 63 .0 4. 9 88 .1 33 Re gi on 9 91 .8 94 .1 91 .8 90 .6 97 .7 91 .8 87 .0 95 .7 92 .3 84 .5 92 .6 92 .6 88 .0 2. 3 87 .8 40 95 .1 81 .7 41 .0 0. 0 92 .8 48 Re gi on 1 0 94 .6 94 .6 93 .2 90 .2 94 .6 94 .6 90 .0 93 .1 91 .7 88 .6 91 .9 91 .9 87 .8 5. 4 89 .3 42 (9 8. 0) (9 8. 0) (6 5. 6) (2 .0 ) (8 8. 2) 33 Ar ea U rb an 94 .3 96 .8 95 .6 92 .2 95 .9 94 .7 90 .6 93 .4 91 .9 91 .0 93 .7 93 .7 91 .1 3. 2 86 .0 15 5 92 .6 91 .4 81 .5 1. 0 93 .2 16 3 Ru ra l 94 .6 96 .6 95 .3 91 .8 96 .3 94 .7 91 .0 92 .9 91 .4 88 .3 91 .0 89 .5 86 .3 2. 5 91 .4 53 1 95 .1 94 .2 77 .2 1. 8 93 .8 48 5 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 94 .9 97 .2 96 .1 92 .6 96 .6 95 .5 92 .1 93 .8 92 .6 90 .9 92 .1 90 .9 88 .6 2. 5 90 .3 53 7 95 .0 94 .6 84 .6 1. 2 95 .0 50 4 U rb an C oa st al 93 .0 96 .1 95 .0 90 .8 95 .0 93 .5 88 .9 91 .9 90 .5 89 .3 92 .2 92 .2 89 .0 3. 9 83 .3 12 6 91 .6 90 .3 83 .4 1. 1 93 .4 14 5 Ru ra l C oa st al 95 .5 97 .5 96 .5 93 .1 97 .1 96 .1 93 .1 94 .4 93 .3 91 .4 92 .0 90 .5 88 .5 2. 0 92 .5 41 1 96 .3 96 .3 85 .1 1. 2 95 .7 36 0 In te rio r 93 .0 94 .7 92 .7 89 .3 94 .9 91 .9 86 .5 90 .0 87 .4 81 .8 90 .1 88 .8 82 .8 3. 3 89 .8 14 9 92 .9 89 .9 56 .0 3. 1 89 .1 14 4 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on b N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 Pr im ar y 91 .1 95 .9 94 .7 88 .3 96 .1 92 .2 89 .2 90 .0 89 .1 86 .0 90 .4 89 .6 86 .5 2. 3 87 .2 90 87 .5 89 .1 60 .1 4. 4 86 .5 88 Se co nd ar y 94 .4 96 .4 95 .8 92 .8 95 .8 95 .3 91 .6 93 .4 92 .5 90 .0 91 .3 90 .9 88 .0 3. 0 90 .3 51 6 96 .4 95 .1 82 .0 0. 8 94 .9 48 4 Hi gh er 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 95 .7 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 93 .7 97 .5 97 .5 93 .7 98 .9 97 .9 92 .7 0. 0 92 .9 61 97 .0 94 .0 81 .4 1. 9 95 .7 64 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le Po or es t 93 .6 95 .7 92 .4 90 .6 95 .1 90 .7 87 .9 91 .0 87 .2 84 .5 90 .0 87 .1 83 .5 2. 9 91 .6 19 6 94 .6 92 .2 68 .8 2. 0 91 .5 21 7 Se co nd 93 .8 99 .0 97 .8 92 .2 97 .3 97 .2 91 .3 91 .7 90 .3 88 .6 93 .0 92 .7 89 .7 0. 9 89 .2 16 2 94 .2 95 .3 86 .5 2. 3 94 .1 12 4 M id dl e 92 .9 94 .1 94 .1 90 .1 94 .1 92 .7 91 .0 92 .7 92 .7 90 .2 89 .5 89 .5 87 .8 5. 9 88 .3 13 3 94 .7 95 .4 83 .4 0. 2 95 .6 10 1 Fo ur th 95 .5 96 .8 96 .5 93 .2 97 .8 97 .8 93 .4 97 .8 97 .5 94 .1 95 .6 94 .7 91 .5 2. 2 89 .6 10 8 94 .8 93 .9 82 .4 1. 1 94 .8 10 8 Ri ch es t 98 .9 98 .1 98 .1 95 .2 98 .1 98 .1 93 .8 94 .3 94 .3 90 .9 91 .0 90 .1 85 .6 1. 1 92 .5 87 94 .1 91 .7 78 .6 1. 7 95 .0 99 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d Ea st In di an 94 .9 96 .8 96 .2 93 .0 95 .9 95 .7 93 .5 95 .9 95 .5 93 .7 93 .8 93 .3 90 .9 3. 2 90 .7 21 4 94 .1 94 .8 84 .9 1. 0 97 .2 23 4 Af ric an 93 .3 97 .2 96 .5 92 .7 96 .6 96 .6 91 .2 90 .5 89 .7 88 .3 89 .7 89 .2 86 .8 2. 3 87 .9 21 1 95 .5 94 .5 84 .5 1. 6 92 .8 19 3 Am er in di an 91 .5 94 .2 92 .4 89 .5 94 .5 90 .6 85 .9 87 .5 84 .5 78 .9 88 .8 87 .4 82 .1 3. 0 90 .9 10 3 93 .0 88 .8 54 .3 3. 1 88 .3 11 1 M ix ed R ac e 97 .5 97 .3 94 .5 90 .7 97 .3 93 .3 90 .1 95 .7 92 .9 89 .6 93 .0 90 .2 86 .4 2. 3 92 .0 15 6 95 .0 93 .8 76 .7 1. 2 93 .1 10 8 a In cl ud es : B CG , P ol io 3, D PT 3, H ep B3 , H ib 3 (D PT , H ep B an d Hi b co m bi ne d in th e Pe nt av al en t v ac ci ne ), Ro ta vi ru s3 , P ne um oc oc ca l3 a dm in ist er ed b ef or e ag e 1, Y el lo w fe ve r a nd M ea sle s ( M CV 1) a dm in ist er ed a t o r a ft er 1 2 m on th s b ut be fo re a ge 2 4 m on th s, a s p er th e va cc in ati on sc he du le in G uy an a b Ca te go ry "M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e CH .2 : V ac ci na ti on s b y ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is ti cs Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s c ur re nt ly v ac ci na te d ag ai ns t v ac ci ne p re ve nt ab le c hi ld ho od d ise as es (2 4- 35 m on th s f or m ea sle s a nd y el lo w fe ve r) , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : Percentage with vaccination card seen Number of children age 12-23 months Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : Percentage with vaccination card seen Number of children age 24-35 months BC G Po lio DP T/ He pB /H ib Ro ta vi ru s Pn eu m oc oc ca l N on e 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 M ea sle s (M M R) Ye llo w fe ve r Fu lla N on e To ta l 94 .5 96 .7 95 .4 91 .9 96 .2 94 .7 90 .9 93 .0 91 .5 88 .9 91 .6 90 .5 87 .3 2. 7 90 .2 68 6 94 .5 93 .5 78 .3 1. 6 93 .7 64 8 Se x M al e 95 .2 97 .5 96 .8 93 .4 96 .7 95 .2 90 .9 90 .8 89 .6 87 .4 91 .3 90 .5 87 .5 2. 3 88 .7 33 0 94 .3 94 .2 78 .6 1. 8 93 .1 33 0 Fe m al e 93 .9 95 .9 94 .1 90 .4 95 .8 94 .2 90 .9 95 .0 93 .3 90 .3 92 .0 90 .5 87 .2 3. 0 91 .6 35 7 94 .7 92 .8 77 .9 1. 4 94 .3 31 8 Re gi on Re gi on 1 94 .4 93 .1 85 .0 78 .6 94 .3 85 .6 75 .0 91 .1 80 .0 69 .8 91 .4 82 .5 68 .8 5. 6 81 .5 19 81 .7 83 .8 44 .7 10 .3 78 .7 21 Re gi on 2 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) 44 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (9 2. 0) (0 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) 29 Re gi on 3 93 .3 10 0. 0 95 .5 89 .7 10 0. 0 95 .5 93 .0 93 .2 88 .7 86 .2 97 .7 93 .2 90 .7 0. 0 97 .7 93 95 .6 97 .1 91 .5 0. 0 98 .9 10 3 Re gi on 4 95 .2 97 .7 97 .7 92 .9 96 .9 96 .3 91 .9 95 .3 94 .7 91 .7 92 .4 91 .8 88 .0 2. 1 88 .1 27 9 93 .3 92 .0 81 .0 2. 0 93 .2 24 7 Re gi on 5 (9 8. 1) (9 7. 8) (9 7. 8) (9 7. 8) (9 8. 2) (9 8. 2) (8 9. 3) (8 7. 5) (8 7. 5) (8 7. 5) (8 9. 7) (8 9. 7) (8 8. 5) (0 .0 ) (8 9. 1) 50 (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (9 0. 8) (0 .0 ) (9 0. 7) 40 Re gi on 6 90 .7 91 .4 89 .9 88 .4 89 .8 89 .8 89 .8 91 .2 91 .2 91 .2 83 .7 83 .7 83 .7 8. 6 87 .8 88 95 .5 95 .1 83 .0 0. 9 96 .2 93 Re gi on s 7 & 8 92 .6 93 .9 92 .9 89 .8 89 .8 88 .2 84 .0 74 .2 73 .2 70 .1 79 .2 76 .8 72 .0 2. 4 90 .7 33 89 .6 94 .5 63 .0 4. 9 88 .1 33 Re gi on 9 91 .8 94 .1 91 .8 90 .6 97 .7 91 .8 87 .0 95 .7 92 .3 84 .5 92 .6 92 .6 88 .0 2. 3 87 .8 40 95 .1 81 .7 41 .0 0. 0 92 .8 48 Re gi on 1 0 94 .6 94 .6 93 .2 90 .2 94 .6 94 .6 90 .0 93 .1 91 .7 88 .6 91 .9 91 .9 87 .8 5. 4 89 .3 42 (9 8. 0) (9 8. 0) (6 5. 6) (2 .0 ) (8 8. 2) 33 Ar ea U rb an 94 .3 96 .8 95 .6 92 .2 95 .9 94 .7 90 .6 93 .4 91 .9 91 .0 93 .7 93 .7 91 .1 3. 2 86 .0 15 5 92 .6 91 .4 81 .5 1. 0 93 .2 16 3 Ru ra l 94 .6 96 .6 95 .3 91 .8 96 .3 94 .7 91 .0 92 .9 91 .4 88 .3 91 .0 89 .5 86 .3 2. 5 91 .4 53 1 95 .1 94 .2 77 .2 1. 8 93 .8 48 5 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 94 .9 97 .2 96 .1 92 .6 96 .6 95 .5 92 .1 93 .8 92 .6 90 .9 92 .1 90 .9 88 .6 2. 5 90 .3 53 7 95 .0 94 .6 84 .6 1. 2 95 .0 50 4 U rb an C oa st al 93 .0 96 .1 95 .0 90 .8 95 .0 93 .5 88 .9 91 .9 90 .5 89 .3 92 .2 92 .2 89 .0 3. 9 83 .3 12 6 91 .6 90 .3 83 .4 1. 1 93 .4 14 5 Ru ra l C oa st al 95 .5 97 .5 96 .5 93 .1 97 .1 96 .1 93 .1 94 .4 93 .3 91 .4 92 .0 90 .5 88 .5 2. 0 92 .5 41 1 96 .3 96 .3 85 .1 1. 2 95 .7 36 0 In te rio r 93 .0 94 .7 92 .7 89 .3 94 .9 91 .9 86 .5 90 .0 87 .4 81 .8 90 .1 88 .8 82 .8 3. 3 89 .8 14 9 92 .9 89 .9 56 .0 3. 1 89 .1 14 4 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on b N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 Pr im ar y 91 .1 95 .9 94 .7 88 .3 96 .1 92 .2 89 .2 90 .0 89 .1 86 .0 90 .4 89 .6 86 .5 2. 3 87 .2 90 87 .5 89 .1 60 .1 4. 4 86 .5 88 Se co nd ar y 94 .4 96 .4 95 .8 92 .8 95 .8 95 .3 91 .6 93 .4 92 .5 90 .0 91 .3 90 .9 88 .0 3. 0 90 .3 51 6 96 .4 95 .1 82 .0 0. 8 94 .9 48 4 Hi gh er 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 95 .7 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 93 .7 97 .5 97 .5 93 .7 98 .9 97 .9 92 .7 0. 0 92 .9 61 97 .0 94 .0 81 .4 1. 9 95 .7 64 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le Po or es t 93 .6 95 .7 92 .4 90 .6 95 .1 90 .7 87 .9 91 .0 87 .2 84 .5 90 .0 87 .1 83 .5 2. 9 91 .6 19 6 94 .6 92 .2 68 .8 2. 0 91 .5 21 7 Se co nd 93 .8 99 .0 97 .8 92 .2 97 .3 97 .2 91 .3 91 .7 90 .3 88 .6 93 .0 92 .7 89 .7 0. 9 89 .2 16 2 94 .2 95 .3 86 .5 2. 3 94 .1 12 4 M id dl e 92 .9 94 .1 94 .1 90 .1 94 .1 92 .7 91 .0 92 .7 92 .7 90 .2 89 .5 89 .5 87 .8 5. 9 88 .3 13 3 94 .7 95 .4 83 .4 0. 2 95 .6 10 1 Fo ur th 95 .5 96 .8 96 .5 93 .2 97 .8 97 .8 93 .4 97 .8 97 .5 94 .1 95 .6 94 .7 91 .5 2. 2 89 .6 10 8 94 .8 93 .9 82 .4 1. 1 94 .8 10 8 Ri ch es t 98 .9 98 .1 98 .1 95 .2 98 .1 98 .1 93 .8 94 .3 94 .3 90 .9 91 .0 90 .1 85 .6 1. 1 92 .5 87 94 .1 91 .7 78 .6 1. 7 95 .0 99 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d Ea st In di an 94 .9 96 .8 96 .2 93 .0 95 .9 95 .7 93 .5 95 .9 95 .5 93 .7 93 .8 93 .3 90 .9 3. 2 90 .7 21 4 94 .1 94 .8 84 .9 1. 0 97 .2 23 4 Af ric an 93 .3 97 .2 96 .5 92 .7 96 .6 96 .6 91 .2 90 .5 89 .7 88 .3 89 .7 89 .2 86 .8 2. 3 87 .9 21 1 95 .5 94 .5 84 .5 1. 6 92 .8 19 3 Am er in di an 91 .5 94 .2 92 .4 89 .5 94 .5 90 .6 85 .9 87 .5 84 .5 78 .9 88 .8 87 .4 82 .1 3. 0 90 .9 10 3 93 .0 88 .8 54 .3 3. 1 88 .3 11 1 M ix ed R ac e 97 .5 97 .3 94 .5 90 .7 97 .3 93 .3 90 .1 95 .7 92 .9 89 .6 93 .0 90 .2 86 .4 2. 3 92 .0 15 6 95 .0 93 .8 76 .7 1. 2 93 .1 10 8 a In cl ud es : B CG , P ol io 3, D PT 3, H ep B3 , H ib 3 (D PT , H ep B an d Hi b co m bi ne d in th e Pe nt av al en t v ac ci ne ), Ro ta vi ru s3 , P ne um oc oc ca l3 a dm in ist er ed b ef or e ag e 1, Y el lo w fe ve r a nd M ea sle s ( M CV 1) a dm in ist er ed a t o r a ft er 1 2 m on th s b ut be fo re a ge 2 4 m on th s, a s p er th e va cc in ati on sc he du le in G uy an a b Ca te go ry "M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 108 neonatal Tetanus Protection One of the MDGs is to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality ratio, with one strategy to eliminate maternal tetanus. Following on the 42nd and 44th World Health Assembly calls for elimination of neonatal tetanus, the global community continues to work to reduce the incidence of neonatal tetanus to less than one case of neonatal tetanus per 1,000 live births in every district by 2015. The strategy for preventing maternal and neonatal tetanus is to ensure that all pregnant women receive at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine. If a woman has not received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid during a particular pregnancy, she (and her newborn) is also considered to be protected against tetanus if the woman:  Received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine, the last within the previous three years;  Received at least three doses, the last within the previous five years;  Received at least four doses, the last within the previous ten years;  Received five or more doses anytime during her life. To assess the status of tetanus vaccination coverage, women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth during the two years before the survey were asked if they had received tetanus toxoid injections during the pregnancy for their most recent birth, and if so, how many. Women who did not receive two or more tetanus toxoid vaccinations during this recent pregnancy were then asked about tetanus toxoid vaccinations they may have previously received. Interviewers also asked women to present their vaccination card on which dates of tetanus toxoid are recorded and referred to information from the cards when available. It should be noted that the administrative records at the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Guyana, relative to tetanus vaccination coverage, is based on information on women aged 15-40 years, whereas the MICS5 targets women aged 15-49 years. Table CH.341 shows the protection status from tetanus of women who have had a live birth within the two years prior to the survey. Overall, just over one in five women (22%) with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey are protected against tetanus, primarily by receiving at least two doses during the last pregnancy (12%), or by receiving two doses in the past, the last within the three previous years (10%). Although tetanus protection is similar between urban and rural areas (22%), it is slightly higher in interior areas (27%) than in coastal areas (21%), and ranges from 11 percent in Region 6 to 38 percent in Regions 7 & 8. The more educated the women, the more likely they are protected against tetanus. There is no clear trend with regards to the socio-economic status: the highest proportion of women who are protected against tetanus is from the richest wealth quintile (28%) households and the lowest proportion is in the fourth quintile (17%). Women living in households with an Amerindian household head are more likely to be protected against tetanus (31%), compared to others (21-22%). 41In Guyana’s Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) administrative records, data on neonatal tetanus protection are based on women aged 15-40 years, while for the present survey, these data are based on women aged 15-49 years. Nevertheless, it can be noted that analysis of the present survey data set for women aged 15-40 years showed a similar result as that for women aged 15-49 years, with 22 percent of women protected against tetanus regardless of age group. 109Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | 110 Table CH.3: Neonatal tetanus protection Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years protected against neonatal tetanus, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of women who received at least 2 doses during last pregnancy Percentage of women who did not receive two or more doses during last pregnancy but received: Protected against tetanus1 Number of women with a live birth in the last 2 years 2 doses, the last within prior 3 years 3 doses, the last within prior 5 years 4 doses, the last within prior 10 years 5 or more doses during lifetime Total 12.0 10.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 22.3 769 Region Region 1 8.1 4.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.7 25 Region 2 9.1 18.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.7 40 Region 3 9.8 10.3 0.0 0.0 0.6 20.7 107 Region 4 13.3 8.6 0.1 0.1 0.0 22.1 327 Region 5 14.0 17.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 31.8 52 Region 6 7.8 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.0 94 Regions 7 & 8 20.0 17.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 37.7 36 Region 9 19.3 10.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.2 44 Region 10 5.4 14.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.7 44 Area Urban 13.4 8.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.3 184 Rural 11.6 10.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 22.3 585 Location Coastal 11.8 8.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 21.0 608 Urban Coastal 14.9 7.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.7 155 Rural Coastal 10.8 9.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 20.4 453 Interior 12.7 14.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.1 161 Education None (8.7) (3.3) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (12.0) 13 Primary 8.2 11.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.7 95 Secondary 12.4 9.9 0.1 0.1 0.0 22.4 590 Higher 14.1 11.3 0.0 0.0 0.9 26.3 71 Wealth index quintile Poorest 11.6 10.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 21.9 227 Second 10.0 9.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.7 176 Middle 14.0 11.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.4 152 Fourth 10.2 6.1 0.0 0.4 0.6 17.4 104 Richest 15.1 12.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.5 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 11.4 8.9 0.2 0.0 0.3 20.7 254 African 10.3 10.3 0.0 0.2 0.0 20.8 235 Amerindian 17.9 12.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.6 113 Mixed Race 11.7 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.7 164 1 MICS indicator 3.9 - Neonatal tetanus protection a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 110 Care of Illness A key strategy for accelerating progress toward MDG 4 is to tackle the diseases that are the leading killers of children under five. Diarrhoea and pneumonia are two such diseases. The Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD) aims to end preventable pneumonia and diarrhoea death by reducing mortality from pneumonia to three deaths per 1,000 live births and mortality from diarrhoea to one death per 1,000 live births by 2025. Malaria is also a major killer of children under five, killing about 1,200 children every day, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The Global Malaria Action Plan (GMAP) aims to reduce malaria deaths to near zero by 2015. Table CH.4 presents the percentage of children under five years of age who were reported to have had an episode of diarrhoea, symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), or fever during the two weeks preceding the survey. These results are not measures of true prevalence, and should not be used as such, but rather the period-prevalence of those illnesses over a two-week time window. Note that the definition of a case of diarrhoea or fever, in this survey, was the mother’s or caretaker’s report that the child had such symptoms over the specified period; no other evidence was sought beside the opinion of the mother/caretaker. A child was considered to have had an episode of ARI if the mother or caretaker reported that the child had, over the specified period, an illness with a cough with rapid or difficult breathing, and whose symptoms were perceived to be due to a problem in the chest or a problem in both the chest and a blocked nose. While this approach is reasonable in the context of a MICS survey, these basically simple case definitions must be kept in mind when interpreting the results, as well as the potential for reporting and recall biases. Furthermore, diarrhoea, fever and ARI are not only seasonal but are also characterized by the often rapid spread of localized outbreaks from one area to another at different points in time. The timing of the survey and the location of the teams might thus considerably affect the results, which must consequently be interpreted with caution. For these reasons, although the period-prevalence over a two- week time window is reported, these data should not be used to assess the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases but rather to obtain denominators for the indicators related to use of health services and treatment. Overall, eight (8) percent of under-five children were reported to have had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey, two (2) percent symptoms of ARI, and 14 percent an episode of fever (Table CH.4). During the two weeks preceding the survey, the prevalence of diarrhoea, symptoms of ARI and episodes of fever (period-prevalence) among under-five children were higher in interior areas than in the coastal areas - 16 percent versus six (6) percent for diarrhoea, four (4) percent versus two (2) percent for symptoms of ARI, and 21 percent versus 12 percent for an episode of fever. Likewise, the period-prevalence relative to each disease is higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas. By region, the period-prevalence of each of the disease is highest in Region 9, with 28 percent, seven (7) percent, and 28 percent, respectively, and lowest in Region 10, with only three (3) percent, one (1) percent, and nine (9) percent, respectively. It is in the age range 12-35 months that the prevalence is the highest for the three disease episodes. Period-prevalence is particularly high in children living in households with an Amerindian household head, for the three disease episodes. 111Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.4: Reported disease episodes Percentage of children age 0-59 months for whom the mother/caretaker reported an episode of diarrhoea, symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), and/or fever in the last two weeks, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children who in the last two weeks had: Number of children age 0-59 months An episode of diarrhoea Symptoms of ARI An episode of fever Total 8.3 2.2 13.7 3,358 Sex Male 9.7 2.6 14.7 1,722 Female 6.7 1.8 12.6 1,636 Region Region 1 7.1 3.6 17.0 96 Region 2 5.1 0.8 17.7 185 Region 3 6.7 2.0 11.6 452 Region 4 6.0 1.7 10.7 1,382 Region 5 10.6 1.9 20.1 236 Region 6 5.4 1.6 10.2 443 Regions 7 & 8 22.5 6.2 26.5 164 Region 9 28.0 7.3 27.9 198 Region 10 3.1 0.5 9.1 202 Area Urban 4.8 0.8 8.2 838 Rural 9.4 2.7 15.5 2,520 Location Coastal 6.2 1.7 11.6 2,634 Urban Coastal 5.2 1.0 8.4 711 Rural Coastal 6.5 2.0 12.7 1,923 Interior 15.8 4.1 21.4 724 Age 0-11 months 6.1 1.4 9.2 687 12-23 months 12.4 2.0 18.1 686 24-35 months 9.0 3.6 14.2 648 36-47 months 8.9 1.7 11.6 683 48-59 months 4.7 2.4 15.3 653 Mother’s educationa None 17.1 0.7 14.4 64 Primary 9.0 2.1 13.9 483 Secondary 8.1 2.3 14.1 2,485 Higher 6.8 1.8 10.4 321 Wealth index quintile Poorest 13.7 3.3 19.2 1,003 Second 9.9 3.0 11.5 755 Middle 4.3 1.6 12.4 616 Fourth 3.9 1.1 11.2 486 Richest 3.8 0.7 9.8 497 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 5.4 1.8 12.8 1,118 African 6.3 0.8 10.5 1,037 Amerindian 20.7 4.5 25.8 492 Mixed Race 6.8 3.4 11.6 697 a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases 112 Diarrhoea Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death among children under five worldwide. Most diarrhoea-related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) – can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. In the MICS5, mothers or caretakers were asked whether their child under age five years had an episode of diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. In cases where mothers reported that the child had diarrhoea, a series of questions were asked about the treatment of the illness, including what the child had been given to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than what was usually given to the child. It should be noted that in Guyana, zinc is not used for the treatment of diarrhoea in children and therefore questions regarding such treatment (zinc tablets/ syrup) were excluded from the present survey. As mentioned above, the overall period-prevalence of diarrhoea in children under five years of age is eight (8) percent (Table CH.4) and ranges from three (3) percent in Region 10 to 28 percent in Region 9. The highest period-prevalence is seen among children aged 12-23 months, which grossly corresponds to the weaning period. Table CH.5 shows the percentage of children with diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey for whom advice or treatment was sought and the source of such advice and treatment. Overall, a health facility or provider was seen in 61 percent of cases, predominantly in the public sector (56%). For one in three children (33%), no advice or treatment was sought at all. Although analysis of results by background characteristics is somewhat limited due to the small sample size, it is observed that care-seeking is more common in interior areas than in coastal areas, with 82 percent of children in interior areas seeking advice or treatment from a health facility or provider, compared with 46 percent in coastal areas. The main sources of advice or treatment in interior areas are a public facility (81%) or a community health provider (30%). Children living in households with an Amerindian household head are more likely to seek advice or treatment (81%) than others (48-59%). Table CH.6 provides statistics on drinking and feeding practices during diarrhoeal episodes. Just over one in ten (11%) children under five years with diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey were given more than usual to drink, while 85 percent were given the same or less, and three (3) percent were given nothing to drink. About two-thirds of children with diarrhoea (65%) were given somewhat less, same or more to eat (continued feeding), but one-third (34%) was given much less or almost nothing. Again, while analysis by background characteristics is limited due to the small number of cases, it is found that increased fluid intake is equally low in coastal and interior areas (11%); however, continued feeding was even less practiced in interior areas than in coastal areas (59% compared to 70%). The percentages of children given nothing to drink or eat during the episode of diarrhoea are higher among females than males: six (6) percent of females and two (2) percent of males were given nothing to drink, while eight (8) percent of females compared with five (5) percent of males were given nothing to eat during their diarrhoeal episode. 113Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.5: Care-seeking during diarrhoea Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought, by source of advice or treatment, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children with diarrhoea for whom: Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks Advice or treatment was sought from: No advice or treatment sought Health facilities or providers Other source A health facility or provider1, b Public Private Community health providera Total 55.8 9.0 12.7 2.1 60.9 33.1 277 Sex Male 56.3 8.2 11.7 2.2 60.1 33.3 167 Female 55.2 10.2 14.3 2.0 62.0 32.6 110 Regionc Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 82.4 0.8 34.5 1.5 82.8 15.4 99 Regions 2, 3 (17.2) (11.2) (0.8) (4.2) (20.9) (67.4) 40 Region 4 36.9 17.7 1.0 2.3 48.2 43.0 83 Regions 5, 6 (65.5) (7.7) (0.0) (1.8) (71.1) (25.0) 49 Region 10 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 6 Area Urban (48.6) (11.8) (0.0) (0.0) (58.9) (39.6) 40 Rural 57.1 8.5 14.9 2.5 61.2 31.9 237 Location Coastal 38.1 14.3 0.5 2.8 46.4 44.9 163 Urban Coastal (47.9) (11.2) (0.0) (0.0) (59.1) (40.9) 37 Rural Coastal 35.2 15.2 0.7 3.6 42.6 46.1 126 Interior 81.2 1.4 30.2 1.3 81.6 16.2 114 Age 0-11 months (67.0) (3.8) (11.5) (2.7) (70.8) (26.5) 42 12-23 months 60.2 9.2 12.3 0.7 64.6 29.9 85 24-35 months 56.3 4.2 15.4 2.2 57.8 37.3 59 36-47 months 42.0 13.6 8.5 2.0 50.8 42.4 61 48-59 months (55.1) (15.4) (18.9) (5.4) (63.0) (24.1) 31 Mother’s education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 11 Primary 63.4 8.0 15.7 0.0 67.4 28.6 44 Secondary or Higher 54.2 9.6 12.3 2.7 59.7 33.6 223 Wealth indexd Poorest 40% 61.7 4.7 16.6 1.3 62.4 32.4 212 Richest 60% 36.7 23.1 0.0 4.9 56.1 35.3 65 Ethnicity of household heade, f East Indian 47.8 20.2 1.4 0.0 59.3 32.0 61 African 39.6 11.5 0.0 4.8 48.3 44.1 66 Amerindian 81.0 4.1 33.4 0.2 81.4 14.7 102 Mixed Race (36.0) (1.7) (0.9) (5.3) (37.7) (57.0) 47 1 MICS indicator 3.10 - Care-seeking for diarrhoea a Community health providers includes both public (Community health worker and Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers, but excludes private pharmacy c Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions d Wealth index have been grouped into two categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile e This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head f Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 114 Table CH.6: Feeding practices during diarrhoea Percent distribution of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks by amount of liquids and food given during episode of diarrhoea, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Drinking practices during diarrhoea Eating practices during diarrhoea Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks Child was given to drink: Total Child was given to eat: Total M uc h le ss So m ew ha t l es s Ab ou t t he s am e M or e N ot hi ng M is si ng /D K M uc h le ss So m ew ha t l es s Ab ou t t he s am e M or e N ot hi ng M is si ng /D K Total 20.2 24.5 40.1 11.3 3.4 0.5 100.0 27.3 24.3 38.9 2.1 6.2 1.1 100.0 277 Sex Male 20.4 22.3 44.8 10.0 1.7 0.8 100.0 30.8 18.4 42.4 2.1 5.4 0.8 100.0 167 Female 19.9 27.8 33.1 13.2 6.1 0.0 100.0 22.1 33.2 33.5 2.1 7.5 1.6 100.0 110 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 22.6 33.4 26.2 12.1 5.3 0.0 100.0 28.4 34.1 26.7 0.6 9.9 0.0 100.0 99 Regions 2, 3 (13.0) (14.7) (53.0) (11.6) (7.7) (0.0) 100.0 (29.5) (19.6) (42.6) (3.0) (0.8) (4.4) 100.0 40 Region 4 7.9 29.8 49.0 11.7 0.0 1.6 100.0 18.5 21.5 52.0 2.0 4.3 1.6 100.0 83 Regions 5, 6 (38.4) (7.0) (43.6) (8.6) (2.4) (0.0) 100.0 (37.1) (13.3) (38.8) (4.9) (6.0) (0.0) 100.0 49 Region 10 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 6 Area Urban (8.9) (31.4) (49.0) (10.7) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (11.0) (25.8) (54.9) (1.5) (6.8) (0.0) 100.0 40 Rural 22.1 23.3 38.6 11.4 4.0 0.6 100.0 30.1 24.1 36.2 2.2 6.2 1.3 100.0 237 Location Coastal 16.5 18.7 50.1 11.4 2.6 0.8 100.0 25.6 18.5 47.8 3.2 3.0 1.9 100.0 163 Urban Coastal (5.4) (33.9) (51.0) (9.6) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (7.7) (27.9) (57.4) (1.6) (5.5) (0.0) 100.0 37 Rural Coastal 19.7 14.2 49.8 11.9 3.3 1.0 100.0 30.9 15.8 44.9 3.7 2.3 2.4 100.0 126 Interior 25.5 32.7 26.0 11.2 4.6 0.0 100.0 29.8 32.6 26.2 0.5 10.8 0.0 100.0 114 Age 0-11 months (11.1) (23.0) (48.5) (17.4) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (14.1) (20.5) (45.9) (3.1) (16.5) (0.0) 100.0 42 12-23 months 26.6 20.6 33.7 10.4 8.6 0.0 100.0 33.4 15.3 38.4 3.5 7.3 2.0 100.0 85 24-35 months 17.9 33.4 36.5 8.4 3.7 0.0 100.0 25.6 29.9 42.2 0.0 2.3 0.0 100.0 59 36-47 months 17.1 24.8 50.2 5.8 0.0 2.2 100.0 29.9 29.6 34.6 1.0 2.8 2.2 100.0 61 48-59 months (25.1) (19.5) (33.4) (21.9) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (26.8) (33.6) (32.7) (3.1) (3.8) (0.0) 100.0 31 Mother’s education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 11 Primary 15.9 42.1 33.0 5.6 3.5 0.0 100.0 22.3 29.5 37.4 0.0 6.8 4.0 100.0 44 Secondary or Higher 21.1 19.6 42.2 13.0 3.6 0.6 100.0 28.7 21.7 40.4 2.6 6.0 0.6 100.0 223 Wealth indexb Poorest 40% 21.2 25.7 41.0 7.6 4.5 0.0 100.0 29.2 24.0 39.2 0.7 6.1 0.8 100.0 212 Richest 60% 16.7 20.5 37.3 23.5 0.0 2.0 100.0 21.3 25.5 37.7 6.8 6.7 2.0 100.0 65 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 26.3 20.2 40.3 13.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 29.5 20.7 40.7 4.3 1.9 2.9 100.0 61 African 16.0 22.7 46.5 11.1 1.8 2.0 100.0 28.8 22.1 39.9 4.0 3.2 2.0 100.0 66 Amerindian 24.3 30.2 28.9 11.5 5.2 0.0 100.0 30.8 31.8 26.8 0.6 10.1 0.0 100.0 102 Mixed Race (10.0) (20.9) (56.4) (6.4) (6.4) (0.0) 100.0 (15.9) (16.5) (59.7) (0.0) (8.0) (0.0) 100.0 47 a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b Wealth index have been grouped into two categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 115Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.7: Oral rehydration solutions Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks, and treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS), Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children with diarrhoea who received: Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks Oral rehydration salts (ORS) Fluid from packet Pre-packaged fluid Any ORS1 Total 27.3 24.7 42.5 277 Sex Male 27.3 24.5 42.3 167 Female 27.4 25.1 42.8 110 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 32.9 36.0 51.8 99 Regions 2, 3 (21.9) (2.6) (21.9) 40 Region 4 21.3 14.4 34.4 83 Regions 5, 6 (31.5) (37.5) (55.1) 49 Region 10 (*) (*) (*) 6 Area Urban (16.1) (15.0) (29.7) 40 Rural 29.2 26.4 44.7 237 Location Coastal 23.1 18.0 36.0 163 Urban Coastal (15.8) (14.7) (30.5) 37 Rural Coastal 25.2 18.9 37.6 126 Interior 33.4 34.4 51.8 114 Age 0-11 months (11.8) (22.6) (27.2) 42 12-23 months 34.4 27.8 53.1 85 24-35 months 22.2 22.9 35.1 59 36-47 months 28.8 24.1 44.5 61 48-59 months (35.8) (23.7) (43.9) 31 Mother’s education None (*) (*) (*) 11 Primary 34.2 24.5 50.6 44 Secondary or Higher 24.9 23.7 40.6 223 Wealth indexb Poorest 40% 25.7 26.3 42.6 212 Richest 60% 32.8 19.6 42.2 65 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 39.0 20.0 50.3 61 African 18.5 19.2 33.7 66 Amerindian 34.4 37.1 55.0 102 Mixed Race (7.6) (12.4) (16.4) 47 1 MICS indicator 3.11 - Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b Wealth index have been grouped into two categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table CH.7 shows the percentage of children receiving oral rehydration salts (ORS) during the episode of diarrhoea. Overall, 43 percent of children with diarrhoea during the two weeks prior to the survey received ORS: 27 percent received fluids from ORS packets and 25 percent from pre-packaged ORS fluids. Children in interior areas (52%) are more likely to have received ORS than those in coastal areas (36%) (Figure CH.2). Treatment with ORS was similar regardless of sex of the child and socio-economic status of the household. However, treatment with ORS is lower among children with more educated mothers than others. 116 Table CH.8 provides the proportion of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding, and the percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other specific treatments. Overall, 50 percent of children with diarrhoea received ORS or increased fluids. Combining the information in Table CH.6 with that of Table CH.7 on oral rehydration therapy, it is observed that 29 percent of children received ORT (ORS or increased fluids) and, at the same time, feeding was continued, as is the recommendation. ORT with continued feeding is more practiced in the interior areas (32%) than in the coastal areas (26%), with girls (33%) than with boys (26%), and in the richer households (35%) than in poorer households (27%). However, it is similar between mothers with a primary education (30%) and those with a secondary or higher education (28%). Table CH.8 also shows the percentage of children having had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey who were given various forms of treatment, leaving 26 percent of them without any treatment or drug. The children who are not given any treatment or drug are more likely than other to be those with mothers with lower education and those living in the coastal areas. The proportion of children living in the interior that did not receive any treatment or drug is about half that living on the coast, with 17 percent in interior areas and 32 percent in coastal areas. Household wealth and sex of the child do not appear to be associated with whether or not the child is given any treatment or drug for diarrhoea. The most common treatments or drugs given to children with diarrhoea are home remedy or herbal medicine (14%) and antibiotics pill or syrup (13%). F igure CH.2: Chi ldren under -5 with d iarrhoea who received ORS, Guyana MICS5, 2014 30 45 36 (30) 38 52 42 Pe r c en t Urb an Ru ral Coa sta l Urb an Coa sta l Ru ral Co ast al Int eri or Gu yan a 117Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e CH .8 : O ra l r eh yd ra ti on th er ap y w ith co nti nu ed fe ed in g an d ot he r t re at m en ts Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n or al re hy dr ati on th er ap y w ith c on ti nu ed fe ed in g an d pe rc en ta ge w ho w er e gi ve n ot he r t re at m en ts , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 N ot g iv en an y tr ea tm en t or d ru g N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks O RS o r in cr ea se d flu id s O RT w ith co nti nu ed fe ed in g1 O th er tr ea tm en ts Pi ll or sy ru p In je cti on In tr a- ve no us Ho m e re m ed y, he rb al m ed ic in e O th er An ti - bi oti c An ti - m oti lit y O th er U nk no w n An ti - bi oti c N on - an ti bi oti c U nk no w n To ta l 49 .7 28 .9 13 .0 0. 0 6. 0 4. 5 1. 1 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 14 .3 1. 3 25 .8 27 7 Se x M al e 47 .9 26 .2 15 .4 0. 0 5. 7 5. 2 0. 7 0. 2 4. 5 0. 0 14 .2 1. 3 25 .8 16 7 Fe m al e 52 .4 32 .8 9. 4 0. 0 6. 5 3. 4 1. 7 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 14 .4 1. 4 25 .8 11 0 Re gi on a Re gi on s 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 59 .2 35 .6 10 .0 0. 0 9. 6 9. 2 0. 9 0. 3 1. 4 0. 0 12 .6 2. 6 16 .5 99 Re gi on s 2 , 3 (3 0. 6) (2 0. 7) (3 .7 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .9 ) (1 .9 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 7. 6) (0 .0 ) (4 9. 9) 40 Re gi on 4 42 .1 29 .2 19 .2 0. 0 4. 5 1. 6 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 16 .5 1. 3 30 .7 83 Re gi on s 5 , 6 (5 9. 7) (2 3. 8) ( 16 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .7 ) (2 .4 ) (2 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 2) (0 .0 ) (1 0. 3) (0 .0 ) (1 6. 7) 49 Re gi on 1 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 6 Ar ea U rb an (3 8. 4) (2 7. 2) (2 5. 8) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 3. 1) (2 .7 ) (2 0. 9) 40 Ru ra l 51 .6 29 .1 10 .9 0. 0 7. 0 5. 2 1. 3 0. 1 3. 4 0. 0 12 .8 1. 1 26 .6 23 7 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 43 .4 26 .4 14 .8 0. 0 4. 1 2. 0 1. 3 0. 0 4. 1 0. 0 13 .8 0. 7 32 .3 16 3 U rb an C oa st al (3 8. 0) (2 9. 4) (2 7. 9) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 3. 1) (2 .9 ) (2 0. 0) 37 Ru ra l C oa st al 45 .0 25 .6 10 .9 0. 0 5. 3 2. 6 1. 7 0. 0 5. 3 0. 0 11 .1 0. 0 35 .9 12 6 In te rio r 58 .6 32 .3 10 .5 0. 0 8. 7 8. 0 0. 8 0. 2 1. 2 0. 0 15 .0 2. 3 16 .5 11 4 Ag e 0- 11 m on th s (4 2. 1) (2 8. 3) ( 21 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .8 ) (1 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (8 .9 ) (1 .3 ) (2 6. 2) 42 12 -2 3 m on th s 57 .9 29 .9 13 .8 0. 0 5. 1 6. 3 1. 2 0. 0 7. 5 0. 0 14 .0 1. 3 21 .4 85 24 -3 5 m on th s 39 .8 22 .0 10 .3 0. 0 6. 7 4. 1 3. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 19 .6 2. 6 24 .0 59 36 -4 7 m on th s 48 .0 30 .8 15 .5 0. 0 2. 1 3. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 9 0. 0 10 .3 0. 0 38 .7 61 48 -5 9 m on th s (5 9. 5) (3 6. 0) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 8. 1) (6 .6 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 0. 2) (1 .7 ) (1 5. 1) 31 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 Pr im ar y 52 .6 30 .2 15 .1 0. 0 6. 8 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 8. 0 0. 0 30 .9 44 Se co nd ar y or H ig he r 49 .1 27 .6 13 .2 0. 0 5. 5 4. 5 1. 4 0. 1 3. 4 0. 0 14 .7 1. 6 24 .7 22 3 W ea lth in de xb Po or es t 4 0% 47 .9 27 .0 12 .2 0. 0 6. 5 5. 2 1. 4 0. 1 3. 3 0. 0 13 .3 1. 2 25 .8 21 2 Ri ch es t 6 0% 55 .6 34 .9 15 .7 0. 0 4. 4 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 0. 0 17 .5 1. 7 25 .8 65 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d Ea st In di an 56 .1 31 .9 22 .8 0. 0 8. 5 1. 3 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 7. 9 1. 8 18 .6 61 Af ric an 43 .6 29 .1 7. 1 0. 0 1. 6 1. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 .2 0. 0 21 .5 0. 0 31 .6 66 Am er in di an 61 .7 35 .2 10 .6 0. 0 10 .2 9. 6 0. 8 0. 2 1. 4 0. 0 13 .5 2. 0 14 .5 10 2 M ix ed R ac e (2 2. 8) (9 .3 ) ( 14 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 .5 ) (2 .4 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 4. 5) (1 .1 ) (5 1. 8) 47 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 2 - D ia rr ho ea tr ea tm en t w ith o ra l r eh yd ra ti on th er ap y (O RT ) a nd c on ti nu ed fe ed in g a Re gi on s w ith si m ila r c ha ra ct er isti cs h av e be en m er ge d in to re gi on al g ro up in gs b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es in in di vi du al re gi on s b W ea lth in de x ha ve b ee n gr ou pe d in to tw o ca te go rie s i ns te ad o f fi ve b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es b y qu in ti le c Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 118 Ta bl e CH .8 : O ra l r eh yd ra ti on th er ap y w ith co nti nu ed fe ed in g an d ot he r t re at m en ts Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n or al re hy dr ati on th er ap y w ith c on ti nu ed fe ed in g an d pe rc en ta ge w ho w er e gi ve n ot he r t re at m en ts , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 N ot g iv en an y tr ea tm en t or d ru g N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks O RS o r in cr ea se d flu id s O RT w ith co nti nu ed fe ed in g1 O th er tr ea tm en ts Pi ll or sy ru p In je cti on In tr a- ve no us Ho m e re m ed y, he rb al m ed ic in e O th er An ti - bi oti c An ti - m oti lit y O th er U nk no w n An ti - bi oti c N on - an ti bi oti c U nk no w n To ta l 49 .7 28 .9 13 .0 0. 0 6. 0 4. 5 1. 1 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 14 .3 1. 3 25 .8 27 7 Se x M al e 47 .9 26 .2 15 .4 0. 0 5. 7 5. 2 0. 7 0. 2 4. 5 0. 0 14 .2 1. 3 25 .8 16 7 Fe m al e 52 .4 32 .8 9. 4 0. 0 6. 5 3. 4 1. 7 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 14 .4 1. 4 25 .8 11 0 Re gi on a Re gi on s 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 59 .2 35 .6 10 .0 0. 0 9. 6 9. 2 0. 9 0. 3 1. 4 0. 0 12 .6 2. 6 16 .5 99 Re gi on s 2 , 3 (3 0. 6) (2 0. 7) (3 .7 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .9 ) (1 .9 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 7. 6) (0 .0 ) (4 9. 9) 40 Re gi on 4 42 .1 29 .2 19 .2 0. 0 4. 5 1. 6 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 16 .5 1. 3 30 .7 83 Re gi on s 5 , 6 (5 9. 7) (2 3. 8) ( 16 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .7 ) (2 .4 ) (2 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 2) (0 .0 ) (1 0. 3) (0 .0 ) (1 6. 7) 49 Re gi on 1 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 6 Ar ea U rb an (3 8. 4) (2 7. 2) (2 5. 8) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 3. 1) (2 .7 ) (2 0. 9) 40 Ru ra l 51 .6 29 .1 10 .9 0. 0 7. 0 5. 2 1. 3 0. 1 3. 4 0. 0 12 .8 1. 1 26 .6 23 7 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 43 .4 26 .4 14 .8 0. 0 4. 1 2. 0 1. 3 0. 0 4. 1 0. 0 13 .8 0. 7 32 .3 16 3 U rb an C oa st al (3 8. 0) (2 9. 4) (2 7. 9) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 3. 1) (2 .9 ) (2 0. 0) 37 Ru ra l C oa st al 45 .0 25 .6 10 .9 0. 0 5. 3 2. 6 1. 7 0. 0 5. 3 0. 0 11 .1 0. 0 35 .9 12 6 In te rio r 58 .6 32 .3 10 .5 0. 0 8. 7 8. 0 0. 8 0. 2 1. 2 0. 0 15 .0 2. 3 16 .5 11 4 Ag e 0- 11 m on th s (4 2. 1) (2 8. 3) ( 21 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .8 ) (1 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (8 .9 ) (1 .3 ) (2 6. 2) 42 12 -2 3 m on th s 57 .9 29 .9 13 .8 0. 0 5. 1 6. 3 1. 2 0. 0 7. 5 0. 0 14 .0 1. 3 21 .4 85 24 -3 5 m on th s 39 .8 22 .0 10 .3 0. 0 6. 7 4. 1 3. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 19 .6 2. 6 24 .0 59 36 -4 7 m on th s 48 .0 30 .8 15 .5 0. 0 2. 1 3. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 9 0. 0 10 .3 0. 0 38 .7 61 48 -5 9 m on th s (5 9. 5) (3 6. 0) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 8. 1) (6 .6 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 0. 2) (1 .7 ) (1 5. 1) 31 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 Pr im ar y 52 .6 30 .2 15 .1 0. 0 6. 8 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 8. 0 0. 0 30 .9 44 Se co nd ar y or H ig he r 49 .1 27 .6 13 .2 0. 0 5. 5 4. 5 1. 4 0. 1 3. 4 0. 0 14 .7 1. 6 24 .7 22 3 W ea lth in de xb Po or es t 4 0% 47 .9 27 .0 12 .2 0. 0 6. 5 5. 2 1. 4 0. 1 3. 3 0. 0 13 .3 1. 2 25 .8 21 2 Ri ch es t 6 0% 55 .6 34 .9 15 .7 0. 0 4. 4 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 0. 0 17 .5 1. 7 25 .8 65 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d Ea st In di an 56 .1 31 .9 22 .8 0. 0 8. 5 1. 3 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 7. 9 1. 8 18 .6 61 Af ric an 43 .6 29 .1 7. 1 0. 0 1. 6 1. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 .2 0. 0 21 .5 0. 0 31 .6 66 Am er in di an 61 .7 35 .2 10 .6 0. 0 10 .2 9. 6 0. 8 0. 2 1. 4 0. 0 13 .5 2. 0 14 .5 10 2 M ix ed R ac e (2 2. 8) (9 .3 ) ( 14 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 .5 ) (2 .4 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 4. 5) (1 .1 ) (5 1. 8) 47 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 2 - D ia rr ho ea tr ea tm en t w ith o ra l r eh yd ra ti on th er ap y (O RT ) a nd c on ti nu ed fe ed in g a Re gi on s w ith si m ila r c ha ra ct er isti cs h av e be en m er ge d in to re gi on al g ro up in gs b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es in in di vi du al re gi on s b W ea lth in de x ha ve b ee n gr ou pe d in to tw o ca te go rie s i ns te ad o f fi ve b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es b y qu in ti le c Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e CH .8 : O ra l r eh yd ra ti on th er ap y w ith co nti nu ed fe ed in g an d ot he r t re at m en ts Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n or al re hy dr ati on th er ap y w ith c on ti nu ed fe ed in g an d pe rc en ta ge w ho w er e gi ve n ot he r t re at m en ts , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 N ot g iv en an y tr ea tm en t or d ru g N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks O RS o r in cr ea se d flu id s O RT w ith co nti nu ed fe ed in g1 O th er tr ea tm en ts Pi ll or sy ru p In je cti on In tr a- ve no us Ho m e re m ed y, he rb al m ed ic in e O th er An ti - bi oti c An ti - m oti lit y O th er U nk no w n An ti - bi oti c N on - an ti bi oti c U nk no w n To ta l 49 .7 28 .9 13 .0 0. 0 6. 0 4. 5 1. 1 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 14 .3 1. 3 25 .8 27 7 Se x M al e 47 .9 26 .2 15 .4 0. 0 5. 7 5. 2 0. 7 0. 2 4. 5 0. 0 14 .2 1. 3 25 .8 16 7 Fe m al e 52 .4 32 .8 9. 4 0. 0 6. 5 3. 4 1. 7 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 14 .4 1. 4 25 .8 11 0 Re gi on a Re gi on s 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 59 .2 35 .6 10 .0 0. 0 9. 6 9. 2 0. 9 0. 3 1. 4 0. 0 12 .6 2. 6 16 .5 99 Re gi on s 2 , 3 (3 0. 6) (2 0. 7) (3 .7 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .9 ) (1 .9 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 7. 6) (0 .0 ) (4 9. 9) 40 Re gi on 4 42 .1 29 .2 19 .2 0. 0 4. 5 1. 6 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 16 .5 1. 3 30 .7 83 Re gi on s 5 , 6 (5 9. 7) (2 3. 8) ( 16 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .7 ) (2 .4 ) (2 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 2) (0 .0 ) (1 0. 3) (0 .0 ) (1 6. 7) 49 Re gi on 1 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 6 Ar ea U rb an (3 8. 4) (2 7. 2) (2 5. 8) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 3. 1) (2 .7 ) (2 0. 9) 40 Ru ra l 51 .6 29 .1 10 .9 0. 0 7. 0 5. 2 1. 3 0. 1 3. 4 0. 0 12 .8 1. 1 26 .6 23 7 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 43 .4 26 .4 14 .8 0. 0 4. 1 2. 0 1. 3 0. 0 4. 1 0. 0 13 .8 0. 7 32 .3 16 3 U rb an C oa st al (3 8. 0) (2 9. 4) (2 7. 9) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 3. 1) (2 .9 ) (2 0. 0) 37 Ru ra l C oa st al 45 .0 25 .6 10 .9 0. 0 5. 3 2. 6 1. 7 0. 0 5. 3 0. 0 11 .1 0. 0 35 .9 12 6 In te rio r 58 .6 32 .3 10 .5 0. 0 8. 7 8. 0 0. 8 0. 2 1. 2 0. 0 15 .0 2. 3 16 .5 11 4 Ag e 0- 11 m on th s (4 2. 1) (2 8. 3) ( 21 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .8 ) (1 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (8 .9 ) (1 .3 ) (2 6. 2) 42 12 -2 3 m on th s 57 .9 29 .9 13 .8 0. 0 5. 1 6. 3 1. 2 0. 0 7. 5 0. 0 14 .0 1. 3 21 .4 85 24 -3 5 m on th s 39 .8 22 .0 10 .3 0. 0 6. 7 4. 1 3. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 19 .6 2. 6 24 .0 59 36 -4 7 m on th s 48 .0 30 .8 15 .5 0. 0 2. 1 3. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 9 0. 0 10 .3 0. 0 38 .7 61 48 -5 9 m on th s (5 9. 5) (3 6. 0) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 8. 1) (6 .6 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 0. 2) (1 .7 ) (1 5. 1) 31 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 Pr im ar y 52 .6 30 .2 15 .1 0. 0 6. 8 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 8. 0 0. 0 30 .9 44 Se co nd ar y or H ig he r 49 .1 27 .6 13 .2 0. 0 5. 5 4. 5 1. 4 0. 1 3. 4 0. 0 14 .7 1. 6 24 .7 22 3 W ea lth in de xb Po or es t 4 0% 47 .9 27 .0 12 .2 0. 0 6. 5 5. 2 1. 4 0. 1 3. 3 0. 0 13 .3 1. 2 25 .8 21 2 Ri ch es t 6 0% 55 .6 34 .9 15 .7 0. 0 4. 4 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 0. 0 17 .5 1. 7 25 .8 65 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d Ea st In di an 56 .1 31 .9 22 .8 0. 0 8. 5 1. 3 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 7. 9 1. 8 18 .6 61 Af ric an 43 .6 29 .1 7. 1 0. 0 1. 6 1. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 .2 0. 0 21 .5 0. 0 31 .6 66 Am er in di an 61 .7 35 .2 10 .6 0. 0 10 .2 9. 6 0. 8 0. 2 1. 4 0. 0 13 .5 2. 0 14 .5 10 2 M ix ed R ac e (2 2. 8) (9 .3 ) ( 14 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 .5 ) (2 .4 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 4. 5) (1 .1 ) (5 1. 8) 47 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 2 - D ia rr ho ea tr ea tm en t w ith o ra l r eh yd ra ti on th er ap y (O RT ) a nd c on ti nu ed fe ed in g a Re gi on s w ith si m ila r c ha ra ct er isti cs h av e be en m er ge d in to re gi on al g ro up in gs b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es in in di vi du al re gi on s b W ea lth in de x ha ve b ee n gr ou pe d in to tw o ca te go rie s i ns te ad o f fi ve b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es b y qu in ti le c Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 119Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.9: Source of ORS Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who were given ORS, by the source of ORS, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children who were given as treatment for diarrhoea: Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks Percentage of children for whom the source of ORS was: Number of children age 0-59 months who were given ORS as treatment for diarrhoea in the last two weeks Health facilities or providers Other source DK/ Missing A health facility or providerb ORS Public Private Community health providera Total 42.5 277 81.3 16.6 15.7 0.9 1.2 97.9 118 Sex Male 42.3 167 82.4 16.2 16.7 1.4 0.0 98.6 71 Female 42.8 110 79.8 17.2 14.3 0.0 3.0 97.0 47 Regionc Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 52.0 99 95.7 1.5 34.3 0.0 2.8 97.2 52 Regions 2, 3 (21.9) 40 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 Region 4 34.4 83 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 29 Regions 5, 6 (55.1) 49 (77.4) (22.6) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (100.0) 27 Region 10 (*) 6 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 2 Area Urban (29.7) 40 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 12 Rural 44.7 237 80.9 16.8 17.5 1.0 1.4 97.7 106 Location Coastal 36.0 163 66.7 31.6 1.4 1.7 0.0 98.3 59 Urban Coastal (30.5) 37 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 11 Rural Coastal 37.6 126 (61.3) (36.5) (1.7) (2.1) (0.0) (97.9) 47 Interior 51.8 114 95.8 1.7 30.0 0.0 2.4 97.6 59 Age 0-23 months 44.6 127 84.4 13.8 14.6 1.8 0.0 98.2 57 24-59 months 40.7 150 78.5 19.2 16.8 0.0 2.3 97.7 61 Mother’s education None (*) 11 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 5 Primary 50.6 44 (73.0) (20.5) (18.7) (0.0) (6.5) (93.5) 22 Secondary or Higher 40.6 223 82.2 16.7 15.9 1.1 0.0 98.9 90 Wealth index quintiled Poorest 40% 42.6 212 87.5 10.9 19.7 0.0 1.6 98.4 90 Richest 60% 42.2 65 (60.8) (35.5) (2.5) (3.7) (0.0) (96.3) 27 Ethnicity of household heade, f East Indian 50.3 61 (57.5) (39.2) (2.7) (3.3) (0.0) (96.7) 31 African 33.7 66 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 22 Amerindian 55.0 102 92.5 4.9 31.6 0.0 2.6 97.4 56 Mixed Race (16.4) 47 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 8 a Community health provider includes both public (Community health worker and Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers c Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions d Wealth index have been grouped into two categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile e This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head f Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 120 Table CH.9 provides information on the source of ORS for children who benefitted from these treatments. The main source of ORS is the public sector (81%). In total, 98 percent of children who were given ORS obtained it from a health facility or provider. This percentage is the same for children living in both coastal and interior areas. However, the specific types of health facility or provider differ between these areas, with children in interior areas obtaining ORS primarily from the public sector (96%) or a community health provider (30%) and seldom from the private sector (2%), while those in coastal areas obtaining also from the public sector (67%), but seldom from a community health provider (1%) and almost one-third from the private sector (32%). Analysis by background characteristics is limited due to the small number of cases. acute Respiratory Infections Symptoms of ARI were collected during the Guyana MICS5 2014 to capture pneumonia disease, the leading cause of death in children under five, globally. Once diagnosed, pneumonia is treated effectively with antibiotics. Studies have shown a limitation in the survey approach of measuring pneumonia because many of the suspected cases identified through surveys are in fact, not true pneumonia.42 While this limitation does not affect the level and patterns of care-seeking for suspected pneumonia, it limits the validity of the level of treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics, as reported through household surveys. The treatment indicator described in this report must therefore be taken with caution, keeping in mind that the accurate level is likely higher. 42Campbell H., El Arifeen S., Hazir T., et al. (2013). Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment. PLoS Medicine 10(5): e1001421. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001421. Table CH.10 presents the percentage of children with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks preceding the survey for whom care was sought, by source of care and the percentage who received antibiotics. Eighty- four percent (84%) of children aged 0-59 months with symptoms of ARI were taken to a qualified provider. The great majority of these children were taken to a public health facility (77%), while much smaller proportions were taken to a private health facility (12%) or a community health provider (10%). For eight (8) percent of children with ARI symptoms, no advice or treatment was sought. Overall, 31 percent of children with ARI symptoms were given antibiotics. @Shutterstock 121Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.10: Care-seeking for and antibiotic treatment of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI)a Percentage of children age 0-59 months with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought, by source of advice or treatment, and percentage of children with symptoms who were given antibiotics, Guyana, 2014 Percentage of children with symptoms of ARI for whom: Percentage of children with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks who were given antibiotics2 Number of children age 0- 59 months with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks Advice or treatment was sought from: No advice or treatment sought Health facilities or providers Other source A health facility or provider1, c Public Private Community health providerb Total 76.8 11.8 9.6 6.7 83.6 7.8 30.9 74 Sex Male 69.8 15.9 12.7 10.9 77.4 8.5 37.0 45 Female (87.8) (5.4) (4.8) (0.0) (93.2) (6.8) (21.4) 29 Area Urban (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 7 Rural 79.3 9.2 10.6 4.8 86.7 7.6 27.9 67 Location Coastal (69.7) (18.3) (0.0) (8.9) (80.9) (6.9) (36.4) 45 Urban Coastal (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 7 Rural Coastal (72.8) (14.8) (0.0) (6.1) (86.1) (6.3) (32.1) 38 Interior 87.6 2.0 24.0 3.2 87.6 9.2 22.5 30 Aged 0-23 months (79.8) (7.2) (9.8) (7.4) (87.0) (5.5) (17.8) 23 24-59 months 75.5 13.9 9.5 6.3 82.0 8.9 36.9 51 Wealth indexe Poorest 85.8 0.0 21.7 8.2 85.8 5.9 17.3 33 Richest 80% (69.8) (21.1) (0.0) (5.4) (81.8) (9.3) (41.5) 42 Ethnicity of household headf, g East Indian (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 20 African (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 Amerindian 88.1 0.0 31.3 4.3 88.1 7.7 7.5 22 Mixed Race (77.9) (19.2) (0.0) (7.3) (87.2) (5.5) (63.4) 23 1 MICS indicator 3.13 - Care-seeking for children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms 2 MICS indicator 3.14 - Antibiotic treatment for children with ARI symptoms a Results by region and mother's education were removed from the table, due to number of unweighted cases <25 b Community health providers includes both public (Community health worker and Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities c Includes all public and private health facilities and providers, but excludes private pharmacy d Ages have been grouped into two categories because of the small number of cases d Wealth index have been grouped into three categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile f This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head g Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Although the source of antibiotics was also asked to the respondents, the number of cases was too small to show interpretable data by background characteristics and is therefore not shown (26 unweighted cases). While the small number of cases even for the total warrants caution, it can be mentioned that, for the children with ARI symptoms who were given antibiotics, the source of antibiotics was a health facility or provider for 99 percent of them. 122 Ta bl e CH .1 1: K no w le dg e of th e tw o da ng er si gn s o f p ne um on ia Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re m ot he rs o r c ar et ak er s o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y sy m pt om s t ha t w ou ld c au se th em to ta ke a c hi ld u nd er a ge 5 im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y, a nd p er ce nt ag e of m ot he rs w ho re co gn ize fa st o r d iffi cu lt br ea th in g as si gn s f or se ek in g ca re im m ed ia te ly , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f m ot he rs /c ar et ak er s o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ho th in k th at a c hi ld sh ou ld b e ta ke n im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y if th e ch ild : M ot he rs /c ar et ak er s w ho re co gn ize a t le as t o ne o f t he tw o da ng er si gn s o f pn eu m on ia (f as t an d/ or d iffi cu lt br ea th in g) N um be r o f w om en ag e 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ho ar e m ot he rs /c ar et ak er s of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Is n ot a bl e to dr in k or br ea stf ee d Be co m es sic ke r De ve lo ps a fe ve r Ha s f as t br ea th in g Ha s di ffi cu lt br ea th in g Ha s bl oo d in st oo l Is dr in ki ng po or ly Vo m iti ng m or e th an 1 w ee k Di ar rh oe a m or e th an 1 w ee k Ra sh m or e th an 1 w ee k Ha s o th er sy m pt om s To ta l 9. 5 15 .6 66 .0 19 .7 28 .4 14 .4 9. 0 57 .2 58 .0 13 .4 18 .4 37 .8 1 ,3 99 Re gi on Re gi on 1 34 .0 39 .5 65 .7 36 .2 37 .6 36 .6 36 .2 68 .8 61 .4 35 .9 13 .0 40 .9 4 6 Re gi on 2 4. 8 16 .0 52 .9 15 .8 37 .4 10 .0 6. 3 91 .6 82 .8 18 .3 0. 7 49 .6 6 7 Re gi on 3 2. 1 8. 7 71 .9 15 .0 18 .3 4. 0 2. 4 42 .6 45 .0 2. 3 18 .0 30 .9 1 94 Re gi on 4 8. 7 13 .8 65 .0 19 .8 31 .7 15 .1 6. 7 57 .5 58 .2 13 .9 24 .8 40 .4 5 92 Re gi on 5 5. 4 5. 5 59 .7 8. 0 18 .9 1. 9 0. 3 39 .9 45 .1 2. 1 18 .0 24 .1 9 8 Re gi on 6 3. 5 11 .9 66 .9 18 .2 23 .5 13 .0 10 .4 51 .3 50 .6 8. 5 0. 8 37 .7 1 84 Re gi on s 7 & 8 6. 4 17 .3 70 .6 13 .9 22 .2 14 .7 5. 2 61 .3 73 .5 14 .6 38 .3 26 .4 6 8 Re gi on 9 23 .7 28 .7 62 .5 24 .2 30 .7 23 .1 16 .9 71 .8 77 .5 23 .6 17 .1 37 .5 7 6 Re gi on 1 0 32 .5 39 .0 76 .4 44 .6 42 .5 37 .5 33 .3 72 .4 67 .1 36 .3 14 .2 51 .0 7 6 Ar ea U rb an 14 .3 19 .5 65 .1 26 .6 40 .9 26 .9 14 .5 62 .2 62 .1 24 .6 20 .1 48 .8 3 40 Ru ra l 7. 9 14 .3 66 .3 17 .5 24 .4 10 .4 7. 3 55 .6 56 .7 9. 8 17 .8 34 .3 1 ,0 59 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 6. 3 12 .0 65 .4 17 .7 27 .5 11 .6 6. 1 54 .3 54 .8 10 .5 17 .9 37 .7 1 ,1 14 U rb an C oa st al 10 .5 15 .3 62 .8 22 .5 39 .6 23 .5 10 .5 60 .0 61 .7 21 .4 21 .5 47 .4 2 95 Ru ra l C oa st al 4. 8 10 .8 66 .4 16 .1 23 .2 7. 4 4. 6 52 .2 52 .3 6. 7 16 .7 34 .3 8 20 In te rio r 21 .8 29 .4 68 .3 27 .4 31 .8 25 .4 20 .3 68 .5 70 .5 24 .7 20 .0 38 .1 2 85 Ed uc ati on N on e 7. 4 16 .2 57 .3 22 .0 13 .6 8. 2 15 .2 51 .6 53 .3 9. 1 27 .8 27 .8 2 4 Pr im ar y 11 .3 16 .1 66 .9 19 .5 22 .2 12 .3 9. 2 56 .0 57 .6 12 .5 18 .2 32 .4 1 87 Se co nd ar y 9. 2 15 .5 65 .3 19 .3 28 .3 14 .7 8. 9 57 .5 58 .3 13 .3 17 .7 37 .2 1 ,0 44 Hi gh er 9. 6 15 .0 71 .4 22 .9 39 .6 16 .4 9. 0 57 .6 56 .8 16 .2 21 .6 50 .4 1 44 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le Po or es t 13 .2 19 .3 63 .5 21 .1 29 .9 16 .7 11 .0 60 .3 62 .7 15 .6 20 .4 37 .6 39 0 Se co nd 7. 6 12 .4 62 .6 17 .4 22 .1 11 .9 8. 4 53 .8 52 .8 10 .9 15 .1 32 .7 29 8 M id dl e 4. 5 15 .0 69 .8 18 .4 26 .9 9. 9 7. 1 56 .4 57 .2 10 .2 18 .1 37 .2 26 5 Fo ur th 13 .1 16 .4 70 .0 23 .2 34 .9 19 .7 11 .9 58 .5 60 .9 14 .1 14 .0 44 .8 21 3 Ri ch es t 8. 1 13 .3 66 .7 18 .6 29 .9 14 .2 6. 2 56 .0 55 .0 16 .0 23 .4 38 .9 23 2 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b Ea st In di an 4. 3 10 .9 69 .1 14 .0 20 .3 9. 1 6. 3 53 .4 51 .7 9. 1 16 .8 29 .6 4 92 Af ric an 10 .1 14 .5 62 .4 24 .0 34 .6 16 .4 7. 9 52 .9 55 .7 14 .0 19 .1 46 .0 4 32 Am er in di an 18 .7 26 .1 63 .7 21 .5 26 .9 20 .8 14 .3 67 .4 71 .9 19 .5 19 .7 32 .9 1 89 M ix ed R ac e 11 .1 17 .9 68 .0 21 .7 33 .7 16 .2 11 .6 63 .2 63 .6 15 .7 19 .3 42 .5 2 80 a Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 123Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e CH .1 1: K no w le dg e of th e tw o da ng er si gn s o f p ne um on ia Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re m ot he rs o r c ar et ak er s o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y sy m pt om s t ha t w ou ld c au se th em to ta ke a c hi ld u nd er a ge 5 im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y, a nd p er ce nt ag e of m ot he rs w ho re co gn ize fa st o r d iffi cu lt br ea th in g as si gn s f or se ek in g ca re im m ed ia te ly , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f m ot he rs /c ar et ak er s o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ho th in k th at a c hi ld sh ou ld b e ta ke n im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y if th e ch ild : M ot he rs /c ar et ak er s w ho re co gn ize a t le as t o ne o f t he tw o da ng er si gn s o f pn eu m on ia (f as t an d/ or d iffi cu lt br ea th in g) N um be r o f w om en ag e 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ho ar e m ot he rs /c ar et ak er s of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Is n ot a bl e to dr in k or br ea stf ee d Be co m es sic ke r De ve lo ps a fe ve r Ha s f as t br ea th in g Ha s di ffi cu lt br ea th in g Ha s bl oo d in st oo l Is dr in ki ng po or ly Vo m iti ng m or e th an 1 w ee k Di ar rh oe a m or e th an 1 w ee k Ra sh m or e th an 1 w ee k Ha s o th er sy m pt om s To ta l 9. 5 15 .6 66 .0 19 .7 28 .4 14 .4 9. 0 57 .2 58 .0 13 .4 18 .4 37 .8 1 ,3 99 Re gi on Re gi on 1 34 .0 39 .5 65 .7 36 .2 37 .6 36 .6 36 .2 68 .8 61 .4 35 .9 13 .0 40 .9 4 6 Re gi on 2 4. 8 16 .0 52 .9 15 .8 37 .4 10 .0 6. 3 91 .6 82 .8 18 .3 0. 7 49 .6 6 7 Re gi on 3 2. 1 8. 7 71 .9 15 .0 18 .3 4. 0 2. 4 42 .6 45 .0 2. 3 18 .0 30 .9 1 94 Re gi on 4 8. 7 13 .8 65 .0 19 .8 31 .7 15 .1 6. 7 57 .5 58 .2 13 .9 24 .8 40 .4 5 92 Re gi on 5 5. 4 5. 5 59 .7 8. 0 18 .9 1. 9 0. 3 39 .9 45 .1 2. 1 18 .0 24 .1 9 8 Re gi on 6 3. 5 11 .9 66 .9 18 .2 23 .5 13 .0 10 .4 51 .3 50 .6 8. 5 0. 8 37 .7 1 84 Re gi on s 7 & 8 6. 4 17 .3 70 .6 13 .9 22 .2 14 .7 5. 2 61 .3 73 .5 14 .6 38 .3 26 .4 6 8 Re gi on 9 23 .7 28 .7 62 .5 24 .2 30 .7 23 .1 16 .9 71 .8 77 .5 23 .6 17 .1 37 .5 7 6 Re gi on 1 0 32 .5 39 .0 76 .4 44 .6 42 .5 37 .5 33 .3 72 .4 67 .1 36 .3 14 .2 51 .0 7 6 Ar ea U rb an 14 .3 19 .5 65 .1 26 .6 40 .9 26 .9 14 .5 62 .2 62 .1 24 .6 20 .1 48 .8 3 40 Ru ra l 7. 9 14 .3 66 .3 17 .5 24 .4 10 .4 7. 3 55 .6 56 .7 9. 8 17 .8 34 .3 1 ,0 59 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 6. 3 12 .0 65 .4 17 .7 27 .5 11 .6 6. 1 54 .3 54 .8 10 .5 17 .9 37 .7 1 ,1 14 U rb an C oa st al 10 .5 15 .3 62 .8 22 .5 39 .6 23 .5 10 .5 60 .0 61 .7 21 .4 21 .5 47 .4 2 95 Ru ra l C oa st al 4. 8 10 .8 66 .4 16 .1 23 .2 7. 4 4. 6 52 .2 52 .3 6. 7 16 .7 34 .3 8 20 In te rio r 21 .8 29 .4 68 .3 27 .4 31 .8 25 .4 20 .3 68 .5 70 .5 24 .7 20 .0 38 .1 2 85 Ed uc ati on N on e 7. 4 16 .2 57 .3 22 .0 13 .6 8. 2 15 .2 51 .6 53 .3 9. 1 27 .8 27 .8 2 4 Pr im ar y 11 .3 16 .1 66 .9 19 .5 22 .2 12 .3 9. 2 56 .0 57 .6 12 .5 18 .2 32 .4 1 87 Se co nd ar y 9. 2 15 .5 65 .3 19 .3 28 .3 14 .7 8. 9 57 .5 58 .3 13 .3 17 .7 37 .2 1 ,0 44 Hi gh er 9. 6 15 .0 71 .4 22 .9 39 .6 16 .4 9. 0 57 .6 56 .8 16 .2 21 .6 50 .4 1 44 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le Po or es t 13 .2 19 .3 63 .5 21 .1 29 .9 16 .7 11 .0 60 .3 62 .7 15 .6 20 .4 37 .6 39 0 Se co nd 7. 6 12 .4 62 .6 17 .4 22 .1 11 .9 8. 4 53 .8 52 .8 10 .9 15 .1 32 .7 29 8 M id dl e 4. 5 15 .0 69 .8 18 .4 26 .9 9. 9 7. 1 56 .4 57 .2 10 .2 18 .1 37 .2 26 5 Fo ur th 13 .1 16 .4 70 .0 23 .2 34 .9 19 .7 11 .9 58 .5 60 .9 14 .1 14 .0 44 .8 21 3 Ri ch es t 8. 1 13 .3 66 .7 18 .6 29 .9 14 .2 6. 2 56 .0 55 .0 16 .0 23 .4 38 .9 23 2 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b Ea st In di an 4. 3 10 .9 69 .1 14 .0 20 .3 9. 1 6. 3 53 .4 51 .7 9. 1 16 .8 29 .6 4 92 Af ric an 10 .1 14 .5 62 .4 24 .0 34 .6 16 .4 7. 9 52 .9 55 .7 14 .0 19 .1 46 .0 4 32 Am er in di an 18 .7 26 .1 63 .7 21 .5 26 .9 20 .8 14 .3 67 .4 71 .9 19 .5 19 .7 32 .9 1 89 M ix ed R ac e 11 .1 17 .9 68 .0 21 .7 33 .7 16 .2 11 .6 63 .2 63 .6 15 .7 19 .3 42 .5 2 80 a Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e CH .1 1: K no w le dg e of th e tw o da ng er si gn s o f p ne um on ia Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re m ot he rs o r c ar et ak er s o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y sy m pt om s t ha t w ou ld c au se th em to ta ke a c hi ld u nd er a ge 5 im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y, a nd p er ce nt ag e of m ot he rs w ho re co gn ize fa st o r d iffi cu lt br ea th in g as si gn s f or se ek in g ca re im m ed ia te ly , G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f m ot he rs /c ar et ak er s o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ho th in k th at a c hi ld sh ou ld b e ta ke n im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y if th e ch ild : M ot he rs /c ar et ak er s w ho re co gn ize a t le as t o ne o f t he tw o da ng er si gn s o f pn eu m on ia (f as t an d/ or d iffi cu lt br ea th in g) N um be r o f w om en ag e 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ho ar e m ot he rs /c ar et ak er s of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Is n ot a bl e to dr in k or br ea stf ee d Be co m es sic ke r De ve lo ps a fe ve r Ha s f as t br ea th in g Ha s di ffi cu lt br ea th in g Ha s bl oo d in st oo l Is dr in ki ng po or ly Vo m iti ng m or e th an 1 w ee k Di ar rh oe a m or e th an 1 w ee k Ra sh m or e th an 1 w ee k Ha s o th er sy m pt om s To ta l 9. 5 15 .6 66 .0 19 .7 28 .4 14 .4 9. 0 57 .2 58 .0 13 .4 18 .4 37 .8 1 ,3 99 Re gi on Re gi on 1 34 .0 39 .5 65 .7 36 .2 37 .6 36 .6 36 .2 68 .8 61 .4 35 .9 13 .0 40 .9 4 6 Re gi on 2 4. 8 16 .0 52 .9 15 .8 37 .4 10 .0 6. 3 91 .6 82 .8 18 .3 0. 7 49 .6 6 7 Re gi on 3 2. 1 8. 7 71 .9 15 .0 18 .3 4. 0 2. 4 42 .6 45 .0 2. 3 18 .0 30 .9 1 94 Re gi on 4 8. 7 13 .8 65 .0 19 .8 31 .7 15 .1 6. 7 57 .5 58 .2 13 .9 24 .8 40 .4 5 92 Re gi on 5 5. 4 5. 5 59 .7 8. 0 18 .9 1. 9 0. 3 39 .9 45 .1 2. 1 18 .0 24 .1 9 8 Re gi on 6 3. 5 11 .9 66 .9 18 .2 23 .5 13 .0 10 .4 51 .3 50 .6 8. 5 0. 8 37 .7 1 84 Re gi on s 7 & 8 6. 4 17 .3 70 .6 13 .9 22 .2 14 .7 5. 2 61 .3 73 .5 14 .6 38 .3 26 .4 6 8 Re gi on 9 23 .7 28 .7 62 .5 24 .2 30 .7 23 .1 16 .9 71 .8 77 .5 23 .6 17 .1 37 .5 7 6 Re gi on 1 0 32 .5 39 .0 76 .4 44 .6 42 .5 37 .5 33 .3 72 .4 67 .1 36 .3 14 .2 51 .0 7 6 Ar ea U rb an 14 .3 19 .5 65 .1 26 .6 40 .9 26 .9 14 .5 62 .2 62 .1 24 .6 20 .1 48 .8 3 40 Ru ra l 7. 9 14 .3 66 .3 17 .5 24 .4 10 .4 7. 3 55 .6 56 .7 9. 8 17 .8 34 .3 1 ,0 59 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 6. 3 12 .0 65 .4 17 .7 27 .5 11 .6 6. 1 54 .3 54 .8 10 .5 17 .9 37 .7 1 ,1 14 U rb an C oa st al 10 .5 15 .3 62 .8 22 .5 39 .6 23 .5 10 .5 60 .0 61 .7 21 .4 21 .5 47 .4 2 95 Ru ra l C oa st al 4. 8 10 .8 66 .4 16 .1 23 .2 7. 4 4. 6 52 .2 52 .3 6. 7 16 .7 34 .3 8 20 In te rio r 21 .8 29 .4 68 .3 27 .4 31 .8 25 .4 20 .3 68 .5 70 .5 24 .7 20 .0 38 .1 2 85 Ed uc ati on N on e 7. 4 16 .2 57 .3 22 .0 13 .6 8. 2 15 .2 51 .6 53 .3 9. 1 27 .8 27 .8 2 4 Pr im ar y 11 .3 16 .1 66 .9 19 .5 22 .2 12 .3 9. 2 56 .0 57 .6 12 .5 18 .2 32 .4 1 87 Se co nd ar y 9. 2 15 .5 65 .3 19 .3 28 .3 14 .7 8. 9 57 .5 58 .3 13 .3 17 .7 37 .2 1 ,0 44 Hi gh er 9. 6 15 .0 71 .4 22 .9 39 .6 16 .4 9. 0 57 .6 56 .8 16 .2 21 .6 50 .4 1 44 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le Po or es t 13 .2 19 .3 63 .5 21 .1 29 .9 16 .7 11 .0 60 .3 62 .7 15 .6 20 .4 37 .6 39 0 Se co nd 7. 6 12 .4 62 .6 17 .4 22 .1 11 .9 8. 4 53 .8 52 .8 10 .9 15 .1 32 .7 29 8 M id dl e 4. 5 15 .0 69 .8 18 .4 26 .9 9. 9 7. 1 56 .4 57 .2 10 .2 18 .1 37 .2 26 5 Fo ur th 13 .1 16 .4 70 .0 23 .2 34 .9 19 .7 11 .9 58 .5 60 .9 14 .1 14 .0 44 .8 21 3 Ri ch es t 8. 1 13 .3 66 .7 18 .6 29 .9 14 .2 6. 2 56 .0 55 .0 16 .0 23 .4 38 .9 23 2 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b Ea st In di an 4. 3 10 .9 69 .1 14 .0 20 .3 9. 1 6. 3 53 .4 51 .7 9. 1 16 .8 29 .6 4 92 Af ric an 10 .1 14 .5 62 .4 24 .0 34 .6 16 .4 7. 9 52 .9 55 .7 14 .0 19 .1 46 .0 4 32 Am er in di an 18 .7 26 .1 63 .7 21 .5 26 .9 20 .8 14 .3 67 .4 71 .9 19 .5 19 .7 32 .9 1 89 M ix ed R ac e 11 .1 17 .9 68 .0 21 .7 33 .7 16 .2 11 .6 63 .2 63 .6 15 .7 19 .3 42 .5 2 80 a Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b Ca te go ry "O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a sm al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s 124 Mothers’ knowledge of danger signs is an important determinant of care-seeking behaviour. In the MICS5, mothers or caretakers were asked to report symptoms that would cause them to take a child under-five for care immediately at a health facility. Issues related to knowledge of danger signs of pneumonia are presented in Table CH.11. Overall, 38 percent of women know at least one of the two danger signs of pneumonia – fast and/or difficult breathing. The most commonly identified symptom for taking a child to a health facility is fever (66%), followed by diarrhoea for more than one week (58%), and vomiting for more than one week (57%). About 20 percent of mothers identified fast breathing and 28 percent difficult breathing as symptoms for taking children immediately to a health care provider. The knowledge of at least one of the two danger signs of pneumonia varies between 24 percent in Region 5 to 51 percent in Region 10. It is more prevalent in urban areas (49%) than in rural areas (34%), though there is no coastal-interior difference (38% in each case). Mother’s knowledge increases with her level of education, from 28 percent for mothers with no education, to 50 percent with those with higher education; however, it does not appear to have a clear correlation with the socio-economic status of the household. In addition, women living in households with an African (46%) or mixed race (43%) household head are more likely to know the danger signs than those living in households with an Amerindian (33%) or East Indian (30%) household head. Solid Fuel use More than three billion people around the world rely on solid fuels for their basic energy needs, including cooking and heating. Solid fuels include biomass fuels, such as wood, charcoal, crops or other agricultural waste, dung, shrubs and straw, and coal. Cooking and heating with solid fuels leads to high levels of indoor smoke which contains a complex mix of health- damaging pollutants. The main problem with the use of solid fuels is their incomplete combustion, which produces toxic elements such as carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and sulphur dioxide (SO2), among others. Use of solid fuels increases the risks of incurring acute respiratory illness, pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer, and possibly tuberculosis, asthma, or cataracts, and may contribute to low birth weight of babies born to pregnant women exposed to smoke. The primary indicator for monitoring use of solid fuels is the proportion of the population using solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking, shown in Table CH.12. 125Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e CH .1 2: S ol id fu el u se Pe rc en t d ist rib uti on o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs a cc or di ng to ty pe o f c oo ki ng fu el m ai nl y us ed b y th e ho us eh ol d, a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in h ou se ho ld s u sin g so lid fu el s f or c oo ki ng , G uy an a M IC S5 , 20 14 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s m ai nl y us in g: N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs El ec tr ic ity Li qu efi ed Pe tr ol eu m Ga s ( LP G) N at ur al Ga s Bi og as Ke ro se ne So lid fu el s O th er fu el M iss in g N o fo od co ok ed in th e ho us eh ol d To ta l So lid fu el s fo r co ok in g1 Co al / Li gn ite Ch ar - co al W oo d St ra w / Sh ru bs / Gr as s Ag ric ul tu ra l cr op re sid ue To ta l 2. 2 63 .6 5. 1 0. 0 21 .8 0. 2 0. 1 6. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 6. 9 1 9, 32 1 Re gi on Re gi on 1 0. 5 35 .0 1. 6 0. 0 23 .6 0. 0 0. 0 38 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 10 0. 0 38 .3 3 58 Re gi on 2 0. 9 53 .0 1. 1 0. 0 33 .6 0. 0 0. 9 10 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 11 .0 1 ,0 70 Re gi on 3 0. 7 79 .6 0. 0 0. 0 16 .4 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 3. 1 3 ,0 40 Re gi on 4 1. 1 69 .1 10 .4 0. 1 17 .3 0. 3 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 1. 6 8 ,5 55 Re gi on 5 1. 2 62 .7 1. 8 0. 0 32 .6 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 6 1 ,3 22 Re gi on 6 0. 1 53 .5 0. 1 0. 0 38 .2 0. 0 0. 2 7. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 7. 7 2 ,8 31 Re gi on s 7 & 8 0. 3 40 .3 0. 9 0. 0 11 .7 0. 0 0. 6 45 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 45 .9 5 23 Re gi on 9 0. 0 41 .5 2. 2 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 0. 7 53 .7 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 54 .8 6 48 Re gi on 1 0 29 .2 45 .8 2. 3 0. 0 21 .2 0. 4 0. 3 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 5 9 74 Ar ea U rb an 5. 5 73 .1 1. 7 0. 0 17 .4 0. 1 0. 1 1. 5 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 10 0. 0 1. 8 5 ,2 63 Ru ra l 1. 0 60 .1 6. 3 0. 1 23 .5 0. 2 0. 1 8. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 8. 9 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 0. 9 67 .4 5. 6 0. 0 22 .7 0. 1 0. 0 2. 8 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 2. 9 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 1. 0 77 .2 1. 7 0. 0 17 .6 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 2 10 0. 0 1. 8 4 ,5 94 Ru ra l C oa st al 0. 9 63 .7 7. 1 0. 1 24 .7 0. 1 0. 0 3. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3. 4 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 9. 8 41 .0 2. 0 0. 0 16 .3 0. 6 0. 7 29 .1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 30 .6 2 ,7 95 Ed uc ati on o f h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 0. 0 45 .4 3. 3 0. 0 23 .3 0. 0 0. 0 27 .9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 27 .9 4 07 Pr im ar y 1. 3 56 .5 2. 6 0. 0 30 .3 0. 0 0. 0 8. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 8. 7 6 ,2 38 Se co nd ar y 2. 6 65 .4 6. 4 0. 1 19 .2 0. 3 0. 2 5. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 6. 1 1 0, 55 9 Hi gh er 3. 3 85 .0 6. 0 0. 0 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 7 1 ,6 25 M iss in g/ DK 4. 0 60 .3 6. 1 0. 0 23 .6 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le s Po or es t 0. 5 25 .0 1. 0 0. 0 45 .4 0. 4 0. 7 26 .3 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 27 .4 3 ,8 62 Se co nd 1. 6 51 .8 3. 5 0. 1 39 .0 0. 2 0. 0 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3. 9 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 3. 4 65 .8 8. 1 0. 1 19 .2 0. 3 0. 0 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 2. 9 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 3. 6 85 .3 5. 8 0. 0 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 0. 3 3 ,8 60 Ri ch es t 2. 1 90 .2 6. 8 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 2 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da Ea st In di an 0. 8 61 .5 6. 4 0. 0 25 .6 0. 3 0. 0 5. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 5. 3 8 ,2 14 Af ric an 3. 9 71 .5 4. 5 0. 0 18 .9 0. 1 0. 1 0. 6 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 9 5 ,9 90 Am er in di an 0. 2 34 .1 1. 4 0. 0 18 .4 0. 0 0. 7 44 .7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 45 .6 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 3. 9 69 .3 4. 5 0. 1 19 .2 0. 2 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 2. 9 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK 0. 0 64 .2 6. 2 0. 0 29 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 0 8 9 a Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d (C on tin ue d) 126 Ta bl e CH .1 2: S ol id fu el u se Pe rc en t d ist rib uti on o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs a cc or di ng to ty pe o f c oo ki ng fu el m ai nl y us ed b y th e ho us eh ol d, a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in h ou se ho ld s u sin g so lid fu el s f or c oo ki ng , G uy an a M IC S5 , 20 14 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s m ai nl y us in g: N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs El ec tr ic ity Li qu efi ed Pe tr ol eu m Ga s ( LP G) N at ur al Ga s Bi og as Ke ro se ne So lid fu el s O th er fu el M iss in g N o fo od co ok ed in th e ho us eh ol d To ta l So lid fu el s fo r co ok in g1 Co al / Li gn ite Ch ar - co al W oo d St ra w / Sh ru bs / Gr as s Ag ric ul tu ra l cr op re sid ue To ta l 2. 2 63 .6 5. 1 0. 0 21 .8 0. 2 0. 1 6. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 6. 9 1 9, 32 1 Re gi on Re gi on 1 0. 5 35 .0 1. 6 0. 0 23 .6 0. 0 0. 0 38 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 10 0. 0 38 .3 3 58 Re gi on 2 0. 9 53 .0 1. 1 0. 0 33 .6 0. 0 0. 9 10 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 11 .0 1 ,0 70 Re gi on 3 0. 7 79 .6 0. 0 0. 0 16 .4 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 3. 1 3 ,0 40 Re gi on 4 1. 1 69 .1 10 .4 0. 1 17 .3 0. 3 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 1. 6 8 ,5 55 Re gi on 5 1. 2 62 .7 1. 8 0. 0 32 .6 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 6 1 ,3 22 Re gi on 6 0. 1 53 .5 0. 1 0. 0 38 .2 0. 0 0. 2 7. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 7. 7 2 ,8 31 Re gi on s 7 & 8 0. 3 40 .3 0. 9 0. 0 11 .7 0. 0 0. 6 45 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 45 .9 5 23 Re gi on 9 0. 0 41 .5 2. 2 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 0. 7 53 .7 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 54 .8 6 48 Re gi on 1 0 29 .2 45 .8 2. 3 0. 0 21 .2 0. 4 0. 3 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 5 9 74 Ar ea U rb an 5. 5 73 .1 1. 7 0. 0 17 .4 0. 1 0. 1 1. 5 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 10 0. 0 1. 8 5 ,2 63 Ru ra l 1. 0 60 .1 6. 3 0. 1 23 .5 0. 2 0. 1 8. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 8. 9 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 0. 9 67 .4 5. 6 0. 0 22 .7 0. 1 0. 0 2. 8 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 2. 9 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 1. 0 77 .2 1. 7 0. 0 17 .6 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 2 10 0. 0 1. 8 4 ,5 94 Ru ra l C oa st al 0. 9 63 .7 7. 1 0. 1 24 .7 0. 1 0. 0 3. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3. 4 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 9. 8 41 .0 2. 0 0. 0 16 .3 0. 6 0. 7 29 .1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 30 .6 2 ,7 95 Ed uc ati on o f h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 0. 0 45 .4 3. 3 0. 0 23 .3 0. 0 0. 0 27 .9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 27 .9 4 07 Pr im ar y 1. 3 56 .5 2. 6 0. 0 30 .3 0. 0 0. 0 8. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 8. 7 6 ,2 38 Se co nd ar y 2. 6 65 .4 6. 4 0. 1 19 .2 0. 3 0. 2 5. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 6. 1 1 0, 55 9 Hi gh er 3. 3 85 .0 6. 0 0. 0 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 7 1 ,6 25 M iss in g/ DK 4. 0 60 .3 6. 1 0. 0 23 .6 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le s Po or es t 0. 5 25 .0 1. 0 0. 0 45 .4 0. 4 0. 7 26 .3 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 27 .4 3 ,8 62 Se co nd 1. 6 51 .8 3. 5 0. 1 39 .0 0. 2 0. 0 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3. 9 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 3. 4 65 .8 8. 1 0. 1 19 .2 0. 3 0. 0 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 2. 9 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 3. 6 85 .3 5. 8 0. 0 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 0. 3 3 ,8 60 Ri ch es t 2. 1 90 .2 6. 8 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 2 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da Ea st In di an 0. 8 61 .5 6. 4 0. 0 25 .6 0. 3 0. 0 5. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 5. 3 8 ,2 14 Af ric an 3. 9 71 .5 4. 5 0. 0 18 .9 0. 1 0. 1 0. 6 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 9 5 ,9 90 Am er in di an 0. 2 34 .1 1. 4 0. 0 18 .4 0. 0 0. 7 44 .7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 45 .6 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 3. 9 69 .3 4. 5 0. 1 19 .2 0. 2 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 2. 9 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK 0. 0 64 .2 6. 2 0. 0 29 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 0 8 9 a Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d Ta bl e CH .1 2: S ol id fu el u se Pe rc en t d ist rib uti on o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs a cc or di ng to ty pe o f c oo ki ng fu el m ai nl y us ed b y th e ho us eh ol d, a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in h ou se ho ld s u sin g so lid fu el s f or c oo ki ng , G uy an a M IC S5 , 20 14 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s m ai nl y us in g: N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs El ec tr ic ity Li qu efi ed Pe tr ol eu m Ga s ( LP G) N at ur al Ga s Bi og as Ke ro se ne So lid fu el s O th er fu el M iss in g N o fo od co ok ed in th e ho us eh ol d To ta l So lid fu el s fo r co ok in g1 Co al / Li gn ite Ch ar - co al W oo d St ra w / Sh ru bs / Gr as s Ag ric ul tu ra l cr op re sid ue To ta l 2. 2 63 .6 5. 1 0. 0 21 .8 0. 2 0. 1 6. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 6. 9 1 9, 32 1 Re gi on Re gi on 1 0. 5 35 .0 1. 6 0. 0 23 .6 0. 0 0. 0 38 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 10 0. 0 38 .3 3 58 Re gi on 2 0. 9 53 .0 1. 1 0. 0 33 .6 0. 0 0. 9 10 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 11 .0 1 ,0 70 Re gi on 3 0. 7 79 .6 0. 0 0. 0 16 .4 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 3. 1 3 ,0 40 Re gi on 4 1. 1 69 .1 10 .4 0. 1 17 .3 0. 3 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 1. 6 8 ,5 55 Re gi on 5 1. 2 62 .7 1. 8 0. 0 32 .6 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 6 1 ,3 22 Re gi on 6 0. 1 53 .5 0. 1 0. 0 38 .2 0. 0 0. 2 7. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 7. 7 2 ,8 31 Re gi on s 7 & 8 0. 3 40 .3 0. 9 0. 0 11 .7 0. 0 0. 6 45 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 45 .9 5 23 Re gi on 9 0. 0 41 .5 2. 2 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 0. 7 53 .7 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 54 .8 6 48 Re gi on 1 0 29 .2 45 .8 2. 3 0. 0 21 .2 0. 4 0. 3 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 5 9 74 Ar ea U rb an 5. 5 73 .1 1. 7 0. 0 17 .4 0. 1 0. 1 1. 5 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 10 0. 0 1. 8 5 ,2 63 Ru ra l 1. 0 60 .1 6. 3 0. 1 23 .5 0. 2 0. 1 8. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 8. 9 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 0. 9 67 .4 5. 6 0. 0 22 .7 0. 1 0. 0 2. 8 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 2. 9 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 1. 0 77 .2 1. 7 0. 0 17 .6 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 2 10 0. 0 1. 8 4 ,5 94 Ru ra l C oa st al 0. 9 63 .7 7. 1 0. 1 24 .7 0. 1 0. 0 3. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3. 4 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 9. 8 41 .0 2. 0 0. 0 16 .3 0. 6 0. 7 29 .1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 30 .6 2 ,7 95 Ed uc ati on o f h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 0. 0 45 .4 3. 3 0. 0 23 .3 0. 0 0. 0 27 .9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 27 .9 4 07 Pr im ar y 1. 3 56 .5 2. 6 0. 0 30 .3 0. 0 0. 0 8. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 8. 7 6 ,2 38 Se co nd ar y 2. 6 65 .4 6. 4 0. 1 19 .2 0. 3 0. 2 5. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 6. 1 1 0, 55 9 Hi gh er 3. 3 85 .0 6. 0 0. 0 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 7 1 ,6 25 M iss in g/ DK 4. 0 60 .3 6. 1 0. 0 23 .6 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le s Po or es t 0. 5 25 .0 1. 0 0. 0 45 .4 0. 4 0. 7 26 .3 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 27 .4 3 ,8 62 Se co nd 1. 6 51 .8 3. 5 0. 1 39 .0 0. 2 0. 0 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3. 9 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 3. 4 65 .8 8. 1 0. 1 19 .2 0. 3 0. 0 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 2. 9 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 3. 6 85 .3 5. 8 0. 0 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 0. 3 3 ,8 60 Ri ch es t 2. 1 90 .2 6. 8 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 2 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da Ea st In di an 0. 8 61 .5 6. 4 0. 0 25 .6 0. 3 0. 0 5. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 5. 3 8 ,2 14 Af ric an 3. 9 71 .5 4. 5 0. 0 18 .9 0. 1 0. 1 0. 6 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 9 5 ,9 90 Am er in di an 0. 2 34 .1 1. 4 0. 0 18 .4 0. 0 0. 7 44 .7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 45 .6 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 3. 9 69 .3 4. 5 0. 1 19 .2 0. 2 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 2. 9 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M iss in g/ DK 0. 0 64 .2 6. 2 0. 0 29 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 0 8 9 a Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d 127Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Overall, only seven (7) percent of the household population in Guyana use solid fuels for cooking, consisting of wood (7%), and the use of other forms of solid fuels is negligible. Use of solid fuels is very low in urban areas (2%), compared to rural areas (9%), very low in coastal areas (3%), and very high in interior areas, where they are used by almost one-third of household members (31%). Solid fuel use by region shows that the country is divided into regions where use of solid fuel is low, even rare (Regions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10, with 2-11%), and regions where solid fuel is the main type of fuel used (Regions 1, 7 & 8, and 9, with 38-55%). Differentials with respect to household wealth and the educational level of the household head are important, with the poorest households and those with a household head with no education being the main users of solid fuel. Furthermore, 46 percent of households with an Amerindian household head use solid fuel. In all cases, wood is the primary solid fuel used, and other forms of solid fuels are rarely used, regardless of the background characteristics. Solid fuel use by place of cooking is depicted in Table CH.13. The presence and extent of indoor pollution are dependent on cooking practices, places used for cooking, as well as types of fuel used. According to the Guyana MICS5 2014, 31 percent of the population living in households using solid fuels for cooking, cook food in a separate room that is used as a kitchen. The majority of household members cook using solid fuels outside the house, as 35 percent of them cook outdoors, and 28 percent cook in a separate building. Only four (4) percent of household members cook elsewhere in the house. The proportion of household members cooking in a separate room that is used as kitchen does not vary much between the areas or location of residence (30-33%); however, the practice of cooking elsewhere in the house is non-existent in the urban areas but is seen in rural, coastal and interior areas (4-5%). Cooking elsewhere in the house is more common in Regions 3 and 6 (7%). The percentage of household members that have food cooked within the dwelling unit, but not in a separate room, is higher in the poorest households, households with a non- educated household head, and in households with a mixed race or Amerindian household head. 128 Table CH.13: Solid fuel use by place of cooking Percent distribution of household members in households using solid fuels by place of cooking, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Place of cooking: Number of household members in households using solid fuels for cooking In the house In a separate building Outdoors Other place Missing Total In a separate room used as kitchen Elsewhere in the house Total 30.8 4.4 28.0 34.8 0.8 1.2 100.0 1,340 Region Region 1 39.6 3.0 24.3 19.8 8.0 5.2 100.0 137 Region 2 50.4 0.0 16.8 32.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 118 Region 3 11.3 7.0 13.9 58.9 0.0 8.9 100.0 95 Region 4 15.6 0.0 0.9 83.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 141 Region 5 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 22 Region 6 46.9 6.8 12.2 34.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 217 Regions 7 & 8 12.4 6.0 50.8 30.7 0.1 0.0 100.0 240 Region 9 30.8 5.2 44.8 19.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 355 Region 10 (60.6) (0.0) (0.0) (39.4) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 14 Area Urban 30.9 0.0 16.6 52.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 94 Rural 30.8 4.7 28.9 33.5 0.9 1.3 100.0 1,246 Location Coastal 32.6 4.4 9.3 52.0 0.0 1.7 100.0 486 Urban Coastal (24.1) (0.0) (18.9) (57.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 83 Rural Coastal 34.3 5.3 7.3 51.0 0.0 2.1 100.0 403 Interior 29.8 4.3 38.7 25.0 1.3 0.8 100.0 854 Education of household head None 28.6 13.9 30.1 26.8 0.0 0.6 100.0 114 Primary 30.1 3.7 26.9 36.6 2.0 0.6 100.0 540 Secondary or Higher 32.3 3.4 27.9 34.6 0.0 1.7 100.0 657 Missing/DK 18.2 0.3 44.2 37.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 30 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 28.4 5.5 32.9 30.7 1.1 1.5 100.0 1,058 Second 30.3 0.0 17.0 52.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 150 Middle 42.9 0.0 1.9 55.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 113 Fourth (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 10 Richest (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 8 Ethnicity of household heada East Indian 35.3 1.5 10.6 50.6 0.0 1.9 100.0 434 African 29.5 0.0 4.0 64.5 2.0 0.0 100.0 53 Amerindian 27.7 4.3 41.1 24.6 1.4 1.0 100.0 757 Mixed Race 35.6 19.9 16.8 27.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 97 a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 129Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Malaria/Fever Malaria is a major cause of death of children under age five worldwide. Preventive measures and treatment with an effective antimalarial can dramatically reduce malaria mortality rates among children. In areas where malaria is common, WHO recommends indoor residual spraying (IRS), use of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs) and prompt treatment of cases with recommended anti-malarial drugs. In 2010, the World Health Organization issued a recommendation for universal use of diagnostic testing to confirm malaria infection and apply appropriate treatment based on the results. According to the guidelines, treatment solely on the basis of clinical suspicion should only be considered when a parasitological diagnosis is not accessible. This recommendation was based on studies that showed substantial reduction in the proportion of fever that are associated with malaria to a low level.43 This recommendation implies that the indicator on proportion of children with fever that received antimalarial treatment is no longer an acceptable 43D’Acremont V., Lengeler C., Genton B. (2010). Reduction in the proportion of fevers associated with Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in Africa: a systematic review. Malaria Journal 9(240).doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-240. indicator of the level of treatment of malaria in the population of children under age five. However, as it remains an MDG indicator and for purposes of comparisons and assessment of patterns across socio- demographic characteristics, the indicator remains a standard MICS indicator. Children with severe malaria symptoms, such as fever and convulsions, should be taken to a health facility. Further, children recovering from malaria should be given extra liquids and food, and younger children should continue breastfeeding. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets, or ITNs, if used properly, are very effective in offering protection against mosquitoes and other insects. The use of ITNs is one of the main health interventions implemented to reduce malaria transmission in Guyana. The questionnaire incorporates questions on the availability and use of bed nets, both at household level and among children under five years of age and pregnant women. It should be noted that questions on IRS were not included in the Guyana MICS5 2014, as the practice of spraying the inter walls of dwellings with an insecticide to kill mosquitoes that spread malaria is not customary in Guyana. In Guyana, the coastal areas are considered to be malaria-free, while the interior areas are considered to be high-risk malaria areas. Reported new cases of malaria have declined from 59,311 in 1995 to 22,840 in 2010, of which 21,028 (92 percent) occurred in the endemic interior (Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9) affecting mostly migrant populations (miners, loggers) and indigenous groups44. This declining trend is likely attributable to various prevention and control interventions, including the distribution of free ITNs to pregnant women, children under 12 and all persons in high-risk areas, health promotion and elimination of breeding sites for mosquitoes, as well as prompt diagnosis and treatment for all positive cases, training and capacity building in the high-risk areas, and strengthened monitoring and evaluation. In the present survey, malaria-related questions, which were included in the questionnaire for children under five and the household questionnaire, were administered in all surveyed areas regardless of the area, location and region of residence. However, it should be noted that results presented in this section on malaria preventive measures and treatment are particularly relevant for the high-risk interior areas, which are Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9. @Shutterstock 130 Table CH.14: Household availability of insecticide treated nets Percentage of households with at least one mosquito net, one long-lasting treated net, and one insecticide treated net (ITN), percentage of households with at least one mosquito net, one long-lasting treated net, and one insecticide treated net (ITN) per two people, percentage of households with at least one ITN, Guyana, 2014 Percentage of households with at least one mosquito net: Percentage of households with at least one net for every two personsa: Percentage of households with at least one ITN Number of households Any mosquito net Long-lasting insecticidal treated net (LLIN) Insecticide treated mosquito net (ITN)1 Any mosquito net Long-lasting insecticidal treated net (LLIN) Insecticide treated mosquito net (ITN)2 Total 86.7 4.0 5.3 68.8 2.0 2.8 5.3 5,077 Regionb Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 86.8 43.6 53.2 54.6 22.1 27.0 53.2 298 Region 2 94.9 1.7 2.2 82.0 0.6 0.6 2.2 287 Region 3 92.1 2.1 2.3 77.9 1.5 1.5 2.3 821 Region 4 85.7 1.6 2.3 67.6 0.5 1.1 2.3 2,244 Region 5 90.5 0.9 1.9 72.9 0.5 0.5 1.9 343 Region 6 85.4 0.1 0.6 67.8 0.0 0.5 0.6 817 Region 10 69.3 3.8 8.8 51.2 2.0 6.3 8.8 267 Area Urban 81.5 1.2 2.4 65.0 0.5 1.6 2.4 1,404 Rural 88.7 5.0 6.4 70.3 2.5 3.3 6.4 3,673 Location Coastal 87.5 1.3 1.9 70.7 0.6 1.0 1.9 4,448 Urban Coastal 83.1 1.0 1.4 66.7 0.3 0.5 1.4 1,218 Rural Coastal 89.1 1.4 2.1 72.2 0.7 1.1 2.1 3,231 Interior 81.2 23.1 29.7 55.8 11.4 15.6 29.7 629 Education of household head None 83.5 3.6 4.4 63.3 1.1 1.1 4.4 108 Primary 87.9 3.0 4.6 68.7 1.4 2.1 4.6 1,632 Secondary 86.7 4.7 6.0 67.8 2.4 3.3 6.0 2,713 Higher 83.7 2.9 4.3 77.0 1.9 3.1 4.3 510 Missing/DK 85.4 4.6 5.7 65.1 1.3 1.4 5.7 114 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 80.2 13.2 16.1 52.0 6.3 7.6 16.1 946 Second 85.8 2.1 3.0 63.4 1.2 1.8 3.0 1,051 Middle 89.3 1.7 2.5 71.7 0.9 1.5 2.5 1,068 Fourth 90.7 1.9 2.7 79.4 1.0 1.6 2.7 1,028 Richest 87.1 1.7 3.3 76.7 0.8 1.9 3.3 984 Ethnicity of household head East Indian 89.6 0.4 0.9 75.4 0.3 0.8 0.9 2,323 African 83.2 1.9 3.1 64.0 1.0 1.8 3.1 1,598 Amerindian 90.2 33.6 40.6 58.9 17.8 21.4 40.6 320 Mixed Race 83.9 6.6 8.5 63.0 2.3 3.2 8.5 809 Others/Missing/DK (90.8) (3.9) (3.9) (83.7) (3.9) (3.9) (3.9) 28 1 MICS indicator 3.16a - Household availability of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) - One+ 2 MICS indicator 3.16b - Household availability of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) - One+ per 2 people a The numerators are based on number of usual (de jure) household members and does not take into account whether household members stayed in the household last night. MICS does not collect information on visitors to the household. b Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 have been merged to show the results for the high-risk malaria regions 131Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.15: Access to an insecticide treated net (ITN) - number of household members Percentage of household population with access to an ITN in the household, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Number of ITNs owned by household: Total Percentage with access to an ITNa Number of household membersb 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total 94.7 2.0 1.6 1.4 0.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 1.7 19,321 Number of household members 1 96.7 2.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3.3 644 2 96.6 1.9 0.9 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 1.5 1,741 3 95.6 1.5 1.8 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 2.8 2,933 4 96.2 1.5 1.4 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.8 3,850 5 94.4 1.3 1.4 2.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 2.9 3,517 6 90.3 3.2 3.2 2.4 0.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 1.0 2,503 7 90.6 1.7 1.7 3.8 1.1 0.5 0.5 100.0 2.1 1,588 8 or more 85.5 4.4 3.2 5.0 1.0 0.1 0.7 100.0 0.5 2,545 a Percentage of household population who could sleep under an ITN if each ITN in the household were used by up to two people b The denominator is number of usual (de jure) household members and does not take into account whether household members stayed in the household last night. MICS does not collect information on visitors to the household. In Guyana, the survey results indicate that five (5) percent of households have at least one insecticide treated net (ITN) (Table CH.14), and three (3) percent have at least one ITN for every two household members. It was also found that all the households with at least one ITN obtained the net during the last 12 months. As noted previously, even though the malaria-related questions were administered in all parts of Guyana, the high-risk malaria areas in Guyana are the interior areas. The interior areas include Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9. The results also indicate that 30 percent of households in the interior areas have at least one ITN and 16 percent have at least one ITN for every two household members. Availability of ITNs at the household level is most prevalent in Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9, with more than one-half of households with at least one ITN (53%), and just over one-quarter of households with at least one ITN for every two persons (27%). The high percentages of ITN availability in the poorest households and households with an Amerindian household head are indicative of the concentration of these households in the high-risk interior areas. Of note, the great majority of households in Guyana (87%) possess at least one mosquito net (any mosquito net, not necessarily ITN), with Region 10 with the lowest percentage (69%) while the other regions range from 85 percent in Region 6 and 95 percent in Region 2. 132 Table CH.16: Access to an insecticide treated net (ITN) - background characteristics Percentage of household population with access to an ITN in the household, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage with access to an ITNa Number of household membersb Total 1.7 19,321 Regionsc Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 13.6 1,530 Region 2 0.1 1,070 Region 3 0.4 3,040 Region 4 0.7 8,555 Region 5 0.2 1,322 Region 6 0.4 2,831 Region 10 4.3 974 Area Urban 1.2 5,263 Rural 1.9 14,058 Location Coastal 0.5 16,526 Urban Coastal 0.5 4,594 Rural Coastal 0.5 11,932 Interior 8.9 2,795 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 4.9 3,862 Second 0.6 3,870 Middle 1.0 3,860 Fourth 0.8 3,860 Richest 1.5 3,869 Ethnicity of household headd East Indian 0.5 8,214 African 1.1 5,990 Amerindian 10.4 1,658 Mixed Race 1.7 3,370 Others/Missing/DK 3.3 89 a Percentage of household population who could sleep under an ITN if each ITN in the household were used by up to two people b The denominator is number of usual (de jure) household members and does not take into account whether household members stayed in the household last night. MICS does not collect information on visitors to the household. c Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 have been merged to show the results for the high-risk malaria regions d This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head Tables CH.15 and CH.16 provide further insight on access to ITNs. Overall, only two (2) percent of individuals are estimated to have access to ITNs, i.e. they could sleep under an ITN if each ITN in the household was used by two people. This figure is between zero (0) and four (4) percent in low-risk malaria regions, with the highest in Region 10 (4%) and 0-1 percent in the other low-risk regions. In contrast, access to ITNs in the high-risk Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 is 14 percent (Figure CH.3). Overall, nine (9) percent of interior household population have access to an ITN. Reflecting the population in interior areas, access is higher in the poorest households and in those with an Amerindian household head. 133Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | F igure CH.3: Percentage of household population with access to an ITN in the household , Guyana MICS5, 2014 14 0 0 1 0 0 4 1 2 1 0 1 9 2 Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 Region 3 Region 5 Region 10 Urban Urban Coastal Interior Guyana Pe r c en t 134 Table CH.17: Use of ITNs Percentage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) that were used by anyone last night, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of ITNs used last night Number of ITNs Total 72.3 558 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 69.8 358 Region 2, 3 (74.0) 35 Region 4 79.2 90 Regions 5, 6 (*) 21 Region 10 74.9 54 Area Urban 75.4 80 Rural 71.7 478 Location Coastal 77.0 140 Urban Coastal (70.6) 34 Rural Coastal 79.1 106 Interior 70.7 418 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 69.5 335 Second 80.4 52 Middle 62.4 50 Fourth 75.5 56 Richest 85.1 64 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 75.1 44 African 69.1 94 Amerindian 69.5 295 Mixed Race 80.3 122 a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Overall, 72 percent of ITNs were used during the night preceding the survey (Table CH.17). This figure is 70 percent in the high-risk regions 1, 7, 8 and 9. A higher percentage of ITNs was used in the coastal areas (77%) than in the interior areas (71%). As for children under the age of five years, who constitute an important vulnerable group, seven (7) percent slept under an ITN the night preceding the survey (Table CH.18). This figure rises to 67 percent considering only children living in a household with at least one ITN. For the high-risk Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9, 42 percent of children under age five slept under an ITN, and this figure is 70 percent considering only those living in a household with at least one ITN. There were no notable disparities in ITN use according to age groups but there were some according to the sex of the child: 71 percent females compared with 64 percent males. Table CH.19 gives further insight into the use of mosquito nets by household members of any age, four (4) percent of whom slept under an ITN the night prior to the survey. This figure rises to 57 percent considering only household members living in a household with at least one ITN. In the high-risk Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9, one-third (33%) of household members slept under an ITN the night preceding the survey, and this figure is 59 percent, considering only those living in a household with at least one ITN. The use of ITN by household members is more prevalent among young children and decreases with age. No clear differentials are observed based on the education level of the household head. 135Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.18: Children sleeping under mosquito nets Percentage of children age 0-59 months who slept under a mosquito net last night, by type of net, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 0- 59 who spent last night in the interviewed households Number of children age 0-59 months Percentage of children under age five who the previous night slept under: Number of children age 0-59 months who spent last night in the interviewed households Percentage of children who slept under an ITN last night in households with at least one ITN Number of children age 0-59 living in households with at least one ITN Any mosquito net An insecticide treated net (ITN)1 A Long- lasting insecticidal treated net (LLIN) Total 98.5 3,358 79.1 7.4 6.0 3,309 66.9 366 Sex Male 98.6 1,722 78.8 7.1 5.7 1,697 63.6 189 Female 98.5 1,636 79.5 7.8 6.3 1,611 70.5 177 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 98.1 458 70.6 42.3 35.0 449 70.1 271 Region 2 99.6 185 92.5 1.5 0.4 185 (*) 9 Region 3 99.7 452 84.7 0.7 0.5 451 (*) 11 Region 4 97.9 1,382 80.6 2.5 2.1 1,352 (66.3) 51 Region 5 98.1 236 77.2 1.7 1.7 232 (*) 6 Region 6 99.6 443 80.5 0.0 0.0 441 (*) 2 Region 10 98.4 202 62.3 5.7 3.1 199 (*) 16 Area Urban 98.0 838 76.2 2.3 1.2 821 (64.9) 29 Rural 98.7 2,520 80.1 9.1 7.6 2,488 67.1 337 Location Coastal 98.8 2,634 81.6 1.7 1.4 2,603 61.9 72 Urban Coastal 97.9 711 78.6 1.9 1.3 696 (*) 21 Rural Coastal 99.2 1,923 82.7 1.7 1.4 1,907 (61.4) 52 Interior 97.5 724 69.9 28.4 23.0 705 68.2 294 Age 0-11 months 98.7 687 83.7 7.7 6.4 678 71.9 72 12-23 months 97.6 686 81.2 6.8 5.1 670 66.3 68 24-35 months 99.5 648 82.4 7.5 6.1 645 62.6 78 36-47 months 98.5 683 75.8 9.1 7.5 673 67.4 91 48-59 months 98.4 653 72.4 5.9 4.8 643 66.5 57 Mother's educationb None 100.0 64 74.3 12.2 5.1 64 (*) 9 Primary 97.9 483 75.8 13.4 9.7 473 72.0 88 Secondary 98.7 2,485 80.0 6.5 5.5 2,453 64.3 249 Higher 97.9 321 78.5 4.3 4.2 315 (*) 20 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 99.2 1,003 72.9 17.9 14.9 995 65.5 272 Second 98.3 755 79.0 3.6 2.8 742 (87.0) 31 Middle 99.0 616 82.0 1.9 1.7 610 (58.8) 19 Fourth 97.8 486 85.2 3.4 1.8 475 (67.7) 24 Richest 97.7 497 82.4 2.6 2.3 486 (*) 20 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 99.3 1,118 86.4 0.5 0.3 1,109 (*) 10 African 98.0 1,037 77.6 1.7 1.0 1,016 (49.8) 35 Amerindian 97.4 492 73.7 33.1 27.3 479 70.1 226 Mixed Race 99.0 697 73.3 9.2 7.7 690 66.9 94 1 MICS indicator 3.18; MDG indicator 6.7 - Children under age 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 have been merged to show the results for the high-risk malaria regions b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table CH.18: Children sleeping under mosquito nets Percentage of children age 0-59 months who slept under a mosquito net last night, by type of net, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 0- 59 who spent last night in the interviewed households Number of children age 0-59 months Percentage of children under age five who the previous night slept under: Number of children age 0-59 months who spent last night in the interviewed households Percentage of children who slept under an ITN last night in households with at least one ITN Number of children age 0-59 living in households with at least one ITN Any mosquito net An insecticide treated net (ITN)1 A Long- lasting insecticidal treated net (LLIN) Total 98.5 3,358 79.1 7.4 6.0 3,309 66.9 366 Sex Male 98.6 1,722 78.8 7.1 5.7 1,697 63.6 189 Female 98.5 1,636 79.5 7.8 6.3 1,611 70.5 177 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 98.1 458 70.6 42.3 35.0 449 70.1 271 Region 2 99.6 185 92.5 1.5 0.4 185 (*) 9 Region 3 99.7 452 84.7 0.7 0.5 451 (*) 11 Region 4 97.9 1,382 80.6 2.5 2.1 1,352 (66.3) 51 Region 5 98.1 236 77.2 1.7 1.7 232 (*) 6 Region 6 99.6 443 80.5 0.0 0.0 441 (*) 2 Region 10 98.4 202 62.3 5.7 3.1 199 (*) 16 Area Urban 98.0 838 76.2 2.3 1.2 821 (64.9) 29 Rural 98.7 2,520 80.1 9.1 7.6 2,488 67.1 337 Location Coastal 98.8 2,634 81.6 1.7 1.4 2,603 61.9 72 Urban Coastal 97.9 711 78.6 1.9 1.3 696 (*) 21 Rural Coastal 99.2 1,923 82.7 1.7 1.4 1,907 (61.4) 52 Interior 97.5 724 69.9 28.4 23.0 705 68.2 294 Age 0-11 months 98.7 687 83.7 7.7 6.4 678 71.9 72 12-23 months 97.6 686 81.2 6.8 5.1 670 66.3 68 24-35 months 99.5 648 82.4 7.5 6.1 645 62.6 78 36-47 months 98.5 683 75.8 9.1 7.5 673 67.4 91 48-59 months 98.4 653 72.4 5.9 4.8 643 66.5 57 Mother's educationb None 100.0 64 74.3 12.2 5.1 64 (*) 9 Primary 97.9 483 75.8 13.4 9.7 473 72.0 88 Secondary 98.7 2,485 80.0 6.5 5.5 2,453 64.3 249 Higher 97.9 321 78.5 4.3 4.2 315 (*) 20 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 99.2 1,003 72.9 17.9 14.9 995 65.5 272 Second 98.3 755 79.0 3.6 2.8 742 (87.0) 31 Middle 99.0 616 82.0 1.9 1.7 610 (58.8) 19 Fourth 97.8 486 85.2 3.4 1.8 475 (67.7) 24 Richest 97.7 497 82.4 2.6 2.3 486 (*) 20 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 99.3 1,118 86.4 0.5 0.3 1,109 (*) 10 African 98.0 1,037 77.6 1.7 1.0 1,016 (49.8) 35 Amerindian 97.4 492 73.7 33.1 27.3 479 70.1 226 Mixed Race 99.0 697 73.3 9.2 7.7 690 66.9 94 1 MICS indicator 3.18; MDG indicator 6.7 - Children under age 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 have been merged to show the results for the high-risk malaria regions b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table CH.18: Children sleeping under mosquito nets Percentage of children age 0-59 months who slept under a mosquito net last night, by type of net, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 0- 59 who spent last night in the interviewed households Number of children age 0-59 months Percentage of children under age five who the previous night slept under: Number of children age 0-59 months who spent last night in the interviewed households Percentage of children who slept under an ITN last night in households with at least one ITN Number of children age 0-59 living in households with at least one ITN Any mosquito net An insecticide treated net (ITN)1 A Long- lasting insecticidal treated net (LLIN) Total 98.5 3,358 79.1 7.4 6.0 3,309 66.9 366 Sex Male 98.6 1,722 78.8 7.1 5.7 1,697 63.6 189 Female 98.5 1,636 79.5 7.8 6.3 1,611 70.5 177 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 98.1 458 70.6 42.3 35.0 449 70.1 271 Region 2 99.6 185 92.5 1.5 0.4 185 (*) 9 Region 3 99.7 452 84.7 0.7 0.5 451 (*) 11 Region 4 97.9 1,382 80.6 2.5 2.1 1,352 (66.3) 51 Region 5 98.1 236 77.2 1.7 1.7 232 (*) 6 Region 6 99.6 443 80.5 0.0 0.0 441 (*) 2 Region 10 98.4 202 62.3 5.7 3.1 199 (*) 16 Area Urban 98.0 838 76.2 2.3 1.2 821 (64.9) 29 Rural 98.7 2,520 80.1 9.1 7.6 2,488 67.1 337 Location Coastal 98.8 2,634 81.6 1.7 1.4 2,603 61.9 72 Urban Coastal 97.9 711 78.6 1.9 1.3 696 (*) 21 Rural Coastal 99.2 1,923 82.7 1.7 1.4 1,907 (61.4) 52 Interior 97.5 724 69.9 28.4 23.0 705 68.2 294 Age 0-11 months 98.7 687 83.7 7.7 6.4 678 71.9 72 12-23 months 97.6 686 81.2 6.8 5.1 670 66.3 68 24-35 months 99.5 648 82.4 7.5 6.1 645 62.6 78 36-47 months 98.5 683 75.8 9.1 7.5 673 67.4 91 48-59 months 98.4 653 72.4 5.9 4.8 643 66.5 57 Mother's educationb None 100.0 64 74.3 12.2 5.1 64 (*) 9 Primary 97.9 483 75.8 13.4 9.7 473 72.0 88 Secondary 98.7 2,485 80.0 6.5 5.5 2,453 64.3 249 Higher 97.9 321 78.5 4.3 4.2 315 (*) 20 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 99.2 1,003 72.9 17.9 14.9 995 65.5 272 Second 98.3 755 79.0 3.6 2.8 742 (87.0) 31 Middle 99.0 616 82.0 1.9 1.7 610 (58.8) 19 Fourth 97.8 486 85.2 3.4 1.8 475 (67.7) 24 Richest 97.7 497 82.4 2.6 2.3 486 (*) 20 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 99.3 1,118 86.4 0.5 0.3 1,109 (*) 10 African 98.0 1,037 77.6 1.7 1.0 1,016 (49.8) 35 Amerindian 97.4 492 73.7 33.1 27.3 479 70.1 226 Mixed Race 99.0 697 73.3 9.2 7.7 690 66.9 94 1 MICS indicator 3.18; MDG indicator 6.7 - Children under age 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 have been merged to show the results for the high-risk malaria regions b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 136 Table CH.19: Use of mosquito nets by the household population Percentage of household members who slept under a mosquito net last night, by type of net, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of household members who the previous night slept under: Number of household members who spent the previous night in the interviewed households Percentage who the previous night slept under an ITN with at least one ITN Number of household members in households with at least one ITN Any mosquito net An insecticide treated net (ITN)1 A Long-lasting insecticidal treated net (LLIN) Total 73.5 3.8 2.8 18,596 57.3 1,237 Sex Male 70.7 3.8 2.7 8,855 55.8 596 Female 76.1 3.9 2.8 9,741 58.6 641 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 60.9 32.7 25.8 1,417 58.7 790 Region 2 87.3 1.2 0.8 1,021 (36.0) 35 Region 3 82.4 1.0 0.9 2,935 53.8 53 Region 4 72.7 1.5 1.1 8,260 52.5 232 Region 5 74.6 0.7 0.4 1,264 (32.7) 26 Region 6 75.0 0.5 0.1 2,780 (*) 16 Region 10 50.6 6.4 1.8 918 70.5 84 Area Urban 68.8 1.8 0.9 5,084 61.7 149 Rural 75.3 4.6 3.5 13,512 56.7 1,087 Location Coastal 75.7 1.1 0.8 15,983 52.4 337 Urban Coastal 71.2 1.0 0.9 4,448 48.2 90 Rural Coastal 77.4 1.2 0.8 11,535 53.9 247 Interior 60.4 20.3 15.0 2,612 59.1 899 Age 0-4 79.0 7.2 5.8 1,810 66.5 196 5-14 71.1 4.9 3.7 3,707 53.0 346 15-34 71.9 3.3 2.3 6,081 58.8 338 35-49 75.4 3.0 2.2 3,422 55.4 186 50+ 74.4 2.6 1.8 3,535 55.0 165 Missing/DK (53.2) (5.8) (5.8) 40 (*) 6 Education of household head None 66.7 2.7 2.5 394 42.9 25 Primary 75.9 3.5 2.2 6,040 57.0 369 Secondary 71.7 4.1 3.2 10,123 57.3 727 Higher 78.1 3.0 1.9 1,572 58.7 81 Missing/DK 72.4 4.9 4.0 468 67.7 34 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 62.6 11.7 9.3 3,681 55.4 780 Second 71.3 2.0 1.4 3,729 69.5 108 Middle 77.5 1.4 1.0 3,738 56.9 94 Fourth 78.9 1.9 1.3 3,718 64.5 111 Richest 77.1 2.0 1.0 3,730 52.7 143 Ethnicity of household headb East Indian 81.5 0.5 0.3 8,043 64.6 67 African 67.5 1.6 0.9 5,723 51.0 179 Amerindian 66.3 24.5 19.6 1,560 58.5 653 Mixed Race 67.3 5.9 4.4 3,189 56.4 335 Others/Missing/DK 84.8 3.6 3.6 81 (*) 3 1 MICS indicator 3.19 - Population that slept under an ITN a Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 have been merged to show the results for the high-risk malaria regions b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table CH.19: Use of mosquito nets by the household population Percentage of household members who slept under a mosquito net last night, by type of net, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of household members who the previous night slept under: Number of household members who spent the previous night in the interviewed households Percentage who the previous night slept under an ITN with at least one ITN Number of household members in households with at least one ITN Any mosquito net An insecticide treated net (ITN)1 A Long-lasting insecticidal treated net (LLIN) Total 73.5 3.8 2.8 18,596 57.3 1,237 Sex Male 70.7 3.8 2.7 8,855 55.8 596 Female 76.1 3.9 2.8 9,741 58.6 641 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 60.9 32.7 25.8 1,417 58.7 790 Region 2 87.3 1.2 0.8 1,021 (36.0) 35 Region 3 82.4 1.0 0.9 2,935 53.8 53 Region 4 72.7 1.5 1.1 8,260 52.5 232 Region 5 74.6 0.7 0.4 1,264 (32.7) 26 Region 6 75.0 0.5 0.1 2,780 (*) 16 Region 10 50.6 6.4 1.8 918 70.5 84 Area Urban 68.8 1.8 0.9 5,084 61.7 149 Rural 75.3 4.6 3.5 13,512 56.7 1,087 Location Coastal 75.7 1.1 0.8 15,983 52.4 337 Urban Coastal 71.2 1.0 0.9 4,448 48.2 90 Rural Coastal 77.4 1.2 0.8 11,535 53.9 247 Interior 60.4 20.3 15.0 2,612 59.1 899 Age 0-4 79.0 7.2 5.8 1,810 66.5 196 5-14 71.1 4.9 3.7 3,707 53.0 346 15-34 71.9 3.3 2.3 6,081 58.8 338 35-49 75.4 3.0 2.2 3,422 55.4 186 50+ 74.4 2.6 1.8 3,535 55.0 165 Missing/DK (53.2) (5.8) (5.8) 40 (*) 6 Education of household head None 66.7 2.7 2.5 394 42.9 25 Primary 75.9 3.5 2.2 6,040 57.0 369 Secondary 71.7 4.1 3.2 10,123 57.3 727 Higher 78.1 3.0 1.9 1,572 58.7 81 Missing/DK 72.4 4.9 4.0 468 67.7 34 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 62.6 11.7 9.3 3,681 55.4 780 Second 71.3 2.0 1.4 3,729 69.5 108 Middle 77.5 1.4 1.0 3,738 56.9 94 Fourth 78.9 1.9 1.3 3,718 64.5 111 Richest 77.1 2.0 1.0 3,730 52.7 143 Ethnicity of household headb East Indian 81.5 0.5 0.3 8,043 64.6 67 African 67.5 1.6 0.9 5,723 51.0 179 Amerindian 66.3 24.5 19.6 1,560 58.5 653 Mixed Race 67.3 5.9 4.4 3,189 56.4 335 Others/Missing/DK 84.8 3.6 3.6 81 (*) 3 1 MICS indicator 3.19 - Population that slept under an ITN a Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 have been merged to show the results for the high-risk malaria regions b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 137Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.20: Care-seeking during fever Percentage of children age 0-59 months with fever in the last two weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought, by source of advice or treatment, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children for whom: Number of children with fever in last two weeks Advice or treatment was sought from: No advice or treatment sought Health facilities or providers Other source A health facility or provider1, b Public Private Community health providera Total 54.3 16.0 7.8 5.2 70.7 26.2 459 Sex Male 52.6 18.5 7.0 4.7 71.0 26.2 253 Female 56.4 12.9 8.7 5.9 70.3 26.1 207 Regionc Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 82.0 3.7 28.3 1.4 85.8 13.4 115 Regions 2, 3 32.3 20.0 0.0 7.9 54.0 41.2 85 Region 4 42.9 27.4 2.1 4.7 69.0 27.5 148 Regions 5, 6 56.9 11.8 0.0 8.9 71.4 24.8 92 Region 10 (61.2) (3.1) (0.0) (2.4) (64.3) (33.3) 18 Area Urban 39.5 22.8 1.4 3.2 62.3 37.0 69 Rural 56.9 14.8 8.9 5.6 72.2 24.3 391 Location Coastal 42.3 22.7 1.0 7.2 65.6 30.2 304 Urban Coastal 35.0 26.2 1.6 3.7 61.2 38.0 60 Rural Coastal 44.1 21.8 0.9 8.1 66.7 28.3 244 Interior 77.8 2.9 21.0 1.3 80.7 18.3 155 Age 0-11 months 60.0 12.1 13.4 5.8 73.5 25.8 64 12-23 months 48.3 21.7 6.0 3.2 69.9 26.9 124 24-35 months 57.8 12.5 7.9 9.1 71.2 20.7 92 36-47 months 61.2 18.6 9.7 6.9 80.2 18.7 80 48-59 months 49.5 12.6 4.8 2.6 61.8 36.6 100 Mother’s education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 Primary 64.4 12.0 6.5 0.8 76.1 23.9 67 Secondary or Higher 52.9 17.1 7.9 6.1 70.6 25.7 383 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 71.3 4.3 16.5 5.0 76.7 21.1 193 Second 46.7 16.9 0.0 5.1 63.6 33.3 87 Middle 49.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 67.9 32.1 77 Fourth 46.0 21.5 6.9 9.2 65.3 27.1 54 Richest 18.1 48.4 0.0 10.1 69.8 23.4 49 Ethnicity of household headd East Indian 38.0 30.0 1.5 6.7 68.0 27.6 143 African 46.0 12.1 0.9 9.1 59.8 34.8 109 Amerindian 81.2 2.8 25.6 1.2 84.0 15.2 127 Mixed Race 52.1 17.2 0.2 3.6 69.3 29.2 81 1 MICS indicator 3.20 - Care-seeking for fever a Community health providers include both public (Community health worker and Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers as well as shops c Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions d This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table CH.20: Care-seeking during fever Percentage of children age 0-59 months with fever in the last two weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought, by source of advice or treatment, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children for whom: Number of children with fever in last two weeks Advice or treatment was sought from: No advice or treatment sought Health facilities or providers Other source A health facility or provider1, b Public Private Community health providera Total 54.3 16.0 7.8 5.2 70.7 26.2 459 Sex Male 52.6 18.5 7.0 4.7 71.0 26.2 253 Female 56.4 12.9 8.7 5.9 70.3 26.1 207 Regionc Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 82.0 3.7 28.3 1.4 85.8 13.4 115 Regions 2, 3 32.3 20.0 0.0 7.9 54.0 41.2 85 Region 4 42.9 27.4 2.1 4.7 69.0 27.5 148 Regions 5, 6 56.9 11.8 0.0 8.9 71.4 24.8 92 Region 10 (61.2) (3.1) (0.0) (2.4) (64.3) (33.3) 18 Area Urban 39.5 22.8 1.4 3.2 62.3 37.0 69 Rural 56.9 14.8 8.9 5.6 72.2 24.3 391 Location Coastal 42.3 22.7 1.0 7.2 65.6 30.2 304 Urban Coastal 35.0 26.2 1.6 3.7 61.2 38.0 60 Rural Coastal 44.1 21.8 0.9 8.1 66.7 28.3 244 Interior 77.8 2.9 21.0 1.3 80.7 18.3 155 Age 0-11 months 60.0 12.1 13.4 5.8 73.5 25.8 64 12-23 months 48.3 21.7 6.0 3.2 69.9 26.9 124 24-35 months 57.8 12.5 7.9 9.1 71.2 20.7 92 36-47 months 61.2 18.6 9.7 6.9 80.2 18.7 80 48-59 months 49.5 12.6 4.8 2.6 61.8 36.6 100 Mother’s education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 Primary 64.4 12.0 6.5 0.8 76.1 23.9 67 Secondary or Higher 52.9 17.1 7.9 6.1 70.6 25.7 383 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 71.3 4.3 16.5 5.0 76.7 21.1 193 Second 46.7 16.9 0.0 5.1 63.6 33.3 87 Middle 49.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 67.9 32.1 77 Fourth 46.0 21.5 6.9 9.2 65.3 27.1 54 Richest 18.1 48.4 0.0 10.1 69.8 23.4 49 Ethnicity of household headd East Indian 38.0 30.0 1.5 6.7 68.0 27.6 143 African 46.0 12.1 0.9 9.1 59.8 34.8 109 Amerindian 81.2 2.8 25.6 1.2 84.0 15.2 127 Mixed Race 52.1 17.2 0.2 3.6 69.3 29.2 81 1 MICS indicator 3.20 - Care-seeking for fever a Community health providers include both public (Community health worker and Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers as well as shops c Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions d This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 138 Table CH.20 provides information on care-seeking behaviour during an episode of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. As shown in Table CH.20, advice was sought from a health facility or a qualified health care provider for 71 percent of children with fever; these services were provided mainly by the public sector (54%). However, no advice or treatment was sought in 26 percent of the cases. In high-risk interior areas, advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider for 81 percent of children with fever, a much higher figure than that in coastal areas (66%), possibly reflecting the risk of malaria in case of fever. This is supported by the high percentage of care-seeking from a health facility or provider in the high-risk Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 (86%). As expected, in interior areas, advice or treatment was sought from a community health provider for a large percent of children (21%), after public health facilities (78%). There are no differentials according to the sex of the child, and no clear pattern as to care-seeking behaviour according to age groups. Children living in the poorest households and those whose mother have only primary education are more likely to seek advice or treatment than those in wealthier households and those whose mother have secondary or higher education. In addition, the type of facility or provider used differs according to the household’s wealth: public health facilities and community health providers are more common among the poorest households. 139Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e CH .2 1: T re at m en t o f c hi ld re n w ith fe ve r Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ho h ad a fe ve r i n th e la st tw o w ee ks , b y ty pe o f m ed ic in e gi ve n fo r t he il ln es s, G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Ch ild re n w ith a fe ve r i n th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n: N um be r o f ch ild re n w ith fe ve r in la st tw o w ee ks An ti -m al ar ia ls O th er m ed ic ati on s O th er M iss in g /D K SP / Fa ns id ar Ch lo ro qu in e Am od ia - qu in e Q ui ni ne Ar te m isi ni n- ba se d Co m bi na ti on Th er ap y (A CT ) O th er an ti - m al ar ia l An ti bi oti c pi ll or sy ru p An ti bi oti c in je cti on Pa ra ce ta m ol / Pa na do l/ Ac et am in op he n As pi rin Ib up ro fe n To ta l 0. 0 4. 9 0. 6 0. 1 0. 0 1. 8 20 .1 2. 8 52 .1 1. 0 0. 9 25 .2 1. 1 45 9 Se x M al e 0. 0 3. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 21 .0 3. 4 50 .3 1. 0 1. 0 26 .0 0. 9 25 3 Fe m al e 0. 0 6. 6 0. 5 0. 2 0. 0 3. 3 19 .0 2. 0 54 .2 1. 1 0. 7 24 .3 1. 4 20 7 Re gi on a Re gi on s 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 0. 0 4. 3 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 21 .2 2. 8 48 .6 0. 8 0. 0 18 .7 2. 9 11 5 Re gi on s 2 , 3 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 13 .2 2. 2 57 .8 0. 0 0. 0 27 .0 0. 0 85 Re gi on 4 0. 0 5. 5 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 21 .8 4. 8 61 .8 1. 4 2. 2 29 .9 0. 8 14 8 Re gi on s 5 , 6 0. 0 9. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 5 23 .7 0. 7 42 .2 1. 7 0. 0 17 .9 0. 0 92 Re gi on 1 0 (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 .1 ) (1 3. 0) (0 .0 ) (1 8. 8) (0 .0 ) (3 .9 ) (5 6. 9) (3 .2 ) 18 Ar ea U rb an 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 21 .8 2. 7 61 .9 0. 0 0. 0 29 .6 0. 9 69 Ru ra l 0. 0 5. 8 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 1. 9 19 .8 2. 8 50 .3 1. 2 1. 0 24 .5 1. 2 39 1 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 0. 0 5. 8 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 19 .1 3. 2 54 .5 1. 2 1. 1 27 .6 0. 4 30 4 U rb an C oa st al 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 23 .2 3. 0 67 .6 0. 0 0. 0 25 .9 0. 0 60 Ru ra l C oa st al 0. 0 7. 2 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 9 18 .2 3. 2 51 .3 1. 5 1. 3 28 .0 0. 5 24 4 In te rio r 0. 0 3. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 8 21 .9 2. 1 47 .2 0. 6 0. 5 20 .6 2. 5 15 5 Ag e 0- 11 m on th s 0. 0 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 15 .6 1. 3 50 .2 0. 0 0. 0 37 .4 3. 1 64 12 -2 3 m on th s 0. 0 9. 8 0. 7 0. 4 0. 0 2. 7 15 .8 3. 0 56 .2 0. 0 1. 9 22 .6 0. 0 12 4 24 -3 5 m on th s 0. 0 4. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 22 .5 0. 5 51 .4 1. 0 1. 0 26 .5 2. 0 92 36 -4 7 m on th s 0. 0 4. 3 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 6. 2 26 .2 3. 2 45 .7 1. 1 0. 9 18 .7 1. 6 80 48 -5 9 m on th s 0. 0 1. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 21 .2 5. 4 53 .8 2. 8 0. 0 24 .9 0. 1 10 0 M ot he r's e du ca ti on N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 Pr im ar y 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 2. 2 16 .1 2. 5 56 .9 0. 0 0. 0 19 .3 0. 2 67 Se co nd ar y or H ig he r 0. 0 5. 6 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 21 .1 2. 9 51 .2 1. 2 1. 0 26 .9 1. 0 38 3 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le s Po or es t 0. 0 2. 5 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 3. 0 16 .3 2. 0 48 .7 1. 3 0. 0 23 .1 1. 7 19 3 Se co nd 0. 0 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 13 .0 5. 1 65 .8 1. 0 2. 7 15 .6 1. 4 87 M id dl e 0. 0 15 .5 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 24 .5 0. 9 53 .5 1. 6 0. 0 23 .5 0. 0 77 Fo ur th 0. 0 3. 2 1. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 33 .5 3. 8 51 .1 0. 0 1. 3 35 .4 1. 1 54 Ri ch es t 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 25 .7 3. 7 39 .9 0. 0 1. 8 42 .5 0. 0 49 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db Ea st In di an 0. 0 2. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 4. 9 21 .4 2. 0 47 .9 1. 1 2. 3 26 .3 0. 9 14 3 Af ric an 0. 0 6. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 18 .0 0. 4 55 .1 0. 0 0. 7 33 .9 0. 5 10 9 Am er in di an 0. 0 3. 9 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 18 .3 1. 0 53 .8 0. 7 0. 0 17 .5 2. 5 12 7 M ix ed R ac e 0. 0 8. 2 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 23 .3 10 .3 52 .5 2. 6 0. 0 24 .0 0. 2 81 a Re gi on s w ith si m ila r c ha ra ct er isti cs h av e be en m er ge d in to re gi on al g ro up in gs b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es in in di vi du al re gi on s b Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d ) 140 Ta bl e CH .2 1: T re at m en t o f c hi ld re n w ith fe ve r Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ho h ad a fe ve r i n th e la st tw o w ee ks , b y ty pe o f m ed ic in e gi ve n fo r t he il ln es s, G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Ch ild re n w ith a fe ve r i n th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n: N um be r o f ch ild re n w ith fe ve r in la st tw o w ee ks An ti -m al ar ia ls O th er m ed ic ati on s O th er M iss in g /D K SP / Fa ns id ar Ch lo ro qu in e Am od ia - qu in e Q ui ni ne Ar te m isi ni n- ba se d Co m bi na ti on Th er ap y (A CT ) O th er an ti - m al ar ia l An ti bi oti c pi ll or sy ru p An ti bi oti c in je cti on Pa ra ce ta m ol / Pa na do l/ Ac et am in op he n As pi rin Ib up ro fe n To ta l 0. 0 4. 9 0. 6 0. 1 0. 0 1. 8 20 .1 2. 8 52 .1 1. 0 0. 9 25 .2 1. 1 45 9 Se x M al e 0. 0 3. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 21 .0 3. 4 50 .3 1. 0 1. 0 26 .0 0. 9 25 3 Fe m al e 0. 0 6. 6 0. 5 0. 2 0. 0 3. 3 19 .0 2. 0 54 .2 1. 1 0. 7 24 .3 1. 4 20 7 Re gi on a Re gi on s 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 0. 0 4. 3 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 21 .2 2. 8 48 .6 0. 8 0. 0 18 .7 2. 9 11 5 Re gi on s 2 , 3 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 13 .2 2. 2 57 .8 0. 0 0. 0 27 .0 0. 0 85 Re gi on 4 0. 0 5. 5 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 21 .8 4. 8 61 .8 1. 4 2. 2 29 .9 0. 8 14 8 Re gi on s 5 , 6 0. 0 9. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 5 23 .7 0. 7 42 .2 1. 7 0. 0 17 .9 0. 0 92 Re gi on 1 0 (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 .1 ) (1 3. 0) (0 .0 ) (1 8. 8) (0 .0 ) (3 .9 ) (5 6. 9) (3 .2 ) 18 Ar ea U rb an 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 21 .8 2. 7 61 .9 0. 0 0. 0 29 .6 0. 9 69 Ru ra l 0. 0 5. 8 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 1. 9 19 .8 2. 8 50 .3 1. 2 1. 0 24 .5 1. 2 39 1 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 0. 0 5. 8 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 19 .1 3. 2 54 .5 1. 2 1. 1 27 .6 0. 4 30 4 U rb an C oa st al 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 23 .2 3. 0 67 .6 0. 0 0. 0 25 .9 0. 0 60 Ru ra l C oa st al 0. 0 7. 2 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 9 18 .2 3. 2 51 .3 1. 5 1. 3 28 .0 0. 5 24 4 In te rio r 0. 0 3. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 8 21 .9 2. 1 47 .2 0. 6 0. 5 20 .6 2. 5 15 5 Ag e 0- 11 m on th s 0. 0 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 15 .6 1. 3 50 .2 0. 0 0. 0 37 .4 3. 1 64 12 -2 3 m on th s 0. 0 9. 8 0. 7 0. 4 0. 0 2. 7 15 .8 3. 0 56 .2 0. 0 1. 9 22 .6 0. 0 12 4 24 -3 5 m on th s 0. 0 4. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 22 .5 0. 5 51 .4 1. 0 1. 0 26 .5 2. 0 92 36 -4 7 m on th s 0. 0 4. 3 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 6. 2 26 .2 3. 2 45 .7 1. 1 0. 9 18 .7 1. 6 80 48 -5 9 m on th s 0. 0 1. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 21 .2 5. 4 53 .8 2. 8 0. 0 24 .9 0. 1 10 0 M ot he r's e du ca ti on N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 Pr im ar y 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 2. 2 16 .1 2. 5 56 .9 0. 0 0. 0 19 .3 0. 2 67 Se co nd ar y or H ig he r 0. 0 5. 6 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 21 .1 2. 9 51 .2 1. 2 1. 0 26 .9 1. 0 38 3 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le s Po or es t 0. 0 2. 5 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 3. 0 16 .3 2. 0 48 .7 1. 3 0. 0 23 .1 1. 7 19 3 Se co nd 0. 0 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 13 .0 5. 1 65 .8 1. 0 2. 7 15 .6 1. 4 87 M id dl e 0. 0 15 .5 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 24 .5 0. 9 53 .5 1. 6 0. 0 23 .5 0. 0 77 Fo ur th 0. 0 3. 2 1. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 33 .5 3. 8 51 .1 0. 0 1. 3 35 .4 1. 1 54 Ri ch es t 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 25 .7 3. 7 39 .9 0. 0 1. 8 42 .5 0. 0 49 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db Ea st In di an 0. 0 2. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 4. 9 21 .4 2. 0 47 .9 1. 1 2. 3 26 .3 0. 9 14 3 Af ric an 0. 0 6. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 18 .0 0. 4 55 .1 0. 0 0. 7 33 .9 0. 5 10 9 Am er in di an 0. 0 3. 9 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 18 .3 1. 0 53 .8 0. 7 0. 0 17 .5 2. 5 12 7 M ix ed R ac e 0. 0 8. 2 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 23 .3 10 .3 52 .5 2. 6 0. 0 24 .0 0. 2 81 a Re gi on s w ith si m ila r c ha ra ct er isti cs h av e be en m er ge d in to re gi on al g ro up in gs b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es in in di vi du al re gi on s b Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e CH .2 1: T re at m en t o f c hi ld re n w ith fe ve r Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ho h ad a fe ve r i n th e la st tw o w ee ks , b y ty pe o f m ed ic in e gi ve n fo r t he il ln es s, G uy an a M IC S5 , 2 01 4 Ch ild re n w ith a fe ve r i n th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n: N um be r o f ch ild re n w ith fe ve r in la st tw o w ee ks An ti -m al ar ia ls O th er m ed ic ati on s O th er M iss in g /D K SP / Fa ns id ar Ch lo ro qu in e Am od ia - qu in e Q ui ni ne Ar te m isi ni n- ba se d Co m bi na ti on Th er ap y (A CT ) O th er an ti - m al ar ia l An ti bi oti c pi ll or sy ru p An ti bi oti c in je cti on Pa ra ce ta m ol / Pa na do l/ Ac et am in op he n As pi rin Ib up ro fe n To ta l 0. 0 4. 9 0. 6 0. 1 0. 0 1. 8 20 .1 2. 8 52 .1 1. 0 0. 9 25 .2 1. 1 45 9 Se x M al e 0. 0 3. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 21 .0 3. 4 50 .3 1. 0 1. 0 26 .0 0. 9 25 3 Fe m al e 0. 0 6. 6 0. 5 0. 2 0. 0 3. 3 19 .0 2. 0 54 .2 1. 1 0. 7 24 .3 1. 4 20 7 Re gi on a Re gi on s 1 , 7 , 8 , 9 0. 0 4. 3 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 21 .2 2. 8 48 .6 0. 8 0. 0 18 .7 2. 9 11 5 Re gi on s 2 , 3 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 13 .2 2. 2 57 .8 0. 0 0. 0 27 .0 0. 0 85 Re gi on 4 0. 0 5. 5 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 21 .8 4. 8 61 .8 1. 4 2. 2 29 .9 0. 8 14 8 Re gi on s 5 , 6 0. 0 9. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 5 23 .7 0. 7 42 .2 1. 7 0. 0 17 .9 0. 0 92 Re gi on 1 0 (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 .1 ) (1 3. 0) (0 .0 ) (1 8. 8) (0 .0 ) (3 .9 ) (5 6. 9) (3 .2 ) 18 Ar ea U rb an 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 21 .8 2. 7 61 .9 0. 0 0. 0 29 .6 0. 9 69 Ru ra l 0. 0 5. 8 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 1. 9 19 .8 2. 8 50 .3 1. 2 1. 0 24 .5 1. 2 39 1 Lo ca ti on Co as ta l 0. 0 5. 8 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 19 .1 3. 2 54 .5 1. 2 1. 1 27 .6 0. 4 30 4 U rb an C oa st al 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 23 .2 3. 0 67 .6 0. 0 0. 0 25 .9 0. 0 60 Ru ra l C oa st al 0. 0 7. 2 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 9 18 .2 3. 2 51 .3 1. 5 1. 3 28 .0 0. 5 24 4 In te rio r 0. 0 3. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 8 21 .9 2. 1 47 .2 0. 6 0. 5 20 .6 2. 5 15 5 Ag e 0- 11 m on th s 0. 0 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 15 .6 1. 3 50 .2 0. 0 0. 0 37 .4 3. 1 64 12 -2 3 m on th s 0. 0 9. 8 0. 7 0. 4 0. 0 2. 7 15 .8 3. 0 56 .2 0. 0 1. 9 22 .6 0. 0 12 4 24 -3 5 m on th s 0. 0 4. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 22 .5 0. 5 51 .4 1. 0 1. 0 26 .5 2. 0 92 36 -4 7 m on th s 0. 0 4. 3 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 6. 2 26 .2 3. 2 45 .7 1. 1 0. 9 18 .7 1. 6 80 48 -5 9 m on th s 0. 0 1. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 21 .2 5. 4 53 .8 2. 8 0. 0 24 .9 0. 1 10 0 M ot he r's e du ca ti on N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 Pr im ar y 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 2. 2 16 .1 2. 5 56 .9 0. 0 0. 0 19 .3 0. 2 67 Se co nd ar y or H ig he r 0. 0 5. 6 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 21 .1 2. 9 51 .2 1. 2 1. 0 26 .9 1. 0 38 3 W ea lth in de x qu in ti le s Po or es t 0. 0 2. 5 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 3. 0 16 .3 2. 0 48 .7 1. 3 0. 0 23 .1 1. 7 19 3 Se co nd 0. 0 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 13 .0 5. 1 65 .8 1. 0 2. 7 15 .6 1. 4 87 M id dl e 0. 0 15 .5 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 24 .5 0. 9 53 .5 1. 6 0. 0 23 .5 0. 0 77 Fo ur th 0. 0 3. 2 1. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 33 .5 3. 8 51 .1 0. 0 1. 3 35 .4 1. 1 54 Ri ch es t 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 25 .7 3. 7 39 .9 0. 0 1. 8 42 .5 0. 0 49 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db Ea st In di an 0. 0 2. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 4. 9 21 .4 2. 0 47 .9 1. 1 2. 3 26 .3 0. 9 14 3 Af ric an 0. 0 6. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 18 .0 0. 4 55 .1 0. 0 0. 7 33 .9 0. 5 10 9 Am er in di an 0. 0 3. 9 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 18 .3 1. 0 53 .8 0. 7 0. 0 17 .5 2. 5 12 7 M ix ed R ac e 0. 0 8. 2 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 23 .3 10 .3 52 .5 2. 6 0. 0 24 .0 0. 2 81 a Re gi on s w ith si m ila r c ha ra ct er isti cs h av e be en m er ge d in to re gi on al g ro up in gs b ec au se o f t he sm al l n um be r o f c as es in in di vi du al re gi on s b Th is is ba se d on th e et hn ic g ro up id en ti fie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue sti on na ire to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Mothers were asked to report all of the medicines given to a child to treat the fever, including both medicines given at home and medicines given or prescribed at a health facility. In Guyana, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and the recommended anti-malarial treatment is artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and Primaquine. In addition, it is recommended that confirmation of malaria be done on all fever cases through rapid diagnostic test. Overall, only seven (7) percent of children with fever in the last two weeks received an antimalarial, but none of them was treated with an artemisinin- based combination therapy (ACT) (Table CH.21). The most common antimalarial given to children with fever is the chloroquine (5%). However, the majority of children with fever were treated with Paracetamol/ Panadol/ Acetaminophen (52%), followed by antibiotics (20%); 25 percent of children received a non-specified medication (i.e. other than the ones specified in survey questionnaire). 141Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.22: Diagnostics and anti-malarial treatment of children Percentage of children age 0-59 months who had a fever in the last two weeks who had a finger or heel stick for malaria testing, who were given Artemisinin-combination Treatment (ACT) and any anti-malarial drugs, and percentage who were given ACT among those who were given anti-malarial drugs, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children who: Number of children age 0-59 months with fever in the last two weeks Treatment with Artemisinin- based Combination Therapy (ACT) among children who received anti-malarial treatment3 Number of children age 0- 59 months with fever in the last two weeks who were given any antimalarial drugs Had blood taken from a finger or heel for testing1 Were given: Artemisinin- combination Treatment (ACT) ACT the same or next day Any antimalarial drugs2 Any antimalarial drugs same or next day Total 12.0 0.0 0.0 7.4 3.4 459 (0.0) 34 Sex Male 11.3 0.0 0.0 4.8 0.9 253 (*) 12 Female 12.9 0.0 0.0 10.5 6.4 207 (*) 22 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 30.7 0.0 0.0 5.2 4.1 115 (*) 6 Regions 2, 3 2.8 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 85 (*) 1 Region 4 9.5 0.0 0.0 7.9 4.9 148 (*) 12 Regions 5, 6 2.6 0.0 0.0 15.7 1.9 92 (*) 15 Region 10 (6.0) (0.0) (0.0) (4.1) (4.1) 18 (*) 1 Area Urban 8.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 69 (*) 1 Rural 12.7 0.0 0.0 8.5 3.8 391 (0.0) 33 Location Coastal 6.3 0.0 0.0 8.9 3.3 304 (*) 27 Urban Coastal 7.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 60 - 0 Rural Coastal 6.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 4.1 244 (*) 27 Interior 23.4 0.0 0.0 4.4 3.5 155 (*) 7 Age 0-11 months 16.4 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.2 64 (*) 1 12-23 months 4.2 0.0 0.0 13.6 6.9 124 (*) 17 24-35 months 16.6 0.0 0.0 4.3 1.5 92 (*) 4 36-47 months 16.7 0.0 0.0 12.7 3.3 80 (*) 10 48-59 months 11.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.5 100 (*) 2 Mother’s education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 - 0 Primary 9.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 2.3 67 (*) 3 Secondary or Higher 12.2 0.0 0.0 8.1 3.7 383 (*) 31 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 18.9 0.0 0.0 5.8 2.4 193 (*) 11 Second 12.3 0.0 0.0 6.7 2.8 87 (*) 6 Middle 5.9 0.0 0.0 18.7 8.7 77 (*) 14 Fourth 5.2 0.0 0.0 4.7 3.1 54 (*) 3 Richest 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 49 - 0 Ethnicity of household headb East Indian 4.0 0.0 0.0 8.9 1.1 143 (*) 13 African 4.4 0.0 0.0 7.2 2.4 109 (*) 8 Amerindian 25.5 0.0 0.0 4.3 3.7 127 (*) 5 Mixed Race 15.4 0.0 0.0 9.9 8.1 81 (*) 8 1 MICS indicator 3.21 - Malaria diagnostics usage 2 MICS indicator 3.22; MDG indicator 6.8 - Anti-malarial treatment of children under age 5 3MICS indicator 3.23 - Treatment with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) among children who received anti-malarial treatment a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases '-' denotes 0 unweighted cases in that cell Table CH.22: Diagnostics and anti-malarial treatment of children Percentage of children age 0-59 months who had a fever in the last two weeks who had a finger or heel stick for malaria testing, who were given Artemisinin-combination Treatment (ACT) and any anti-malarial drugs, and percentage who were given ACT among those who were given anti-malarial drugs, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children who: Number of children age 0-59 months with fever in the last two weeks Treatment with Artemisinin- based Combination Therapy (ACT) among children who received anti-malarial treatment3 Number of children age 0- 59 months with fever in the last two weeks who were given any antimalarial drugs Had blood taken from a finger or heel for testing1 Were given: Artemisinin- combination Treatment (ACT) ACT the same or next day Any antimalarial drugs2 Any antimalarial drugs same or next day Total 12.0 0.0 0.0 7.4 3.4 459 (0.0) 34 Sex Male 11.3 0.0 0.0 4.8 0.9 253 (*) 12 Female 12.9 0.0 0.0 10.5 6.4 207 (*) 22 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 30.7 0.0 0.0 5.2 4.1 115 (*) 6 Regions 2, 3 2.8 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 85 (*) 1 Region 4 9.5 0.0 0.0 7.9 4.9 148 (*) 12 Regions 5, 6 2.6 0.0 0.0 15.7 1.9 92 (*) 15 Region 10 (6.0) (0.0) (0.0) (4.1) (4.1) 18 (*) 1 Area Urban 8.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 69 (*) 1 Rural 12.7 0.0 0.0 8.5 3.8 391 (0.0) 33 Location Coastal 6.3 0.0 0.0 8.9 3.3 304 (*) 27 Urban Coastal 7.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 60 - 0 Rural Coastal 6.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 4.1 244 (*) 27 Interior 23.4 0.0 0.0 4.4 3.5 155 (*) 7 Age 0-11 months 16.4 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.2 64 (*) 1 12-23 months 4.2 0.0 0.0 13.6 6.9 124 (*) 17 24-35 months 16.6 0.0 0.0 4.3 1.5 92 (*) 4 36-47 months 16.7 0.0 0.0 12.7 3.3 80 (*) 10 48-59 months 11.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.5 100 (*) 2 Mother’s education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 - 0 Primary 9.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 2.3 67 (*) 3 Secondary or Higher 12.2 0.0 0.0 8.1 3.7 383 (*) 31 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 18.9 0.0 0.0 5.8 2.4 193 (*) 11 Second 12.3 0.0 0.0 6.7 2.8 87 (*) 6 Middle 5.9 0.0 0.0 18.7 8.7 77 (*) 14 Fourth 5.2 0.0 0.0 4.7 3.1 54 (*) 3 Richest 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 49 - 0 Ethnicity of household headb East Indian 4.0 0.0 0.0 8.9 1.1 143 (*) 13 African 4.4 0.0 0.0 7.2 2.4 109 (*) 8 Amerindian 25.5 0.0 0.0 4.3 3.7 127 (*) 5 Mixed Race 15.4 0.0 0.0 9.9 8.1 81 (*) 8 1 MICS indicator 3.21 - Malaria diagnostics usage 2 MICS indicator 3.22; MDG indicator 6.8 - Anti-malarial treatment of children under age 5 3MICS indicator 3.23 - Treatment with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) among children who received anti-malarial treatment a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases '-' denotes 0 unweighted cases in that cell Table CH.22: Diagnostics and anti-malarial treatment of children Percentage of children age 0-59 months who had a fever in the last two weeks who had a finger or heel stick for malaria testing, who were given Artemisinin-combination Treatment (ACT) and any anti-malarial drugs, and percentage who were given ACT among those who were given anti-malarial drugs, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children who: Number of children age 0-59 months with fever in the last two weeks Treatment with Artemisinin- based Combination Therapy (ACT) among children who received anti-malarial treatment3 Number of children age 0- 59 months with fever in the last two weeks who were given any antimalarial drugs Had blood taken from a finger or heel for testing1 Were given: Artemisinin- combination Treatment (ACT) ACT the same or next day Any antimalarial drugs2 Any antimalarial drugs same or next day Total 12.0 0.0 0.0 7.4 3.4 459 (0.0) 34 Sex Male 11.3 0.0 0.0 4.8 0.9 253 (*) 12 Female 12.9 0.0 0.0 10.5 6.4 207 (*) 22 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 30.7 0.0 0.0 5.2 4.1 115 (*) 6 Regions 2, 3 2.8 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 85 (*) 1 Region 4 9.5 0.0 0.0 7.9 4.9 148 (*) 12 Regions 5, 6 2.6 0.0 0.0 15.7 1.9 92 (*) 15 Region 10 (6.0) (0.0) (0.0) (4.1) (4.1) 18 (*) 1 Area Urban 8.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 69 (*) 1 Rural 12.7 0.0 0.0 8.5 3.8 391 (0.0) 33 Location Coastal 6.3 0.0 0.0 8.9 3.3 304 (*) 27 Urban Coastal 7.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 60 - 0 Rural Coastal 6.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 4.1 244 (*) 27 Interior 23.4 0.0 0.0 4.4 3.5 155 (*) 7 Age 0-11 months 16.4 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.2 64 (*) 1 12-23 months 4.2 0.0 0.0 13.6 6.9 124 (*) 17 24-35 months 16.6 0.0 0.0 4.3 1.5 92 (*) 4 36-47 months 16.7 0.0 0.0 12.7 3.3 80 (*) 10 48-59 months 11.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.5 100 (*) 2 Mother’s education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 - 0 Primary 9.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 2.3 67 (*) 3 Secondary or Higher 12.2 0.0 0.0 8.1 3.7 383 (*) 31 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 18.9 0.0 0.0 5.8 2.4 193 (*) 11 Second 12.3 0.0 0.0 6.7 2.8 87 (*) 6 Middle 5.9 0.0 0.0 18.7 8.7 77 (*) 14 Fourth 5.2 0.0 0.0 4.7 3.1 54 (*) 3 Richest 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 49 - 0 Ethnicity of household headb East Indian 4.0 0.0 0.0 8.9 1.1 143 (*) 13 African 4.4 0.0 0.0 7.2 2.4 109 (*) 8 Amerindian 25.5 0.0 0.0 4.3 3.7 127 (*) 5 Mixed Race 15.4 0.0 0.0 9.9 8.1 81 (*) 8 1 MICS indicator 3.21 - Malaria diagnostics usage 2 MICS indicator 3.22; MDG indicator 6.8 - Anti-malarial treatment of children under age 5 3MICS indicator 3.23 - Treatment with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) among children who received anti-malarial treatment a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases '-' denotes 0 unweighted cases in that cell 142 Overall, 12 percent of children with a fever in the previous two weeks had blood taken from a finger or heel for testing (Table CH.22). As expected, the proportion of children tested for malaria is higher in interior areas (23%) than in coastal areas (6%), and in the rural areas (13%) than in the urban areas (8%). Nearly one-third of children in the high-risk Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9 were tested for malaria (31%), a much higher figure compared to other regions. It is noteworthy, however, that one in ten children with a fever in Region 4 were tested for malaria. The higher proportions of children being tested for malaria found in the poorer households and households with an Amerindian household head most likely reflect the population living in high-risk interior areas. Children aged 12-23 months are four times less likely than others to be tested. As shown in Table CH.22, the proportion of children treated with any antimalarial drug is seven (7) percent, but those treated the same day the fever started or the next is three (3) percent. Interestingly, girls with fever appear to be twice as likely as boys to be given antimalarial drugs, and children in households headed by an Amerindian are two times less likely than others to be given antimalarial drugs. Additionally, children with fever living in the coastal areas (9%) are twice as likely as those living in the interior areas (4%) to be given antimalarial drugs. Furthermore, in the high- risk Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9, where malaria testing was most prevalent (31%), only five (5) percent of children with fever were given antimalarial drugs, whereas in Regions 5 and 6, where only three (3) percent of children with fever were tested, 16 percent were given antimalarial drugs. There does not seem to be a clear pattern of antimalarial treatment with regards to age groups or household wealth. However, children with fever aged 12-23 months and 36-47 months as well as those living in a middle class household are much more likely than others to be treated with antimalarial drugs. As seen previously in Table CH.21, none of the children with fever were treated with an ACT. 143Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CH.23: Pregnant women sleeping under mosquito nets Percentage of pregnant women age 15-49 years who slept under a mosquito net last night, by type of net, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of pregnant women who spent last night in the interviewed households Number of pregnant women age 15-49 years Percentage of pregnant women age 15-49 years who the previous night slept under: Number of pregnant women who spent last night in the interviewed households Percentage of pregnant women who slept under an ITN last night in households with at least one ITN Number of pregnant women age 15-49 years living in households with at least one ITN Any mosquito net An insecticide treated net (ITN)1 A Long- lasting insecticidal treated net (LLIN) Total 97.1 272 78.5 6.9 4.1 265 82.1 22 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 96.8 28 78.4 44.7 35.9 27 (76.6) 16 Regions 2, 3 (98.4) 43 (88.4) (0.0) (0.0) 42 - 0 Region 4 96.9 122 80.2 4.8 0.6 118 (*) 6 Regions 5, 6 96.2 64 68.9 0.0 0.0 62 - 0 Region 10 (100.0) 16 (76.7) (2.7) (2.7) 16 (*) 1 Area Urban 98.4 64 75.6 0.0 0.0 63 - 0 Rural 96.7 208 79.4 9.0 5.4 202 82.1 22 Location Coastal 96.9 227 78.5 2.8 0.5 220 (*) 6 Urban Coastal (98.1) 55 (74.0) (0.0) (0.0) 54 - 0 Rural Coastal 96.6 172 80.0 3.7 0.7 166 (*) 6 Interior 98.0 46 78.4 27.1 21.8 45 76.4 16 Age 15-19 (100.0) 51 (82.7) (7.8) (1.2) 51 (*) 5 20-24 95.8 73 68.5 5.3 4.5 70 (*) 5 25-29 98.3 59 82.1 2.7 1.7 58 (*) 2 30-39 95.3 78 82.9 10.6 6.7 74 (*) 10 40-49 (*) 12 (*) (*) (*) 12 (*) 1 Education None (*) 4 (*) (*) (*) 4 (*) 1 Primary 100.0 31 82.1 11.8 9.0 31 (*) 5 Secondary or Higher 97.0 237 77.7 6.0 3.5 230 (82.8) 17 Wealth indexb Poorest 40% 97.3 124 77.4 9.4 7.4 120 (77.4) 15 Richest 60% 97.0 149 79.4 4.8 1.3 144 (*) 8 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 99.3 100 79.8 3.4 0.0 99 (*) 4 African 97.5 96 77.3 3.0 0.9 94 (*) 3 Amerindian 98.7 27 85.9 36.3 29.6 27 80.4 12 Mixed Race 91.3 50 74.2 5.4 4.9 45 (*) 4 1 MICS indicator 3.24 - Pregnant women who slept under an insecticide treated net (ITN) a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b Wealth index have been grouped into two categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases '-' denotes 0 unweighted cases in that cell 144 Pregnant women living in places where malaria is highly prevalent are highly vulnerable to malaria. Once infected, pregnant women risk anaemia, premature delivery and stillbirth. Their babies are increased risk of low birth weight, which carries an increased risk to die in infancy.45 For this reason, steps are taken to protect pregnant women by distributing insecticide- treated mosquito nets and treatment during antenatal check-ups with drugs that prevent malaria infection (Intermittent preventive treatment or IPT). WHO recommends that in areas of moderate-to-high malaria transmission, all pregnant women be provided an intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine- Pyrimethamine (SP) at every scheduled antenatal care visit. In Guyana, however, the recommended strategy for pregnant women in high-risk regions has not been to promote IPT, but to promote the use of ITN, early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Therefore, in the Guyana MICS5, the women’s questionnaire did not include questions on IPT and only included questions on the use of mosquito nets by pregnant women. 45Shulman C.E., Dorman E.K. (2003). Importance and prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97(1): 30–5. Table CH.23 presents the proportion of pregnant women who slept under a mosquito net during the night before the survey. Although 79 percent of pregnant women slept under any mosquito net the night prior to the survey, only seven (7) percent slept under an insecticide treated net. This figure rises to 82 percent if we only consider those living in a household with at least one ITN. In the high-risk Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9, 78 percent of pregnant women slept under any mosquito net the night prior to the survey, and 45 percent slept under an ITN. This suggests that the purchase of an ITN or regular treatment of the mosquito net has yet to become common practice for pregnant women, even when the risk of malaria is moderate to high. 145Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 146 Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant determinant of diseases such as cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be contaminated with chemical and physical contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, improved access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, especially in some parts of the world, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances.46 The MDG target (7, C) is to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.47 46UNICEF and WHO (2011). Drinking Water - Equity, safety and sustainability: Thematic report on drinking water 2011. 47More details on water and sanitation and reference documents can be found on http://data.unicef.org/water-sanitationor the website of the WHO/ UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation (http://www.wssinfo.org). VII. WATER AND SANITATION use of Improved Water Sources The distribution of the population by main source of drinking water is shown in Table WS.1. The population using improved sources of drinking water are those using any of the following types of supply: piped water (into dwelling, compound, yard or plot, to neighbour, public tap/standpipe), tube well/borehole, protected well, protected spring, and rainwater collection. Bottled water is considered as an improved water source only if the household is using an improved water source for handwashing and cooking. Overall, 94 percent of the population use an improved source of drinking water – 99 percent in urban areas and 93 percent in rural areas, and 98 percent in coastal areas and 71 percent in interior areas. The situation in Region 9 is considerably worse than in other regions; only 42 percent of the population in this region get its drinking water from an improved source. Regions 1 and 7 & 8 also have relatively low percentages using improved sources of drinking water, with 81 percent for Region 1 and 65 percent for Regions 7 & 8, as opposed to more than 90 percent of the population in all other regions (Table WS.1). As shown in Table WS.1, the source of drinking water for the population varies strongly by region. The use of piped water (i.e. piped into dwelling or compound/ yard/plot, to neighbour, public tap/standpipe) as drinking water is highest in Region 6 (56%), followed by Region 5 and Region 10 (53% in each case). The lowest use is in Region 2 with just three (3) percent. In Region 4, where 98 percent of the population use improved sources of drinking water, only 25 percent drink piped water and 60 percent drink bottled water (improved source). In contrast, in Region 9, where only 42 percent of the population use improved sources of drinking water, 50 percent drink from an unprotected well (unimproved source), and 22 percent from a protected well (improved source). In Regions 7 & 8, where 65 percent of the population use improved sources of drinking water, 21 percent of the population drink from surface water (unimproved source) and 31 percent drink from rainwater collection (improved source). In Region 2, more than two-thirds of the population drink from rainwater collection. The main sources are depicted in Figure WS.1. 147Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e W S. 1: U se o f i m pr ov ed w at er s ou rc es P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to m ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n us in g im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er Total P er ce nt ag e us in g im pr ov ed so ur ce s of dr in ki ng w at er 1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed s ou rc es U ni m pr ov ed s ou rc es Pi pe d w at er Tube-well/ bore-hole Protected well Protected spring Rain-water collection Bottled water a Unprotected well Unprotected spring Cart with tank/ drum Surface water Bottled water a Other Missing Into dwelling Into yard/plot To neighbour Public tap/ stand-pipe To ta l 20 .4 7. 5 1. 1 0. 7 0. 1 2. 0 0. 2 18 .3 43 .8 1. 7 0. 4 0. 4 1. 9 1. 2 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 5. 4 2. 3 2. 0 0. 9 0. 8 15 .2 1. 4 49 .7 3. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 7 18 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 80 .8 3 58 R eg io n 2 1. 9 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 67 .4 23 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 4 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .5 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 10 .5 6. 1 1. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 33 .2 47 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 16 .6 7. 4 0. 9 0. 3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 12 .4 60 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .1 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 32 .0 16 .3 4. 3 0. 9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 11 .1 26 .9 0. 0 0. 0 2. 6 0. 7 4. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 91 .9 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 43 .8 10 .0 1. 5 0. 7 0. 0 4. 8 0. 2 4. 4 33 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 3. 5 9. 1 0. 0 0. 7 0. 3 4. 7 0. 8 31 .3 14 .9 0. 7 7. 3 5. 0 20 .5 0. 9 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 65 .2 5 23 R eg io n 9 2. 7 3. 0 0. 6 8. 5 2. 3 21 .9 0. 1 1. 3 1. 5 50 .0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 9 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 42 .0 6 48 R eg io n 10 48 .3 4. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 12 .6 21 .8 0. 0 3. 2 0. 7 4. 2 1. 7 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .0 9 74 A re a U rb an 26 .3 6. 2 0. 6 0. 9 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 7. 3 56 .9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .8 5 ,2 63 R ur al 18 .3 7. 9 1. 3 0. 6 0. 1 2. 7 0. 1 22 .4 39 .0 2. 3 0. 3 0. 6 2. 6 1. 5 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 92 .5 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 20 .8 7. 8 1. 2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 9 0. 0 17 .8 49 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 1. 3 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .1 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 21 .7 6. 6 0. 6 1. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 8. 0 61 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 20 .5 8. 3 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 21 .6 44 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 1. 6 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .6 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 18 .3 5. 5 0. 6 2. 6 0. 7 8. 7 1. 4 21 .3 11 .7 11 .8 2. 5 1. 3 12 .3 0. 9 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 70 .9 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 22 .1 12 .0 3. 8 0. 6 0. 0 5. 0 0. 2 29 .2 18 .1 2. 7 0. 4 0. 9 2. 9 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .9 4 07 P rim ar y 25 .0 8. 5 0. 7 0. 4 0. 1 1. 6 0. 2 20 .5 37 .0 0. 9 0. 3 0. 7 2. 7 1. 0 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 17 .9 7. 3 1. 4 0. 9 0. 1 2. 3 0. 3 17 .8 45 .9 2. 3 0. 4 0. 3 1. 6 1. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 18 .5 3. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 5 0. 2 10 .6 63 .9 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 2. 1 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .1 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 21 .6 8. 2 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 17 .9 40 .2 2. 5 0. 0 0. 3 3. 1 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 91 .5 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 12 .5 15 .8 4. 9 3. 4 0. 5 6. 8 0. 4 26 .3 8. 3 8. 3 1. 7 1. 0 9. 4 0. 3 0. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 78 .8 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 27 .1 12 .4 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 6 28 .5 26 .7 0. 1 0. 1 1. 2 0. 1 1. 4 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .9 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 28 .0 5. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 22 .1 40 .1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 2. 2 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .3 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 22 .3 2. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 2 11 .0 62 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 12 .3 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 3. 7 81 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db E as t I nd ia n 19 .8 6. 1 1. 3 0. 1 0. 0 1. 5 0. 1 19 .6 49 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 2 1. 3 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 24 .7 10 .1 1. 3 0. 6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 13 .6 46 .4 0. 0 0. 5 0. 3 0. 1 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .5 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 3. 3 5. 9 0. 6 4. 1 1. 2 11 .8 0. 5 24 .2 7. 6 18 .2 2. 2 1. 9 16 .9 1. 3 0. 4 0. 1 10 0. 0 59 .1 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 22 .9 7. 0 0. 7 0. 5 0. 0 1. 3 0. 3 20 .4 43 .2 0. 7 0. 1 0. 2 1. 9 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .3 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 19 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 0. 0 25 .9 49 .1 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .3 8 9 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .1 ; M D G in di ca to r 7 .8 - U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es a H ou se ho ld s us in g bo ttl ed w at er a s th e m ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er a re c la ss ifi ed in to im pr ov ed o r u ni m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er u se rs a cc or di ng to th e w at er s ou rc e us ed fo r o th er pu rp os es s uc h as c oo ki ng a nd h an dw as hi ng . b Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d (C on tin ue d) 148 Ta bl e W S. 1: U se o f i m pr ov ed w at er s ou rc es P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to m ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n us in g im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er Total P er ce nt ag e us in g im pr ov ed so ur ce s of dr in ki ng w at er 1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed s ou rc es U ni m pr ov ed s ou rc es Pi pe d w at er Tube-well/ bore-hole Protected well Protected spring Rain-water collection Bottled water a Unprotected well Unprotected spring Cart with tank/ drum Surface water Bottled water a Other Missing Into dwelling Into yard/plot To neighbour Public tap/ stand-pipe To ta l 20 .4 7. 5 1. 1 0. 7 0. 1 2. 0 0. 2 18 .3 43 .8 1. 7 0. 4 0. 4 1. 9 1. 2 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 5. 4 2. 3 2. 0 0. 9 0. 8 15 .2 1. 4 49 .7 3. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 7 18 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 80 .8 3 58 R eg io n 2 1. 9 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 67 .4 23 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 4 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .5 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 10 .5 6. 1 1. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 33 .2 47 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 16 .6 7. 4 0. 9 0. 3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 12 .4 60 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .1 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 32 .0 16 .3 4. 3 0. 9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 11 .1 26 .9 0. 0 0. 0 2. 6 0. 7 4. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 91 .9 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 43 .8 10 .0 1. 5 0. 7 0. 0 4. 8 0. 2 4. 4 33 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 3. 5 9. 1 0. 0 0. 7 0. 3 4. 7 0. 8 31 .3 14 .9 0. 7 7. 3 5. 0 20 .5 0. 9 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 65 .2 5 23 R eg io n 9 2. 7 3. 0 0. 6 8. 5 2. 3 21 .9 0. 1 1. 3 1. 5 50 .0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 9 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 42 .0 6 48 R eg io n 10 48 .3 4. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 12 .6 21 .8 0. 0 3. 2 0. 7 4. 2 1. 7 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .0 9 74 A re a U rb an 26 .3 6. 2 0. 6 0. 9 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 7. 3 56 .9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .8 5 ,2 63 R ur al 18 .3 7. 9 1. 3 0. 6 0. 1 2. 7 0. 1 22 .4 39 .0 2. 3 0. 3 0. 6 2. 6 1. 5 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 92 .5 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 20 .8 7. 8 1. 2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 9 0. 0 17 .8 49 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 1. 3 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .1 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 21 .7 6. 6 0. 6 1. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 8. 0 61 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 20 .5 8. 3 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 21 .6 44 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 1. 6 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .6 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 18 .3 5. 5 0. 6 2. 6 0. 7 8. 7 1. 4 21 .3 11 .7 11 .8 2. 5 1. 3 12 .3 0. 9 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 70 .9 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 22 .1 12 .0 3. 8 0. 6 0. 0 5. 0 0. 2 29 .2 18 .1 2. 7 0. 4 0. 9 2. 9 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .9 4 07 P rim ar y 25 .0 8. 5 0. 7 0. 4 0. 1 1. 6 0. 2 20 .5 37 .0 0. 9 0. 3 0. 7 2. 7 1. 0 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 17 .9 7. 3 1. 4 0. 9 0. 1 2. 3 0. 3 17 .8 45 .9 2. 3 0. 4 0. 3 1. 6 1. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 18 .5 3. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 5 0. 2 10 .6 63 .9 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 2. 1 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .1 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 21 .6 8. 2 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 17 .9 40 .2 2. 5 0. 0 0. 3 3. 1 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 91 .5 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 12 .5 15 .8 4. 9 3. 4 0. 5 6. 8 0. 4 26 .3 8. 3 8. 3 1. 7 1. 0 9. 4 0. 3 0. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 78 .8 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 27 .1 12 .4 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 6 28 .5 26 .7 0. 1 0. 1 1. 2 0. 1 1. 4 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .9 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 28 .0 5. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 22 .1 40 .1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 2. 2 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .3 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 22 .3 2. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 2 11 .0 62 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 12 .3 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 3. 7 81 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db E as t I nd ia n 19 .8 6. 1 1. 3 0. 1 0. 0 1. 5 0. 1 19 .6 49 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 2 1. 3 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 24 .7 10 .1 1. 3 0. 6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 13 .6 46 .4 0. 0 0. 5 0. 3 0. 1 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .5 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 3. 3 5. 9 0. 6 4. 1 1. 2 11 .8 0. 5 24 .2 7. 6 18 .2 2. 2 1. 9 16 .9 1. 3 0. 4 0. 1 10 0. 0 59 .1 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 22 .9 7. 0 0. 7 0. 5 0. 0 1. 3 0. 3 20 .4 43 .2 0. 7 0. 1 0. 2 1. 9 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .3 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 19 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 0. 0 25 .9 49 .1 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .3 8 9 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .1 ; M D G in di ca to r 7 .8 - U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es a H ou se ho ld s us in g bo ttl ed w at er a s th e m ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er a re c la ss ifi ed in to im pr ov ed o r u ni m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er u se rs a cc or di ng to th e w at er s ou rc e us ed fo r o th er pu rp os es s uc h as c oo ki ng a nd h an dw as hi ng . b Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d Ta bl e W S. 1: U se o f i m pr ov ed w at er s ou rc es P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to m ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n us in g im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er Total P er ce nt ag e us in g im pr ov ed so ur ce s of dr in ki ng w at er 1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed s ou rc es U ni m pr ov ed s ou rc es Pi pe d w at er Tube-well/ bore-hole Protected well Protected spring Rain-water collection Bottled water a Unprotected well Unprotected spring Cart with tank/ drum Surface water Bottled water a Other Missing Into dwelling Into yard/plot To neighbour Public tap/ stand-pipe To ta l 20 .4 7. 5 1. 1 0. 7 0. 1 2. 0 0. 2 18 .3 43 .8 1. 7 0. 4 0. 4 1. 9 1. 2 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 5. 4 2. 3 2. 0 0. 9 0. 8 15 .2 1. 4 49 .7 3. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 7 18 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 80 .8 3 58 R eg io n 2 1. 9 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 67 .4 23 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 4 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .5 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 10 .5 6. 1 1. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 33 .2 47 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 16 .6 7. 4 0. 9 0. 3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 12 .4 60 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .1 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 32 .0 16 .3 4. 3 0. 9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 11 .1 26 .9 0. 0 0. 0 2. 6 0. 7 4. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 91 .9 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 43 .8 10 .0 1. 5 0. 7 0. 0 4. 8 0. 2 4. 4 33 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 3. 5 9. 1 0. 0 0. 7 0. 3 4. 7 0. 8 31 .3 14 .9 0. 7 7. 3 5. 0 20 .5 0. 9 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 65 .2 5 23 R eg io n 9 2. 7 3. 0 0. 6 8. 5 2. 3 21 .9 0. 1 1. 3 1. 5 50 .0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 9 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 42 .0 6 48 R eg io n 10 48 .3 4. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 12 .6 21 .8 0. 0 3. 2 0. 7 4. 2 1. 7 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .0 9 74 A re a U rb an 26 .3 6. 2 0. 6 0. 9 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 7. 3 56 .9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .8 5 ,2 63 R ur al 18 .3 7. 9 1. 3 0. 6 0. 1 2. 7 0. 1 22 .4 39 .0 2. 3 0. 3 0. 6 2. 6 1. 5 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 92 .5 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 20 .8 7. 8 1. 2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 9 0. 0 17 .8 49 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 1. 3 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .1 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 21 .7 6. 6 0. 6 1. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 8. 0 61 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 20 .5 8. 3 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 21 .6 44 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 1. 6 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .6 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 18 .3 5. 5 0. 6 2. 6 0. 7 8. 7 1. 4 21 .3 11 .7 11 .8 2. 5 1. 3 12 .3 0. 9 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 70 .9 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 22 .1 12 .0 3. 8 0. 6 0. 0 5. 0 0. 2 29 .2 18 .1 2. 7 0. 4 0. 9 2. 9 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .9 4 07 P rim ar y 25 .0 8. 5 0. 7 0. 4 0. 1 1. 6 0. 2 20 .5 37 .0 0. 9 0. 3 0. 7 2. 7 1. 0 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 17 .9 7. 3 1. 4 0. 9 0. 1 2. 3 0. 3 17 .8 45 .9 2. 3 0. 4 0. 3 1. 6 1. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 18 .5 3. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 5 0. 2 10 .6 63 .9 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 2. 1 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .1 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 21 .6 8. 2 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 17 .9 40 .2 2. 5 0. 0 0. 3 3. 1 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 91 .5 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 12 .5 15 .8 4. 9 3. 4 0. 5 6. 8 0. 4 26 .3 8. 3 8. 3 1. 7 1. 0 9. 4 0. 3 0. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 78 .8 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 27 .1 12 .4 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 6 28 .5 26 .7 0. 1 0. 1 1. 2 0. 1 1. 4 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .9 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 28 .0 5. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 22 .1 40 .1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 2. 2 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .3 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 22 .3 2. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 2 11 .0 62 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 12 .3 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 3. 7 81 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea db E as t I nd ia n 19 .8 6. 1 1. 3 0. 1 0. 0 1. 5 0. 1 19 .6 49 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 2 1. 3 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 24 .7 10 .1 1. 3 0. 6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 13 .6 46 .4 0. 0 0. 5 0. 3 0. 1 1. 4 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .5 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 3. 3 5. 9 0. 6 4. 1 1. 2 11 .8 0. 5 24 .2 7. 6 18 .2 2. 2 1. 9 16 .9 1. 3 0. 4 0. 1 10 0. 0 59 .1 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 22 .9 7. 0 0. 7 0. 5 0. 0 1. 3 0. 3 20 .4 43 .2 0. 7 0. 1 0. 2 1. 9 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .3 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 19 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 0. 0 25 .9 49 .1 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .3 8 9 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .1 ; M D G in di ca to r 7 .8 - U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es a H ou se ho ld s us in g bo ttl ed w at er a s th e m ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er a re c la ss ifi ed in to im pr ov ed o r u ni m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er u se rs a cc or di ng to th e w at er s ou rc e us ed fo r o th er pu rp os es s uc h as c oo ki ng a nd h an dw as hi ng . b Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d 149Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Use of household water treatment is presented in Table WS.2. Households were asked about ways they may be treating water at home to make it safer to drink. Boiling water, adding bleach or chlorine, using a water filter, and using solar disinfection are considered as effective treatment of drinking water. The table shows water treatment by all household members and the percentage of those living in households using unimproved water sources but using appropriate water treatment methods. Overall, only 27 percent of household members living in households using unimproved sources of drinking water use an appropriate method of water treatment. The main methods of water treatment are adding bleach or chlorine (31%) and boiling (9%), while the other methods (water filter, solar disinfection) are rarely employed (0-2%). There is little variation in the use of effective ways to treat drinking water by area or location. However, there are variations relative to the region of residence and ethnicity of household head. Residents of Region 5 are most likely than others to utilise an effective water treatment (52%), while Region 3 residents are least likely with only eight (8) percent. The largest proportions of household members who effectively treat their drinking water are found in households with an East Indian household head (42%) and those with an Amerindian household head (27%), while less than 20 percent of persons living in other households use an effective drinking water treatment. Though there is no clear pattern based on socio-economic status of the household, it is evident that there is a positive relationship with the education level of the household head. 44 2 2 2 28 2 4 2 18 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Bottled water Unprotected well or spring Surface water Other unimproved Piped into dwelling, yard or plot Neighbour/ public tap/ standpipe Tubewell/ borehole Protected well or spring Rainwater collection Percent distribution of household members by source of drinking water, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Figure WS.1: Percent distribution of household members by source of drinking water, Guyana MICS5, 2014 8 2 4 2 2 2 2 44 8 150 Ta bl e W S. 2: H ou se ho ld w at er tr ea tm en t P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n by d rin ki ng w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d, a nd fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in h ou se ho ld s w he re a n un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc e is u se d, th e pe rc en ta ge w ho a re u si ng a n ap pr op ria te tr ea tm en t m et ho d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 W at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s us in g un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc es an d us in g an a pp ro pr ia te w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d1 N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in ho us eh ol ds u si ng un im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es N on e B oi l A dd bl ea ch / ch lo rin e S tra in th ro ug h a cl ot h U se w at er fil te r S ol ar di s- in fe ct io n Le t i t st an d an d se ttl e O th er M is si ng /D K To ta l 58 .5 8. 9 31 .1 1. 5 1. 8 0. 1 1. 9 0. 4 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 27 .4 1 ,1 22 R eg io n R eg io n 1 58 .2 7. 9 36 .7 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 3 58 39 .6 6 9 R eg io n 2 50 .5 9. 5 35 .9 3. 2 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 1 ,0 70 22 .3 5 9 R eg io n 3 59 .8 8. 1 32 .4 0. 4 1. 7 0. 0 1. 2 0. 3 0. 0 3 ,0 40 8. 4 3 5 R eg io n 4 61 .3 7. 2 30 .7 0. 8 2. 7 0. 1 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 8 ,5 55 11 .8 1 66 R eg io n 5 41 .0 3. 6 51 .7 0. 9 0. 4 0. 7 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1 ,3 22 52 .3 1 07 R eg io n 6 67 .9 8. 2 18 .8 0. 1 1. 1 0. 0 5. 8 0. 0 0. 0 2 ,8 31 (3 7. 5) 3 0 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .6 13 .0 16 .8 2. 4 0. 4 0. 0 2. 0 0. 8 0. 0 5 23 22 .2 1 82 R eg io n 9 53 .7 13 .2 21 .7 20 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 1. 1 0. 0 6 48 28 .1 3 76 R eg io n 10 32 .6 29 .3 45 .3 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 1. 1 0. 6 0. 2 9 74 31 .4 9 7 A re a U rb an 59 .7 10 .8 27 .7 0. 9 3. 1 0. 1 1. 3 0. 6 0. 0 5 ,2 63 32 .1 6 2 R ur al 58 .0 8. 1 32 .4 1. 7 1. 3 0. 1 2. 1 0. 3 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 27 .1 1 ,0 60 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 59 .9 7. 4 31 .0 0. 8 2. 0 0. 1 1. 9 0. 3 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 26 .2 3 07 U rb an C oa st al 64 .3 7. 3 25 .2 1. 0 3. 5 0. 1 1. 4 0. 6 0. 0 4 ,5 94 (1 6. 5) 2 3 R ur al C oa st al 58 .2 7. 5 33 .3 0. 7 1. 5 0. 1 2. 2 0. 2 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 26 .9 2 85 In te rio r 50 .1 17 .4 31 .7 5. 8 0. 5 0. 0 1. 6 0. 8 0. 1 2 ,7 95 27 .8 8 14 M ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er Im pr ov ed 58 .1 8. 8 31 .9 1. 1 1. 9 0. 1 2. 0 0. 3 0. 0 1 8, 19 9 na n a U ni m pr ov ed 65 .3 10 .5 18 .5 8. 7 1. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 0 1 ,1 22 27 .4 1 ,1 22 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 58 .3 7. 9 31 .2 1. 5 2. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 4 07 28 .4 3 7 P rim ar y 62 .8 7. 7 28 .4 1. 5 0. 5 0. 1 2. 8 0. 1 0. 0 6 ,2 38 16 .2 3 63 S ec on da ry 55 .8 9. 3 33 .3 1. 6 1. 9 0. 0 1. 8 0. 5 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 33 .4 6 33 H ig he r 57 .2 9. 4 28 .7 1. 2 7. 0 0. 2 0. 2 0. 9 0. 0 1 ,6 25 40 .7 4 7 M is si ng /D K 65 .1 11 .8 27 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 4 93 16 .0 4 2 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 55 .2 11 .5 31 .7 4. 7 0. 2 0. 2 2. 7 0. 4 0. 0 3 ,8 62 27 .8 81 9 S ec on d 53 .6 8. 6 36 .2 1. 6 0. 6 0. 0 2. 7 0. 8 0. 0 3 ,8 70 36 .1 11 8 M id dl e 56 .1 10 .4 33 .3 0. 6 0. 8 0. 1 2. 6 0. 6 0. 0 3 ,8 60 13 .9 10 3 Fo ur th 61 .6 7. 9 30 .1 0. 1 2. 3 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 3 ,8 60 22 .2 44 R ic he st 66 .0 5. 9 24 .3 0. 5 5. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 3 ,8 69 (3 3. 5) 37 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 63 .4 7. 5 25 .6 0. 8 2. 1 0. 1 2. 7 0. 4 0. 0 8 ,2 14 41 .9 1 68 A fri ca n 50 .2 9. 5 40 .6 0. 6 1. 7 0. 1 1. 6 0. 4 0. 0 5 ,9 90 19 .3 1 47 A m er in di an 59 .6 12 .1 25 .1 8. 5 0. 7 0. 0 1. 1 0. 6 0. 0 1 ,6 58 27 .3 6 78 M ix ed R ac e 60 .8 9. 4 30 .9 1. 4 1. 9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 1 0. 0 3 ,3 70 15 .5 1 25 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 52 .3 12 .8 30 .4 0. 0 3. 4 0. 0 7. 7 1. 2 0. 0 8 9 (* ) 3 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .2 - W at er tr ea tm en t a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 151Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e W S. 2: H ou se ho ld w at er tr ea tm en t P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n by d rin ki ng w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d, a nd fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in h ou se ho ld s w he re a n un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc e is u se d, th e pe rc en ta ge w ho a re u si ng a n ap pr op ria te tr ea tm en t m et ho d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 W at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s us in g un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc es an d us in g an a pp ro pr ia te w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d1 N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in ho us eh ol ds u si ng un im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es N on e B oi l A dd bl ea ch / ch lo rin e S tra in th ro ug h a cl ot h U se w at er fil te r S ol ar di s- in fe ct io n Le t i t st an d an d se ttl e O th er M is si ng /D K To ta l 58 .5 8. 9 31 .1 1. 5 1. 8 0. 1 1. 9 0. 4 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 27 .4 1 ,1 22 R eg io n R eg io n 1 58 .2 7. 9 36 .7 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 3 58 39 .6 6 9 R eg io n 2 50 .5 9. 5 35 .9 3. 2 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 1 ,0 70 22 .3 5 9 R eg io n 3 59 .8 8. 1 32 .4 0. 4 1. 7 0. 0 1. 2 0. 3 0. 0 3 ,0 40 8. 4 3 5 R eg io n 4 61 .3 7. 2 30 .7 0. 8 2. 7 0. 1 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 8 ,5 55 11 .8 1 66 R eg io n 5 41 .0 3. 6 51 .7 0. 9 0. 4 0. 7 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1 ,3 22 52 .3 1 07 R eg io n 6 67 .9 8. 2 18 .8 0. 1 1. 1 0. 0 5. 8 0. 0 0. 0 2 ,8 31 (3 7. 5) 3 0 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .6 13 .0 16 .8 2. 4 0. 4 0. 0 2. 0 0. 8 0. 0 5 23 22 .2 1 82 R eg io n 9 53 .7 13 .2 21 .7 20 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 1. 1 0. 0 6 48 28 .1 3 76 R eg io n 10 32 .6 29 .3 45 .3 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 1. 1 0. 6 0. 2 9 74 31 .4 9 7 A re a U rb an 59 .7 10 .8 27 .7 0. 9 3. 1 0. 1 1. 3 0. 6 0. 0 5 ,2 63 32 .1 6 2 R ur al 58 .0 8. 1 32 .4 1. 7 1. 3 0. 1 2. 1 0. 3 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 27 .1 1 ,0 60 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 59 .9 7. 4 31 .0 0. 8 2. 0 0. 1 1. 9 0. 3 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 26 .2 3 07 U rb an C oa st al 64 .3 7. 3 25 .2 1. 0 3. 5 0. 1 1. 4 0. 6 0. 0 4 ,5 94 (1 6. 5) 2 3 R ur al C oa st al 58 .2 7. 5 33 .3 0. 7 1. 5 0. 1 2. 2 0. 2 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 26 .9 2 85 In te rio r 50 .1 17 .4 31 .7 5. 8 0. 5 0. 0 1. 6 0. 8 0. 1 2 ,7 95 27 .8 8 14 M ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er Im pr ov ed 58 .1 8. 8 31 .9 1. 1 1. 9 0. 1 2. 0 0. 3 0. 0 1 8, 19 9 na n a U ni m pr ov ed 65 .3 10 .5 18 .5 8. 7 1. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 0 1 ,1 22 27 .4 1 ,1 22 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 58 .3 7. 9 31 .2 1. 5 2. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 4 07 28 .4 3 7 P rim ar y 62 .8 7. 7 28 .4 1. 5 0. 5 0. 1 2. 8 0. 1 0. 0 6 ,2 38 16 .2 3 63 S ec on da ry 55 .8 9. 3 33 .3 1. 6 1. 9 0. 0 1. 8 0. 5 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 33 .4 6 33 H ig he r 57 .2 9. 4 28 .7 1. 2 7. 0 0. 2 0. 2 0. 9 0. 0 1 ,6 25 40 .7 4 7 M is si ng /D K 65 .1 11 .8 27 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 4 93 16 .0 4 2 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 55 .2 11 .5 31 .7 4. 7 0. 2 0. 2 2. 7 0. 4 0. 0 3 ,8 62 27 .8 81 9 S ec on d 53 .6 8. 6 36 .2 1. 6 0. 6 0. 0 2. 7 0. 8 0. 0 3 ,8 70 36 .1 11 8 M id dl e 56 .1 10 .4 33 .3 0. 6 0. 8 0. 1 2. 6 0. 6 0. 0 3 ,8 60 13 .9 10 3 Fo ur th 61 .6 7. 9 30 .1 0. 1 2. 3 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 3 ,8 60 22 .2 44 R ic he st 66 .0 5. 9 24 .3 0. 5 5. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 3 ,8 69 (3 3. 5) 37 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 63 .4 7. 5 25 .6 0. 8 2. 1 0. 1 2. 7 0. 4 0. 0 8 ,2 14 41 .9 1 68 A fri ca n 50 .2 9. 5 40 .6 0. 6 1. 7 0. 1 1. 6 0. 4 0. 0 5 ,9 90 19 .3 1 47 A m er in di an 59 .6 12 .1 25 .1 8. 5 0. 7 0. 0 1. 1 0. 6 0. 0 1 ,6 58 27 .3 6 78 M ix ed R ac e 60 .8 9. 4 30 .9 1. 4 1. 9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 1 0. 0 3 ,3 70 15 .5 1 25 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 52 .3 12 .8 30 .4 0. 0 3. 4 0. 0 7. 7 1. 2 0. 0 8 9 (* ) 3 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .2 - W at er tr ea tm en t a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e W S. 2: H ou se ho ld w at er tr ea tm en t P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n by d rin ki ng w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d, a nd fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in h ou se ho ld s w he re a n un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc e is u se d, th e pe rc en ta ge w ho a re u si ng a n ap pr op ria te tr ea tm en t m et ho d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 W at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s us in g un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc es an d us in g an a pp ro pr ia te w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d1 N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in ho us eh ol ds u si ng un im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es N on e B oi l A dd bl ea ch / ch lo rin e S tra in th ro ug h a cl ot h U se w at er fil te r S ol ar di s- in fe ct io n Le t i t st an d an d se ttl e O th er M is si ng /D K To ta l 58 .5 8. 9 31 .1 1. 5 1. 8 0. 1 1. 9 0. 4 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 27 .4 1 ,1 22 R eg io n R eg io n 1 58 .2 7. 9 36 .7 2. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 3 58 39 .6 6 9 R eg io n 2 50 .5 9. 5 35 .9 3. 2 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 1 ,0 70 22 .3 5 9 R eg io n 3 59 .8 8. 1 32 .4 0. 4 1. 7 0. 0 1. 2 0. 3 0. 0 3 ,0 40 8. 4 3 5 R eg io n 4 61 .3 7. 2 30 .7 0. 8 2. 7 0. 1 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 8 ,5 55 11 .8 1 66 R eg io n 5 41 .0 3. 6 51 .7 0. 9 0. 4 0. 7 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1 ,3 22 52 .3 1 07 R eg io n 6 67 .9 8. 2 18 .8 0. 1 1. 1 0. 0 5. 8 0. 0 0. 0 2 ,8 31 (3 7. 5) 3 0 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .6 13 .0 16 .8 2. 4 0. 4 0. 0 2. 0 0. 8 0. 0 5 23 22 .2 1 82 R eg io n 9 53 .7 13 .2 21 .7 20 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 1. 1 0. 0 6 48 28 .1 3 76 R eg io n 10 32 .6 29 .3 45 .3 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 1. 1 0. 6 0. 2 9 74 31 .4 9 7 A re a U rb an 59 .7 10 .8 27 .7 0. 9 3. 1 0. 1 1. 3 0. 6 0. 0 5 ,2 63 32 .1 6 2 R ur al 58 .0 8. 1 32 .4 1. 7 1. 3 0. 1 2. 1 0. 3 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 27 .1 1 ,0 60 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 59 .9 7. 4 31 .0 0. 8 2. 0 0. 1 1. 9 0. 3 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 26 .2 3 07 U rb an C oa st al 64 .3 7. 3 25 .2 1. 0 3. 5 0. 1 1. 4 0. 6 0. 0 4 ,5 94 (1 6. 5) 2 3 R ur al C oa st al 58 .2 7. 5 33 .3 0. 7 1. 5 0. 1 2. 2 0. 2 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 26 .9 2 85 In te rio r 50 .1 17 .4 31 .7 5. 8 0. 5 0. 0 1. 6 0. 8 0. 1 2 ,7 95 27 .8 8 14 M ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er Im pr ov ed 58 .1 8. 8 31 .9 1. 1 1. 9 0. 1 2. 0 0. 3 0. 0 1 8, 19 9 na n a U ni m pr ov ed 65 .3 10 .5 18 .5 8. 7 1. 2 0. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 0 1 ,1 22 27 .4 1 ,1 22 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 58 .3 7. 9 31 .2 1. 5 2. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 4 07 28 .4 3 7 P rim ar y 62 .8 7. 7 28 .4 1. 5 0. 5 0. 1 2. 8 0. 1 0. 0 6 ,2 38 16 .2 3 63 S ec on da ry 55 .8 9. 3 33 .3 1. 6 1. 9 0. 0 1. 8 0. 5 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 33 .4 6 33 H ig he r 57 .2 9. 4 28 .7 1. 2 7. 0 0. 2 0. 2 0. 9 0. 0 1 ,6 25 40 .7 4 7 M is si ng /D K 65 .1 11 .8 27 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 4 93 16 .0 4 2 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 55 .2 11 .5 31 .7 4. 7 0. 2 0. 2 2. 7 0. 4 0. 0 3 ,8 62 27 .8 81 9 S ec on d 53 .6 8. 6 36 .2 1. 6 0. 6 0. 0 2. 7 0. 8 0. 0 3 ,8 70 36 .1 11 8 M id dl e 56 .1 10 .4 33 .3 0. 6 0. 8 0. 1 2. 6 0. 6 0. 0 3 ,8 60 13 .9 10 3 Fo ur th 61 .6 7. 9 30 .1 0. 1 2. 3 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 3 ,8 60 22 .2 44 R ic he st 66 .0 5. 9 24 .3 0. 5 5. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 3 ,8 69 (3 3. 5) 37 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 63 .4 7. 5 25 .6 0. 8 2. 1 0. 1 2. 7 0. 4 0. 0 8 ,2 14 41 .9 1 68 A fri ca n 50 .2 9. 5 40 .6 0. 6 1. 7 0. 1 1. 6 0. 4 0. 0 5 ,9 90 19 .3 1 47 A m er in di an 59 .6 12 .1 25 .1 8. 5 0. 7 0. 0 1. 1 0. 6 0. 0 1 ,6 58 27 .3 6 78 M ix ed R ac e 60 .8 9. 4 30 .9 1. 4 1. 9 0. 0 0. 6 0. 1 0. 0 3 ,3 70 15 .5 1 25 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 52 .3 12 .8 30 .4 0. 0 3. 4 0. 0 7. 7 1. 2 0. 0 8 9 (* ) 3 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .2 - W at er tr ea tm en t a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 152 The amount of time it takes to obtain water is presented in Table WS.3 and the person who usually collects the water in Table WS.4. Note that for Table WS.3, household members using water on premises are also shown in this table and for others, the results refer to one round trip from home to drinking water source. Information on the number of trips made in one day was not collected. Table WS.3 shows that for 92 percent of the household population, the drinking water source is on premises. The availability of water on premises is associated with greater use, better family hygiene and better health outcomes. For a round trip of 30 minutes or more for water collection, it has been observed that households carry progressively less water and are likely to compromise on the minimal basic drinking water needs of the household. However, in Guyana, only for one (1) percent of the household population, it takes the household 30 minutes or more to go and get drinking water from the source. The availability of water on premises is lower in interior areas (68%) compared to coastal areas (97%). Nevertheless, only three (3) percent of household members in interior areas without water on premises spend 30 minutes or more to go and get drinking water. Household members in Regions 1, 7 & 8 and 9 are least likely than others to live in households with water on premises, with 64, 62 and 46 percent, respectively. The proportions of the residents of the other regions range from 88 to 97 percent. It is worth noting that even though only 46 percent of household members in Region 9 live in households with water on premises, only two (2) percent of those living without water on premises spend 30 minutes or more to go and get drinking water. Only very small percentages of users of both improved and unimproved drinking water sources spend 30 minutes or more to go and get drinking water; the highest percentage is found in Region 1, with 13 percent, most of whom are users of unimproved drinking water sources (10%). In Guyana, in the majority of households (57%), adult males usually collect drinking water when the source is not on the premises (Table WS.4). Adult women collect water in 27 percent of cases, while female or male children under age 15 collect water in six (6) percent of cases. In households with an Amerindian household head, adult men and women share the task of collecting water equally, while in other households men are much more likely than women to collect water. 153Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table WS.3: Time to source of drinking water Percent distribution of household population according to time to go to source of drinking water, get water and return, for users of improved and unimproved drinking water sources, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Time to source of drinking water Users of improved drinking water sources Users of unimproved drinking water sources Total Number of household members Water on premises Less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Missing /DK Water on premises Less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Missing /DK Total 90.5 2.4 0.5 0.8 1.9 3.2 0.5 0.2 100.0 19,321 Region Region 1 62.1 14.8 2.9 1.0 1.7 7.2 10.2 0.2 100.0 358 Region 2 94.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 1.2 4.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 1,070 Region 3 95.4 1.6 0.1 1.7 0.2 0.7 0.1 0.2 100.0 3,040 Region 4 96.5 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.4 1.2 0.2 0.2 100.0 8,555 Region 5 88.3 2.4 0.0 1.3 6.4 0.8 0.1 0.7 100.0 1,322 Region 6 93.7 3.1 1.3 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,831 Regions 7 & 8 59.0 4.8 1.0 0.4 2.5 29.5 1.3 1.5 100.0 523 Region 9 19.5 20.6 1.1 0.7 26.9 29.5 1.1 0.5 100.0 648 Region 10 86.5 2.9 0.6 0.0 1.5 7.0 1.4 0.1 100.0 974 Area Urban 96.4 1.1 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.1 100.0 5,263 Rural 88.2 2.9 0.5 0.9 2.5 4.2 0.6 0.3 100.0 14,058 Location Coastal 95.6 1.2 0.4 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.1 0.2 100.0 16,526 Urban Coastal 97.4 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 4,594 Rural Coastal 94.9 1.4 0.4 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.2 0.2 100.0 11,932 Interior 60.1 9.2 1.0 0.5 7.9 18.3 2.4 0.6 100.0 2,795 Education of household head None 86.2 3.7 0.9 0.1 4.5 2.1 2.5 0.0 100.0 407 Primary 90.6 2.0 0.3 1.2 1.2 3.6 0.6 0.4 100.0 6,238 Secondary 90.0 2.6 0.7 0.7 2.1 3.4 0.3 0.2 100.0 10,559 Higher 94.8 1.9 0.1 0.3 1.7 1.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 1,625 Missing/DK 88.2 3.4 0.0 0.0 3.1 3.1 1.9 0.3 100.0 493 Wealth index quintile Poorest 67.2 8.0 1.7 1.8 5.3 13.7 1.6 0.6 100.0 3,862 Second 93.1 2.1 0.6 1.1 1.8 1.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 3,870 Middle 95.0 1.6 0.1 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.5 0.3 100.0 3,860 Fourth 98.1 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.0 100.0 3,860 Richest 98.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.0 0.1 100.0 3,869 Ethnicity of household heada East Indian 95.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 1.1 0.6 0.2 0.2 100.0 8,214 African 94.8 1.5 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.1 100.0 5,990 Amerindian 44.9 12.7 0.9 0.6 10.9 26.9 2.4 0.7 100.0 1,658 Mixed Race 93.6 1.8 0.3 0.5 0.9 2.0 0.6 0.2 100.0 3,370 Others/Missing/DK 95.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 3.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 89 a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head 154 Table WS.4: Person collecting water Percentage of households without drinking water on premises, and percent distribution of households without drinking water on premises according to the person usually collecting drinking water used in the household, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of households without drinking water on premises Number of households Person usually collecting drinking water Number of households without drinking water on premises Adult woman Adult man Female child under age 15 Male child under age 15 DK Missing Total Total 6.4 5,077 26.8 56.5 2.1 3.9 0.2 10.6 100.0 326 Region Region 1 30.3 66 14.7 74.6 2.2 1.3 1.9 5.2 100.0 20 Region 2 2.8 287 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 8 Region 3 4.0 821 (30.5) (8.7) (1.4) (8.8) (0.0) (50.6) 100.0 33 Region 4 3.5 2,244 9.4 72.4 0.9 1.1 0.3 15.9 100.0 78 Region 5 5.7 343 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 19 Region 6 4.6 817 (2.1) (96.5) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (1.4) 100.0 38 Regions 7 & 8 34.9 105 57.0 33.8 1.3 0.0 0.0 7.9 100.0 37 Region 9 51.2 127 43.6 43.7 6.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 65 Region 10 10.7 267 (23.5) (60.0) (3.0) (13.5) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 29 Area Urban 3.2 1,404 (8.9) (78.6) (1.2) (9.5) (0.5) (1.3) 100.0 45 Rural 7.6 3,673 29.7 53.0 2.2 3.0 0.1 12.1 100.0 280 Location Coastal 3.5 4,448 13.6 63.8 0.7 2.6 0.1 19.1 100.0 157 Urban Coastal 2.4 1,218 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 29 Rural Coastal 4.0 3,231 15.0 58.6 0.9 2.6 0.0 22.9 100.0 128 Interior 26.8 629 39.0 49.8 3.4 5.0 0.2 2.6 100.0 169 Education of household head None 7.0 108 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 8 Primary 6.0 1,632 30.9 52.9 2.0 1.4 0.4 12.3 100.0 98 Secondary 7.2 2,713 24.0 58.3 2.1 5.6 0.1 9.9 100.0 195 Higher 3.3 510 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 17 Missing/DK 7.1 114 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 8 Wealth index quintile Poorest 22.0 946 33.2 55.1 2.9 4.7 0.0 4.1 100.0 208 Second 5.5 1,051 17.4 65.1 1.2 0.0 0.7 15.7 100.0 57 Middle 3.8 1,068 (19.0) (55.5) (0.0) (7.2) (0.5) (17.9) 100.0 40 Fourth 1.3 1,028 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 14 Richest 0.6 984 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 6 Ethnicity of household heada East Indian 3.7 2,323 9.4 68.6 0.0 0.6 0.2 21.2 100.0 86 African 4.5 1,598 14.7 57.9 2.4 8.4 0.0 16.5 100.0 71 Amerindian 39.6 320 44.7 45.9 3.4 3.7 0.0 2.3 100.0 127 Mixed Race 5.1 809 28.0 62.1 2.0 3.2 0.9 3.7 100.0 42 Others/Missing/DK (1.5) 28 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 0 a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head. ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 155Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | use of Improved Sanitation Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene are associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio and are important determinants of stunting. Improved sanitation can reduce diarrhoeal disease by more than a third,48 and can substantially lessen the adverse health impacts of other disorders among millions of children in many countries. An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal include flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank, or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab, and use of a composting toilet. The data on the types of sanitation facilities used in Guyana are provided in Table WS.5. Overall, 95 percent of the population are living in households using improved sanitation facilities (Table WS.5). This percentage is 98 in urban areas and 94 percent in rural areas, and 97 in coastal areas and 86 48Cairncross S, Hunt C, Boisson S, et al.(2010). Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea. Int J Epidemiol 39:Suppl 1:i193-205. percent in interior areas, the main difference being the greater use of pit latrine with slab in rural and interior areas compared to urban and coastal areas, where the use of flush toilets with piped sewer system or septic tank is more common. Residents of Regions 7 & 8 are less likely than those from the other regions to use improved facilities, with 30 percent of the population using unimproved sanitation facilities (primarily pit latrine without slab or open pit) and 11 percent practicing open defecation. Although 85 percent of the poorest households use improved sanitation facilities, the table indicates that the type of improved sanitation facilities is strongly correlated with wealth, the poorest households primarily using pit latrine with slab (60%), while the richest households have flush toilets with a piped sewer system or septic tank (100%). The same pattern is observed with the education of household head. The use of improved sanitation facilities is found to be lowest among households with an Amerindian household head (78%) compared to other households, and consequently, the use of unimproved sanitation facilities (16%) and resort to open defecation (6%) are more prevalent. 156 Ta bl e W S. 5: T yp es o f s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by th e ho us eh ol d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by h ou se ho ld O pe n de fe ca tio n (n o fa ci lit y, bu sh , f ie ld ) To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y U ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y Fl us h/ Po ur fl us h to : V en til at ed im pr ov ed pi t l at rin e P it la tri ne w ith sl ab Fl us h/ P ou r flu sh to so m ew he re el se P it la tri ne w ith ou t sl ab / op en p it B uc ke t H an gi ng to ile t/ la tri ne O th er M is si ng /D K P ip ed se w er sy st em S ep tic ta nk P it la tri ne To ta l 2. 1 66 .1 1. 8 3. 6 21 .8 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 0. 0 9. 1 0. 1 0. 2 80 .8 0. 0 3. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 5 5. 8 10 0. 0 3 58 R eg io n 2 0. 0 60 .8 0. 2 11 .2 25 .1 0. 1 1. 5 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 0. 0 75 .2 3. 0 4. 6 10 .6 0. 0 6. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 4. 8 75 .6 1. 9 1. 6 13 .1 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 0. 1 55 .8 2. 5 1. 1 39 .0 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 0. 1 62 .6 1. 0 2. 0 33 .6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 0. 2 22 .3 0. 4 4. 7 31 .6 0. 0 26 .6 0. 0 1. 8 0. 0 1. 3 11 .1 10 0. 0 5 23 R eg io n 9 0. 0 5. 7 0. 8 31 .3 51 .2 0. 0 7. 8 0. 2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 2. 8 10 0. 0 6 48 R eg io n 10 0. 0 68 .7 1. 3 0. 4 25 .2 0. 0 3. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 9 74 A re a U rb an 7. 4 76 .8 1. 3 0. 9 11 .4 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,2 63 R ur al 0. 2 62 .0 1. 9 4. 6 25 .7 0. 0 4. 3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 2. 5 72 .0 2. 0 2. 3 18 .2 0. 0 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 8. 5 76 .7 1. 5 1. 0 10 .2 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 0. 2 70 .2 2. 1 2. 8 21 .2 0. 0 3. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 0. 0 31 .0 0. 6 11 .3 43 .1 0. 0 9. 1 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 0. 3 3. 6 10 0. 0 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 3. 9 39 .0 1. 2 5. 5 35 .8 0. 0 9. 0 0. 3 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 2. 6 10 0. 0 4 07 P rim ar y 1. 8 60 .5 1. 8 3. 2 27 .3 0. 0 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 1. 0 10 0. 0 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 2. 3 67 .0 1. 8 4. 1 20 .6 0. 0 3. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 4 10 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 1. 9 90 .3 0. 0 1. 9 5. 7 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 1. 8 59 .8 7. 2 2. 5 19 .9 0. 0 7. 1 0. 0 1. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 0. 3 7. 8 4. 5 12 .6 59 .6 0. 1 11 .2 0. 1 0. 6 0. 3 0. 3 2. 7 10 0. 0 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 1. 5 49 .2 3. 4 3. 9 36 .1 0. 0 5. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 1. 4 83 .6 0. 7 0. 7 11 .9 0. 0 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 4. 0 93 .5 0. 2 0. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 3. 6 96 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 1. 2 74 .0 1. 9 1. 6 18 .8 0. 0 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 3. 6 69 .8 1. 5 3. 1 18 .6 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 0. 2 11 .2 0. 7 16 .4 49 .7 0. 0 14 .2 0. 1 1. 3 0. 0 0. 5 5. 8 10 0. 0 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 2. 5 67 .9 2. 5 3. 2 20 .5 0. 0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 11 .4 39 .7 2. 9 3. 7 37 .2 0. 0 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 9 a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d (C on tin ue d) 157Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e W S. 5: T yp es o f s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by th e ho us eh ol d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by h ou se ho ld O pe n de fe ca tio n (n o fa ci lit y, bu sh , f ie ld ) To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y U ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y Fl us h/ Po ur fl us h to : V en til at ed im pr ov ed pi t l at rin e P it la tri ne w ith sl ab Fl us h/ P ou r flu sh to so m ew he re el se P it la tri ne w ith ou t sl ab / op en p it B uc ke t H an gi ng to ile t/ la tri ne O th er M is si ng /D K P ip ed se w er sy st em S ep tic ta nk P it la tri ne To ta l 2. 1 66 .1 1. 8 3. 6 21 .8 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 0. 0 9. 1 0. 1 0. 2 80 .8 0. 0 3. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 5 5. 8 10 0. 0 3 58 R eg io n 2 0. 0 60 .8 0. 2 11 .2 25 .1 0. 1 1. 5 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 0. 0 75 .2 3. 0 4. 6 10 .6 0. 0 6. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 4. 8 75 .6 1. 9 1. 6 13 .1 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 0. 1 55 .8 2. 5 1. 1 39 .0 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 0. 1 62 .6 1. 0 2. 0 33 .6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 0. 2 22 .3 0. 4 4. 7 31 .6 0. 0 26 .6 0. 0 1. 8 0. 0 1. 3 11 .1 10 0. 0 5 23 R eg io n 9 0. 0 5. 7 0. 8 31 .3 51 .2 0. 0 7. 8 0. 2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 2. 8 10 0. 0 6 48 R eg io n 10 0. 0 68 .7 1. 3 0. 4 25 .2 0. 0 3. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 9 74 A re a U rb an 7. 4 76 .8 1. 3 0. 9 11 .4 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,2 63 R ur al 0. 2 62 .0 1. 9 4. 6 25 .7 0. 0 4. 3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 2. 5 72 .0 2. 0 2. 3 18 .2 0. 0 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 8. 5 76 .7 1. 5 1. 0 10 .2 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 0. 2 70 .2 2. 1 2. 8 21 .2 0. 0 3. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 0. 0 31 .0 0. 6 11 .3 43 .1 0. 0 9. 1 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 0. 3 3. 6 10 0. 0 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 3. 9 39 .0 1. 2 5. 5 35 .8 0. 0 9. 0 0. 3 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 2. 6 10 0. 0 4 07 P rim ar y 1. 8 60 .5 1. 8 3. 2 27 .3 0. 0 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 1. 0 10 0. 0 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 2. 3 67 .0 1. 8 4. 1 20 .6 0. 0 3. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 4 10 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 1. 9 90 .3 0. 0 1. 9 5. 7 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 1. 8 59 .8 7. 2 2. 5 19 .9 0. 0 7. 1 0. 0 1. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 0. 3 7. 8 4. 5 12 .6 59 .6 0. 1 11 .2 0. 1 0. 6 0. 3 0. 3 2. 7 10 0. 0 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 1. 5 49 .2 3. 4 3. 9 36 .1 0. 0 5. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 1. 4 83 .6 0. 7 0. 7 11 .9 0. 0 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 4. 0 93 .5 0. 2 0. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 3. 6 96 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 1. 2 74 .0 1. 9 1. 6 18 .8 0. 0 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 3. 6 69 .8 1. 5 3. 1 18 .6 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 0. 2 11 .2 0. 7 16 .4 49 .7 0. 0 14 .2 0. 1 1. 3 0. 0 0. 5 5. 8 10 0. 0 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 2. 5 67 .9 2. 5 3. 2 20 .5 0. 0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 11 .4 39 .7 2. 9 3. 7 37 .2 0. 0 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 9 a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d Ta bl e W S. 5: T yp es o f s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by th e ho us eh ol d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by h ou se ho ld O pe n de fe ca tio n (n o fa ci lit y, bu sh , f ie ld ) To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y U ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y Fl us h/ Po ur fl us h to : V en til at ed im pr ov ed pi t l at rin e P it la tri ne w ith sl ab Fl us h/ P ou r flu sh to so m ew he re el se P it la tri ne w ith ou t sl ab / op en p it B uc ke t H an gi ng to ile t/ la tri ne O th er M is si ng /D K P ip ed se w er sy st em S ep tic ta nk P it la tri ne To ta l 2. 1 66 .1 1. 8 3. 6 21 .8 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 0. 0 9. 1 0. 1 0. 2 80 .8 0. 0 3. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 5 5. 8 10 0. 0 3 58 R eg io n 2 0. 0 60 .8 0. 2 11 .2 25 .1 0. 1 1. 5 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 0. 0 75 .2 3. 0 4. 6 10 .6 0. 0 6. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 4. 8 75 .6 1. 9 1. 6 13 .1 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 0. 1 55 .8 2. 5 1. 1 39 .0 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 0. 1 62 .6 1. 0 2. 0 33 .6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 0. 2 22 .3 0. 4 4. 7 31 .6 0. 0 26 .6 0. 0 1. 8 0. 0 1. 3 11 .1 10 0. 0 5 23 R eg io n 9 0. 0 5. 7 0. 8 31 .3 51 .2 0. 0 7. 8 0. 2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 2. 8 10 0. 0 6 48 R eg io n 10 0. 0 68 .7 1. 3 0. 4 25 .2 0. 0 3. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 9 74 A re a U rb an 7. 4 76 .8 1. 3 0. 9 11 .4 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,2 63 R ur al 0. 2 62 .0 1. 9 4. 6 25 .7 0. 0 4. 3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 2. 5 72 .0 2. 0 2. 3 18 .2 0. 0 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 8. 5 76 .7 1. 5 1. 0 10 .2 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 0. 2 70 .2 2. 1 2. 8 21 .2 0. 0 3. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 0. 0 31 .0 0. 6 11 .3 43 .1 0. 0 9. 1 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 0. 3 3. 6 10 0. 0 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 3. 9 39 .0 1. 2 5. 5 35 .8 0. 0 9. 0 0. 3 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 2. 6 10 0. 0 4 07 P rim ar y 1. 8 60 .5 1. 8 3. 2 27 .3 0. 0 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 1. 0 10 0. 0 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 2. 3 67 .0 1. 8 4. 1 20 .6 0. 0 3. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 4 10 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 1. 9 90 .3 0. 0 1. 9 5. 7 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 1. 8 59 .8 7. 2 2. 5 19 .9 0. 0 7. 1 0. 0 1. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 0. 3 7. 8 4. 5 12 .6 59 .6 0. 1 11 .2 0. 1 0. 6 0. 3 0. 3 2. 7 10 0. 0 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 1. 5 49 .2 3. 4 3. 9 36 .1 0. 0 5. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 1. 4 83 .6 0. 7 0. 7 11 .9 0. 0 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 4. 0 93 .5 0. 2 0. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 3. 6 96 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 1. 2 74 .0 1. 9 1. 6 18 .8 0. 0 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 3. 6 69 .8 1. 5 3. 1 18 .6 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 0. 2 11 .2 0. 7 16 .4 49 .7 0. 0 14 .2 0. 1 1. 3 0. 0 0. 5 5. 8 10 0. 0 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 2. 5 67 .9 2. 5 3. 2 20 .5 0. 0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 11 .4 39 .7 2. 9 3. 7 37 .2 0. 0 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 9 a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d 158 The MDGs and the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation classify otherwise acceptable sanitation facilities which are public or shared between two or more households as unimproved. Therefore, “use of improved sanitation” is used both in the context of this report and as an MDG indicator to refer to improved sanitation facilities, which are not public or shared. Data on the use of improved sanitation are presented in Tables WS.6 and WS.7. Table WS.6 shows the percent distribution of household population by use of private and public sanitation facilities and use of shared facilities, by users of improved and unimproved sanitation facilities. While 95 percent of the household population is using an improved sanitation facility, 87 percent use a facility that is not shared. Urban households are slightly more likely than rural households to use an unshared toilet facility of an improved type (91% and 85%, respectively), and similarly for coastal households as opposed to interior households (90% and 71%, respectively). As expected, the use of unshared improved sanitation facilities increases with the socio-economic status of the household, with only 69 percent of the poorest households using unshared facilities compared with 98 percent of the richest households. The pattern relative to education level of the household head also shows an increasing trend of the use of unshared improved facilities. The use of unshared sanitation facilities ranges from 61 percent among households with an Amerindian household head to 92 percent among households with an East Indian household head. The table shows that, for both improved and unimproved sanitation facilities, the majority of households use a facility that is not shared, and if shared, the majority of the facilities are shared by five (5) households or less. Use of public facility and sharing a facility with more than five (5) households are uncommon for both users of improved an unimproved sanitation facilities, and across background characteristics. Figure WS.2 presents the distribution of the survey population by use and sharing of sanitation facilities. @UNICEF Guyana 159Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e W S. 6: U se a nd s ha rin g of s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n by u se o f p riv at e an d pu bl ic s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s an d us e of s ha re d fa ci lit ie s, b y us er s of im pr ov ed a nd u ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 U se rs o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s U se rs o f u ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s O pe n de fe ca tio n (n o fa ci lit y, bu sh , fie ld ) To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs N ot sh ar ed 1 P ub lic fa ci lit y Sh ar ed b y M is si ng /D K N ot sh ar ed P ub lic fa ci lit y Sh ar ed b y M is si ng /D K 5 ho us eh ol ds or le ss M or e th an 5 ho us eh ol ds 5 ho us eh ol ds or le ss M or e th an 5 ho us eh ol ds To ta l 86 .9 0. 8 7. 3 0. 3 0. 1 3. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 79 .4 1. 3 7. 7 1. 8 0. 0 4. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 8 10 0. 0 3 58 R eg io n 2 90 .1 1. 8 5. 0 0. 3 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 84 .2 0. 5 8. 4 0. 0 0. 3 4. 8 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 89 .5 0. 3 6. 6 0. 4 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 86 .4 4. 0 7. 7 0. 4 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 96 .0 0. 4 3. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 46 .0 1. 8 10 .8 0. 6 0. 0 20 .5 0. 9 6. 4 1. 4 0. 6 11 .1 10 0. 0 5 23 R eg io n 9 58 .7 0. 8 29 .0 0. 2 0. 3 5. 3 0. 0 2. 4 0. 6 0. 0 2. 8 10 0. 0 6 48 R eg io n 10 85 .9 0. 3 7. 8 0. 7 0. 9 3. 6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 9 74 A re a U rb an 91 .0 0. 6 5. 4 0. 7 0. 2 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,2 63 R ur al 85 .3 0. 8 8. 0 0. 2 0. 1 3. 7 0. 1 0. 9 0. 1 0. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 89 .6 0. 8 6. 3 0. 3 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 91 .7 0. 6 4. 8 0. 6 0. 1 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 88 .8 0. 8 6. 8 0. 1 0. 1 2. 7 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 71 .0 0. 7 13 .3 0. 6 0. 4 7. 9 0. 2 1. 8 0. 4 0. 1 3. 6 10 0. 0 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 79 .2 1. 3 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 9. 5 0. 0 1. 4 1. 0 0. 0 2. 6 10 0. 0 4 07 P rim ar y 88 .0 0. 9 5. 3 0. 3 0. 1 3. 7 0. 1 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 85 .2 0. 7 9. 3 0. 4 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 96 .2 0. 9 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 83 .9 0. 0 7. 2 0. 0 0. 0 8. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 69 .3 0. 5 14 .1 0. 7 0. 0 9. 7 0. 1 2. 2 0. 5 0. 1 2. 7 10 0. 0 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 79 .1 1. 7 13 .0 0. 2 0. 2 4. 6 0. 1 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 91 .9 0. 8 4. 9 0. 5 0. 2 1. 5 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 95 .8 0. 7 2. 9 0. 2 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 98 .2 0. 1 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 92 .3 0. 8 4. 3 0. 0 0. 0 2. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 86 .8 0. 6 8. 3 0. 6 0. 3 2. 4 0. 1 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 60 .8 0. 8 15 .7 0. 8 0. 1 12 .4 0. 3 2. 6 0. 6 0. 2 5. 8 10 0. 0 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 86 .5 1. 1 8. 7 0. 4 0. 0 2. 8 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 89 .6 0. 0 5. 3 0. 0 0. 0 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 9 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 7 .9 - U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d (C on tin ue d) 160 Ta bl e W S. 6: U se a nd s ha rin g of s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n by u se o f p riv at e an d pu bl ic s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s an d us e of s ha re d fa ci lit ie s, b y us er s of im pr ov ed a nd u ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 U se rs o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s U se rs o f u ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s O pe n de fe ca tio n (n o fa ci lit y, bu sh , fie ld ) To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs N ot sh ar ed 1 P ub lic fa ci lit y Sh ar ed b y M is si ng /D K N ot sh ar ed P ub lic fa ci lit y Sh ar ed b y M is si ng /D K 5 ho us eh ol ds or le ss M or e th an 5 ho us eh ol ds 5 ho us eh ol ds or le ss M or e th an 5 ho us eh ol ds To ta l 86 .9 0. 8 7. 3 0. 3 0. 1 3. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 79 .4 1. 3 7. 7 1. 8 0. 0 4. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 8 10 0. 0 3 58 R eg io n 2 90 .1 1. 8 5. 0 0. 3 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 84 .2 0. 5 8. 4 0. 0 0. 3 4. 8 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 89 .5 0. 3 6. 6 0. 4 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 86 .4 4. 0 7. 7 0. 4 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 96 .0 0. 4 3. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 46 .0 1. 8 10 .8 0. 6 0. 0 20 .5 0. 9 6. 4 1. 4 0. 6 11 .1 10 0. 0 5 23 R eg io n 9 58 .7 0. 8 29 .0 0. 2 0. 3 5. 3 0. 0 2. 4 0. 6 0. 0 2. 8 10 0. 0 6 48 R eg io n 10 85 .9 0. 3 7. 8 0. 7 0. 9 3. 6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 9 74 A re a U rb an 91 .0 0. 6 5. 4 0. 7 0. 2 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,2 63 R ur al 85 .3 0. 8 8. 0 0. 2 0. 1 3. 7 0. 1 0. 9 0. 1 0. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 89 .6 0. 8 6. 3 0. 3 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 91 .7 0. 6 4. 8 0. 6 0. 1 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 88 .8 0. 8 6. 8 0. 1 0. 1 2. 7 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 71 .0 0. 7 13 .3 0. 6 0. 4 7. 9 0. 2 1. 8 0. 4 0. 1 3. 6 10 0. 0 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 79 .2 1. 3 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 9. 5 0. 0 1. 4 1. 0 0. 0 2. 6 10 0. 0 4 07 P rim ar y 88 .0 0. 9 5. 3 0. 3 0. 1 3. 7 0. 1 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 85 .2 0. 7 9. 3 0. 4 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 96 .2 0. 9 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 83 .9 0. 0 7. 2 0. 0 0. 0 8. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 69 .3 0. 5 14 .1 0. 7 0. 0 9. 7 0. 1 2. 2 0. 5 0. 1 2. 7 10 0. 0 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 79 .1 1. 7 13 .0 0. 2 0. 2 4. 6 0. 1 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 91 .9 0. 8 4. 9 0. 5 0. 2 1. 5 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 95 .8 0. 7 2. 9 0. 2 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 98 .2 0. 1 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 92 .3 0. 8 4. 3 0. 0 0. 0 2. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 86 .8 0. 6 8. 3 0. 6 0. 3 2. 4 0. 1 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 60 .8 0. 8 15 .7 0. 8 0. 1 12 .4 0. 3 2. 6 0. 6 0. 2 5. 8 10 0. 0 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 86 .5 1. 1 8. 7 0. 4 0. 0 2. 8 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 89 .6 0. 0 5. 3 0. 0 0. 0 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 9 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 7 .9 - U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d Ta bl e W S. 6: U se a nd s ha rin g of s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n by u se o f p riv at e an d pu bl ic s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s an d us e of s ha re d fa ci lit ie s, b y us er s of im pr ov ed a nd u ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 U se rs o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s U se rs o f u ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s O pe n de fe ca tio n (n o fa ci lit y, bu sh , fie ld ) To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs N ot sh ar ed 1 P ub lic fa ci lit y Sh ar ed b y M is si ng /D K N ot sh ar ed P ub lic fa ci lit y Sh ar ed b y M is si ng /D K 5 ho us eh ol ds or le ss M or e th an 5 ho us eh ol ds 5 ho us eh ol ds or le ss M or e th an 5 ho us eh ol ds To ta l 86 .9 0. 8 7. 3 0. 3 0. 1 3. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 1 9, 32 1 R eg io n R eg io n 1 79 .4 1. 3 7. 7 1. 8 0. 0 4. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 8 10 0. 0 3 58 R eg io n 2 90 .1 1. 8 5. 0 0. 3 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 1 ,0 70 R eg io n 3 84 .2 0. 5 8. 4 0. 0 0. 3 4. 8 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,0 40 R eg io n 4 89 .5 0. 3 6. 6 0. 4 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,5 55 R eg io n 5 86 .4 4. 0 7. 7 0. 4 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,3 22 R eg io n 6 96 .0 0. 4 3. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 2 ,8 31 R eg io ns 7 & 8 46 .0 1. 8 10 .8 0. 6 0. 0 20 .5 0. 9 6. 4 1. 4 0. 6 11 .1 10 0. 0 5 23 R eg io n 9 58 .7 0. 8 29 .0 0. 2 0. 3 5. 3 0. 0 2. 4 0. 6 0. 0 2. 8 10 0. 0 6 48 R eg io n 10 85 .9 0. 3 7. 8 0. 7 0. 9 3. 6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 9 74 A re a U rb an 91 .0 0. 6 5. 4 0. 7 0. 2 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,2 63 R ur al 85 .3 0. 8 8. 0 0. 2 0. 1 3. 7 0. 1 0. 9 0. 1 0. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 1 4, 05 8 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 89 .6 0. 8 6. 3 0. 3 0. 1 2. 5 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 6, 52 6 U rb an C oa st al 91 .7 0. 6 4. 8 0. 6 0. 1 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 4 ,5 94 R ur al C oa st al 88 .8 0. 8 6. 8 0. 1 0. 1 2. 7 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 1, 93 2 In te rio r 71 .0 0. 7 13 .3 0. 6 0. 4 7. 9 0. 2 1. 8 0. 4 0. 1 3. 6 10 0. 0 2 ,7 95 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 79 .2 1. 3 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 9. 5 0. 0 1. 4 1. 0 0. 0 2. 6 10 0. 0 4 07 P rim ar y 88 .0 0. 9 5. 3 0. 3 0. 1 3. 7 0. 1 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 6 ,2 38 S ec on da ry 85 .2 0. 7 9. 3 0. 4 0. 1 2. 9 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 1 0, 55 9 H ig he r 96 .2 0. 9 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1 ,6 25 M is si ng /D K 83 .9 0. 0 7. 2 0. 0 0. 0 8. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4 93 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 69 .3 0. 5 14 .1 0. 7 0. 0 9. 7 0. 1 2. 2 0. 5 0. 1 2. 7 10 0. 0 3 ,8 62 S ec on d 79 .1 1. 7 13 .0 0. 2 0. 2 4. 6 0. 1 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,8 70 M id dl e 91 .9 0. 8 4. 9 0. 5 0. 2 1. 5 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 Fo ur th 95 .8 0. 7 2. 9 0. 2 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 60 R ic he st 98 .2 0. 1 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 3 ,8 69 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 92 .3 0. 8 4. 3 0. 0 0. 0 2. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 ,2 14 A fri ca n 86 .8 0. 6 8. 3 0. 6 0. 3 2. 4 0. 1 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 5 ,9 90 A m er in di an 60 .8 0. 8 15 .7 0. 8 0. 1 12 .4 0. 3 2. 6 0. 6 0. 2 5. 8 10 0. 0 1 ,6 58 M ix ed R ac e 86 .5 1. 1 8. 7 0. 4 0. 0 2. 8 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3 ,3 70 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K 89 .6 0. 0 5. 3 0. 0 0. 0 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 8 9 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 7 .9 - U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d 161Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Having access to both an improved drinking water source and an improved sanitation facility brings the largest public health benefits to a household. In its 2008 report,49 the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) developed a new way of presenting the access figures, by disaggregating and refining the data on drinking- water and sanitation and reflecting them in “ladder” format. This ladder allows a disaggregated analysis of trends in a three-rung ladder for drinking-water and a four-rung ladder for sanitation. For sanitation, this gives an understanding of the proportion of population with no sanitation facilities at all – who revert to open defecation, of those reliant on technologies defined by JMP as “unimproved,” of those sharing sanitation facilities of otherwise acceptable technology, and those using “improved” sanitation facilities. Table WS.7 presents the percentages of household population by these drinking water and sanitation ladders. The table also shows the percentage of household members using both improved sources of drinking water50 and an improved sanitary means of excreta disposal. Overall, 83 percent of household population have access to both an improved source of drinking water and an improved sanitation facility. Urban households are more likely to have access 49WHO/UNICEF JMP (2008).Progress on drinking water and sanitation: special focus on sanitation. http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ resources/1251794333-JMP_08_en.pdf 50Those indicating bottled water as the main source of drinking water are distributed according to the water source used for other purposes such as cooking and handwashing. to both improved source of drinking water and an improved sanitation facility than rural households (90% and 81%, respectively), and coastal households than interior households (88% and 55%, respectively). Greater differences are observed across regions: whereas 95 percent of household population in Region 6 (region with the largest proportion) have access to both improved drinking-water and sanitation, only 25 percent of household population in Region 9 (region with the smallest proportion) do so, and 37 percent in Regions 7 & 8. Access to both an improved drinking water source and an improved sanitation facility increases with household wealth, with only 58 percent of the poorest households having access compared with 97 percent of the richest households. These results are presented by wealth quintiles in Figure WS.3 below. The results by the education level of the household head also show an increasing trend in the access to improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation. The largest proportion of household population with access to both improved facilities is found among households with an East Indian household head (91%), while the smallest proportion is found among households with an Amerindian household head (39%). F igure WS.2: Percent d ist r ibut ion of household members by use and shar ing of sani tat ion fac i l i t ies , Guyana MICS5, 2014 Improved public facility 1% Improved sanitation facility - shared 8% Unimproved sanitation facility - not shared 3% Unimproved sanitation facility - shared 1% Open defecation 1% Improved sanitation facility - not shared 87% 162 Table WS.7: Drinking water and sanitation ladders Percentage of household population by drinking water and sanitation ladders, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of household population using: Number of household members Improved drinking water1, a U ni m pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er To ta l Im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n2 Unimproved sanitation To ta l Improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation P ip ed in to dw el lin g, pl ot o r y ar d O th er im pr ov ed S ha re d im pr ov ed fa ci lit ie s U ni m pr ov ed fa ci lit ie s O pe n de fe ca tio n Total 65.6 28.6 5.8 100.0 86.9 8.5 4.1 0.6 100.0 83.2 19,321 Region Region 1 8.3 72.5 19.2 100.0 79.4 10.8 4.0 5.8 100.0 65.9 358 Region 2 9.5 85.0 5.5 100.0 90.1 7.1 2.7 0.1 100.0 86.1 1,070 Region 3 54.3 44.6 1.1 100.0 84.2 9.2 6.6 0.0 100.0 83.6 3,040 Region 4 78.0 20.1 1.9 100.0 89.5 7.4 3.0 0.0 100.0 87.6 8,555 Region 5 71.1 20.8 8.1 100.0 86.4 12.1 1.5 0.0 100.0 80.4 1,322 Region 6 85.8 13.1 1.1 100.0 96.0 3.4 0.5 0.1 100.0 94.9 2,831 Regions 7 & 8 22.1 43.1 34.8 100.0 46.0 13.2 29.7 11.1 100.0 37.0 523 Region 9 6.8 35.1 58.0 100.0 58.7 30.3 8.3 2.8 100.0 25.0 648 Region 10 71.8 18.2 10.0 100.0 85.9 9.7 4.0 0.4 100.0 78.4 974 Area Urban 85.7 13.1 1.2 100.0 91.0 6.9 2.1 0.1 100.0 90.0 5,263 Rural 58.1 34.4 7.5 100.0 85.3 9.1 4.8 0.7 100.0 80.6 14,058 Location Coastal 71.2 26.9 1.9 100.0 89.6 7.4 3.0 0.0 100.0 88.0 16,526 Urban Coastal 85.8 13.7 0.5 100.0 91.7 6.2 2.1 0.1 100.0 91.2 4,594 Rural Coastal 65.6 32.0 2.4 100.0 88.8 7.8 3.4 0.0 100.0 86.7 11,932 Interior 32.5 38.4 29.1 100.0 71.0 15.0 10.4 3.6 100.0 54.7 2,795 Education of household head None 52.1 38.8 9.1 100.0 79.2 6.3 11.9 2.6 100.0 75.7 407 Primary 64.8 29.4 5.8 100.0 88.0 6.5 4.5 1.0 100.0 84.4 6,238 Secondary 64.6 29.4 6.0 100.0 85.2 10.5 3.9 0.4 100.0 81.4 10,559 Higher 78.6 18.4 2.9 100.0 96.2 3.6 0.2 0.0 100.0 93.3 1,625 Missing/DK 66.4 25.2 8.5 100.0 83.9 7.2 8.9 0.0 100.0 78.1 493 Wealth index quintile Poorest 33.7 45.1 21.2 100.0 69.3 15.4 12.5 2.7 100.0 57.7 3,862 Second 60.8 36.1 3.1 100.0 79.1 15.1 5.7 0.1 100.0 76.7 3,870 Middle 67.0 30.4 2.7 100.0 91.9 6.4 1.7 0.0 100.0 89.3 3,860 Fourth 79.1 19.7 1.1 100.0 95.8 3.8 0.4 0.0 100.0 94.8 3,860 Richest 87.5 11.5 1.0 100.0 98.2 1.7 0.1 0.0 100.0 97.4 3,869 Ethnicity of household headb East Indian 67.4 30.5 2.0 100.0 92.3 5.1 2.5 0.0 100.0 90.5 8,214 African 76.3 21.2 2.5 100.0 86.8 9.8 3.3 0.1 100.0 84.9 5,990 Amerindian 15.1 44.0 40.9 100.0 60.8 17.4 16.1 5.8 100.0 39.0 1,658 Mixed Race 67.2 29.1 3.7 100.0 86.5 10.1 3.3 0.1 100.0 83.9 3,370 Others/Missing/DK 59.0 37.3 3.7 100.0 89.6 5.3 5.1 0.0 100.0 85.9 89 1 MICS indicator 4.1; MDG indicator 7.8 - Use of improved drinking water sources 2 MICS indicator 4.3; MDG indicator 7.9 - Use of improved sanitation a Those indicating bottled water as the main source of drinking water are distributed according to the water source used for other purposes such as cooking and handwashing. b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head 163Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Safe disposal of a child’s faeces is disposing of the stool, by the child using a toilet or by rinsing the stool into a toilet or latrine. Putting disposable diapers with solid waste, a very common practice throughout the world has thus far been classified as an inadequate means of disposal of child faeces for concerns about poor disposal of solid waste itself. This classification is currently under review. As such, the current definition of ‘safe disposal’ should always be kept in mind when interpreting the results presented below. Disposal of faeces of children 0-2 years of age is presented in Table WS.8. Overall, only 43 percent of children aged 0-2 years had their stools disposed safely, of which 37 percent being disposed by rinsing faeces into toilet or latrine. The most common means of disposal of child’s faeces in Guyana is throwing into garbage (42%), which, as described above, is currently not classified as a safe means of disposal. The practice of safe disposal of child’s faeces is more prevalent in rural areas (46%) than in urban areas (35%) and in interior areas (56%) than in coastal areas (40%). Safe disposal is least likely in Region 3 (31%) and Region 4 (35%) and most likely in Region 9 (80%). Safe disposal decreases with wealth with 58 percent of children from the poorest households compared with 30 percent from the richest households. The largest proportion of children whose last stools were disposed of safely is found among households with an Amerindian household head, while the smallest proportion is found among households with an African household head. It is worthwhile noting that in all cases where the practice of safe disposal of child’s faeces is not very prevalent, the most common practice is the disposal into garbage. This is most likely due to the high use of disposable diapers in urban areas and regions, and by wealthier households and more educated mothers. Results should therefore be interpreted with caution, taking into account the methods of solid waste disposal in Guyana. F igure WS.3 : Use of improved dr ink ing water sources and improved sanitation fac i l ities by household members , Guyana MICS5, 2014 58 77 89 95 97 83 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Guyana Pe r c en t Wealth Index Quintiles 164 Table WS.8: Disposal of child's faeces Percent distribution of children age 0-2 years according to place of disposal of child's faeces, and the percentage of children age 0- 2 years whose stools were disposed of safelya the last time the child passed stools, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Place of disposal of child's faeces Percentage of children whose last stools were disposed of safely1, a Number of children age 0-2 years Child used toilet/ latrine Put/ rinsed into toilet or latrine Put/ rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into garbagea Buried Left in the open Other Missing /DK Total Total 6.5 36.5 6.6 41.9 3.5 0.7 2.7 1.6 100.0 43.0 2,038 Type of sanitation facility used by household members Improved 6.6 36.5 6.4 42.7 3.8 0.5 2.4 1.2 100.0 43.0 1,886 Unimproved 7.3 37.9 9.9 34.9 0.4 1.7 2.7 5.3 100.0 45.2 126 Open defecation 0.0 33.8 6.3 17.3 0.8 12.9 21.9 7.0 100.0 (33.8) 26 Region Region 1 3.5 50.3 2.3 23.3 5.3 2.4 6.7 6.2 100.0 53.8 60 Region 2 13.2 47.1 24.9 13.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 60.3 111 Region 3 4.3 26.2 7.1 59.5 0.4 0.0 1.0 1.6 100.0 30.6 293 Region 4 6.1 29.0 4.6 53.9 1.9 0.0 4.0 0.4 100.0 35.1 832 Region 5 10.6 39.7 5.7 31.0 10.2 0.7 1.5 0.6 100.0 50.3 134 Region 6 3.0 46.1 9.5 27.2 9.8 0.0 0.0 4.5 100.0 49.1 268 Regions 7 & 8 7.5 42.8 9.4 24.6 0.3 2.6 8.6 4.3 100.0 50.3 94 Region 9 6.6 73.4 2.1 6.2 4.4 6.1 0.8 0.3 100.0 80.0 126 Region 10 12.8 28.1 1.6 48.1 4.4 1.2 2.9 0.9 100.0 40.9 120 Area Urban 7.0 27.5 4.4 57.3 1.3 0.1 1.4 0.9 100.0 34.5 508 Rural 6.4 39.5 7.3 36.8 4.3 0.9 3.1 1.8 100.0 45.9 1,530 Location Coastal 6.0 33.5 6.7 46.7 3.2 0.1 2.4 1.3 100.0 39.5 1,598 Urban Coastal 6.1 28.8 5.1 56.8 1.2 0.0 1.0 1.1 100.0 34.9 429 Rural Coastal 5.9 35.3 7.3 43.1 4.0 0.1 2.9 1.4 100.0 41.2 1,170 Interior 8.5 47.4 6.1 24.3 4.6 3.0 3.8 2.4 100.0 55.9 440 Mother’s educationb None 18.2 37.4 7.3 17.2 5.3 5.9 6.2 2.5 100.0 (55.5) 36 Primary 4.4 38.9 7.4 33.5 6.1 1.5 4.3 3.9 100.0 43.2 272 Secondary 6.1 37.8 6.9 42.1 3.2 0.5 2.4 1.2 100.0 43.8 1,540 Higher 11.3 22.8 2.8 57.2 2.4 0.3 1.9 1.3 100.0 34.1 190 Wealth index quintile Poorest 6.9 51.1 10.9 20.1 3.3 2.0 2.9 2.7 100.0 58.0 603 Second 7.3 36.3 8.4 42.2 2.5 0.4 2.4 0.5 100.0 43.6 454 Middle 7.2 33.2 4.3 45.5 4.4 0.0 4.2 1.1 100.0 40.4 373 Fourth 5.1 24.0 3.2 57.7 6.5 0.0 2.6 0.9 100.0 29.1 309 Richest 5.3 24.5 1.2 64.6 1.3 0.0 1.0 2.1 100.0 29.8 299 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 4.4 41.3 8.4 40.2 2.8 0.0 0.9 1.9 100.0 45.7 687 African 8.1 27.1 4.6 51.3 4.8 0.0 3.0 1.1 100.0 35.2 627 Amerindian 6.2 51.9 7.9 18.7 4.6 4.2 3.9 2.6 100.0 58.0 311 Mixed Race 8.1 31.3 5.6 47.4 1.9 0.2 4.4 1.0 100.0 39.5 403 1 MICS indicator 4.4 - Safe disposal of child’s faeces a Putting disposable diapers with solid waste is classified as an inadequate means of disposal of child faeces b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table WS.8: Disposal of child's faeces Percent distribution of children age 0-2 years according to place of disposal of child's faeces, and the percentage of children age 0- 2 years whose stools were disposed of safelya the last time the child passed stools, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Place of disposal of child's faeces Percentage of children whose last stools were disposed of safely1, a Number of children age 0-2 years Child used toilet/ latrine Put/ rinsed into toilet or latrine Put/ rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into garbagea Buried Left in the open Other Missing /DK Total Total 6.5 36.5 6.6 41.9 3.5 0.7 2.7 1.6 100.0 43.0 2,038 Type of sanitation facility used by household members Improved 6.6 36.5 6.4 42.7 3.8 0.5 2.4 1.2 100.0 43.0 1,886 Unimproved 7.3 37.9 9.9 34.9 0.4 1.7 2.7 5.3 100.0 45.2 126 Open defecation 0.0 33.8 6.3 17.3 0.8 12.9 21.9 7.0 100.0 (33.8) 26 Region Region 1 3.5 50.3 2.3 23.3 5.3 2.4 6.7 6.2 100.0 53.8 60 Region 2 13.2 47.1 24.9 13.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 60.3 111 Region 3 4.3 26.2 7.1 59.5 0.4 0.0 1.0 1.6 100.0 30.6 293 Region 4 6.1 29.0 4.6 53.9 1.9 0.0 4.0 0.4 100.0 35.1 832 Region 5 10.6 39.7 5.7 31.0 10.2 0.7 1.5 0.6 100.0 50.3 134 Region 6 3.0 46.1 9.5 27.2 9.8 0.0 0.0 4.5 100.0 49.1 268 Regions 7 & 8 7.5 42.8 9.4 24.6 0.3 2.6 8.6 4.3 100.0 50.3 94 Region 9 6.6 73.4 2.1 6.2 4.4 6.1 0.8 0.3 100.0 80.0 126 Region 10 12.8 28.1 1.6 48.1 4.4 1.2 2.9 0.9 100.0 40.9 120 Area Urban 7.0 27.5 4.4 57.3 1.3 0.1 1.4 0.9 100.0 34.5 508 Rural 6.4 39.5 7.3 36.8 4.3 0.9 3.1 1.8 100.0 45.9 1,530 Location Coastal 6.0 33.5 6.7 46.7 3.2 0.1 2.4 1.3 100.0 39.5 1,598 Urban Coastal 6.1 28.8 5.1 56.8 1.2 0.0 1.0 1.1 100.0 34.9 429 Rural Coastal 5.9 35.3 7.3 43.1 4.0 0.1 2.9 1.4 100.0 41.2 1,170 Interior 8.5 47.4 6.1 24.3 4.6 3.0 3.8 2.4 100.0 55.9 440 Mother’s educationb None 18.2 37.4 7.3 17.2 5.3 5.9 6.2 2.5 100.0 (55.5) 36 Primary 4.4 38.9 7.4 33.5 6.1 1.5 4.3 3.9 100.0 43.2 272 Secondary 6.1 37.8 6.9 42.1 3.2 0.5 2.4 1.2 100.0 43.8 1,540 Higher 11.3 22.8 2.8 57.2 2.4 0.3 1.9 1.3 100.0 34.1 190 Wealth index quintile Poorest 6.9 51.1 10.9 20.1 3.3 2.0 2.9 2.7 100.0 58.0 603 Second 7.3 36.3 8.4 42.2 2.5 0.4 2.4 0.5 100.0 43.6 454 Middle 7.2 33.2 4.3 45.5 4.4 0.0 4.2 1.1 100.0 40.4 373 Fourth 5.1 24.0 3.2 57.7 6.5 0.0 2.6 0.9 100.0 29.1 309 Richest 5.3 24.5 1.2 64.6 1.3 0.0 1.0 2.1 100.0 29.8 299 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 4.4 41.3 8.4 40.2 2.8 0.0 0.9 1.9 100.0 45.7 687 African 8.1 27.1 4.6 51.3 4.8 0.0 3.0 1.1 100.0 35.2 627 Amerindian 6.2 51.9 7.9 18.7 4.6 4.2 3.9 2.6 100.0 58.0 311 Mixed Race 8.1 31.3 5.6 47.4 1.9 0.2 4.4 1.0 100.0 39.5 403 1 MICS indicator 4.4 - Safe disposal of child’s faeces a Putting disposable diapers with solid waste is classified as an inadequate means of disposal of child faeces b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table WS.8: Disposal of child's faeces Percent distribution of children age 0-2 years according to place of disposal of child's faeces, and the percentage of children age 0- 2 years whose stools were disposed of safelya the last time the child passed stools, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Place of disposal of child's faeces Percentage of children whose last stools were disposed of safely1, a Number of children age 0-2 years Child used toilet/ latrine Put/ rinsed into toilet or latrine Put/ rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into garbagea Buried Left in the open Other Missing /DK Total Total 6.5 36.5 6.6 41.9 3.5 0.7 2.7 1.6 100.0 43.0 2,038 Type of sanitation facility used by household members Improved 6.6 36.5 6.4 42.7 3.8 0.5 2.4 1.2 100.0 43.0 1,886 Unimproved 7.3 37.9 9.9 34.9 0.4 1.7 2.7 5.3 100.0 45.2 126 Open defecation 0.0 33.8 6.3 17.3 0.8 12.9 21.9 7.0 100.0 (33.8) 26 Region Region 1 3.5 50.3 2.3 23.3 5.3 2.4 6.7 6.2 100.0 53.8 60 Region 2 13.2 47.1 24.9 13.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 60.3 111 Region 3 4.3 26.2 7.1 59.5 0.4 0.0 1.0 1.6 100.0 30.6 293 Region 4 6.1 29.0 4.6 53.9 1.9 0.0 4.0 0.4 100.0 35.1 832 Region 5 10.6 39.7 5.7 31.0 10.2 0.7 1.5 0.6 100.0 50.3 134 Region 6 3.0 46.1 9.5 27.2 9.8 0.0 0.0 4.5 100.0 49.1 268 Regions 7 & 8 7.5 42.8 9.4 24.6 0.3 2.6 8.6 4.3 100.0 50.3 94 Region 9 6.6 73.4 2.1 6.2 4.4 6.1 0.8 0.3 100.0 80.0 126 Region 10 12.8 28.1 1.6 48.1 4.4 1.2 2.9 0.9 100.0 40.9 120 Area Urban 7.0 27.5 4.4 57.3 1.3 0.1 1.4 0.9 100.0 34.5 508 Rural 6.4 39.5 7.3 36.8 4.3 0.9 3.1 1.8 100.0 45.9 1,530 Location Coastal 6.0 33.5 6.7 46.7 3.2 0.1 2.4 1.3 100.0 39.5 1,598 Urban Coastal 6.1 28.8 5.1 56.8 1.2 0.0 1.0 1.1 100.0 34.9 429 Rural Coastal 5.9 35.3 7.3 43.1 4.0 0.1 2.9 1.4 100.0 41.2 1,170 Interior 8.5 47.4 6.1 24.3 4.6 3.0 3.8 2.4 100.0 55.9 440 Mother’s educationb None 18.2 37.4 7.3 17.2 5.3 5.9 6.2 2.5 100.0 (55.5) 36 Primary 4.4 38.9 7.4 33.5 6.1 1.5 4.3 3.9 100.0 43.2 272 Secondary 6.1 37.8 6.9 42.1 3.2 0.5 2.4 1.2 100.0 43.8 1,540 Higher 11.3 22.8 2.8 57.2 2.4 0.3 1.9 1.3 100.0 34.1 190 Wealth index quintile Poorest 6.9 51.1 10.9 20.1 3.3 2.0 2.9 2.7 100.0 58.0 603 Second 7.3 36.3 8.4 42.2 2.5 0.4 2.4 0.5 100.0 43.6 454 Middle 7.2 33.2 4.3 45.5 4.4 0.0 4.2 1.1 100.0 40.4 373 Fourth 5.1 24.0 3.2 57.7 6.5 0.0 2.6 0.9 100.0 29.1 309 Richest 5.3 24.5 1.2 64.6 1.3 0.0 1.0 2.1 100.0 29.8 299 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 4.4 41.3 8.4 40.2 2.8 0.0 0.9 1.9 100.0 45.7 687 African 8.1 27.1 4.6 51.3 4.8 0.0 3.0 1.1 100.0 35.2 627 Amerindian 6.2 51.9 7.9 18.7 4.6 4.2 3.9 2.6 100.0 58.0 311 Mixed Race 8.1 31.3 5.6 47.4 1.9 0.2 4.4 1.0 100.0 39.5 403 1 MICS indicator 4.4 - Safe disposal of child’s faeces a Putting disposable diapers with solid waste is classified as an inadequate means of disposal of child faeces b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 165Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @Shutterstock 166 Handwashing Handwashing with water and soap is the most cost- effective health intervention to reduce both the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia in children under five.2 It is most effective when done using water and soap after using a toilet or cleaning a child, before eating or handling food, and before feeding a child. Monitoring correct handwashing behaviour at these critical times is challenging. A reliable alternative to observations or self-reported behaviour is assessing the likelihood that correct handwashing behaviour takes place by asking if a household has a specific place where people wash their hands and, if yes, observing whether water and soap (or other local cleansing materials) are available at this place.3 In Guyana, a specific place for handwashing was observed in 75 percent of the households, while nine (9) percent of households could not indicate a specific place where household members usually wash their hands, and the remaining 16 percent of the households did not give permission to see the place used for handwashing (Table WS.9). Among households where a place for handwashing was observed or in which there was no specific place for handwashing, the majority of households (79%) had both water and soap (or another cleansing agent) present at the specific place. In six (6) percent of the households, only water was available at the specific place, while in three (3) percent of the households the place had soap but no water. The remaining 12 percent of households had no specific place for handwashing, or had neither water nor soap available at the indicated place for handwashing. The proportion of households with a specific place for handwashing where water and soap or other cleansing agent are present is higher by 15 percentage points in the 51Cairncross, S., Valdmanis V. (2006). Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion. Chapter 41. In ‘Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries’. Second Edition. Edt. Jamison D.T. et al.(2006). The World Bank. Washington DC: National Institutes of Health. 52Ram P.K., Halder A.K., Granger S.P.et al. (2008). Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83(5): 1070-6.doi: 10.4269/ ajtmh.2010.09-0763. coastal areas (81%) than in the interior areas (66%), and highest in Region 5 (91%) and lowest in Regions 7 & 8 and 10 (58% in each case). The likelihood of having a specific place for handwashing where water and soap or other cleansing agent are present increases with wealth (63% of poorest households compared with 91% of the richest) and education (69% with no education compared with 83% with higher education). As for the availability of soap or other cleansing agent in the dwelling, regardless of whether a specific place for handwashing was observed or not, soap was observed or shown to the interviewer in 79 percent of households, whereas another four (4) percent did not have any soap in the households, and 16 percent of the households were not able to or refused to show any soap present in the household (Table WS.10). Availability of soap or other cleansing agent in the dwelling varies by region, area and location of residence, socio-economic status of the household and ethnicity of household head. Interestingly, soap or other cleansing agent was more likely to be found in rural households than urban households (84% and 67%, respectively), primarily due to 28 percent of urban households not being able to or refusing to show soap or other cleansing agent in the household. Availability of soap or other cleaning agent was more prevalent on the coast (with 81% compared with 72% in the interior), in Regions 5, 6 and 9 (with 90- 92% compared with 62-83% in the other regions), and in households with an East Indian household head (with 84% compared with 74-79% in households with a household head of other ethnicities). On the other hand, there are no marked differentials observed by education of household head and wealth index. 167Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e W S. 9: W at er a nd s oa p at p la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld s w he re p la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng w as o bs er ve d, p er ce nt ag e w ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng , a nd p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld s by a va ila bi lit y of w at er a nd s oa p at sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s: N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng o bs er ve d N o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, ya rd , o r p lo t To ta l P er ce nt ag e of ho us eh ol ds w ith a sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng w he re w at er a nd s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t a re p re se nt 1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds w he re pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed o r w ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, y ar d, o r p lo t W he re p la ce fo r ha nd w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed W ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, ya rd , o r p lo t W at er is a va ila bl e an d: W at er is n ot av ai la bl e an d: S oa p pr es en t N o so ap : S oa p pr es en t N o so ap : A sh , m ud , o r sa nd pr es en t N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t pr es en t N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t pr es en t To ta l 74 .7 8. 6 5 ,0 77 78 .8 0. 0 6. 1 2. 7 2. 2 10 .3 10 0. 0 78 .8 4 ,2 27 R eg io n R eg io n 1 81 .5 6. 1 6 6 70 .6 0. 0 9. 9 5. 2 7. 4 6. 9 10 0. 0 70 .6 5 7 R eg io n 2 68 .1 4. 3 2 87 84 .1 0. 0 9. 9 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 10 0. 0 84 .1 2 08 R eg io n 3 81 .4 6. 7 8 21 71 .0 0. 0 13 .0 3. 4 5. 0 7. 6 10 0. 0 71 .0 7 25 R eg io n 4 68 .0 8. 0 2 ,2 44 79 .9 0. 0 4. 3 3. 6 1. 7 10 .5 10 0. 0 79 .9 1 ,7 05 R eg io n 5 88 .8 2. 8 3 43 91 .3 0. 0 2. 2 2. 8 0. 7 3. 0 10 0. 0 91 .3 3 14 R eg io n 6 84 .9 10 .2 8 17 85 .4 0. 0 1. 8 0. 9 1. 1 10 .7 10 0. 0 85 .4 7 77 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .6 20 .0 1 05 58 .1 0. 0 9. 5 3. 3 6. 5 22 .6 10 0. 0 58 .1 9 3 R eg io n 9 91 .6 4. 5 1 27 84 .1 0. 2 4. 0 3. 1 3. 9 4. 7 10 0. 0 84 .3 1 22 R eg io n 10 61 .0 23 .7 2 67 58 .2 0. 0 12 .3 0. 4 1. 0 28 .0 10 0. 0 58 .2 2 27 A re a U rb an 62 .3 10 .3 1 ,4 04 77 .0 0. 0 5. 0 2. 9 1. 0 14 .2 10 0. 0 77 .0 1 ,0 19 R ur al 79 .4 7. 9 3 ,6 73 79 .3 0. 0 6. 4 2. 6 2. 6 9. 0 10 0. 0 79 .3 3 ,2 08 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 74 .9 7. 7 4 ,4 48 80 .7 0. 0 5. 2 2. 7 2. 0 9. 3 10 0. 0 80 .7 3 ,6 74 U rb an C oa st al 62 .3 8. 7 1 ,2 18 79 .7 0. 0 3. 6 3. 4 1. 0 12 .2 10 0. 0 79 .7 8 65 R ur al C oa st al 79 .7 7. 3 3 ,2 31 81 .0 0. 0 5. 7 2. 6 2. 3 8. 4 10 0. 0 81 .0 2 ,8 09 In te rio r 73 .2 14 .7 6 29 65 .9 0. 1 11 .7 2. 3 3. 3 16 .8 10 0. 0 65 .9 5 53 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 80 .8 10 .9 1 08 68 .7 0. 0 13 .9 1. 2 4. 3 11 .9 10 0. 0 68 .7 9 9 P rim ar y 78 .0 9. 5 1 ,6 32 78 .3 0. 0 6. 4 2. 7 1. 7 10 .9 10 0. 0 78 .3 1 ,4 28 S ec on da ry 73 .6 7. 8 2 ,7 13 78 .8 0. 0 5. 9 2. 8 2. 8 9. 6 10 0. 0 78 .8 2 ,2 08 H ig he r 69 .8 8. 7 5 10 82 .8 0. 0 3. 1 2. 7 0. 2 11 .1 10 0. 0 82 .8 4 01 M is si ng /D K 70 .8 9. 3 1 14 77 .3 0. 0 9. 1 0. 5 1. 6 11 .6 10 0. 0 77 .3 9 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 72 .7 14 .0 9 46 62 .6 0. 0 10 .9 3. 6 6. 6 16 .2 10 0. 0 62 .7 82 0 S ec on d 74 .7 11 .2 1 ,0 51 72 .4 0. 0 8. 3 3. 9 2. 3 13 .0 10 0. 0 72 .4 90 2 M id dl e 76 .6 7. 1 1 ,0 68 81 .6 0. 0 5. 2 3. 4 1. 3 8. 5 10 0. 0 81 .6 89 5 Fo ur th 73 .9 5. 8 1 ,0 28 86 .8 0. 0 3. 8 1. 5 0. 6 7. 3 10 0. 0 86 .8 81 9 R ic he st 75 .5 4. 9 9 84 91 .2 0. 0 1. 9 0. 8 0. 1 6. 1 10 0. 0 91 .2 79 1 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 78 .8 7. 3 2 ,3 23 82 .9 0. 0 4. 9 1. 9 1. 7 8. 5 10 0. 0 82 .9 2 ,0 01 A fri ca n 69 .0 10 .0 1 ,5 98 75 .5 0. 0 6. 3 3. 0 2. 6 12 .6 10 0. 0 75 .5 1 ,2 61 A m er in di an 78 .4 10 .3 3 20 70 .7 0. 1 8. 8 3. 8 5. 0 11 .6 10 0. 0 70 .8 2 83 M ix ed R ac e 72 .8 8. 5 8 09 76 .6 0. 0 7. 2 3. 9 1. 8 10 .5 10 0. 0 76 .6 6 58 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K (7 8. 1) (7 .8 ) 2 8 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 2 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .5 - Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 168 Ta bl e W S. 9: W at er a nd s oa p at p la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld s w he re p la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng w as o bs er ve d, p er ce nt ag e w ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng , a nd p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld s by a va ila bi lit y of w at er a nd s oa p at sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s: N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng o bs er ve d N o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, ya rd , o r p lo t To ta l P er ce nt ag e of ho us eh ol ds w ith a sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng w he re w at er a nd s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t a re p re se nt 1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds w he re pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed o r w ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, y ar d, o r p lo t W he re p la ce fo r ha nd w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed W ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, ya rd , o r p lo t W at er is a va ila bl e an d: W at er is n ot av ai la bl e an d: S oa p pr es en t N o so ap : S oa p pr es en t N o so ap : A sh , m ud , o r sa nd pr es en t N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t pr es en t N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t pr es en t To ta l 74 .7 8. 6 5 ,0 77 78 .8 0. 0 6. 1 2. 7 2. 2 10 .3 10 0. 0 78 .8 4 ,2 27 R eg io n R eg io n 1 81 .5 6. 1 6 6 70 .6 0. 0 9. 9 5. 2 7. 4 6. 9 10 0. 0 70 .6 5 7 R eg io n 2 68 .1 4. 3 2 87 84 .1 0. 0 9. 9 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 10 0. 0 84 .1 2 08 R eg io n 3 81 .4 6. 7 8 21 71 .0 0. 0 13 .0 3. 4 5. 0 7. 6 10 0. 0 71 .0 7 25 R eg io n 4 68 .0 8. 0 2 ,2 44 79 .9 0. 0 4. 3 3. 6 1. 7 10 .5 10 0. 0 79 .9 1 ,7 05 R eg io n 5 88 .8 2. 8 3 43 91 .3 0. 0 2. 2 2. 8 0. 7 3. 0 10 0. 0 91 .3 3 14 R eg io n 6 84 .9 10 .2 8 17 85 .4 0. 0 1. 8 0. 9 1. 1 10 .7 10 0. 0 85 .4 7 77 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .6 20 .0 1 05 58 .1 0. 0 9. 5 3. 3 6. 5 22 .6 10 0. 0 58 .1 9 3 R eg io n 9 91 .6 4. 5 1 27 84 .1 0. 2 4. 0 3. 1 3. 9 4. 7 10 0. 0 84 .3 1 22 R eg io n 10 61 .0 23 .7 2 67 58 .2 0. 0 12 .3 0. 4 1. 0 28 .0 10 0. 0 58 .2 2 27 A re a U rb an 62 .3 10 .3 1 ,4 04 77 .0 0. 0 5. 0 2. 9 1. 0 14 .2 10 0. 0 77 .0 1 ,0 19 R ur al 79 .4 7. 9 3 ,6 73 79 .3 0. 0 6. 4 2. 6 2. 6 9. 0 10 0. 0 79 .3 3 ,2 08 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 74 .9 7. 7 4 ,4 48 80 .7 0. 0 5. 2 2. 7 2. 0 9. 3 10 0. 0 80 .7 3 ,6 74 U rb an C oa st al 62 .3 8. 7 1 ,2 18 79 .7 0. 0 3. 6 3. 4 1. 0 12 .2 10 0. 0 79 .7 8 65 R ur al C oa st al 79 .7 7. 3 3 ,2 31 81 .0 0. 0 5. 7 2. 6 2. 3 8. 4 10 0. 0 81 .0 2 ,8 09 In te rio r 73 .2 14 .7 6 29 65 .9 0. 1 11 .7 2. 3 3. 3 16 .8 10 0. 0 65 .9 5 53 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 80 .8 10 .9 1 08 68 .7 0. 0 13 .9 1. 2 4. 3 11 .9 10 0. 0 68 .7 9 9 P rim ar y 78 .0 9. 5 1 ,6 32 78 .3 0. 0 6. 4 2. 7 1. 7 10 .9 10 0. 0 78 .3 1 ,4 28 S ec on da ry 73 .6 7. 8 2 ,7 13 78 .8 0. 0 5. 9 2. 8 2. 8 9. 6 10 0. 0 78 .8 2 ,2 08 H ig he r 69 .8 8. 7 5 10 82 .8 0. 0 3. 1 2. 7 0. 2 11 .1 10 0. 0 82 .8 4 01 M is si ng /D K 70 .8 9. 3 1 14 77 .3 0. 0 9. 1 0. 5 1. 6 11 .6 10 0. 0 77 .3 9 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 72 .7 14 .0 9 46 62 .6 0. 0 10 .9 3. 6 6. 6 16 .2 10 0. 0 62 .7 82 0 S ec on d 74 .7 11 .2 1 ,0 51 72 .4 0. 0 8. 3 3. 9 2. 3 13 .0 10 0. 0 72 .4 90 2 M id dl e 76 .6 7. 1 1 ,0 68 81 .6 0. 0 5. 2 3. 4 1. 3 8. 5 10 0. 0 81 .6 89 5 Fo ur th 73 .9 5. 8 1 ,0 28 86 .8 0. 0 3. 8 1. 5 0. 6 7. 3 10 0. 0 86 .8 81 9 R ic he st 75 .5 4. 9 9 84 91 .2 0. 0 1. 9 0. 8 0. 1 6. 1 10 0. 0 91 .2 79 1 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 78 .8 7. 3 2 ,3 23 82 .9 0. 0 4. 9 1. 9 1. 7 8. 5 10 0. 0 82 .9 2 ,0 01 A fri ca n 69 .0 10 .0 1 ,5 98 75 .5 0. 0 6. 3 3. 0 2. 6 12 .6 10 0. 0 75 .5 1 ,2 61 A m er in di an 78 .4 10 .3 3 20 70 .7 0. 1 8. 8 3. 8 5. 0 11 .6 10 0. 0 70 .8 2 83 M ix ed R ac e 72 .8 8. 5 8 09 76 .6 0. 0 7. 2 3. 9 1. 8 10 .5 10 0. 0 76 .6 6 58 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K (7 8. 1) (7 .8 ) 2 8 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 2 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .5 - Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e W S. 9: W at er a nd s oa p at p la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld s w he re p la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng w as o bs er ve d, p er ce nt ag e w ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng , a nd p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld s by a va ila bi lit y of w at er a nd s oa p at sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s: N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng o bs er ve d N o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, ya rd , o r p lo t To ta l P er ce nt ag e of ho us eh ol ds w ith a sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng w he re w at er a nd s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t a re p re se nt 1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds w he re pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed o r w ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, y ar d, o r p lo t W he re p la ce fo r ha nd w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed W ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, ya rd , o r p lo t W at er is a va ila bl e an d: W at er is n ot av ai la bl e an d: S oa p pr es en t N o so ap : S oa p pr es en t N o so ap : A sh , m ud , o r sa nd pr es en t N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t pr es en t N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t pr es en t To ta l 74 .7 8. 6 5 ,0 77 78 .8 0. 0 6. 1 2. 7 2. 2 10 .3 10 0. 0 78 .8 4 ,2 27 R eg io n R eg io n 1 81 .5 6. 1 6 6 70 .6 0. 0 9. 9 5. 2 7. 4 6. 9 10 0. 0 70 .6 5 7 R eg io n 2 68 .1 4. 3 2 87 84 .1 0. 0 9. 9 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 10 0. 0 84 .1 2 08 R eg io n 3 81 .4 6. 7 8 21 71 .0 0. 0 13 .0 3. 4 5. 0 7. 6 10 0. 0 71 .0 7 25 R eg io n 4 68 .0 8. 0 2 ,2 44 79 .9 0. 0 4. 3 3. 6 1. 7 10 .5 10 0. 0 79 .9 1 ,7 05 R eg io n 5 88 .8 2. 8 3 43 91 .3 0. 0 2. 2 2. 8 0. 7 3. 0 10 0. 0 91 .3 3 14 R eg io n 6 84 .9 10 .2 8 17 85 .4 0. 0 1. 8 0. 9 1. 1 10 .7 10 0. 0 85 .4 7 77 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .6 20 .0 1 05 58 .1 0. 0 9. 5 3. 3 6. 5 22 .6 10 0. 0 58 .1 9 3 R eg io n 9 91 .6 4. 5 1 27 84 .1 0. 2 4. 0 3. 1 3. 9 4. 7 10 0. 0 84 .3 1 22 R eg io n 10 61 .0 23 .7 2 67 58 .2 0. 0 12 .3 0. 4 1. 0 28 .0 10 0. 0 58 .2 2 27 A re a U rb an 62 .3 10 .3 1 ,4 04 77 .0 0. 0 5. 0 2. 9 1. 0 14 .2 10 0. 0 77 .0 1 ,0 19 R ur al 79 .4 7. 9 3 ,6 73 79 .3 0. 0 6. 4 2. 6 2. 6 9. 0 10 0. 0 79 .3 3 ,2 08 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 74 .9 7. 7 4 ,4 48 80 .7 0. 0 5. 2 2. 7 2. 0 9. 3 10 0. 0 80 .7 3 ,6 74 U rb an C oa st al 62 .3 8. 7 1 ,2 18 79 .7 0. 0 3. 6 3. 4 1. 0 12 .2 10 0. 0 79 .7 8 65 R ur al C oa st al 79 .7 7. 3 3 ,2 31 81 .0 0. 0 5. 7 2. 6 2. 3 8. 4 10 0. 0 81 .0 2 ,8 09 In te rio r 73 .2 14 .7 6 29 65 .9 0. 1 11 .7 2. 3 3. 3 16 .8 10 0. 0 65 .9 5 53 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 80 .8 10 .9 1 08 68 .7 0. 0 13 .9 1. 2 4. 3 11 .9 10 0. 0 68 .7 9 9 P rim ar y 78 .0 9. 5 1 ,6 32 78 .3 0. 0 6. 4 2. 7 1. 7 10 .9 10 0. 0 78 .3 1 ,4 28 S ec on da ry 73 .6 7. 8 2 ,7 13 78 .8 0. 0 5. 9 2. 8 2. 8 9. 6 10 0. 0 78 .8 2 ,2 08 H ig he r 69 .8 8. 7 5 10 82 .8 0. 0 3. 1 2. 7 0. 2 11 .1 10 0. 0 82 .8 4 01 M is si ng /D K 70 .8 9. 3 1 14 77 .3 0. 0 9. 1 0. 5 1. 6 11 .6 10 0. 0 77 .3 9 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 72 .7 14 .0 9 46 62 .6 0. 0 10 .9 3. 6 6. 6 16 .2 10 0. 0 62 .7 82 0 S ec on d 74 .7 11 .2 1 ,0 51 72 .4 0. 0 8. 3 3. 9 2. 3 13 .0 10 0. 0 72 .4 90 2 M id dl e 76 .6 7. 1 1 ,0 68 81 .6 0. 0 5. 2 3. 4 1. 3 8. 5 10 0. 0 81 .6 89 5 Fo ur th 73 .9 5. 8 1 ,0 28 86 .8 0. 0 3. 8 1. 5 0. 6 7. 3 10 0. 0 86 .8 81 9 R ic he st 75 .5 4. 9 9 84 91 .2 0. 0 1. 9 0. 8 0. 1 6. 1 10 0. 0 91 .2 79 1 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 78 .8 7. 3 2 ,3 23 82 .9 0. 0 4. 9 1. 9 1. 7 8. 5 10 0. 0 82 .9 2 ,0 01 A fri ca n 69 .0 10 .0 1 ,5 98 75 .5 0. 0 6. 3 3. 0 2. 6 12 .6 10 0. 0 75 .5 1 ,2 61 A m er in di an 78 .4 10 .3 3 20 70 .7 0. 1 8. 8 3. 8 5. 0 11 .6 10 0. 0 70 .8 2 83 M ix ed R ac e 72 .8 8. 5 8 09 76 .6 0. 0 7. 2 3. 9 1. 8 10 .5 10 0. 0 76 .6 6 58 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K (7 8. 1) (7 .8 ) 2 8 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 2 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .5 - Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 169Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e W S. 10 : A va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld s by a va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt in th e dw el lin g, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng o bs er ve d Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng n ot o bs er ve d To ta l P er ce nt ag e of ho us eh ol ds w ith s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t an yw he re in th e dw el lin g1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t ob se rv ed So ap o r o th er c le an si ng a ge nt n ot o bs er ve d at pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t sh ow n N o so ap or o th er cl ea ns in g ag en t i n ho us eh ol d N ot a bl e/ D oe s no t w an t to s ho w s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t M is si ng S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t sh ow n N o so ap or o th er cl ea ns in g ag en t i n ho us eh ol d N ot a bl e/ D oe s no t w an t t o sh ow s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t M is si ng To ta l 67 .8 4. 1 1. 5 1. 2 0. 1 7. 5 2. 6 15 .0 0. 2 10 0. 0 79 .4 5, 07 7 R eg io n R eg io n 1 66 .3 1. 4 8. 6 5. 1 0. 0 3. 7 2. 5 12 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 .4 66 R eg io n 2 60 .9 5. 8 0. 6 0. 8 0. 0 14 .4 8. 2 9. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 81 .2 28 7 R eg io n 3 65 .6 12 .2 1. 4 2. 3 0. 0 5. 4 2. 3 10 .7 0. 1 10 0. 0 83 .2 82 1 R eg io n 4 63 .4 2. 6 1. 3 0. 5 0. 1 8. 3 1. 5 21 .7 0. 4 10 0. 0 74 .4 2, 24 4 R eg io n 5 86 .1 0. 0 0. 5 2. 1 0. 1 6. 1 1. 4 3. 7 0. 0 10 0. 0 92 .2 34 3 R eg io n 6 82 .1 1. 4 1. 2 0. 2 0. 0 6. 1 4. 1 4. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 89 .6 81 7 R eg io ns 7 & 8 54 .4 5. 8 5. 9 1. 6 0. 9 7. 6 6. 9 16 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 67 .8 10 5 R eg io n 9 84 .0 3. 0 1. 5 3. 0 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 4. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .7 12 7 R eg io n 10 49 .7 4. 0 2. 8 4. 5 0. 0 8. 1 3. 8 27 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 61 .8 26 7 A re a U rb an 58 .0 2. 0 1. 5 0. 9 0. 0 6. 6 2. 6 27 .8 0. 7 10 0. 0 66 .6 1, 40 4 R ur al 71 .6 4. 9 1. 5 1. 3 0. 1 7. 8 2. 7 10 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 84 .3 3, 67 3 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 68 .9 4. 0 1. 1 0. 8 0. 1 7. 6 2. 5 14 .8 0. 3 10 0. 0 80 .5 4, 44 8 U rb an C oa st al 59 .0 1. 7 1. 3 0. 3 0. 0 6. 9 2. 5 27 .5 0. 8 10 0. 0 67 .6 1, 21 8 R ur al C oa st al 72 .7 4. 8 1. 0 1. 1 0. 1 7. 8 2. 5 10 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 85 .3 3, 23 1 In te rio r 60 .0 5. 1 4. 2 3. 7 0. 2 6. 8 3. 9 16 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 .9 62 9 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 64 .2 7. 6 4. 1 5. 0 0. 0 6. 0 6. 8 6. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 77 .7 10 8 P rim ar y 70 .9 4. 6 0. 8 1. 5 0. 2 7. 3 3. 4 11 .0 0. 3 10 0. 0 82 .8 1, 63 2 S ec on da ry 66 .5 4. 0 2. 1 1. 0 0. 0 8. 1 2. 4 15 .7 0. 2 10 0. 0 78 .6 2, 71 3 H ig he r 67 .2 2. 4 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 5. 0 0. 9 24 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 74 .6 51 0 M is si ng /D K 62 .3 3. 6 0. 7 4. 2 0. 0 7. 0 2. 8 19 .0 0. 3 10 0. 0 72 .8 11 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 57 .5 7. 5 4. 7 2. 8 0. 2 8. 9 6. 4 12 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 73 .9 94 6 S ec on d 65 .5 5. 9 1. 6 1. 6 0. 0 8. 2 3. 1 13 .5 0. 5 10 0. 0 79 .7 1, 05 1 M id dl e 71 .2 3. 6 1. 1 0. 7 0. 0 6. 1 1. 7 15 .3 0. 2 10 0. 0 80 .9 1, 06 8 Fo ur th 70 .4 2. 4 0. 1 0. 7 0. 3 6. 9 1. 9 17 .3 0. 1 10 0. 0 79 .7 1, 02 8 R ic he st 73 .9 1. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 7. 4 0. 4 16 .5 0. 2 10 0. 0 82 .6 98 4 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 73 .1 3. 4 1. 1 1. 1 0. 1 7. 8 2. 2 10 .9 0. 4 10 0. 0 84 .2 2, 32 3 A fri ca n 61 .9 4. 3 1. 7 1. 0 0. 0 7. 6 2. 5 20 .9 0. 1 10 0. 0 73 .9 1, 59 8 A m er in di an 66 .1 5. 2 4. 2 2. 4 0. 4 8. 0 4. 6 9. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 79 .3 32 0 M ix ed R ac e 65 .4 4. 7 1. 3 1. 3 0. 0 6. 5 3. 7 17 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 76 .6 80 9 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K (5 6. 0) (2 0. 7) (1 .4 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 1. 9) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (7 6. 8) 28 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .6 - A va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d. ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue ) 170 Ta bl e W S. 10 : A va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld s by a va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt in th e dw el lin g, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng o bs er ve d Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng n ot o bs er ve d To ta l P er ce nt ag e of ho us eh ol ds w ith s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t an yw he re in th e dw el lin g1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t ob se rv ed So ap o r o th er c le an si ng a ge nt n ot o bs er ve d at pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t sh ow n N o so ap or o th er cl ea ns in g ag en t i n ho us eh ol d N ot a bl e/ D oe s no t w an t to s ho w s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t M is si ng S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t sh ow n N o so ap or o th er cl ea ns in g ag en t i n ho us eh ol d N ot a bl e/ D oe s no t w an t t o sh ow s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t M is si ng To ta l 67 .8 4. 1 1. 5 1. 2 0. 1 7. 5 2. 6 15 .0 0. 2 10 0. 0 79 .4 5, 07 7 R eg io n R eg io n 1 66 .3 1. 4 8. 6 5. 1 0. 0 3. 7 2. 5 12 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 .4 66 R eg io n 2 60 .9 5. 8 0. 6 0. 8 0. 0 14 .4 8. 2 9. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 81 .2 28 7 R eg io n 3 65 .6 12 .2 1. 4 2. 3 0. 0 5. 4 2. 3 10 .7 0. 1 10 0. 0 83 .2 82 1 R eg io n 4 63 .4 2. 6 1. 3 0. 5 0. 1 8. 3 1. 5 21 .7 0. 4 10 0. 0 74 .4 2, 24 4 R eg io n 5 86 .1 0. 0 0. 5 2. 1 0. 1 6. 1 1. 4 3. 7 0. 0 10 0. 0 92 .2 34 3 R eg io n 6 82 .1 1. 4 1. 2 0. 2 0. 0 6. 1 4. 1 4. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 89 .6 81 7 R eg io ns 7 & 8 54 .4 5. 8 5. 9 1. 6 0. 9 7. 6 6. 9 16 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 67 .8 10 5 R eg io n 9 84 .0 3. 0 1. 5 3. 0 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 4. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .7 12 7 R eg io n 10 49 .7 4. 0 2. 8 4. 5 0. 0 8. 1 3. 8 27 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 61 .8 26 7 A re a U rb an 58 .0 2. 0 1. 5 0. 9 0. 0 6. 6 2. 6 27 .8 0. 7 10 0. 0 66 .6 1, 40 4 R ur al 71 .6 4. 9 1. 5 1. 3 0. 1 7. 8 2. 7 10 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 84 .3 3, 67 3 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 68 .9 4. 0 1. 1 0. 8 0. 1 7. 6 2. 5 14 .8 0. 3 10 0. 0 80 .5 4, 44 8 U rb an C oa st al 59 .0 1. 7 1. 3 0. 3 0. 0 6. 9 2. 5 27 .5 0. 8 10 0. 0 67 .6 1, 21 8 R ur al C oa st al 72 .7 4. 8 1. 0 1. 1 0. 1 7. 8 2. 5 10 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 85 .3 3, 23 1 In te rio r 60 .0 5. 1 4. 2 3. 7 0. 2 6. 8 3. 9 16 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 .9 62 9 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 64 .2 7. 6 4. 1 5. 0 0. 0 6. 0 6. 8 6. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 77 .7 10 8 P rim ar y 70 .9 4. 6 0. 8 1. 5 0. 2 7. 3 3. 4 11 .0 0. 3 10 0. 0 82 .8 1, 63 2 S ec on da ry 66 .5 4. 0 2. 1 1. 0 0. 0 8. 1 2. 4 15 .7 0. 2 10 0. 0 78 .6 2, 71 3 H ig he r 67 .2 2. 4 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 5. 0 0. 9 24 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 74 .6 51 0 M is si ng /D K 62 .3 3. 6 0. 7 4. 2 0. 0 7. 0 2. 8 19 .0 0. 3 10 0. 0 72 .8 11 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 57 .5 7. 5 4. 7 2. 8 0. 2 8. 9 6. 4 12 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 73 .9 94 6 S ec on d 65 .5 5. 9 1. 6 1. 6 0. 0 8. 2 3. 1 13 .5 0. 5 10 0. 0 79 .7 1, 05 1 M id dl e 71 .2 3. 6 1. 1 0. 7 0. 0 6. 1 1. 7 15 .3 0. 2 10 0. 0 80 .9 1, 06 8 Fo ur th 70 .4 2. 4 0. 1 0. 7 0. 3 6. 9 1. 9 17 .3 0. 1 10 0. 0 79 .7 1, 02 8 R ic he st 73 .9 1. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 7. 4 0. 4 16 .5 0. 2 10 0. 0 82 .6 98 4 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 73 .1 3. 4 1. 1 1. 1 0. 1 7. 8 2. 2 10 .9 0. 4 10 0. 0 84 .2 2, 32 3 A fri ca n 61 .9 4. 3 1. 7 1. 0 0. 0 7. 6 2. 5 20 .9 0. 1 10 0. 0 73 .9 1, 59 8 A m er in di an 66 .1 5. 2 4. 2 2. 4 0. 4 8. 0 4. 6 9. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 79 .3 32 0 M ix ed R ac e 65 .4 4. 7 1. 3 1. 3 0. 0 6. 5 3. 7 17 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 76 .6 80 9 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K (5 6. 0) (2 0. 7) (1 .4 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 1. 9) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (7 6. 8) 28 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .6 - A va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d. ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e W S. 10 : A va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld s by a va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt in th e dw el lin g, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng o bs er ve d Pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng n ot o bs er ve d To ta l P er ce nt ag e of ho us eh ol ds w ith s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t an yw he re in th e dw el lin g1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t ob se rv ed So ap o r o th er c le an si ng a ge nt n ot o bs er ve d at pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t sh ow n N o so ap or o th er cl ea ns in g ag en t i n ho us eh ol d N ot a bl e/ D oe s no t w an t to s ho w s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t M is si ng S oa p or ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t sh ow n N o so ap or o th er cl ea ns in g ag en t i n ho us eh ol d N ot a bl e/ D oe s no t w an t t o sh ow s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng ag en t M is si ng To ta l 67 .8 4. 1 1. 5 1. 2 0. 1 7. 5 2. 6 15 .0 0. 2 10 0. 0 79 .4 5, 07 7 R eg io n R eg io n 1 66 .3 1. 4 8. 6 5. 1 0. 0 3. 7 2. 5 12 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 .4 66 R eg io n 2 60 .9 5. 8 0. 6 0. 8 0. 0 14 .4 8. 2 9. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 81 .2 28 7 R eg io n 3 65 .6 12 .2 1. 4 2. 3 0. 0 5. 4 2. 3 10 .7 0. 1 10 0. 0 83 .2 82 1 R eg io n 4 63 .4 2. 6 1. 3 0. 5 0. 1 8. 3 1. 5 21 .7 0. 4 10 0. 0 74 .4 2, 24 4 R eg io n 5 86 .1 0. 0 0. 5 2. 1 0. 1 6. 1 1. 4 3. 7 0. 0 10 0. 0 92 .2 34 3 R eg io n 6 82 .1 1. 4 1. 2 0. 2 0. 0 6. 1 4. 1 4. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 89 .6 81 7 R eg io ns 7 & 8 54 .4 5. 8 5. 9 1. 6 0. 9 7. 6 6. 9 16 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 67 .8 10 5 R eg io n 9 84 .0 3. 0 1. 5 3. 0 0. 0 3. 6 0. 0 4. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .7 12 7 R eg io n 10 49 .7 4. 0 2. 8 4. 5 0. 0 8. 1 3. 8 27 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 61 .8 26 7 A re a U rb an 58 .0 2. 0 1. 5 0. 9 0. 0 6. 6 2. 6 27 .8 0. 7 10 0. 0 66 .6 1, 40 4 R ur al 71 .6 4. 9 1. 5 1. 3 0. 1 7. 8 2. 7 10 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 84 .3 3, 67 3 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 68 .9 4. 0 1. 1 0. 8 0. 1 7. 6 2. 5 14 .8 0. 3 10 0. 0 80 .5 4, 44 8 U rb an C oa st al 59 .0 1. 7 1. 3 0. 3 0. 0 6. 9 2. 5 27 .5 0. 8 10 0. 0 67 .6 1, 21 8 R ur al C oa st al 72 .7 4. 8 1. 0 1. 1 0. 1 7. 8 2. 5 10 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 85 .3 3, 23 1 In te rio r 60 .0 5. 1 4. 2 3. 7 0. 2 6. 8 3. 9 16 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 .9 62 9 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 64 .2 7. 6 4. 1 5. 0 0. 0 6. 0 6. 8 6. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 77 .7 10 8 P rim ar y 70 .9 4. 6 0. 8 1. 5 0. 2 7. 3 3. 4 11 .0 0. 3 10 0. 0 82 .8 1, 63 2 S ec on da ry 66 .5 4. 0 2. 1 1. 0 0. 0 8. 1 2. 4 15 .7 0. 2 10 0. 0 78 .6 2, 71 3 H ig he r 67 .2 2. 4 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 5. 0 0. 9 24 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 74 .6 51 0 M is si ng /D K 62 .3 3. 6 0. 7 4. 2 0. 0 7. 0 2. 8 19 .0 0. 3 10 0. 0 72 .8 11 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 57 .5 7. 5 4. 7 2. 8 0. 2 8. 9 6. 4 12 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 73 .9 94 6 S ec on d 65 .5 5. 9 1. 6 1. 6 0. 0 8. 2 3. 1 13 .5 0. 5 10 0. 0 79 .7 1, 05 1 M id dl e 71 .2 3. 6 1. 1 0. 7 0. 0 6. 1 1. 7 15 .3 0. 2 10 0. 0 80 .9 1, 06 8 Fo ur th 70 .4 2. 4 0. 1 0. 7 0. 3 6. 9 1. 9 17 .3 0. 1 10 0. 0 79 .7 1, 02 8 R ic he st 73 .9 1. 2 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 7. 4 0. 4 16 .5 0. 2 10 0. 0 82 .6 98 4 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da E as t I nd ia n 73 .1 3. 4 1. 1 1. 1 0. 1 7. 8 2. 2 10 .9 0. 4 10 0. 0 84 .2 2, 32 3 A fri ca n 61 .9 4. 3 1. 7 1. 0 0. 0 7. 6 2. 5 20 .9 0. 1 10 0. 0 73 .9 1, 59 8 A m er in di an 66 .1 5. 2 4. 2 2. 4 0. 4 8. 0 4. 6 9. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 79 .3 32 0 M ix ed R ac e 65 .4 4. 7 1. 3 1. 3 0. 0 6. 5 3. 7 17 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 76 .6 80 9 O th er s/ M is si ng /D K (5 6. 0) (2 0. 7) (1 .4 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 1. 9) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (7 6. 8) 28 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .6 - A va ila bi lit y of s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d. ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 171Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 172 Fertility Measures of current fertility are presented in Table RH.1 for the three-year period preceding the survey. A three-year period was chosen for calculating these rates to provide the most current information, while also allowing the rates to be calculated for a sufficient number of cases so as not to compromise the statistical precision of the estimates. Age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs), expressed as the number of births per 1,000 women in a specified age group, show the age pattern of fertility. Numerators for ASFRs are calculated by identifying live births that occurred in the three-year period preceding the survey classified according to the age of the mother (in five-year age groups) at the time of the child’s birth. The denominators of the rates represent the number of woman-years lived by the survey respondents in each of the five-year age groups during the specified period. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a synthetic measure that denotes the number of live births a woman would have if she were subject to the current age-specific fertility rates throughout her reproductive years (15-49 years). The general fertility rate (GFR) is the number of live births occurring during the specified period per 1,000 women aged 15-49 years. The crude birth rate (CBR) is the number of live births per 1,000 population during the specified period. Table RH.1: Fertility rates Adolescent birth rate, age-specific and total fertility rates, the general fertility rate, and the crude birth rate for the three-year period preceding the survey, by area, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Urban Rural Coastal Urban Coastal Rural Coastal Interior Total Age 15-191 55 81 69 59 72 105 74 20-24 141 150 132 133 131 255 148 25-29 118 144 128 118 133 190 136 30-34 79 105 86 79 90 161 97 35-39 60 53 49 64 43 102 55 40-44 14 16 12 15 12 43 16 45-49 2 1 1 3 1 2 2 TFRa 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.4 4.3 2.6 GFRb 72.8 84.5 73.2 73.0 73.3 137.9 81.3 CBRc 19.1 22.4 19.8 19.0 20.2 31.6 21.5 1 MICS indicator 5.1; MDG indicator 5.4 - Adolescent birth rate a TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman age 15-49 b GFR: General fertility rate expressed per 1,000 women age 15-49 c CBR: Crude birth rate expressed per 1,000 population Table RH.1 shows current fertility in Guyana at the national level and by area and location of residence- urban-rural, coastal-interior. The TFR for the three years (2012-2014) preceding the Guyana MICS5 is 2.6 births per woman. Fertility is slightly higher in rural areas than in urban areas Table RH.1 shows current fertility in Guyana at the national level and by area and location of residence- urban-rural, coastal-interior. The TFR for the three years (2012-2014) preceding the Guyana MICS5 is 2.6 births per woman. Fertility is slightly higher in rural areas than in urban areas (2.7 and 2.3 births, respectively), but is considerably higher in interior areas (4.3 births per woman) than in coastal areas (2.4 births per woman). As the ASFRs show, the pattern of higher fertility in rural and interior areas is prevalent in all age groups. These results are shown in Figure RH.1 for urban-rural and coastal-interior areas. VIII. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 173Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | F igure RH.1: Age -spec ific ferti l i ty rates by area , Guyana MICS5, 2014 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Pe r 1 ,0 00 Age Urban Rural Coastal Interior Total Rates refer to the three-year period preceding the survey The coastal-interior difference in fertility is most pronounced for women in the 20-24 years age group: 132 births per 1,000 women in coastal areas versus 255 births per 1,000 women in interior areas. The overall age pattern of fertility, as reflected in the ASFRs, indicates that childbearing begins early. Fertility is relatively low among adolescents at 74 births per 1,000 women, increases to a peak of 148 births per 1,000 among women aged 20-24 years, and declines thereafterto two (2) births per 1,000 women for the 45-49 age group. Table RH.2 shows adolescent birth rates and total fertility rates for the three-year period preceding the survey. The adolescent birth rate (age-specific fertility rate for women aged 15-19 years) is defined as the number of births to women aged 15-19 years during the three-year period preceding the survey, divided by the average number of women aged 15-19 years (number of women-years lived between ages 15 through 19, inclusive) during the same period, expressed per 1,000 women. The adolescent birth rate for the three-year period preceding the survey is 74 births per 1,000 women. The adolescent birth rate in the regional grouping 1, 7, 8 & 9 is almost three times that of other regions/ regional grouping, at 187 births per 1,000 women. Both the adolescent birth rate and the total fertility rate are positively related with the socio-economic status of the household: the adolescent birth rate is highest at 150 births per 1,000 women living in the poorest households and lowest at 23 births per 1,000 women living in the richest households. Similarly, the total fertility rates decline from 4.7 births per 1 000 women in the poorest households to 1.8 births per 1000 women in the richest households. The adolescent birth rate is highest in women living in households with an Amerindian household head (148 births per 1,000 women), and lowest in women living in households with an African household head (59 births per 1,000 women). 174 Table RH.2: Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate Adolescent birth rates and total fertility rates for the three-year period preceding the survey, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Adolescent birth rate1 (Age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19) Total fertility rate Total 74 2.6 Regiona Regions 1,7,8, 9 187 (6.5) Regions 2, 3 67 2.3 Region 4 71 2.4 Regions 5, 6 65 2.5 Region 10 (49) (*) Education None (*) (*) Primary (170) (3.4) Secondary 76 2.7 Higher (16) (*) Wealth index quintile Poorest 150 4.7 Second 107 3.1 Middle 52 2.5 Fourth 36 1.7 Richest 23 1.8 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 68 2.0 African 59 2.6 Amerindian 148 (5.7) Mixed Race 82 2.9 1 MICS indicator 5.1; MDG indicator 5.4 - Adolescent birth rate a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head cCategory "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Rates that are based on 125-249 unweighted cases (*) Rates that are based on less than 125 unweighted cases Table RH.3 presents some early childbearing53 indicators for women aged 15-19 years and 20-24 years, while Table RH.4 presents the trends for early childbearing. Table RH.3 presents some early childbearing2 indicators for women aged 15-19 years and 20-24 years, while Table RH.4 presents the trends for early childbearing. As shown in Table RH.3, 11 percent of women aged 15-19 years had a live birth, four (4) percent are pregnant with their first child, and 15 percent have begun childbearing (those who already had a live birth or are pregnant with their first child). Less than one percent (0.3%) of women aged 15-19 years have had a live birth before age 15, and 16 percent of women aged 20-24 years have had a live birth before age 18. The percentage of women aged 20-24 years who have had a live birth before age 18 is slightly higher in rural areas than in urban areas (17% and 12%, respectively), and is twice as high in interior areas than in coastal areas (29% and 14%, respectively). Regions 1, 7 & 8, and 9 have the highest proportions of women who have had a live birth before age 18, with 36 percent, 31 percent and 29 percent, respectively. The proportion of women aged 20-24 years who have had a live birth before age 18 declines with the woman’s level of education and the socio- economic status of the household. One in three women living in households with an Amerindian household head (33%) have had a live birth before age 18, while the proportion is between 14 and 15 percent among women in the other households. Early childbearing is prominent in Region 1, where one-third (33%) of women aged 15-19 years have already had a live birth, and six (6) percent have had a live birth before age 15. 53Childbearing is the process of giving birth to children. MICS defines early childbearing (MICS indicator 5.2) as the percentage of women age 20-24 years who had at least one live birth before age 18. However, for the purposes of Table RH.3, women age 15-19 years who have begun childbearing includes those who have had a live birth as well as those who have not had a live birth but are pregnant with their first child. 175Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table RH.3: Early childbearing Percentage of women age 15-19 years who have had a live birth, are pregnant with the first child, have begun childbearing, and who have had a live birth before age 15, and percentage of women age 20-24 years who have had a live birth before age 18, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of women age 15-19 who: Number of women age 15- 19 Percentage of women age 20- 24 who have had a live birth before age 181 Number of women age 20- 24 Have had a live birth Are pregnant with first child Have begun child- bearing Have had a live birth before age 15 Total 11.2 3.7 14.9 0.3 1,025 15.8 843 Region Region 1 32.9 0.0 32.9 6.1 12 36.0 13 Region 2 13.7 7.7 21.4 0.0 54 (7.9) 34 Region 3 10.8 4.2 15.0 0.3 169 13.1 164 Region 4 11.0 3.7 14.6 0.0 444 13.7 385 Region 5 5.4 0.0 5.4 0.0 69 23.9 48 Region 6 9.7 5.3 14.9 0.4 172 14.0 105 Regions 7 & 8 19.4 5.0 24.4 2.0 31 30.9 27 Region 9 (21.0) (0.0) (21.0) (3.0) 20 29.3 24 Region 10 11.1 0.0 11.1 0.0 54 24.1 44 Area Urban 8.7 1.8 10.5 0.0 274 12.0 220 Rural 12.1 4.4 16.5 0.4 751 17.2 622 Location Coastal 10.3 4.1 14.4 0.1 887 13.7 729 Urban Coastal 8.4 2.2 10.5 0.0 230 10.7 190 Rural Coastal 11.0 4.8 15.8 0.2 658 14.8 539 Interior 16.9 1.1 18.0 1.4 138 29.2 114 Education None (*) (*) (*) (*) 2 (*) 4 Primary (58.9) (0.0) (58.9) (10.4) 17 41.1 48 Secondary 10.8 4.0 14.8 0.1 956 16.9 623 Higher (2.2) (0.0) (2.2) (0.0) 49 2.7 168 Wealth index quintile Poorest 23.5 1.8 25.3 0.9 211 30.4 159 Second 16.5 7.8 24.2 0.3 196 27.5 153 Middle 6.6 1.4 8.0 0.0 200 12.1 166 Fourth 5.6 2.3 7.9 0.0 228 8.1 181 Richest 3.8 5.7 9.5 0.2 189 4.6 185 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 10.8 4.7 15.6 0.1 461 14.6 355 African 7.7 3.7 11.4 0.2 289 13.5 276 Amerindian 21.3 0.0 21.3 2.6 76 32.7 63 Mixed Race 13.2 2.8 16.1 0.0 195 15.3 147 1 MICS indicator 5.2 - Early childbearing a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 176 Ta bl e R H .4 s ho w s tr en ds in e ar ly c hi ld be ar in g. O nl y on e (1 ) pe rc en t of w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s ha d a liv e bi rt h be fo re a ge 1 5. T hi s pr op or tio n is a bo ut th e sa m e am on g ur ba n w om en a s w el l a s am on g co as ta l w om en . H ow ev er , t hi s fig ur e is s lig ht ly h ig he r a m on g ru ra l (2 % ) a nd in te rio r w om en (4 % ). It is n ot ew or th y th at t he p re va le nc e of li ve b irt hs b ef or e ag e 15 h as b ee n re la tiv el y st ab le o ve r th e pa st 30 y ea rs in a ll ar ea s an d lo ca tio n of r es id en ce . In t er m s of p re va le nc e of b irt hs b ef or e ag e 18 y ea rs , 20 p er ce nt o f w om en a ge d 20 -4 9 ye ar s ha d a liv e bi rt h be fo re a ge 1 8. T hi s pr op or tio n is 1 6 pe rc en t in u rb an a re as , 2 1 pe rc en t in r ur al a re as , 1 8 pe rc en t in c oa st al a re as a nd 3 0 pe rc en t in in te rio r ar ea s. A s sh ow n in T ab le R H .4 , t he re h as b ee n an o ve ra ll de cl in e in t he p re va le nc e of b irt hs b ef or e ag e 18 o ve r th e pa st 2 5 ye ar s: 1 6 pe rc en t of w om en a ge d 20 -2 4 ye ar s ha ve h ad a li ve b irt h be fo re a ge 1 8, a nd c om pa rin g w ith t he s am e ag e gr ou p 25 y ea rs a go (t ho se c ur re nt ly ag ed 4 5- 49 y ea rs ), 23 p er ce nt h av e ha d a liv e bi rt h be fo re a ge 1 8. S im ila r pa tt er ns a re o bs er ve d in a ll ar ea s an d lo ca tio n of r es id en ce . Ta bl e R H .4 : T re nd s in e ar ly c hi ld be ar in g P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ho h av e ha d a liv e bi rth , b y ag e 15 a nd 1 8, b y ar ea a nd a ge g ro up , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 U rb an R ur al A ll P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 15 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r of w om en ag e 15 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 20 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r of w om en ag e 20 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 15 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r of w om en ag e 15 - 49 y ea rs P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 20 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r of w om en ag e 20 - 49 y ea rs P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 15 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r of w om en ag e 15 - 49 y ea rs P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 20 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r of w om en ag e 20 - 49 y ea rs To ta l 0. 9 1 ,3 87 16 .3 1 ,1 13 1. 6 3 ,6 89 21 .0 2, 93 8 1. 4 5 ,0 76 19 .7 4 ,0 51 A ge 15 -1 9 0. 0 27 4 na na 0. 4 75 1 na na 0. 3 1 ,0 25 na na 20 -2 4 1. 0 22 0 12 .0 22 0 2. 2 62 2 17 .2 62 2 1. 9 84 3 15 .8 84 3 25 -2 9 0. 4 20 8 17 .4 20 8 2. 6 51 0 20 .0 51 0 2. 0 71 8 19 .2 71 8 30 -3 4 1. 6 16 7 11 .3 16 7 2. 1 42 7 20 .3 42 7 2. 0 59 4 17 .8 59 4 35 -3 9 1. 4 18 7 18 .8 18 7 1. 3 46 1 24 .7 46 1 1. 4 64 8 23 .0 64 8 40 -4 4 1. 8 19 5 21 .0 19 5 1. 5 47 8 20 .6 47 8 1. 6 67 3 20 .7 67 3 45 -4 9 0. 6 13 5 17 .5 13 5 1. 3 43 9 24 .8 43 9 1. 1 57 5 23 .1 57 5 na : n ot a pp lic ab le (C on tin ue ) 177Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e R H .4 : T re nd s in e ar ly c hi ld be ar in g (c on tin ue d) P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ho h av e ha d a liv e bi rth , b y ag e 15 a nd 1 8, b y ar ea a nd a ge g ro up , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 C oa st al U rb an C oa st al R ur al C oa st al In te rio r P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 15 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r o f w om en ag e 15 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 20 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r of w om en ag e 20 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 15 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r of w om en ag e 15 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 20 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r of w om en ag e 20 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 15 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r of w om en ag e 15 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 20 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r of w om en ag e 20 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 15 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r of w om en ag e 15 - 49 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag e 20 -4 9 w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r o f w om en ag e 20 - 49 ye ar s To ta l 1. 1 4, 44 2 18 .3 3 ,5 55 0. 9 1, 20 1 15 .9 97 1 1. 2 3 ,2 41 19 .2 2 ,5 84 3. 6 63 4 29 .9 49 6 A ge 15 -1 9 0. 1 88 7 na na 0. 0 23 0 na na 0. 2 65 8 na na 1. 4 13 8 na na 20 -2 4 1. 5 72 9 13 .7 72 9 1. 1 19 0 10 .7 19 0 1. 7 53 9 14 .8 53 9 4. 3 11 4 29 .2 11 4 25 -2 9 1. 6 63 1 17 .6 63 1 0. 4 18 8 17 .3 18 8 2. 2 44 3 17 .8 44 3 4. 3 87 30 .9 87 30 -3 4 1. 3 50 2 15 .9 50 2 1. 6 13 8 10 .5 13 8 1. 2 36 4 18 .0 36 4 5. 4 92 28 .2 92 35 -3 9 1. 2 58 3 22 .0 58 3 1. 3 17 2 18 .0 17 2 1. 2 41 0 23 .7 41 0 2. 8 66 32 .2 66 40 -4 4 1. 3 58 9 20 .1 58 9 1. 8 16 1 21 .8 16 1 1. 2 42 8 19 .5 42 8 3. 0 84 25 .3 84 45 -4 9 0. 8 52 1 21 .7 52 1 0. 3 12 2 17 .0 12 2 0. 9 39 9 23 .1 39 9 4. 9 53 37 .3 53 n a: n ot a pp lic ab le 178 Contraception Access by all couples to information and services to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late or too many is critical. Therefore, appropriate family planning is important to the health of women and children by: 1) preventing pregnancies that are too early or too late; 2) extending the period between births; and 3) limiting the total number of children. A point to note is that questions relative to contraceptive use were administered only to women aged 15-49 years, who were asked about methods used by her (or her partner) to delay or avoid pregnancy. As shown in Table RH.5, current use of contraception was reported by one- third of women currently married or in union2 (34%). The most popular method is the male condom, which is used by nine (9) percent of women currently married/in union in Guyana, followed by the pill, which accounts for eight (8) percent of married women. Between three (3) and six (6) percent of married women reported the use of the Intrauterine Device (IUD), injectables, and female sterilization. Implants are only used by one (1) percent of married women. Less than one (1) percent reported the use of female condom, male sterilization, diaphragm/ foam/jelly, periodic abstinence, or withdrawal. While contraceptive prevalence ranges from 28 percent in Region 9 to 44 percent in Regions 7 & 8, it is similar between urban-rural and interior-coastal areas (between 54All references to “married women” in this chapter include women in common-law union as well. 32 and 35%). The findings by region, area and women’s education are depicted in Figure RH.2. Women’s education level appears to have some relationship with contraceptive prevalence. The percentage of married women using any method of contraception slightly increases from 29 percent among those with no education to 33-34 percent among those with primary or secondary education, and to 39 percent among those with higher education. In addition to differences in overall prevalence, the pattern of use by specific methods also varies with women’s education: the most common contraceptive methods used by married women with up to primary education are the injectables and IUD (15% in each case), while the method most used by those with secondary or higher education is the male condom (26%). There is no clear pattern between contraception use and age of women. However, adolescents (young women aged 15-19 years) are far less likely to use contraception than older women, with only 13 percent. Contraception use is highest among women aged 25-34 years, with between 41 and 42 percent. Contraceptive prevalence shows an association with the number of living children a woman has. The use of contraception is highest among women with 2-3 living children and lowest among those with no children. On the other hand, there are little differentials between contraception use and household wealth. 179Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e R H .5 : U se o f c on tr ac ep tio n P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t o f w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ): N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -4 9 ye ar s cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n No method Female sterilization Male sterilization IUD Injectables Implants Pill Male condom Female condom Diaphragm/ Foam/Jelly Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Missing Any modern method Any traditional method Any method 1 To ta l 65 .9 3. 3 0. 1 5. 8 4. 9 1. 0 7. 7 9. 0 0. 7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 0. 5 0. 2 32 .6 1. 3 34 .1 3 ,4 50 R eg io n R eg io n 1 70 .7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 17 .1 1. 1 3. 1 3. 4 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 0. 2 1. 4 0. 3 27 .3 1. 6 29 .3 6 0 R eg io n 2 65 .8 3. 4 0. 0 10 .7 5. 6 0. 0 5. 1 8. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 33 .1 1. 0 34 .2 1 63 R eg io n 3 61 .0 6. 2 0. 1 8. 6 2. 8 0. 3 8. 5 10 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 0. 1 1. 2 0. 3 36 .5 2. 2 39 .0 5 80 R eg io n 4 67 .0 2. 6 0. 1 5. 4 3. 6 0. 9 7. 4 10 .7 1. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 4 0. 2 0. 2 31 .8 1. 0 33 .0 1 ,5 61 R eg io n 5 67 .3 2. 0 0. 0 5. 1 6. 1 4. 0 7. 9 5. 9 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 31 .9 0. 9 32 .7 2 37 R eg io n 6 69 .7 1. 8 0. 0 6. 3 2. 5 1. 4 10 .7 5. 8 0. 9 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 0. 0 0. 1 29 .4 0. 7 30 .3 4 85 R eg io ns 7 & 8 56 .1 3. 0 0. 0 4. 1 24 .0 0. 5 6. 0 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 41 .9 2. 0 43 .9 9 8 R eg io n 9 72 .4 2. 9 0. 0 0. 5 15 .5 0. 0 3. 6 3. 9 0. 0 0. 1 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 26 .5 1. 1 27 .6 9 8 R eg io n 10 60 .9 6. 3 0. 0 1. 2 7. 8 0. 4 5. 9 12 .4 1. 4 0. 0 1. 8 1. 2 0. 7 0. 0 35 .3 3. 8 39 .1 1 67 A re a U rb an 67 .7 3. 0 0. 0 4. 1 3. 1 1. 0 5. 5 13 .3 1. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 6 0. 2 0. 0 31 .2 1. 1 32 .3 9 22 R ur al 65 .3 3. 4 0. 1 6. 5 5. 6 1. 0 8. 5 7. 5 0. 6 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 6 0. 2 33 .1 1. 4 34 .7 2 ,5 28 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 66 .1 3. 2 0. 1 6. 3 3. 5 1. 1 8. 2 9. 3 0. 8 0. 0 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 2 32 .5 1. 2 33 .9 2 ,9 89 U rb an C oa st al 68 .0 2. 5 0. 0 4. 7 3. 0 1. 1 5. 7 13 .5 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 0 31 .4 0. 6 32 .0 8 05 R ur al C oa st al 65 .4 3. 4 0. 1 7. 0 3. 8 1. 1 9. 1 7. 7 0. 7 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 6 0. 2 32 .9 1. 5 34 .6 2 ,1 84 In te rio r 64 .8 3. 8 0. 0 2. 7 13 .9 0. 4 4. 1 7. 6 0. 6 0. 1 1. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 1 33 .0 2. 0 35 .2 4 62 A ge 15 -1 9 87 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 1. 8 0. 0 4. 4 5. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 12 .4 0. 5 12 .9 2 40 20 -2 4 66 .5 0. 8 0. 0 3. 4 8. 1 0. 3 6. 6 12 .7 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 0. 5 0. 5 0. 0 32 .2 1. 4 33 .5 5 90 25 -2 9 58 .4 0. 7 0. 5 5. 6 6. 6 1. 7 11 .2 12 .4 2. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 4 0. 1 0. 1 40 .9 0. 6 41 .6 6 03 30 -3 4 59 .0 3. 5 0. 0 7. 9 6. 1 0. 3 10 .1 10 .6 0. 7 0. 0 0. 9 0. 2 0. 7 0. 0 39 .1 1. 9 41 .0 5 04 35 -3 9 64 .5 4. 1 0. 0 6. 5 3. 8 1. 9 9. 6 7. 3 0. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 6 0. 5 0. 3 33 .4 1. 8 35 .5 5 29 40 -4 4 64 .9 7. 0 0. 0 6. 4 3. 2 1. 4 7. 0 6. 5 1. 3 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 0. 7 0. 8 32 .7 1. 7 35 .1 5 42 45 -4 9 74 .8 5. 9 0. 0 8. 3 2. 3 0. 8 1. 9 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 0 24 .0 1. 1 25 .2 4 41 N um be r o f l iv in g ch ild re n 0 87 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 9. 5 0. 9 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 12 .5 0. 4 12 .9 6 35 1 69 .4 0. 3 0. 0 1. 5 3. 4 0. 6 9. 1 14 .0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 6 0. 3 0. 3 0. 0 29 .4 1. 2 30 .6 6 75 2 57 .4 1. 8 0. 0 10 .5 5. 8 1. 0 11 .2 9. 2 1. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 8 0. 8 0. 0 40 .7 1. 9 42 .6 8 51 3 58 .0 7. 2 0. 4 9. 4 4. 6 1. 8 9. 0 7. 2 0. 6 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 0. 5 0. 7 40 .3 1. 0 42 .0 6 27 4+ 60 .5 7. 4 0. 1 6. 5 10 .4 1. 6 5. 8 5. 0 0. 6 0. 0 1. 0 0. 5 0. 5 0. 1 37 .3 2. 0 39 .5 6 62 Ed uc at io n N on e 70 .7 6. 2 0. 0 6. 7 9. 5 2. 3 3. 7 0. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 29 .3 0. 0 29 .3 4 1 P rim ar y 66 .2 4. 4 0. 0 8. 3 5. 2 1. 1 7. 1 4. 8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 1. 3 0. 2 31 .3 2. 4 33 .8 5 57 S ec on da ry 66 .6 3. 1 0. 1 5. 5 5. 3 1. 0 7. 6 8. 9 0. 7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 3 0. 3 0. 2 32 .2 1. 0 33 .4 2 ,4 88 H ig he r 60 .8 2. 2 0. 0 4. 2 1. 6 0. 4 9. 8 17 .4 1. 8 0. 0 1. 1 0. 2 0. 5 0. 1 37 .3 1. 8 39 .2 3 64 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 69 .0 4. 6 0. 0 2. 2 12 .8 0. 4 4. 2 5. 2 0. 1 0. 1 0. 4 0. 4 0. 6 0. 0 29 .6 1. 3 31 .0 61 1 S ec on d 63 .9 3. 8 0. 0 8. 0 6. 1 0. 8 6. 4 7. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 4 0. 7 0. 5 0. 5 34 .1 1. 6 36 .1 66 8 M id dl e 67 .0 2. 6 0. 0 4. 4 3. 2 2. 0 9. 5 8. 1 0. 8 0. 0 0. 9 0. 7 0. 8 0. 0 30 .6 2. 4 33 .0 70 1 Fo ur th 64 .8 2. 6 0. 4 6. 5 2. 3 0. 5 9. 7 11 .3 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 3 0. 1 34 .5 0. 5 35 .2 71 2 R ic he st 65 .3 2. 9 0. 0 7. 6 1. 7 1. 2 8. 0 11 .8 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 3 0. 3 33 .6 0. 9 34 .7 75 9 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 63 .3 3. 4 0. 0 8. 6 2. 8 1. 5 10 .2 8. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 0. 3 0. 5 0. 3 35 .0 1. 3 36 .7 1 ,5 80 A fri ca n 70 .0 3. 0 0. 0 2. 8 5. 1 0. 4 5. 4 11 .1 1. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 0. 2 0. 0 29 .1 0. 9 30 .0 1 ,0 15 A m er in di an 67 .8 2. 6 0. 0 2. 3 19 .0 0. 3 2. 8 4. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 31 .2 0. 9 32 .2 2 63 M ix ed R ac e 65 .0 3. 7 0. 4 5. 2 4. 1 0. 9 6. 9 10 .2 1. 2 0. 0 0. 8 0. 5 1. 0 0. 0 32 .6 2. 4 35 .0 5 82 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .3 - C on tr ac ep tiv e pr ev al en ce ra te a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 180 Ta bl e R H .5 : U se o f c on tr ac ep tio n P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t o f w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ): N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -4 9 ye ar s cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n No method Female sterilization Male sterilization IUD Injectables Implants Pill Male condom Female condom Diaphragm/ Foam/Jelly Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Missing Any modern method Any traditional method Any method 1 To ta l 65 .9 3. 3 0. 1 5. 8 4. 9 1. 0 7. 7 9. 0 0. 7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 0. 5 0. 2 32 .6 1. 3 34 .1 3 ,4 50 R eg io n R eg io n 1 70 .7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 17 .1 1. 1 3. 1 3. 4 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 0. 2 1. 4 0. 3 27 .3 1. 6 29 .3 6 0 R eg io n 2 65 .8 3. 4 0. 0 10 .7 5. 6 0. 0 5. 1 8. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 33 .1 1. 0 34 .2 1 63 R eg io n 3 61 .0 6. 2 0. 1 8. 6 2. 8 0. 3 8. 5 10 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 0. 1 1. 2 0. 3 36 .5 2. 2 39 .0 5 80 R eg io n 4 67 .0 2. 6 0. 1 5. 4 3. 6 0. 9 7. 4 10 .7 1. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 4 0. 2 0. 2 31 .8 1. 0 33 .0 1 ,5 61 R eg io n 5 67 .3 2. 0 0. 0 5. 1 6. 1 4. 0 7. 9 5. 9 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 31 .9 0. 9 32 .7 2 37 R eg io n 6 69 .7 1. 8 0. 0 6. 3 2. 5 1. 4 10 .7 5. 8 0. 9 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 0. 0 0. 1 29 .4 0. 7 30 .3 4 85 R eg io ns 7 & 8 56 .1 3. 0 0. 0 4. 1 24 .0 0. 5 6. 0 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 41 .9 2. 0 43 .9 9 8 R eg io n 9 72 .4 2. 9 0. 0 0. 5 15 .5 0. 0 3. 6 3. 9 0. 0 0. 1 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 26 .5 1. 1 27 .6 9 8 R eg io n 10 60 .9 6. 3 0. 0 1. 2 7. 8 0. 4 5. 9 12 .4 1. 4 0. 0 1. 8 1. 2 0. 7 0. 0 35 .3 3. 8 39 .1 1 67 A re a U rb an 67 .7 3. 0 0. 0 4. 1 3. 1 1. 0 5. 5 13 .3 1. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 6 0. 2 0. 0 31 .2 1. 1 32 .3 9 22 R ur al 65 .3 3. 4 0. 1 6. 5 5. 6 1. 0 8. 5 7. 5 0. 6 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 6 0. 2 33 .1 1. 4 34 .7 2 ,5 28 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 66 .1 3. 2 0. 1 6. 3 3. 5 1. 1 8. 2 9. 3 0. 8 0. 0 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 2 32 .5 1. 2 33 .9 2 ,9 89 U rb an C oa st al 68 .0 2. 5 0. 0 4. 7 3. 0 1. 1 5. 7 13 .5 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 0 31 .4 0. 6 32 .0 8 05 R ur al C oa st al 65 .4 3. 4 0. 1 7. 0 3. 8 1. 1 9. 1 7. 7 0. 7 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 6 0. 2 32 .9 1. 5 34 .6 2 ,1 84 In te rio r 64 .8 3. 8 0. 0 2. 7 13 .9 0. 4 4. 1 7. 6 0. 6 0. 1 1. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 1 33 .0 2. 0 35 .2 4 62 A ge 15 -1 9 87 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 1. 8 0. 0 4. 4 5. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 12 .4 0. 5 12 .9 2 40 20 -2 4 66 .5 0. 8 0. 0 3. 4 8. 1 0. 3 6. 6 12 .7 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 0. 5 0. 5 0. 0 32 .2 1. 4 33 .5 5 90 25 -2 9 58 .4 0. 7 0. 5 5. 6 6. 6 1. 7 11 .2 12 .4 2. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 4 0. 1 0. 1 40 .9 0. 6 41 .6 6 03 30 -3 4 59 .0 3. 5 0. 0 7. 9 6. 1 0. 3 10 .1 10 .6 0. 7 0. 0 0. 9 0. 2 0. 7 0. 0 39 .1 1. 9 41 .0 5 04 35 -3 9 64 .5 4. 1 0. 0 6. 5 3. 8 1. 9 9. 6 7. 3 0. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 6 0. 5 0. 3 33 .4 1. 8 35 .5 5 29 40 -4 4 64 .9 7. 0 0. 0 6. 4 3. 2 1. 4 7. 0 6. 5 1. 3 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 0. 7 0. 8 32 .7 1. 7 35 .1 5 42 45 -4 9 74 .8 5. 9 0. 0 8. 3 2. 3 0. 8 1. 9 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 0 24 .0 1. 1 25 .2 4 41 N um be r o f l iv in g ch ild re n 0 87 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 9. 5 0. 9 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 12 .5 0. 4 12 .9 6 35 1 69 .4 0. 3 0. 0 1. 5 3. 4 0. 6 9. 1 14 .0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 6 0. 3 0. 3 0. 0 29 .4 1. 2 30 .6 6 75 2 57 .4 1. 8 0. 0 10 .5 5. 8 1. 0 11 .2 9. 2 1. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 8 0. 8 0. 0 40 .7 1. 9 42 .6 8 51 3 58 .0 7. 2 0. 4 9. 4 4. 6 1. 8 9. 0 7. 2 0. 6 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 0. 5 0. 7 40 .3 1. 0 42 .0 6 27 4+ 60 .5 7. 4 0. 1 6. 5 10 .4 1. 6 5. 8 5. 0 0. 6 0. 0 1. 0 0. 5 0. 5 0. 1 37 .3 2. 0 39 .5 6 62 Ed uc at io n N on e 70 .7 6. 2 0. 0 6. 7 9. 5 2. 3 3. 7 0. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 29 .3 0. 0 29 .3 4 1 P rim ar y 66 .2 4. 4 0. 0 8. 3 5. 2 1. 1 7. 1 4. 8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 1. 3 0. 2 31 .3 2. 4 33 .8 5 57 S ec on da ry 66 .6 3. 1 0. 1 5. 5 5. 3 1. 0 7. 6 8. 9 0. 7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 3 0. 3 0. 2 32 .2 1. 0 33 .4 2 ,4 88 H ig he r 60 .8 2. 2 0. 0 4. 2 1. 6 0. 4 9. 8 17 .4 1. 8 0. 0 1. 1 0. 2 0. 5 0. 1 37 .3 1. 8 39 .2 3 64 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 69 .0 4. 6 0. 0 2. 2 12 .8 0. 4 4. 2 5. 2 0. 1 0. 1 0. 4 0. 4 0. 6 0. 0 29 .6 1. 3 31 .0 61 1 S ec on d 63 .9 3. 8 0. 0 8. 0 6. 1 0. 8 6. 4 7. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 4 0. 7 0. 5 0. 5 34 .1 1. 6 36 .1 66 8 M id dl e 67 .0 2. 6 0. 0 4. 4 3. 2 2. 0 9. 5 8. 1 0. 8 0. 0 0. 9 0. 7 0. 8 0. 0 30 .6 2. 4 33 .0 70 1 Fo ur th 64 .8 2. 6 0. 4 6. 5 2. 3 0. 5 9. 7 11 .3 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 3 0. 1 34 .5 0. 5 35 .2 71 2 R ic he st 65 .3 2. 9 0. 0 7. 6 1. 7 1. 2 8. 0 11 .8 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 3 0. 3 33 .6 0. 9 34 .7 75 9 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 63 .3 3. 4 0. 0 8. 6 2. 8 1. 5 10 .2 8. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 0. 3 0. 5 0. 3 35 .0 1. 3 36 .7 1 ,5 80 A fri ca n 70 .0 3. 0 0. 0 2. 8 5. 1 0. 4 5. 4 11 .1 1. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 0. 2 0. 0 29 .1 0. 9 30 .0 1 ,0 15 A m er in di an 67 .8 2. 6 0. 0 2. 3 19 .0 0. 3 2. 8 4. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 31 .2 0. 9 32 .2 2 63 M ix ed R ac e 65 .0 3. 7 0. 4 5. 2 4. 1 0. 9 6. 9 10 .2 1. 2 0. 0 0. 8 0. 5 1. 0 0. 0 32 .6 2. 4 35 .0 5 82 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .3 - C on tr ac ep tiv e pr ev al en ce ra te a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e R H .5 : U se o f c on tr ac ep tio n P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t o f w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ): N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -4 9 ye ar s cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n No method Female sterilization Male sterilization IUD Injectables Implants Pill Male condom Female condom Diaphragm/ Foam/Jelly Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Missing Any modern method Any traditional method Any method 1 To ta l 65 .9 3. 3 0. 1 5. 8 4. 9 1. 0 7. 7 9. 0 0. 7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 0. 5 0. 2 32 .6 1. 3 34 .1 3 ,4 50 R eg io n R eg io n 1 70 .7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 17 .1 1. 1 3. 1 3. 4 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 0. 2 1. 4 0. 3 27 .3 1. 6 29 .3 6 0 R eg io n 2 65 .8 3. 4 0. 0 10 .7 5. 6 0. 0 5. 1 8. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 33 .1 1. 0 34 .2 1 63 R eg io n 3 61 .0 6. 2 0. 1 8. 6 2. 8 0. 3 8. 5 10 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 0. 1 1. 2 0. 3 36 .5 2. 2 39 .0 5 80 R eg io n 4 67 .0 2. 6 0. 1 5. 4 3. 6 0. 9 7. 4 10 .7 1. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 4 0. 2 0. 2 31 .8 1. 0 33 .0 1 ,5 61 R eg io n 5 67 .3 2. 0 0. 0 5. 1 6. 1 4. 0 7. 9 5. 9 0. 7 0. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 31 .9 0. 9 32 .7 2 37 R eg io n 6 69 .7 1. 8 0. 0 6. 3 2. 5 1. 4 10 .7 5. 8 0. 9 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 0. 0 0. 1 29 .4 0. 7 30 .3 4 85 R eg io ns 7 & 8 56 .1 3. 0 0. 0 4. 1 24 .0 0. 5 6. 0 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 41 .9 2. 0 43 .9 9 8 R eg io n 9 72 .4 2. 9 0. 0 0. 5 15 .5 0. 0 3. 6 3. 9 0. 0 0. 1 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 26 .5 1. 1 27 .6 9 8 R eg io n 10 60 .9 6. 3 0. 0 1. 2 7. 8 0. 4 5. 9 12 .4 1. 4 0. 0 1. 8 1. 2 0. 7 0. 0 35 .3 3. 8 39 .1 1 67 A re a U rb an 67 .7 3. 0 0. 0 4. 1 3. 1 1. 0 5. 5 13 .3 1. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 6 0. 2 0. 0 31 .2 1. 1 32 .3 9 22 R ur al 65 .3 3. 4 0. 1 6. 5 5. 6 1. 0 8. 5 7. 5 0. 6 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 6 0. 2 33 .1 1. 4 34 .7 2 ,5 28 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 66 .1 3. 2 0. 1 6. 3 3. 5 1. 1 8. 2 9. 3 0. 8 0. 0 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 2 32 .5 1. 2 33 .9 2 ,9 89 U rb an C oa st al 68 .0 2. 5 0. 0 4. 7 3. 0 1. 1 5. 7 13 .5 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 0 31 .4 0. 6 32 .0 8 05 R ur al C oa st al 65 .4 3. 4 0. 1 7. 0 3. 8 1. 1 9. 1 7. 7 0. 7 0. 0 0. 5 0. 4 0. 6 0. 2 32 .9 1. 5 34 .6 2 ,1 84 In te rio r 64 .8 3. 8 0. 0 2. 7 13 .9 0. 4 4. 1 7. 6 0. 6 0. 1 1. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 1 33 .0 2. 0 35 .2 4 62 A ge 15 -1 9 87 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 1. 8 0. 0 4. 4 5. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 12 .4 0. 5 12 .9 2 40 20 -2 4 66 .5 0. 8 0. 0 3. 4 8. 1 0. 3 6. 6 12 .7 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 0. 5 0. 5 0. 0 32 .2 1. 4 33 .5 5 90 25 -2 9 58 .4 0. 7 0. 5 5. 6 6. 6 1. 7 11 .2 12 .4 2. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 4 0. 1 0. 1 40 .9 0. 6 41 .6 6 03 30 -3 4 59 .0 3. 5 0. 0 7. 9 6. 1 0. 3 10 .1 10 .6 0. 7 0. 0 0. 9 0. 2 0. 7 0. 0 39 .1 1. 9 41 .0 5 04 35 -3 9 64 .5 4. 1 0. 0 6. 5 3. 8 1. 9 9. 6 7. 3 0. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 6 0. 5 0. 3 33 .4 1. 8 35 .5 5 29 40 -4 4 64 .9 7. 0 0. 0 6. 4 3. 2 1. 4 7. 0 6. 5 1. 3 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 0. 7 0. 8 32 .7 1. 7 35 .1 5 42 45 -4 9 74 .8 5. 9 0. 0 8. 3 2. 3 0. 8 1. 9 4. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 6 0. 0 24 .0 1. 1 25 .2 4 41 N um be r o f l iv in g ch ild re n 0 87 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 9. 5 0. 9 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 12 .5 0. 4 12 .9 6 35 1 69 .4 0. 3 0. 0 1. 5 3. 4 0. 6 9. 1 14 .0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 6 0. 3 0. 3 0. 0 29 .4 1. 2 30 .6 6 75 2 57 .4 1. 8 0. 0 10 .5 5. 8 1. 0 11 .2 9. 2 1. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 8 0. 8 0. 0 40 .7 1. 9 42 .6 8 51 3 58 .0 7. 2 0. 4 9. 4 4. 6 1. 8 9. 0 7. 2 0. 6 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 0. 5 0. 7 40 .3 1. 0 42 .0 6 27 4+ 60 .5 7. 4 0. 1 6. 5 10 .4 1. 6 5. 8 5. 0 0. 6 0. 0 1. 0 0. 5 0. 5 0. 1 37 .3 2. 0 39 .5 6 62 Ed uc at io n N on e 70 .7 6. 2 0. 0 6. 7 9. 5 2. 3 3. 7 0. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 29 .3 0. 0 29 .3 4 1 P rim ar y 66 .2 4. 4 0. 0 8. 3 5. 2 1. 1 7. 1 4. 8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 1. 3 0. 2 31 .3 2. 4 33 .8 5 57 S ec on da ry 66 .6 3. 1 0. 1 5. 5 5. 3 1. 0 7. 6 8. 9 0. 7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 3 0. 3 0. 2 32 .2 1. 0 33 .4 2 ,4 88 H ig he r 60 .8 2. 2 0. 0 4. 2 1. 6 0. 4 9. 8 17 .4 1. 8 0. 0 1. 1 0. 2 0. 5 0. 1 37 .3 1. 8 39 .2 3 64 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 69 .0 4. 6 0. 0 2. 2 12 .8 0. 4 4. 2 5. 2 0. 1 0. 1 0. 4 0. 4 0. 6 0. 0 29 .6 1. 3 31 .0 61 1 S ec on d 63 .9 3. 8 0. 0 8. 0 6. 1 0. 8 6. 4 7. 8 1. 2 0. 0 0. 4 0. 7 0. 5 0. 5 34 .1 1. 6 36 .1 66 8 M id dl e 67 .0 2. 6 0. 0 4. 4 3. 2 2. 0 9. 5 8. 1 0. 8 0. 0 0. 9 0. 7 0. 8 0. 0 30 .6 2. 4 33 .0 70 1 Fo ur th 64 .8 2. 6 0. 4 6. 5 2. 3 0. 5 9. 7 11 .3 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 3 0. 1 34 .5 0. 5 35 .2 71 2 R ic he st 65 .3 2. 9 0. 0 7. 6 1. 7 1. 2 8. 0 11 .8 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 0. 3 0. 3 33 .6 0. 9 34 .7 75 9 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 63 .3 3. 4 0. 0 8. 6 2. 8 1. 5 10 .2 8. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 0. 3 0. 5 0. 3 35 .0 1. 3 36 .7 1 ,5 80 A fri ca n 70 .0 3. 0 0. 0 2. 8 5. 1 0. 4 5. 4 11 .1 1. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 6 0. 2 0. 0 29 .1 0. 9 30 .0 1 ,0 15 A m er in di an 67 .8 2. 6 0. 0 2. 3 19 .0 0. 3 2. 8 4. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 1 31 .2 0. 9 32 .2 2 63 M ix ed R ac e 65 .0 3. 7 0. 4 5. 2 4. 1 0. 9 6. 9 10 .2 1. 2 0. 0 0. 8 0. 5 1. 0 0. 0 32 .6 2. 4 35 .0 5 82 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .3 - C on tr ac ep tiv e pr ev al en ce ra te a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s 181Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | F igure RH.2: D ifferentia ls in contraceptive use , Guyana MICS5, 2014 29 34 39 33 33 30 44 28 39 32 35 34 32 35 35 29 34 33 39 34 Regions Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Region 5 Region 6 Regions 7 & 8 Region 9 Region 10 Area Urban Rural Location Coastal Urban Coastal Rural Coastal Interior Woman's Education None Primary Secondary Higher Guyana Per cent 182 unmet need Unmet need for contraception refers to fecund women who are married or in union and are not using any method of contraception, but who wish to postpone the next birth (spacing) or who wish to stop childbearing altogether (limiting). Unmet need is identified in MICS by using a set of questions eliciting current behaviours and preferences pertaining to contraceptive use, fecundity, and fertility preferences. Table RH.6 shows the levels of met need for contraception, unmet need, and the demand for contraception satisfied. Unmet need for spacing is defined as the percentage of women who are married or in union and are not using a method of contraception AND  are not pregnant, and not postpartum amenorrheic,2 and are fecund,3 and say they want to wait two or more years for their next birth OR  are not pregnant, and not postpartum amenorrheic, and are fecund, and unsure whether they want another child OR  are pregnant, and say that pregnancy was mistimed: would have wanted to wait OR  are postpartum amenorrheic, and say that the birth was mistimed: would have wanted to wait. Unmet need for limiting is defined as percentage of women who are married or in union and are not using a method of contraception AND  are not pregnant, and not postpartum amenorrheic, and are fecund, and say they do not want any more children OR  are pregnant, and say they did not want to have a child OR  are postpartum amenorrheic, and say that they did not want the birth. Total unmet need for contraception is the sum of unmet need for spacing and unmet need for limiting. This indicator is also known as unmet need for family planning and is one of the indicators used to track progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 5 of improving maternal health. In Guyana, the unmet need for spacing is 16 percent, the unmet need for limiting 12 percent, for a total unmet need for contraception of 28 percent. Met need for limiting includes women married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method,4 and who want no more children, are using male or female sterilization, or declare themselves as infecund. Met need for spacing includes women who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, and who want to have another child, or are undecided whether to have another child. The total of met need for spacing and limiting adds up to the total met need for contraception. In Guyana, the met need for spacing is 13 percent, the met need for limiting 21 percent, for a total met need for contraception of 34 percent. Using information on contraception and unmet need, the percentage of demand for contraception satisfied is also estimated from the MICS data. The percentage of demand satisfied is defined as the proportion of women currently married or in union who are currently using contraception, over the total demand for contraception. The total demand for contraception includes women who currently have an unmet need (for spacing or limiting), plus those who are currently using contraception. In Guyana, 55 percent of women report that their demand for contraception is satisfied. Table RH.6 shows that, the total met need (34%) is higher than the total unmet need (28%) for family planning by six (6) percentage points. Unmet need varies between 22 percent in Region 6 to 40 percent in Region 1. Unmet need is higher in urban areas than in rural areas (32% and 27%, respectively), and in interior areas than in coastal areas (34% and 27%, respectively). Unmet need has a strong inverse relationship with the women’s age. It is particularly high among adolescents (women aged 15-19 years), 55A woman is postpartum amenorrheic if she had a birth in last two years and is not currently pregnant, and her menstrual period has not returned since the birth of the last child 56A woman is considered infecund if she is neither pregnant nor postpartum amenorrheic, and (1a) has not had menstruation for at least six months, or (1b) never menstruated, or (1c) her last menstruation occurred before her last birth, or (1d) in menopause/has had hysterectomy OR (2) She declares that she has had hysterectomy, or that she has never menstruated, or that she is menopausal, or that she has been trying to get pregnant for 2 or more years without result in response to questions on why she thinks she is not physically able to get pregnant at the time of survey OR (3) She declares she cannot get pregnant when asked about desire for future birth OR (4) She has not had a birth in the preceding 5 years, is currently not using contraception and is currently married and was continuously married during the last 5 years preceding the survey. 57In this chapter, whenever reference is made to the use of a contraceptive by a woman, this may refer to her partner using a contraceptive method (such as male condom). 183Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union with an unmet need for family planning and percentage of demand for contraception satisfied, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Met need for contraception Unmet need for contraception Number of women currently married or in union Percentage of demand for contraception satisfied Number of women currently married or in union with need for contraception For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total1 Total 13.0 21.1 34.1 15.8 12.2 28.0 3,450 54.9 2,142 Region Region 1 14.9 14.4 29.3 14.6 25.0 39.5 60 42.5 41 Region 2 10.0 24.1 34.2 13.9 11.1 25.1 163 57.7 97 Region 3 10.9 28.1 39.0 15.2 10.6 25.8 580 60.2 376 Region 4 14.1 18.9 33.0 17.5 11.8 29.3 1,561 53.0 972 Region 5 7.4 25.3 32.7 13.7 16.4 30.1 237 52.1 149 Region 6 11.9 18.3 30.3 11.5 10.2 21.7 485 58.2 252 Regions 7 & 8 18.8 25.2 43.9 14.9 12.3 27.2 98 61.8 70 Region 9 10.0 17.6 27.6 11.9 24.3 36.2 98 43.2 63 Region 10 21.0 18.1 39.1 23.2 10.9 34.1 167 53.5 123 Area Urban 16.3 16.0 32.3 22.4 9.8 32.2 922 50.1 595 Rural 11.8 22.9 34.7 13.4 13.1 26.5 2,528 56.7 1,548 Location Coastal 12.5 21.4 33.9 15.6 11.5 27.1 2,989 55.5 1,824 Urban Coastal 15.7 16.3 32.0 21.8 9.8 31.6 805 50.3 511 Rural Coastal 11.3 23.3 34.6 13.4 12.2 25.5 2,184 57.6 1,313 Interior 16.2 18.9 35.2 17.1 16.5 33.7 462 51.1 318 Age 15-19 11.1 1.8 12.9 58.9 3.1 61.9 240 17.2 180 20-24 26.8 6.8 33.5 32.5 7.0 39.4 590 46.0 430 25-29 26.6 14.9 41.6 18.4 8.9 27.3 603 60.4 416 30-34 12.5 28.5 41.0 12.2 13.0 25.2 504 61.9 334 35-39 4.1 31.3 35.5 5.8 15.6 21.4 529 62.4 301 40-44 2.4 32.7 35.1 1.6 18.5 20.0 542 63.7 299 45-49 1.2 24.0 25.2 0.3 16.0 16.3 441 60.7 183 Education None 5.7 23.5 29.3 10.1 17.0 27.2 41 (51.9) 23 Primary 4.9 28.9 33.8 4.8 15.1 19.8 557 63.1 299 Secondary 13.7 19.8 33.4 17.7 12.3 30.1 2,488 52.7 1,580 Higher 21.6 17.7 39.2 20.5 6.2 26.8 364 59.4 241 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 11.9 19.1 31.0 17.4 16.5 33.9 611 47.8 397 Second 10.5 25.6 36.1 15.5 12.9 28.5 668 55.9 431 Middle 12.7 20.3 33.0 18.9 11.8 30.8 701 51.8 447 Fourth 15.1 20.1 35.2 15.6 8.5 24.1 712 59.3 422 Richest 14.4 20.3 34.7 12.2 11.8 24.0 759 59.1 445 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 11.4 25.3 36.7 10.8 11.1 21.9 1,580 62.6 926 African 13.8 16.2 30.0 20.6 12.3 32.9 1,015 47.7 638 Amerindian 13.2 19.0 32.2 15.4 21.6 37.0 263 46.5 182 Mixed Race 15.7 19.3 35.0 21.2 10.8 32.1 582 52.2 391 1 MICS indicator 5.4; MDG indicator 5.6 - Unmet need a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union with an unmet need for family planning and percentage of demand for contraception satisfied, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Met need for contraception Unmet need for contraception Number of women currently married or in union Percentage of demand for contraception satisfied Number of women currently married or in union with need for contraception For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total1 Total 13.0 21.1 34.1 15.8 12.2 28.0 3,450 54.9 2,142 Region Region 1 14.9 14.4 29.3 14.6 25.0 39.5 60 42.5 41 Region 2 10.0 24.1 34.2 13.9 11.1 25.1 163 57.7 97 Region 3 10.9 28.1 39.0 15.2 10.6 25.8 580 60.2 376 Region 4 14.1 18.9 33.0 17.5 11.8 29.3 1,561 53.0 972 Region 5 7.4 25.3 32.7 13.7 16.4 30.1 237 52.1 149 Region 6 11.9 18.3 30.3 11.5 10.2 21.7 485 58.2 252 Regions 7 & 8 18.8 25.2 43.9 14.9 12.3 27.2 98 61.8 70 Region 9 10.0 17.6 27.6 11.9 24.3 36.2 98 43.2 63 Region 10 21.0 18.1 39.1 23.2 10.9 34.1 167 53.5 123 Area Urban 16.3 16.0 32.3 22.4 9.8 32.2 922 50.1 595 Rural 11.8 22.9 34.7 13.4 13.1 26.5 2,528 56.7 1,548 Location Coastal 12.5 21.4 33.9 15.6 11.5 27.1 2,989 55.5 1,824 Urban Coastal 15.7 16.3 32.0 21.8 9.8 31.6 805 50.3 511 Rural Coastal 11.3 23.3 34.6 13.4 12.2 25.5 2,184 57.6 1,313 Interior 16.2 18.9 35.2 17.1 16.5 33.7 462 51.1 318 Age 15-19 11.1 1.8 12.9 58.9 3.1 61.9 240 17.2 180 20-24 26.8 6.8 33.5 32.5 7.0 39.4 590 46.0 430 25-29 26.6 14.9 41.6 18.4 8.9 27.3 603 60.4 416 30-34 12.5 28.5 41.0 12.2 13.0 25.2 504 61.9 334 35-39 4.1 31.3 35.5 5.8 15.6 21.4 529 62.4 301 40-44 2.4 32.7 35.1 1.6 18.5 20.0 542 63.7 299 45-49 1.2 24.0 25.2 0.3 16.0 16.3 441 60.7 183 Education None 5.7 23.5 29.3 10.1 17.0 27.2 41 (51.9) 23 Primary 4.9 28.9 33.8 4.8 15.1 19.8 557 63.1 299 Secondary 13.7 19.8 33.4 17.7 12.3 30.1 2,488 52.7 1,580 Higher 21.6 17.7 39.2 20.5 6.2 26.8 364 59.4 241 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 11.9 19.1 31.0 17.4 16.5 33.9 611 47.8 397 Second 10.5 25.6 36.1 15.5 12.9 28.5 668 55.9 431 Middle 12.7 20.3 33.0 18.9 11.8 30.8 701 51.8 447 Fourth 15.1 20.1 35.2 15.6 8.5 24.1 712 59.3 422 Richest 14.4 20.3 34.7 12.2 11.8 24.0 759 59.1 445 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 11.4 25.3 36.7 10.8 11.1 21.9 1,580 62.6 926 African 13.8 16.2 30.0 20.6 12.3 32.9 1,015 47.7 638 Amerindian 13.2 19.0 32.2 15.4 21.6 37.0 263 46.5 182 Mixed Race 15.7 19.3 35.0 21.2 10.8 32.1 582 52.2 391 1 MICS indicator 5.4; MDG indicator 5.6 - Unmet need a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union with an unmet need for family planning and percentage of demand for contraception satisfied, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Met need for contraception Unmet need for contraception Number of women currently married or in union Percentage of demand for contraception satisfied Number of women currently married or in union with need for contraception For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total1 Total 13.0 21.1 34.1 15.8 12.2 28.0 3,450 54.9 2,142 Region Region 1 14.9 14.4 29.3 14.6 25.0 39.5 60 42.5 41 Region 2 10.0 24.1 34.2 13.9 11.1 25.1 163 57.7 97 Region 3 10.9 28.1 39.0 15.2 10.6 25.8 580 60.2 376 Region 4 14.1 18.9 33.0 17.5 11.8 29.3 1,561 53.0 972 Region 5 7.4 25.3 32.7 13.7 16.4 30.1 237 52.1 149 Region 6 11.9 18.3 30.3 11.5 10.2 21.7 485 58.2 252 Regions 7 & 8 18.8 25.2 43.9 14.9 12.3 27.2 98 61.8 70 Region 9 10.0 17.6 27.6 11.9 24.3 36.2 98 43.2 63 Region 10 21.0 18.1 39.1 23.2 10.9 34.1 167 53.5 123 Area Urban 16.3 16.0 32.3 22.4 9.8 32.2 922 50.1 595 Rural 11.8 22.9 34.7 13.4 13.1 26.5 2,528 56.7 1,548 Location Coastal 12.5 21.4 33.9 15.6 11.5 27.1 2,989 55.5 1,824 Urban Coastal 15.7 16.3 32.0 21.8 9.8 31.6 805 50.3 511 Rural Coastal 11.3 23.3 34.6 13.4 12.2 25.5 2,184 57.6 1,313 Interior 16.2 18.9 35.2 17.1 16.5 33.7 462 51.1 318 Age 15-19 11.1 1.8 12.9 58.9 3.1 61.9 240 17.2 180 20-24 26.8 6.8 33.5 32.5 7.0 39.4 590 46.0 430 25-29 26.6 14.9 41.6 18.4 8.9 27.3 603 60.4 416 30-34 12.5 28.5 41.0 12.2 13.0 25.2 504 61.9 334 35-39 4.1 31.3 35.5 5.8 15.6 21.4 529 62.4 301 40-44 2.4 32.7 35.1 1.6 18.5 20.0 542 63.7 299 45-49 1.2 24.0 25.2 0.3 16.0 16.3 441 60.7 183 Education None 5.7 23.5 29.3 10.1 17.0 27.2 41 (51.9) 23 Primary 4.9 28.9 33.8 4.8 15.1 19.8 557 63.1 299 Secondary 13.7 19.8 33.4 17.7 12.3 30.1 2,488 52.7 1,580 Higher 21.6 17.7 39.2 20.5 6.2 26.8 364 59.4 241 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 11.9 19.1 31.0 17.4 16.5 33.9 611 47.8 397 Second 10.5 25.6 36.1 15.5 12.9 28.5 668 55.9 431 Middle 12.7 20.3 33.0 18.9 11.8 30.8 701 51.8 447 Fourth 15.1 20.1 35.2 15.6 8.5 24.1 712 59.3 422 Richest 14.4 20.3 34.7 12.2 11.8 24.0 759 59.1 445 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 11.4 25.3 36.7 10.8 11.1 21.9 1,580 62.6 926 African 13.8 16.2 30.0 20.6 12.3 32.9 1,015 47.7 638 Amerindian 13.2 19.0 32.2 15.4 21.6 37.0 263 46.5 182 Mixed Race 15.7 19.3 35.0 21.2 10.8 32.1 582 52.2 391 1 MICS indicator 5.4; MDG indicator 5.6 - Unmet need a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 184 Table RH.7: Antenatal care coverage Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by antenatal care provider during the pregnancy for the last birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Provider of antenatal carea No antenatal care Total Any skilled provider1, b Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Medical doctor Nurse/ Midwife Single midwife Medex Community health worker Other Total 44.8 38.3 1.9 5.8 6.8 0.1 2.4 100.0 90.7 769 Region Region 1 9.0 42.2 0.0 21.2 18.6 0.0 8.9 100.0 72.5 25 Region 2 32.9 46.6 0.0 9.9 9.6 0.0 1.0 100.0 89.4 40 Region 3 46.3 42.3 0.4 8.7 0.4 0.0 1.9 100.0 97.7 107 Region 4 65.5 26.7 1.4 2.5 2.2 0.0 1.7 100.0 96.1 327 Region 5 25.2 59.9 10.4 2.7 0.9 0.9 0.0 100.0 98.2 52 Region 6 27.0 70.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 100.0 97.6 94 Regions 7 & 8 15.7 28.7 3.1 22.6 28.9 0.0 1.0 100.0 70.1 36 Region 9 14.6 14.2 0.0 7.3 54.5 0.3 9.1 100.0 36.0 44 Region 10 33.1 43.5 5.5 11.1 2.2 0.0 4.6 100.0 93.2 44 Area Urban 60.0 34.1 1.7 2.3 0.7 0.0 1.1 100.0 98.2 184 Rural 40.0 39.6 1.9 6.9 8.7 0.1 2.8 100.0 88.4 585 Location Coastal 51.7 39.9 2.2 3.4 1.2 0.0 1.7 100.0 97.1 608 Urban Coastal 64.6 31.7 2.1 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.6 100.0 98.7 155 Rural Coastal 47.2 42.7 2.2 4.5 1.4 0.0 2.0 100.0 96.6 453 Interior 19.0 32.3 0.7 14.7 27.7 0.4 5.3 100.0 66.6 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 37.4 44.2 2.0 8.7 6.0 0.1 1.5 100.0 92.4 151 20-34 45.5 38.4 1.9 5.5 6.2 0.1 2.4 100.0 91.3 523 35-49 52.5 28.2 1.5 2.7 10.8 0.0 4.3 100.0 84.9 95 Education None (13.2) (52.5) (0.0) (14.5) (13.5) (0.0) (6.3) 100.0 (80.2) 13 Primary 26.0 45.9 1.0 14.5 8.8 0.0 3.8 100.0 87.3 95 Secondary 45.2 39.1 2.1 4.2 6.9 0.1 2.3 100.0 90.6 590 Higher 72.3 18.8 1.0 5.9 1.3 0.0 0.7 100.0 98.0 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 25.6 40.0 0.6 9.5 20.2 0.3 3.9 100.0 75.7 227 Second 40.4 44.0 5.3 5.2 2.2 0.0 3.0 100.0 94.9 176 Middle 50.7 39.8 1.6 4.7 0.9 0.0 2.3 100.0 96.8 152 Fourth 50.2 42.7 0.7 5.3 0.5 0.0 0.6 100.0 98.9 104 Richest 78.1 19.6 0.4 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.1 110 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 50.1 42.7 0.6 3.9 1.4 0.0 1.3 100.0 97.3 254 African 52.9 41.0 2.3 2.3 0.1 0.0 1.3 100.0 98.5 235 Amerindian 14.3 29.0 0.8 14.4 35.0 0.5 5.9 100.0 58.5 113 Mixed Race 46.2 33.5 3.8 7.8 5.3 0.0 3.3 100.0 91.4 164 1 MICS indicator 5.5a; MDG indicator 5.5 - Antenatal care coverage a Only the most qualified provider is considered in cases where more than one provider was reported b Skilled provider refers to medical doctor, nurse/midwife, single midwife or Medex c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head dCategory "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 185Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | with 62 percent of unmet need, primarily due to unmet need for spacing (59%), while it declines in older women. Unmet need is highest in women living in households with an Amerindian household head (37%) and lowest in women living in households with an East Indian household head (22%). The table also highlights that the total demand for family planning satisfied is only 55 percent, yet the demand satisfied is relatively high among married women with only primary education (63%). antenatal Care The antenatal period presents important opportunities for reaching pregnant women with a number of interventions that may be vital to their health and well- being and that of their infants. Better understanding of foetal growth and development and its relationship to the mother’s health has resulted in increased attention to the potential of antenatal care as an intervention to improve both maternal and newborn health. For example, antenatal care can be used to inform women and their families about risks and symptoms in pregnancy and about the risks of labour and delivery, and therefore it may provide the route for ensuring that pregnant women do, in practice, deliver with the assistance of a skilled health care provider. Antenatal visits also provide an opportunity to supply information on birth spacing, which is recognized as an important factor in improving infant survival; tetanus immunization during pregnancy, which can be life-saving for both the mother and the infant; prevention and treatment of malaria among pregnant women; management of anaemia during pregnancy and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which can significantly improve foetal outcomes and improve maternal health. Adverse outcomes such as low birth weight can be reduced through a combination of interventions to improve women’s nutritional status and prevent infections (e.g., malaria and STIs) during pregnancy. More recently, the potential of the antenatal care as an entry point for HIV prevention and care, in particular for the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child, has led to renewed interest in access to and use of antenatal services. WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal visits based on a review of the effectiveness of different models of antenatal care. WHO guidelines are specific on the content on antenatal care visits, which include:  Blood pressure measurement  Urine testing for bacteriuria and proteinuria  Blood testing to detect syphilis and severe anaemia  Weight/height measurement (optional). It is of crucial importance for pregnant women to start attending antenatal care visits as early in pregnancy as possible in order to prevent and detect pregnancy conditions that could affect both the woman and her baby. Antenatal care should continue throughout the entire pregnancy. Antenatal care coverage indicators (at least one visit with a skilled provider and four or more visits with any providers) are used to track progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 5 of improving maternal health. The type of personnel providing antenatal care (ANC) to women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in the two years preceding is presented in Table RH.7. Overall, 91 percent of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the two years prior to the survey were attended at least once by skilled health personnel5 during their last pregnancy that led to a live birth. Only a very small percentage of women do not receive antenatal care (2%). In Guyana, the majority of antenatal care is provided by a medical doctor (45%),a nurse or midwife (38%), while a minority of women receive care from a community health worker (7%), a Medex6 (6%), or a single midwife (2%). ANC by skilled health providers is least prevalent in the rural areas (88%), and particularly in the interior areas (67%) and in Region 9 (36%). Furthermore, older women, women who are living in the poorest households, and those with no education are less likely than others to receive ANC provided by skilled health personnel during pregnancy. As expected, antenatal care by a community health worker is more common among women in interior areas, particularly in Regions 1, 7 & 8, and 9, among those living in the poorest households, and among those living in households with an Amerindian household head. Of note, up to nine (9) percent of women do not receive any antenatal care in Regions 1 and 9. 58In Guyana MICS5, skilled health personnel refer to any of the following health professionals: medical doctor, nurse/midwife, single midwife or Medex. 59A Medex is a medical extension worker with prescription and diagnostic right. 186 Ta bl e R H .8 : N um be r o f a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts a nd ti m in g of fi rs t v is it P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s by n um be r o f a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts b y an y pr ov id er a nd b y th e tim in g of fi rs t a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of w om en w ho h ad : To ta l Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of w om en b y nu m be r o f m on th s pr eg na nt at th e tim e of fi rs t a nt en at al c ar e vi si t To ta l N um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s M ed ia n m on th s pr eg na nt at fi rs t A N C vi si t N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho ha d at le as t on e A N C vi si t N o an te na ta l ca re vi si ts O ne vi si t Tw o vi si ts Th re e vi si ts 4 or m or e vi si ts 1 M is si ng /D K N o an te na ta l ca re vi si ts Fi rs t tri m es te r 4- 5 m on th s 6- 7 m on th s 8+ m on th s D K / M is si ng To ta l 2. 4 0. 9 1. 9 1. 8 86 .7 6. 2 10 0. 0 2. 4 53 .8 33 .7 8. 6 0. 9 0. 6 10 0. 0 76 9 3 74 6 R eg io n R eg io n 1 8. 9 2. 6 8. 1 5. 6 67 .0 7. 8 10 0. 0 8. 9 44 .5 27 .8 15 .3 3. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 25 4 22 R eg io n 2 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 95 .7 2. 5 10 0. 0 1. 0 57 .6 30 .3 9. 8 1. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 40 3 40 R eg io n 3 1. 9 2. 7 2. 2 1. 3 87 .8 4. 1 10 0. 0 1. 9 53 .0 37 .3 6. 9 0. 4 0. 6 10 0. 0 10 7 3 10 5 R eg io n 4 1. 7 0. 6 2. 2 1. 8 85 .2 8. 6 10 0. 0 1. 7 61 .1 27 .8 8. 0 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 32 7 3 32 0 R eg io n 5 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 1. 3 87 .0 10 .6 10 0. 0 0. 0 43 .7 47 .4 7. 0 1. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 52 4 51 R eg io n 6 2. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 96 .3 1. 4 10 0. 0 2. 4 41 .4 48 .3 8. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 4 92 R eg io ns 7 & 8 1. 0 2. 8 5. 0 0. 2 81 .5 9. 5 10 0. 0 1. 0 51 .7 31 .0 11 .6 2. 6 2. 1 10 0. 0 36 3 35 R eg io n 9 9. 1 0. 0 0. 8 6. 0 80 .4 3. 7 10 0. 0 9. 1 55 .7 22 .4 11 .7 1. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 44 3 40 R eg io n 10 4. 6 0. 0 2. 0 4. 0 88 .3 1. 1 10 0. 0 4. 6 41 .9 42 .0 9. 8 1. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 44 4 41 A re a U rb an 1. 1 1. 0 1. 5 2. 6 87 .4 6. 4 10 0. 0 1. 1 54 .2 31 .8 11 .8 0. 6 0. 5 10 0. 0 18 4 3 18 1 R ur al 2. 8 0. 9 2. 1 1. 6 86 .5 6. 1 10 0. 0 2. 8 53 .7 34 .3 7. 5 1. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 58 5 3 56 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 1. 7 0. 9 1. 6 1. 3 88 .2 6. 4 10 0. 0 1. 7 54 .9 34 .3 7. 9 0. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 60 8 3 59 4 U rb an C oa st al 0. 6 1. 2 1. 5 2. 3 87 .2 7. 4 10 0. 0 0. 6 55 .2 31 .0 12 .4 0. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 15 5 3 15 3 R ur al C oa st al 2. 0 0. 8 1. 6 1. 0 88 .5 6. 0 10 0. 0 2. 0 54 .8 35 .5 6. 4 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 45 3 3 44 1 In te rio r 5. 3 1. 0 3. 1 3. 6 81 .3 5. 6 10 0. 0 5. 3 49 .8 31 .5 11 .1 1. 7 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 1 3 15 2 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 1. 5 1. 1 3. 8 1. 7 85 .8 6. 1 10 0. 0 1. 5 56 .2 27 .8 14 .0 0. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 15 1 3 14 8 20 -3 4 2. 4 0. 7 1. 1 2. 0 87 .8 6. 1 10 0. 0 2. 4 54 .6 34 .8 6. 9 0. 7 0. 6 10 0. 0 52 3 3 50 8 35 -4 9 4. 3 2. 1 3. 4 1. 2 82 .1 7. 0 10 0. 0 4. 3 45 .8 37 .1 9. 5 2. 4 1. 0 10 0. 0 95 4 90 Ed uc at io n N on e (6 .3 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .2 ) ( 54 .2 ) (3 6. 3) 10 0. 0 (6 .3 ) (3 8. 4) (3 9. 7) (6 .0 ) (9 .6 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 13 (* ) 12 P rim ar y 3. 8 0. 8 2. 9 4. 6 82 .4 5. 4 10 0. 0 3. 8 42 .3 39 .7 12 .8 0. 6 0. 7 10 0. 0 95 4 90 S ec on da ry 2. 3 1. 1 1. 8 1. 6 87 .2 6. 0 10 0. 0 2. 3 53 .6 33 .9 8. 8 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 59 0 3 57 3 H ig he r 0. 7 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 94 .6 3. 2 10 0. 0 0. 7 74 .1 23 .6 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 3 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 3. 9 1. 0 2. 0 3. 1 83 .4 6. 6 10 0. 0 3. 9 41 .5 38 .3 13 .7 1. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 22 7 4 21 6 S ec on d 3. 0 0. 7 3. 8 1. 5 86 .1 4. 8 10 0. 0 3. 0 52 .9 36 .6 6. 0 0. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 17 6 3 16 9 M id dl e 2. 3 0. 7 1. 1 1. 6 87 .7 6. 5 10 0. 0 2. 3 54 .9 34 .5 7. 9 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 15 2 3 14 8 Fo ur th 0. 6 1. 5 0. 9 1. 7 90 .1 5. 2 10 0. 0 0. 6 57 .8 33 .0 7. 1 0. 9 0. 6 10 0. 0 10 4 3 10 3 R ic he st 0. 4 0. 6 0. 7 0. 0 90 .1 8. 2 10 0. 0 0. 4 75 .4 19 .4 4. 4 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 11 0 3 10 9 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 1. 3 0. 9 1. 3 1. 6 90 .5 4. 4 10 0. 0 1. 3 58 .4 35 .8 4. 0 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 25 4 3 25 0 A fri ca n 1. 3 0. 8 1. 5 1. 8 87 .2 7. 3 10 0. 0 1. 3 56 .0 29 .3 11 .3 1. 2 0. 8 10 0. 0 23 5 3 22 9 A m er in di an 5. 9 1. 4 3. 8 3. 8 77 .1 8. 0 10 0. 0 5. 9 49 .4 30 .8 10 .7 2. 5 0. 7 10 0. 0 11 3 3 10 5 M ix ed R ac e 3. 3 0. 8 2. 2 0. 8 86 .5 6. 4 10 0. 0 3. 3 47 .7 37 .6 10 .4 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 4 4 15 7 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .5 b; M D G in di ca to r 5 .5 - A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 187Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e R H .8 : N um be r o f a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts a nd ti m in g of fi rs t v is it P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s by n um be r o f a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts b y an y pr ov id er a nd b y th e tim in g of fi rs t a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of w om en w ho h ad : To ta l Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of w om en b y nu m be r o f m on th s pr eg na nt at th e tim e of fi rs t a nt en at al c ar e vi si t To ta l N um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s M ed ia n m on th s pr eg na nt at fi rs t A N C vi si t N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho ha d at le as t on e A N C vi si t N o an te na ta l ca re vi si ts O ne vi si t Tw o vi si ts Th re e vi si ts 4 or m or e vi si ts 1 M is si ng /D K N o an te na ta l ca re vi si ts Fi rs t tri m es te r 4- 5 m on th s 6- 7 m on th s 8+ m on th s D K / M is si ng To ta l 2. 4 0. 9 1. 9 1. 8 86 .7 6. 2 10 0. 0 2. 4 53 .8 33 .7 8. 6 0. 9 0. 6 10 0. 0 76 9 3 74 6 R eg io n R eg io n 1 8. 9 2. 6 8. 1 5. 6 67 .0 7. 8 10 0. 0 8. 9 44 .5 27 .8 15 .3 3. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 25 4 22 R eg io n 2 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 95 .7 2. 5 10 0. 0 1. 0 57 .6 30 .3 9. 8 1. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 40 3 40 R eg io n 3 1. 9 2. 7 2. 2 1. 3 87 .8 4. 1 10 0. 0 1. 9 53 .0 37 .3 6. 9 0. 4 0. 6 10 0. 0 10 7 3 10 5 R eg io n 4 1. 7 0. 6 2. 2 1. 8 85 .2 8. 6 10 0. 0 1. 7 61 .1 27 .8 8. 0 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 32 7 3 32 0 R eg io n 5 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 1. 3 87 .0 10 .6 10 0. 0 0. 0 43 .7 47 .4 7. 0 1. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 52 4 51 R eg io n 6 2. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 96 .3 1. 4 10 0. 0 2. 4 41 .4 48 .3 8. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 4 92 R eg io ns 7 & 8 1. 0 2. 8 5. 0 0. 2 81 .5 9. 5 10 0. 0 1. 0 51 .7 31 .0 11 .6 2. 6 2. 1 10 0. 0 36 3 35 R eg io n 9 9. 1 0. 0 0. 8 6. 0 80 .4 3. 7 10 0. 0 9. 1 55 .7 22 .4 11 .7 1. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 44 3 40 R eg io n 10 4. 6 0. 0 2. 0 4. 0 88 .3 1. 1 10 0. 0 4. 6 41 .9 42 .0 9. 8 1. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 44 4 41 A re a U rb an 1. 1 1. 0 1. 5 2. 6 87 .4 6. 4 10 0. 0 1. 1 54 .2 31 .8 11 .8 0. 6 0. 5 10 0. 0 18 4 3 18 1 R ur al 2. 8 0. 9 2. 1 1. 6 86 .5 6. 1 10 0. 0 2. 8 53 .7 34 .3 7. 5 1. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 58 5 3 56 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 1. 7 0. 9 1. 6 1. 3 88 .2 6. 4 10 0. 0 1. 7 54 .9 34 .3 7. 9 0. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 60 8 3 59 4 U rb an C oa st al 0. 6 1. 2 1. 5 2. 3 87 .2 7. 4 10 0. 0 0. 6 55 .2 31 .0 12 .4 0. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 15 5 3 15 3 R ur al C oa st al 2. 0 0. 8 1. 6 1. 0 88 .5 6. 0 10 0. 0 2. 0 54 .8 35 .5 6. 4 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 45 3 3 44 1 In te rio r 5. 3 1. 0 3. 1 3. 6 81 .3 5. 6 10 0. 0 5. 3 49 .8 31 .5 11 .1 1. 7 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 1 3 15 2 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 1. 5 1. 1 3. 8 1. 7 85 .8 6. 1 10 0. 0 1. 5 56 .2 27 .8 14 .0 0. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 15 1 3 14 8 20 -3 4 2. 4 0. 7 1. 1 2. 0 87 .8 6. 1 10 0. 0 2. 4 54 .6 34 .8 6. 9 0. 7 0. 6 10 0. 0 52 3 3 50 8 35 -4 9 4. 3 2. 1 3. 4 1. 2 82 .1 7. 0 10 0. 0 4. 3 45 .8 37 .1 9. 5 2. 4 1. 0 10 0. 0 95 4 90 Ed uc at io n N on e (6 .3 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .2 ) ( 54 .2 ) (3 6. 3) 10 0. 0 (6 .3 ) (3 8. 4) (3 9. 7) (6 .0 ) (9 .6 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 13 (* ) 12 P rim ar y 3. 8 0. 8 2. 9 4. 6 82 .4 5. 4 10 0. 0 3. 8 42 .3 39 .7 12 .8 0. 6 0. 7 10 0. 0 95 4 90 S ec on da ry 2. 3 1. 1 1. 8 1. 6 87 .2 6. 0 10 0. 0 2. 3 53 .6 33 .9 8. 8 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 59 0 3 57 3 H ig he r 0. 7 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 94 .6 3. 2 10 0. 0 0. 7 74 .1 23 .6 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 3 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 3. 9 1. 0 2. 0 3. 1 83 .4 6. 6 10 0. 0 3. 9 41 .5 38 .3 13 .7 1. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 22 7 4 21 6 S ec on d 3. 0 0. 7 3. 8 1. 5 86 .1 4. 8 10 0. 0 3. 0 52 .9 36 .6 6. 0 0. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 17 6 3 16 9 M id dl e 2. 3 0. 7 1. 1 1. 6 87 .7 6. 5 10 0. 0 2. 3 54 .9 34 .5 7. 9 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 15 2 3 14 8 Fo ur th 0. 6 1. 5 0. 9 1. 7 90 .1 5. 2 10 0. 0 0. 6 57 .8 33 .0 7. 1 0. 9 0. 6 10 0. 0 10 4 3 10 3 R ic he st 0. 4 0. 6 0. 7 0. 0 90 .1 8. 2 10 0. 0 0. 4 75 .4 19 .4 4. 4 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 11 0 3 10 9 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 1. 3 0. 9 1. 3 1. 6 90 .5 4. 4 10 0. 0 1. 3 58 .4 35 .8 4. 0 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 25 4 3 25 0 A fri ca n 1. 3 0. 8 1. 5 1. 8 87 .2 7. 3 10 0. 0 1. 3 56 .0 29 .3 11 .3 1. 2 0. 8 10 0. 0 23 5 3 22 9 A m er in di an 5. 9 1. 4 3. 8 3. 8 77 .1 8. 0 10 0. 0 5. 9 49 .4 30 .8 10 .7 2. 5 0. 7 10 0. 0 11 3 3 10 5 M ix ed R ac e 3. 3 0. 8 2. 2 0. 8 86 .5 6. 4 10 0. 0 3. 3 47 .7 37 .6 10 .4 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 4 4 15 7 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .5 b; M D G in di ca to r 5 .5 - A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e R H .8 : N um be r o f a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts a nd ti m in g of fi rs t v is it P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s by n um be r o f a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts b y an y pr ov id er a nd b y th e tim in g of fi rs t a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of w om en w ho h ad : To ta l Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of w om en b y nu m be r o f m on th s pr eg na nt at th e tim e of fi rs t a nt en at al c ar e vi si t To ta l N um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s M ed ia n m on th s pr eg na nt at fi rs t A N C vi si t N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho ha d at le as t on e A N C vi si t N o an te na ta l ca re vi si ts O ne vi si t Tw o vi si ts Th re e vi si ts 4 or m or e vi si ts 1 M is si ng /D K N o an te na ta l ca re vi si ts Fi rs t tri m es te r 4- 5 m on th s 6- 7 m on th s 8+ m on th s D K / M is si ng To ta l 2. 4 0. 9 1. 9 1. 8 86 .7 6. 2 10 0. 0 2. 4 53 .8 33 .7 8. 6 0. 9 0. 6 10 0. 0 76 9 3 74 6 R eg io n R eg io n 1 8. 9 2. 6 8. 1 5. 6 67 .0 7. 8 10 0. 0 8. 9 44 .5 27 .8 15 .3 3. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 25 4 22 R eg io n 2 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 95 .7 2. 5 10 0. 0 1. 0 57 .6 30 .3 9. 8 1. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 40 3 40 R eg io n 3 1. 9 2. 7 2. 2 1. 3 87 .8 4. 1 10 0. 0 1. 9 53 .0 37 .3 6. 9 0. 4 0. 6 10 0. 0 10 7 3 10 5 R eg io n 4 1. 7 0. 6 2. 2 1. 8 85 .2 8. 6 10 0. 0 1. 7 61 .1 27 .8 8. 0 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 32 7 3 32 0 R eg io n 5 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 1. 3 87 .0 10 .6 10 0. 0 0. 0 43 .7 47 .4 7. 0 1. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 52 4 51 R eg io n 6 2. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 96 .3 1. 4 10 0. 0 2. 4 41 .4 48 .3 8. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 4 92 R eg io ns 7 & 8 1. 0 2. 8 5. 0 0. 2 81 .5 9. 5 10 0. 0 1. 0 51 .7 31 .0 11 .6 2. 6 2. 1 10 0. 0 36 3 35 R eg io n 9 9. 1 0. 0 0. 8 6. 0 80 .4 3. 7 10 0. 0 9. 1 55 .7 22 .4 11 .7 1. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 44 3 40 R eg io n 10 4. 6 0. 0 2. 0 4. 0 88 .3 1. 1 10 0. 0 4. 6 41 .9 42 .0 9. 8 1. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 44 4 41 A re a U rb an 1. 1 1. 0 1. 5 2. 6 87 .4 6. 4 10 0. 0 1. 1 54 .2 31 .8 11 .8 0. 6 0. 5 10 0. 0 18 4 3 18 1 R ur al 2. 8 0. 9 2. 1 1. 6 86 .5 6. 1 10 0. 0 2. 8 53 .7 34 .3 7. 5 1. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 58 5 3 56 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 1. 7 0. 9 1. 6 1. 3 88 .2 6. 4 10 0. 0 1. 7 54 .9 34 .3 7. 9 0. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 60 8 3 59 4 U rb an C oa st al 0. 6 1. 2 1. 5 2. 3 87 .2 7. 4 10 0. 0 0. 6 55 .2 31 .0 12 .4 0. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 15 5 3 15 3 R ur al C oa st al 2. 0 0. 8 1. 6 1. 0 88 .5 6. 0 10 0. 0 2. 0 54 .8 35 .5 6. 4 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 45 3 3 44 1 In te rio r 5. 3 1. 0 3. 1 3. 6 81 .3 5. 6 10 0. 0 5. 3 49 .8 31 .5 11 .1 1. 7 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 1 3 15 2 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 1. 5 1. 1 3. 8 1. 7 85 .8 6. 1 10 0. 0 1. 5 56 .2 27 .8 14 .0 0. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 15 1 3 14 8 20 -3 4 2. 4 0. 7 1. 1 2. 0 87 .8 6. 1 10 0. 0 2. 4 54 .6 34 .8 6. 9 0. 7 0. 6 10 0. 0 52 3 3 50 8 35 -4 9 4. 3 2. 1 3. 4 1. 2 82 .1 7. 0 10 0. 0 4. 3 45 .8 37 .1 9. 5 2. 4 1. 0 10 0. 0 95 4 90 Ed uc at io n N on e (6 .3 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .2 ) ( 54 .2 ) (3 6. 3) 10 0. 0 (6 .3 ) (3 8. 4) (3 9. 7) (6 .0 ) (9 .6 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 13 (* ) 12 P rim ar y 3. 8 0. 8 2. 9 4. 6 82 .4 5. 4 10 0. 0 3. 8 42 .3 39 .7 12 .8 0. 6 0. 7 10 0. 0 95 4 90 S ec on da ry 2. 3 1. 1 1. 8 1. 6 87 .2 6. 0 10 0. 0 2. 3 53 .6 33 .9 8. 8 0. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 59 0 3 57 3 H ig he r 0. 7 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 94 .6 3. 2 10 0. 0 0. 7 74 .1 23 .6 1. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 71 3 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 3. 9 1. 0 2. 0 3. 1 83 .4 6. 6 10 0. 0 3. 9 41 .5 38 .3 13 .7 1. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 22 7 4 21 6 S ec on d 3. 0 0. 7 3. 8 1. 5 86 .1 4. 8 10 0. 0 3. 0 52 .9 36 .6 6. 0 0. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 17 6 3 16 9 M id dl e 2. 3 0. 7 1. 1 1. 6 87 .7 6. 5 10 0. 0 2. 3 54 .9 34 .5 7. 9 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 15 2 3 14 8 Fo ur th 0. 6 1. 5 0. 9 1. 7 90 .1 5. 2 10 0. 0 0. 6 57 .8 33 .0 7. 1 0. 9 0. 6 10 0. 0 10 4 3 10 3 R ic he st 0. 4 0. 6 0. 7 0. 0 90 .1 8. 2 10 0. 0 0. 4 75 .4 19 .4 4. 4 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 11 0 3 10 9 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea da , b E as t I nd ia n 1. 3 0. 9 1. 3 1. 6 90 .5 4. 4 10 0. 0 1. 3 58 .4 35 .8 4. 0 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 25 4 3 25 0 A fri ca n 1. 3 0. 8 1. 5 1. 8 87 .2 7. 3 10 0. 0 1. 3 56 .0 29 .3 11 .3 1. 2 0. 8 10 0. 0 23 5 3 22 9 A m er in di an 5. 9 1. 4 3. 8 3. 8 77 .1 8. 0 10 0. 0 5. 9 49 .4 30 .8 10 .7 2. 5 0. 7 10 0. 0 11 3 3 10 5 M ix ed R ac e 3. 3 0. 8 2. 2 0. 8 86 .5 6. 4 10 0. 0 3. 3 47 .7 37 .6 10 .4 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 4 4 15 7 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .5 b; M D G in di ca to r 5 .5 - A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge a Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d b C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 188 Table RH.8 shows the number of antenatal care visits during the most recent pregnancy that took place within the two years preceding the survey, regardless of provider, by selected characteristics. Nine in ten mothers (91%) received antenatal care more than once and a vast majority of these had at least four visits (87%). The percentage of women having four or more antenatal care visits is lowest in Region 1 (67%), followed by Region 9 (80%) and then by Regions 7 & 8 (82%), and highest in Regions 2 and 6 (96% in each case). The likelihood of women receiving ANC at least four times during their pregnancies increases with their education and household wealth. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the great majority of women from the poorest households do have four or more antenatal visits (83%). Table RH.8 also provides information about the timing of the first antenatal care visit. Overall, just over half of women (54%) with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey had their first antenatal care visit during the first trimester of their last pregnancy, with a median of three (3) months of pregnancy at the first visit among those who received antenatal care. Of note, almost one in ten women (9%) had their first ANC visit when they were already 6-7 months pregnant, accounted for by 13 percent of women with only primary education, 14 percent of those younger than 20 years of age at birth, 11 percent of those living in the interior areas, and 14 percent of those from the poorest households. Pregnant women living in households with an East Indian (58%) or an African (56%) household head are more likely than those in the other households to have their first ANC visit during their first trimester. The coverage of key services that pregnant women are expected to receive during antenatal care are shown in Table RH.9. Among those women who had a live birth during the two years preceding the survey, 97 percent reported that that their blood pressure was checked, 95 percent that urine specimen was taken, and 95 percent that a blood sample was taken during antenatal care visits. Overall, 94 percent of pregnant women who received ANC, received it in compliance with WHO guidelines, i.e. they had their blood pressure measured and samples of urine and blood taken. Nevertheless, the percentage of women who received effective antenatal care is higher in urban than rural areas and in coastal than interior areas. It varies by region of residence: the regions with the smallest percentages are Region 9 (62%), Region 1 (72%), and Regions 7 & 8 (74%), compared with above 95 percent in each of other regions. The percentages of women receiving effective antenatal care increase with the mother’s education. In addition, it is 73 percent among those living in households with an Amerindian household head, and above 95 percent for those living in households with a household head of the other ethnicities. In the present survey, women were also asked if they had been tested for malaria as part of antenatal care. Overall, 41 percent of women have been tested. The observed disparities across areas and regions most likely reflect the differences in the prevalence of malaria throughout the country. Testing for malaria is more common in interior areas than in coastal areas (54% and 37%, respectively), highest in Regions 7 & 8 (83%) and lowest in Region 5 (19%). assistance During Delivery About three-quarters of all maternal deaths occur due to direct obstetric causes.2 The single most critical intervention for safe motherhood is to ensure that a competent health worker with midwifery skills is present at every birth, and in case of emergency, that transport is available to a referral facility for obstetric care. The skilled attendant at delivery indicator is used to track progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 5 of improving maternal health. The MICS5 included a number of questions to assess the proportion of births attended by a skilled attendant. In Guyana, a skilled attendant includes a medical doctor, nurse, midwife, single midwife, or Medex. Overall, 92 percent of births occurring in the two years preceding the MICS survey were delivered by skilled personnel (Table RH.10). This percentage ranges from 46 percent in Region 9 to 99 percent in Region 6. Delivery by skilled attendant is higher in the urban than the rural areas and in the coastal than the interior areas. As expected, the gap between the coastal and interior areas (98% and 72%, respectively) is much higher than between the urban and rural areas (100% and 90%, respectively). The more educated women and those living in the richer households are more likely than other women to be assisted by skilled personnel during delivery of their child. Additionally, almost all the births that occur at both public and private health facilities are assisted by skilled personnel (99-100%), while only 12 percent of home deliveries are assisted by skilled personnel. Merely 62 percent of women living 60Say L., Chou D., Gemmill A. et al. (2014). Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. The Lancet Global Health 2(6): e323-33. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70227-X. 189Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who, at least once, had their blood pressure measured, urine sample taken, and blood sample taken as part of antenatal care, during the pregnancy for the last birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of women who, during the pregnancy of their last birth, had: Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Blood pressure measured Urine sample taken Blood sample taken Blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken1 Tested for Malaria Total 97.2 94.6 95.0 93.6 40.5 769 Region Region 1 89.7 80.8 74.5 72.1 59.3 25 Region 2 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 59.4 40 Region 3 98.1 98.1 98.1 98.1 27.3 107 Region 4 98.3 98.1 98.2 97.9 39.4 327 Region 5 96.6 95.4 96.6 95.4 18.9 52 Region 6 97.6 97.6 97.2 97.2 37.9 94 Regions 7 & 8 97.0 80.0 85.7 73.9 83.2 36 Region 9 90.9 67.8 71.9 61.6 59.4 44 Region 10 95.4 95.4 95.4 95.4 30.6 44 Area Urban 98.9 98.9 98.6 98.6 37.1 184 Rural 96.7 93.3 93.8 92.0 41.6 585 Location Coastal 98.0 97.8 97.9 97.7 37.1 608 Urban Coastal 99.4 99.4 99.1 99.1 39.6 155 Rural Coastal 97.6 97.3 97.5 97.2 36.2 453 Interior 94.0 82.6 84.0 78.2 53.6 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 98.2 95.5 96.0 94.6 47.1 151 20-34 97.3 94.8 95.1 93.7 38.8 523 35-49 95.2 92.5 92.6 91.5 40.1 95 Education None (93.7) (91.0) (87.1) (84.4) (50.9) 13 Primary 95.5 89.8 91.0 87.2 45.6 95 Secondary 97.3 94.9 95.3 94.1 39.9 590 Higher 99.3 99.3 99.3 99.3 37.4 71 Wealth index quintile Poorest 95.6 87.6 88.4 84.4 47.2 227 Second 97.0 97.0 96.9 96.8 39.5 176 Middle 97.7 96.7 97.7 96.7 34.0 152 Fourth 99.4 99.4 99.4 99.4 35.7 104 Richest 98.0 98.0 97.5 97.5 42.2 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 98.6 98.6 98.5 98.5 38.4 254 African 97.9 97.3 97.9 97.3 37.2 235 Amerindian 93.2 77.5 80.3 72.6 56.7 113 Mixed Race 96.7 96.3 95.4 94.9 37.5 164 1 MICS indicator 5.6 - Content of antenatal care a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who, at least once, had their blood pressure measured, urine sample taken, and blood sample taken as part of antenatal care, during the pregnancy for the last birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of women who, during the pregnancy of their last birth, had: Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Blood pressure measured Urine sample taken Blood sample taken Blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken1 Tested for Malaria Total 97.2 94.6 95.0 93.6 40.5 769 Region Region 1 89.7 80.8 74.5 72.1 59.3 25 Region 2 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 59.4 40 Region 3 98.1 98.1 98.1 98.1 27.3 107 Region 4 98.3 98.1 98.2 97.9 39.4 327 Region 5 96.6 95.4 96.6 95.4 18.9 52 Region 6 97.6 97.6 97.2 97.2 37.9 94 Regions 7 & 8 97.0 80.0 85.7 73.9 83.2 36 Region 9 90.9 67.8 71.9 61.6 59.4 44 Region 10 95.4 95.4 95.4 95.4 30.6 44 Area Urban 98.9 98.9 98.6 98.6 37.1 184 Rural 96.7 93.3 93.8 92.0 41.6 585 Location Coastal 98.0 97.8 97.9 97.7 37.1 608 Urban Coastal 99.4 99.4 99.1 99.1 39.6 155 Rural Coastal 97.6 97.3 97.5 97.2 36.2 453 Interior 94.0 82.6 84.0 78.2 53.6 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 98.2 95.5 96.0 94.6 47.1 151 20-34 97.3 94.8 95.1 93.7 38.8 523 35-49 95.2 92.5 92.6 91.5 40.1 95 Education None (93.7) (91.0) (87.1) (84.4) (50.9) 13 Primary 95.5 89.8 91.0 87.2 45.6 95 Secondary 97.3 94.9 95.3 94.1 39.9 590 Higher 99.3 99.3 99.3 99.3 37.4 71 Wealth index quintile Poorest 95.6 87.6 88.4 84.4 47.2 227 Second 97.0 97.0 96.9 96.8 39.5 176 Middle 97.7 96.7 97.7 96.7 34.0 152 Fourth 99.4 99.4 99.4 99.4 35.7 104 Richest 98.0 98.0 97.5 97.5 42.2 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 98.6 98.6 98.5 98.5 38.4 254 African 97.9 97.3 97.9 97.3 37.2 235 Amerindian 93.2 77.5 80.3 72.6 56.7 113 Mixed Race 96.7 96.3 95.4 94.9 37.5 164 1 MICS indicator 5.6 - Content of antenatal care a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who, at least once, had their blood pressure measured, urine sample taken, and blood sample taken as part of antenatal care, during the pregnancy for the last birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of women who, during the pregnancy of their last birth, had: Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Blood pressure measured Urine sample taken Blood sample taken Blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken1 Tested for Malaria Total 97.2 94.6 95.0 93.6 40.5 769 Region Region 1 89.7 80.8 74.5 72.1 59.3 25 Region 2 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 59.4 40 Region 3 98.1 98.1 98.1 98.1 27.3 107 Region 4 98.3 98.1 98.2 97.9 39.4 327 Region 5 96.6 95.4 96.6 95.4 18.9 52 Region 6 97.6 97.6 97.2 97.2 37.9 94 Regions 7 & 8 97.0 80.0 85.7 73.9 83.2 36 Region 9 90.9 67.8 71.9 61.6 59.4 44 Region 10 95.4 95.4 95.4 95.4 30.6 44 Area Urban 98.9 98.9 98.6 98.6 37.1 184 Rural 96.7 93.3 93.8 92.0 41.6 585 Location Coastal 98.0 97.8 97.9 97.7 37.1 608 Urban Coastal 99.4 99.4 99.1 99.1 39.6 155 Rural Coastal 97.6 97.3 97.5 97.2 36.2 453 Interior 94.0 82.6 84.0 78.2 53.6 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 98.2 95.5 96.0 94.6 47.1 151 20-34 97.3 94.8 95.1 93.7 38.8 523 35-49 95.2 92.5 92.6 91.5 40.1 95 Education None (93.7) (91.0) (87.1) (84.4) (50.9) 13 Primary 95.5 89.8 91.0 87.2 45.6 95 Secondary 97.3 94.9 95.3 94.1 39.9 590 Higher 99.3 99.3 99.3 99.3 37.4 71 Wealth index quintile Poorest 95.6 87.6 88.4 84.4 47.2 227 Second 97.0 97.0 96.9 96.8 39.5 176 Middle 97.7 96.7 97.7 96.7 34.0 152 Fourth 99.4 99.4 99.4 99.4 35.7 104 Richest 98.0 98.0 97.5 97.5 42.2 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 98.6 98.6 98.5 98.5 38.4 254 African 97.9 97.3 97.9 97.3 37.2 235 Amerindian 93.2 77.5 80.3 72.6 56.7 113 Mixed Race 96.7 96.3 95.4 94.9 37.5 164 1 MICS indicator 5.6 - Content of antenatal care a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 190 F igure RH.3: Person ass i sting at del ivery , Guyana MICS5, 2014 1 1 4 2 0 1 5 47 39 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 No attendant Other/Missing Relative/Friend Community health worker Traditional birth attendant Medex Single midwife Nurse/midwife Medical doctor Per cent in households with an Amerindian household head deliver with assistance by skilled personnel, compared with 97-99 percent of those living in households with household head of other ethnicities. The highest proportion of births (47%) in the two years preceding the MICS survey were delivered with assistance by a nurse or midwife, followed by medical doctors, with 39 percent. The lowest proportion was attended by a Medex, with only one (1) percent. Of the unskilled personnel who assisted during delivery, the most common assistant is a relative or friend (4%), followed by a community health worker (2%). Deliveries are rarely assisted by a traditional birth attendant. Figure RH.3 shows the distribution of persons assisting during delivery. Table RH.10 also shows information on women who delivered by caesarean section (C-section) and provides additional information on the timing of the decision to conduct a C-section (before labour pains began or after) in order to better assess if such decisions are mostly driven by medical or non-medical reasons. Overall, 17 percent of women who delivered in the two years preceding the survey had a C-section; for ten (10) percent of women, the decision was taken before the onset of labour pains and for seven (7) percent after. The percentage ranges from five (5) percent in Region 9 to 40 percent in Region 10, where the majority of C-sections (36%) had been decided before the onset of labour pains. C-section deliveries increase greatly with the mother’s age at birth, household wealth and mother’s education level. C-section deliveries are three times less likely to be performed in public health facilities (14%) than in private health facilities (42%). 191Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e R H .1 0: A ss is ta nc e du rin g de liv er y an d ca es ar ea n se ct io n P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s by p er so n pr ov id in g as si st an ce a t d el iv er y, a nd p er ce nt ag e of b irt hs d el iv er ed b y C -s ec tio n, G uy an a M IC S 5, 20 14 Pe rs on a ss is tin g at d el iv er y N o at te nd an t To ta l D el iv er y as si st ed b y an y sk ill ed at te nd an t1, a Pe rc en t d el iv er ed b y C - se ct io n N um be r o f w om en w ho h ad a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s M ed ic al do ct or N ur se / M id w ife S in gl e m id w ife M ed ex Tr ad iti on al bi rth at te nd an t C om m un ity he al th w or ke r R el at iv e /F rie nd O th er / M is si ng D ec id ed be fo re on se t o f la bo ur pa in s D ec id ed af te r on se t o f la bo ur pa in s To ta l2 To ta l 38 .9 46 .8 5. 3 1. 4 0. 1 1. 6 3. 8 1. 5 0. 6 10 0. 0 92 .4 10 .1 6. 8 16 .9 76 9 R eg io n R eg io n 1 22 .1 49 .0 1. 1 8. 1 3. 8 3. 9 10 .8 0. 0 1. 2 10 0. 0 80 .3 5. 1 6. 3 11 .3 25 R eg io n 2 34 .0 60 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 3. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 5. 5 8. 0 13 .6 40 R eg io n 3 35 .0 51 .0 9. 3 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 2. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .6 6. 7 7. 8 14 .5 10 7 R eg io n 4 47 .8 43 .5 6. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 1. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 97 .7 11 .1 8. 2 19 .3 32 7 R eg io n 5 34 .8 46 .6 12 .9 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 0. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .1 7. 1 2. 2 9. 3 52 R eg io n 6 33 .7 63 .4 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 99 .0 10 .2 6. 6 16 .8 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 21 .8 29 .5 2. 0 12 .0 0. 0 11 .0 12 .6 6. 6 4. 5 10 0. 0 65 .3 1. 7 5. 9 7. 6 36 R eg io n 9 18 .1 25 .2 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 14 .5 35 .5 0. 5 3. 5 10 0. 0 46 .0 3. 5 1. 7 5. 2 44 R eg io n 10 47 .3 47 .5 1. 5 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 0. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .8 35 .9 4. 5 40 .4 44 A re a U rb an 52 .9 45 .7 0. 9 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .7 20 .7 7. 9 28 .6 18 4 R ur al 34 .5 47 .1 6. 7 1. 8 0. 2 2. 1 5. 0 1. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 90 .2 6. 8 6. 5 13 .3 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 42 .4 48 .7 6. 5 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 1. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 97 .8 9. 9 7. 4 17 .4 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 54 .0 44 .9 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .7 17 .5 8. 4 26 .0 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 38 .5 50 .0 8. 4 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 1. 6 0. 2 10 0. 0 97 .1 7. 3 7. 1 14 .4 45 3 In te rio r 25 .8 39 .6 1. 0 5. 9 0. 6 7. 5 15 .3 2. 1 2. 2 10 0. 0 72 .4 10 .9 4. 4 15 .3 16 1 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 31 .2 53 .3 7. 4 1. 8 0. 0 1. 6 2. 5 2. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 93 .7 4. 8 3. 1 8. 0 15 1 20 -3 4 39 .2 47 .2 5. 2 1. 5 0. 1 1. 4 4. 2 0. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 93 .0 9. 8 8. 2 18 .0 52 3 35 -4 9 49 .8 34 .2 2. 8 0. 6 0. 5 2. 7 3. 6 4. 3 1. 5 10 0. 0 87 .4 20 .3 5. 1 25 .4 95 Pl ac e of d el iv er yb P ub lic s ec to r h ea lth fa ci lit y 37 .5 53 .9 5. 6 1. 5 0. 0 0. 9 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .6 9. 1 4. 9 14 .0 60 5 P riv at e se ct or h ea lth fa ci lit y 66 .2 28 .4 5. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 21 .2 20 .7 41 .9 10 8 H om e 0. 7 5. 1 2. 5 3. 8 2. 0 14 .1 57 .3 5. 2 9. 4 10 0. 0 12 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 46 Ed uc at io n N on e (8 .2 ) (4 8. 4) (5 .0 ) ( 14 .5 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (5 .3 ) (1 1. 9) (6 .7 ) 10 0. 0 (7 6. 1) (0 .0 ) (3 .4 ) (3 .4 ) 13 P rim ar y 31 .7 46 .4 0. 7 5. 6 0. 5 3. 6 9. 1 1. 7 0. 8 10 0. 0 84 .3 8. 4 6. 1 14 .5 95 S ec on da ry 37 .2 49 .2 6. 2 0. 6 0. 1 1. 5 3. 4 1. 4 0. 5 10 0. 0 93 .2 9. 7 5. 3 15 .0 59 0 H ig he r 68 .6 27 .0 4. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 17 .9 20 .5 38 .5 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 21 .6 48 .8 4. 8 4. 0 0. 4 5. 3 11 .5 1. 9 1. 7 10 0. 0 79 .3 3. 6 2. 6 6. 2 22 7 S ec on d 44 .0 49 .0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 1. 4 2. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 96 .1 8. 3 6. 5 14 .8 17 6 M id dl e 42 .2 43 .1 11 .2 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 2. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .2 11 .2 5. 0 16 .2 15 2 Fo ur th 43 .2 52 .7 3. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 16 .0 11 .3 27 .4 10 4 R ic he st 57 .7 38 .6 3. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 .4 14 .2 33 .7 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d E as t I nd ia n 39 .3 52 .0 5. 6 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 1. 7 0. 2 10 0. 0 97 .2 10 .3 7. 2 17 .5 25 4 A fri ca n 44 .7 47 .7 6. 3 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 0. 2 10 0. 0 99 .0 11 .7 5. 5 17 .3 23 5 A m er in di an 20 .0 33 .4 1. 4 6. 8 0. 8 10 .7 20 .9 2. 7 3. 1 10 0. 0 61 .7 2. 3 3. 2 5. 6 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 43 .2 46 .0 6. 4 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 1. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .7 12 .8 10 .0 22 .8 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .7 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .2 - Sk ill ed a tte nd an t a t d el iv er y 2 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .9 - C ae sa re an s ec tio n a S ki lle d at te nd an t r ef er s to m ed ic al d oc to r, nu rs e/ m id w ife , s in gl e m id w ife o r M ed ex b C at eg or y "O th er /M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c T hi s is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 192 Ta bl e R H .1 0: A ss is ta nc e du rin g de liv er y an d ca es ar ea n se ct io n P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s by p er so n pr ov id in g as si st an ce a t d el iv er y, a nd p er ce nt ag e of b irt hs d el iv er ed b y C -s ec tio n, G uy an a M IC S 5, 20 14 Pe rs on a ss is tin g at d el iv er y N o at te nd an t To ta l D el iv er y as si st ed b y an y sk ill ed at te nd an t1, a Pe rc en t d el iv er ed b y C - se ct io n N um be r o f w om en w ho h ad a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s M ed ic al do ct or N ur se / M id w ife S in gl e m id w ife M ed ex Tr ad iti on al bi rth at te nd an t C om m un ity he al th w or ke r R el at iv e /F rie nd O th er / M is si ng D ec id ed be fo re on se t o f la bo ur pa in s D ec id ed af te r on se t o f la bo ur pa in s To ta l2 To ta l 38 .9 46 .8 5. 3 1. 4 0. 1 1. 6 3. 8 1. 5 0. 6 10 0. 0 92 .4 10 .1 6. 8 16 .9 76 9 R eg io n R eg io n 1 22 .1 49 .0 1. 1 8. 1 3. 8 3. 9 10 .8 0. 0 1. 2 10 0. 0 80 .3 5. 1 6. 3 11 .3 25 R eg io n 2 34 .0 60 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 3. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 5. 5 8. 0 13 .6 40 R eg io n 3 35 .0 51 .0 9. 3 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 2. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .6 6. 7 7. 8 14 .5 10 7 R eg io n 4 47 .8 43 .5 6. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 1. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 97 .7 11 .1 8. 2 19 .3 32 7 R eg io n 5 34 .8 46 .6 12 .9 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 0. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .1 7. 1 2. 2 9. 3 52 R eg io n 6 33 .7 63 .4 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 99 .0 10 .2 6. 6 16 .8 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 21 .8 29 .5 2. 0 12 .0 0. 0 11 .0 12 .6 6. 6 4. 5 10 0. 0 65 .3 1. 7 5. 9 7. 6 36 R eg io n 9 18 .1 25 .2 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 14 .5 35 .5 0. 5 3. 5 10 0. 0 46 .0 3. 5 1. 7 5. 2 44 R eg io n 10 47 .3 47 .5 1. 5 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 0. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .8 35 .9 4. 5 40 .4 44 A re a U rb an 52 .9 45 .7 0. 9 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .7 20 .7 7. 9 28 .6 18 4 R ur al 34 .5 47 .1 6. 7 1. 8 0. 2 2. 1 5. 0 1. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 90 .2 6. 8 6. 5 13 .3 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 42 .4 48 .7 6. 5 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 1. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 97 .8 9. 9 7. 4 17 .4 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 54 .0 44 .9 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .7 17 .5 8. 4 26 .0 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 38 .5 50 .0 8. 4 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 1. 6 0. 2 10 0. 0 97 .1 7. 3 7. 1 14 .4 45 3 In te rio r 25 .8 39 .6 1. 0 5. 9 0. 6 7. 5 15 .3 2. 1 2. 2 10 0. 0 72 .4 10 .9 4. 4 15 .3 16 1 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 31 .2 53 .3 7. 4 1. 8 0. 0 1. 6 2. 5 2. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 93 .7 4. 8 3. 1 8. 0 15 1 20 -3 4 39 .2 47 .2 5. 2 1. 5 0. 1 1. 4 4. 2 0. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 93 .0 9. 8 8. 2 18 .0 52 3 35 -4 9 49 .8 34 .2 2. 8 0. 6 0. 5 2. 7 3. 6 4. 3 1. 5 10 0. 0 87 .4 20 .3 5. 1 25 .4 95 Pl ac e of d el iv er yb P ub lic s ec to r h ea lth fa ci lit y 37 .5 53 .9 5. 6 1. 5 0. 0 0. 9 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .6 9. 1 4. 9 14 .0 60 5 P riv at e se ct or h ea lth fa ci lit y 66 .2 28 .4 5. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 21 .2 20 .7 41 .9 10 8 H om e 0. 7 5. 1 2. 5 3. 8 2. 0 14 .1 57 .3 5. 2 9. 4 10 0. 0 12 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 46 Ed uc at io n N on e (8 .2 ) (4 8. 4) (5 .0 ) ( 14 .5 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (5 .3 ) (1 1. 9) (6 .7 ) 10 0. 0 (7 6. 1) (0 .0 ) (3 .4 ) (3 .4 ) 13 P rim ar y 31 .7 46 .4 0. 7 5. 6 0. 5 3. 6 9. 1 1. 7 0. 8 10 0. 0 84 .3 8. 4 6. 1 14 .5 95 S ec on da ry 37 .2 49 .2 6. 2 0. 6 0. 1 1. 5 3. 4 1. 4 0. 5 10 0. 0 93 .2 9. 7 5. 3 15 .0 59 0 H ig he r 68 .6 27 .0 4. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 17 .9 20 .5 38 .5 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 21 .6 48 .8 4. 8 4. 0 0. 4 5. 3 11 .5 1. 9 1. 7 10 0. 0 79 .3 3. 6 2. 6 6. 2 22 7 S ec on d 44 .0 49 .0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 1. 4 2. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 96 .1 8. 3 6. 5 14 .8 17 6 M id dl e 42 .2 43 .1 11 .2 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 2. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .2 11 .2 5. 0 16 .2 15 2 Fo ur th 43 .2 52 .7 3. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 16 .0 11 .3 27 .4 10 4 R ic he st 57 .7 38 .6 3. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 .4 14 .2 33 .7 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d E as t I nd ia n 39 .3 52 .0 5. 6 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 1. 7 0. 2 10 0. 0 97 .2 10 .3 7. 2 17 .5 25 4 A fri ca n 44 .7 47 .7 6. 3 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 0. 2 10 0. 0 99 .0 11 .7 5. 5 17 .3 23 5 A m er in di an 20 .0 33 .4 1. 4 6. 8 0. 8 10 .7 20 .9 2. 7 3. 1 10 0. 0 61 .7 2. 3 3. 2 5. 6 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 43 .2 46 .0 6. 4 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 1. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .7 12 .8 10 .0 22 .8 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .7 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .2 - Sk ill ed a tte nd an t a t d el iv er y 2 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .9 - C ae sa re an s ec tio n a S ki lle d at te nd an t r ef er s to m ed ic al d oc to r, nu rs e/ m id w ife , s in gl e m id w ife o r M ed ex b C at eg or y "O th er /M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c T hi s is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e R H .1 0: A ss is ta nc e du rin g de liv er y an d ca es ar ea n se ct io n P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s by p er so n pr ov id in g as si st an ce a t d el iv er y, a nd p er ce nt ag e of b irt hs d el iv er ed b y C -s ec tio n, G uy an a M IC S 5, 20 14 Pe rs on a ss is tin g at d el iv er y N o at te nd an t To ta l D el iv er y as si st ed b y an y sk ill ed at te nd an t1, a Pe rc en t d el iv er ed b y C - se ct io n N um be r o f w om en w ho h ad a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s M ed ic al do ct or N ur se / M id w ife S in gl e m id w ife M ed ex Tr ad iti on al bi rth at te nd an t C om m un ity he al th w or ke r R el at iv e /F rie nd O th er / M is si ng D ec id ed be fo re on se t o f la bo ur pa in s D ec id ed af te r on se t o f la bo ur pa in s To ta l2 To ta l 38 .9 46 .8 5. 3 1. 4 0. 1 1. 6 3. 8 1. 5 0. 6 10 0. 0 92 .4 10 .1 6. 8 16 .9 76 9 R eg io n R eg io n 1 22 .1 49 .0 1. 1 8. 1 3. 8 3. 9 10 .8 0. 0 1. 2 10 0. 0 80 .3 5. 1 6. 3 11 .3 25 R eg io n 2 34 .0 60 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 3. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .2 5. 5 8. 0 13 .6 40 R eg io n 3 35 .0 51 .0 9. 3 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 2. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .6 6. 7 7. 8 14 .5 10 7 R eg io n 4 47 .8 43 .5 6. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 1. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 97 .7 11 .1 8. 2 19 .3 32 7 R eg io n 5 34 .8 46 .6 12 .9 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 0. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .1 7. 1 2. 2 9. 3 52 R eg io n 6 33 .7 63 .4 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 99 .0 10 .2 6. 6 16 .8 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 21 .8 29 .5 2. 0 12 .0 0. 0 11 .0 12 .6 6. 6 4. 5 10 0. 0 65 .3 1. 7 5. 9 7. 6 36 R eg io n 9 18 .1 25 .2 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 14 .5 35 .5 0. 5 3. 5 10 0. 0 46 .0 3. 5 1. 7 5. 2 44 R eg io n 10 47 .3 47 .5 1. 5 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 0. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .8 35 .9 4. 5 40 .4 44 A re a U rb an 52 .9 45 .7 0. 9 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .7 20 .7 7. 9 28 .6 18 4 R ur al 34 .5 47 .1 6. 7 1. 8 0. 2 2. 1 5. 0 1. 9 0. 7 10 0. 0 90 .2 6. 8 6. 5 13 .3 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 42 .4 48 .7 6. 5 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 1. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 97 .8 9. 9 7. 4 17 .4 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 54 .0 44 .9 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .7 17 .5 8. 4 26 .0 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 38 .5 50 .0 8. 4 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 1. 6 0. 2 10 0. 0 97 .1 7. 3 7. 1 14 .4 45 3 In te rio r 25 .8 39 .6 1. 0 5. 9 0. 6 7. 5 15 .3 2. 1 2. 2 10 0. 0 72 .4 10 .9 4. 4 15 .3 16 1 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 31 .2 53 .3 7. 4 1. 8 0. 0 1. 6 2. 5 2. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 93 .7 4. 8 3. 1 8. 0 15 1 20 -3 4 39 .2 47 .2 5. 2 1. 5 0. 1 1. 4 4. 2 0. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 93 .0 9. 8 8. 2 18 .0 52 3 35 -4 9 49 .8 34 .2 2. 8 0. 6 0. 5 2. 7 3. 6 4. 3 1. 5 10 0. 0 87 .4 20 .3 5. 1 25 .4 95 Pl ac e of d el iv er yb P ub lic s ec to r h ea lth fa ci lit y 37 .5 53 .9 5. 6 1. 5 0. 0 0. 9 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .6 9. 1 4. 9 14 .0 60 5 P riv at e se ct or h ea lth fa ci lit y 66 .2 28 .4 5. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 21 .2 20 .7 41 .9 10 8 H om e 0. 7 5. 1 2. 5 3. 8 2. 0 14 .1 57 .3 5. 2 9. 4 10 0. 0 12 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 46 Ed uc at io n N on e (8 .2 ) (4 8. 4) (5 .0 ) ( 14 .5 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (5 .3 ) (1 1. 9) (6 .7 ) 10 0. 0 (7 6. 1) (0 .0 ) (3 .4 ) (3 .4 ) 13 P rim ar y 31 .7 46 .4 0. 7 5. 6 0. 5 3. 6 9. 1 1. 7 0. 8 10 0. 0 84 .3 8. 4 6. 1 14 .5 95 S ec on da ry 37 .2 49 .2 6. 2 0. 6 0. 1 1. 5 3. 4 1. 4 0. 5 10 0. 0 93 .2 9. 7 5. 3 15 .0 59 0 H ig he r 68 .6 27 .0 4. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 17 .9 20 .5 38 .5 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 21 .6 48 .8 4. 8 4. 0 0. 4 5. 3 11 .5 1. 9 1. 7 10 0. 0 79 .3 3. 6 2. 6 6. 2 22 7 S ec on d 44 .0 49 .0 3. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 1. 4 2. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 96 .1 8. 3 6. 5 14 .8 17 6 M id dl e 42 .2 43 .1 11 .2 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 2. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .2 11 .2 5. 0 16 .2 15 2 Fo ur th 43 .2 52 .7 3. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 16 .0 11 .3 27 .4 10 4 R ic he st 57 .7 38 .6 3. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 .4 14 .2 33 .7 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d E as t I nd ia n 39 .3 52 .0 5. 6 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 1. 7 0. 2 10 0. 0 97 .2 10 .3 7. 2 17 .5 25 4 A fri ca n 44 .7 47 .7 6. 3 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 0. 2 10 0. 0 99 .0 11 .7 5. 5 17 .3 23 5 A m er in di an 20 .0 33 .4 1. 4 6. 8 0. 8 10 .7 20 .9 2. 7 3. 1 10 0. 0 61 .7 2. 3 3. 2 5. 6 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 43 .2 46 .0 6. 4 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 1. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .7 12 .8 10 .0 22 .8 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .7 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .2 - Sk ill ed a tte nd an t a t d el iv er y 2 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .9 - C ae sa re an s ec tio n a S ki lle d at te nd an t r ef er s to m ed ic al d oc to r, nu rs e/ m id w ife , s in gl e m id w ife o r M ed ex b C at eg or y "O th er /M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c T hi s is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 193Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Place of Delivery Increasing the proportion of births that are delivered in health facilities is an important factor in reducing the health risks to both the mother and the baby. Proper medical attention and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risks of complications and infection that can cause morbidity and mortality to either the mother or the baby. Table RH.11 presents the percentage distribution of women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by place of delivery, and the percentage of births delivered in a health facility, according to background characteristics. In Guyana, 93 percent of births are delivered in a health facility - 79 percent of deliveries occur in public sector facilities and 14 percent in private sector facilities (Table RH.11). Only six (6) percent of births take place at home. While institutional deliveries account for the great majority of deliveries in urban, rural and coastal areas (between 91 and 99%), only 74 percent of deliveries in interior areas take place in a health facility. The proportion of institutional deliveries varies from 47 percent in Region 9, 68 percent in Regions 7 & 8, 83 percent in Region 1, to 96-99 percent in all other regions. It should be noted that more than half (52%) of deliveries in Region 9 takes place at home. Delivery in health facilities increases with mother’s education level and household wealth. Women with higher levels of educational attainment are more likely to deliver in a health facility than women with less education (84% for women with primary education, 94% for women with secondary education, and 99% for women with higher education). The proportion of births occurring in a health facility is 81 percent in the lowest wealth quintile and between 97 and 100 percent in the other quintiles. Only 65 percent of women living in households with an Amerindian household head delivered in a health facility, compared to 97-98 percent for women living in households with a household head of the other ethnicities. 194 Table RH.11: Place of delivery Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by place of delivery of their last birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Place of delivery Total Delivered in health facility1 Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Health facility Home Other Missing /DK Public sector Private sector Total 78.6 14.1 6.0 0.4 0.8 100.0 92.7 769 Region Region 1 77.8 5.6 15.2 1.4 0.0 100.0 83.4 25 Region 2 96.2 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.2 40 Region 3 85.2 13.9 0.4 0.5 0.0 100.0 99.1 107 Region 4 73.0 24.1 0.9 0.5 1.6 100.0 97.0 327 Region 5 90.7 7.3 2.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 98.0 52 Region 6 90.8 6.5 2.2 0.0 0.5 100.0 97.3 94 Regions 7 & 8 64.1 3.4 31.6 1.0 0.0 100.0 67.5 36 Region 9 45.6 1.2 52.0 0.7 0.5 100.0 46.8 44 Region 10 94.0 3.8 1.4 0.8 0.0 100.0 97.8 44 Area Urban 81.2 17.6 0.6 0.0 0.5 100.0 98.9 184 Rural 77.8 13.0 7.8 0.6 0.9 100.0 90.8 585 Location Coastal 80.9 16.8 1.1 0.3 1.0 100.0 97.6 608 Urban Coastal 78.5 20.2 0.7 0.0 0.6 100.0 98.7 155 Rural Coastal 81.7 15.6 1.2 0.5 1.1 100.0 97.3 453 Interior 70.3 4.1 24.7 0.8 0.1 100.0 74.3 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 90.9 4.4 3.8 0.4 0.5 100.0 95.3 151 20-34 76.9 16.0 6.1 0.5 0.5 100.0 92.9 523 35-49 68.8 19.1 9.1 0.0 3.0 100.0 87.9 95 Number of antenatal care visits None (34.3) (1.9) (30.6) (3.8) (29.4) 100.0 (36.2) 19 1-3 visits 73.3 7.7 16.6 2.4 0.0 100.0 81.0 36 4+ visits 80.1 14.6 4.9 0.3 0.1 100.0 94.7 667 Missing/DK 79.0 16.6 4.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 95.6 48 Education None (76.1) (0.0) (23.9) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (76.1) 13 Primary 77.3 6.5 14.7 0.4 1.2 100.0 83.8 95 Secondary 81.6 12.3 4.9 0.5 0.7 100.0 93.8 590 Higher 56.6 42.0 0.7 0.0 0.7 100.0 98.6 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 78.7 1.9 18.5 0.3 0.6 100.0 80.6 227 Second 92.1 4.5 1.2 1.5 0.7 100.0 96.6 176 Middle 86.2 11.0 0.9 0.1 1.9 100.0 97.1 152 Fourth 75.0 24.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.0 104 Richest 50.1 49.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 99.5 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 77.6 19.8 1.7 0.2 0.7 100.0 97.4 254 African 86.6 11.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 100.0 98.4 235 Amerindian 61.6 3.2 34.1 0.9 0.2 100.0 64.8 113 Mixed Race 80.4 16.1 1.3 0.5 1.7 100.0 96.5 164 1 MICS indicator 5.8 - Institutional deliveries a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.11: Place of delivery Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by place of delivery of their last birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Place of delivery Total Delivered in health facility1 Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Health facility Home Other Missing /DK Public sector Private sector Total 78.6 14.1 6.0 0.4 0.8 100.0 92.7 769 Region Region 1 77.8 5.6 15.2 1.4 0.0 100.0 83.4 25 Region 2 96.2 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.2 40 Region 3 85.2 13.9 0.4 0.5 0.0 100.0 99.1 107 Region 4 73.0 24.1 0.9 0.5 1.6 100.0 97.0 327 Region 5 90.7 7.3 2.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 98.0 52 Region 6 90.8 6.5 2.2 0.0 0.5 100.0 97.3 94 Regions 7 & 8 64.1 3.4 31.6 1.0 0.0 100.0 67.5 36 Region 9 45.6 1.2 52.0 0.7 0.5 100.0 46.8 44 Region 10 94.0 3.8 1.4 0.8 0.0 100.0 97.8 44 Area Urban 81.2 17.6 0.6 0.0 0.5 100.0 98.9 184 Rural 77.8 13.0 7.8 0.6 0.9 100.0 90.8 585 Location Coastal 80.9 16.8 1.1 0.3 1.0 100.0 97.6 608 Urban Coastal 78.5 20.2 0.7 0.0 0.6 100.0 98.7 155 Rural Coastal 81.7 15.6 1.2 0.5 1.1 100.0 97.3 453 Interior 70.3 4.1 24.7 0.8 0.1 100.0 74.3 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 90.9 4.4 3.8 0.4 0.5 100.0 95.3 151 20-34 76.9 16.0 6.1 0.5 0.5 100.0 92.9 523 35-49 68.8 19.1 9.1 0.0 3.0 100.0 87.9 95 Number of antenatal care visits None (34.3) (1.9) (30.6) (3.8) (29.4) 100.0 (36.2) 19 1-3 visits 73.3 7.7 16.6 2.4 0.0 100.0 81.0 36 4+ visits 80.1 14.6 4.9 0.3 0.1 100.0 94.7 667 Missing/DK 79.0 16.6 4.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 95.6 48 Education None (76.1) (0.0) (23.9) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (76.1) 13 Primary 77.3 6.5 14.7 0.4 1.2 100.0 83.8 95 Secondary 81.6 12.3 4.9 0.5 0.7 100.0 93.8 590 Higher 56.6 42.0 0.7 0.0 0.7 100.0 98.6 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 78.7 1.9 18.5 0.3 0.6 100.0 80.6 227 Second 92.1 4.5 1.2 1.5 0.7 100.0 96.6 176 Middle 86.2 11.0 0.9 0.1 1.9 100.0 97.1 152 Fourth 75.0 24.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.0 104 Richest 50.1 49.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 99.5 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 77.6 19.8 1.7 0.2 0.7 100.0 97.4 254 African 86.6 11.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 100.0 98.4 235 Amerindian 61.6 3.2 34.1 0.9 0.2 100.0 64.8 113 Mixed Race 80.4 16.1 1.3 0.5 1.7 100.0 96.5 164 1 MICS indicator 5.8 - Institutional deliveries a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 195Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Post-natal Health Checks The time of birth and immediately after is a critical window of opportunity for delivering lifesaving interventions for both the mother and newborn. Across the world, approximately three million newborns die annually in the first month of life2 and the majority of these deaths occur within a day or two of birth,3 which is also the time when the majority of maternal deaths occur.4 Despite the importance of the first few days following birth, large-scale, nationally representative household survey programmes have not systematically included questions on the post-natal period and care for the mother and newborn. In 2008, the ‘Countdown to 2015’ initiative, which monitors progress on maternal, newborn and child health interventions, highlighted this data gap, and called not only for post-natal care (PNC) programmes to be strengthened, but also for improved data availability and quality.5 Following the establishment and discussions of an Inter-Agency Group on post-natal care and drawing on lessons learned from earlier attempts of collecting PNC data, a new questionnaire module for MICS5 was developed and validated and included in the Women’s Questionnaire. Named the Post-natal Health Checks (PNHC) module, the objective is to collect information on newborns’ and mothers’ contact with a health service provider post-delivery. Note that the module does not assess content of care. The rationale for this is that as PNC programmes scale up, it is important to measure the coverage of that scale up and ensure that the platform for providing essential services 61UNICEF (2013). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2013, Estimates developed by the UN Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. 62Lawn J.E., Cousens S, Zupan J. (2005). 4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why? The Lancet 365(9462):891–900. 63WHO (2012). Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990-2010, WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, and The World Bank estimates. 64UNICEF (2008). Countdown to 2015: Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival, The 2008 Report. is in place. Content is considered more difficult to measure, particularly because the respondent is asked to recall services delivered up to two years preceding the interview. Table RH.12 presents the percent distribution of women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in a health facility in the two years preceding the survey by duration of stay in the facility following the delivery, according to background characteristics. Overall, 98 percent of women who gave birth in a health facility stay 12 hours or more in the facility after delivery, with the great majority of women staying more than one day (53% for 1-2 days and 45% for 3 days or more). Across the country, the percentage of women who stay 12 hours or more is high (ranging from 91% in Region 1 to 99% in Regions 4 and 10) and varies little by background characteristics. This suggests that once a woman delivers in a health facility, she is most likely to stay in a health facility for at least 12 hours post-partum. Nevertheless, it should be noted that four (4) percent of women living in Regions 7 & 8, and 9, and five (5) percent of those living in households with an Amerindian household head stay for less than six (6) hours after delivery. In addition, nine (9) percent of women in Region 1 stay for less than 12 hours after delivery. Further examination of the data on women who stay in a health facility three days or more by region reveals that: Region 1 has the lowest percentage (29%), followed by the second lowest - Region 2 (36%). Region 9 (55%) and Regions 6 and 10 (49% each) have the highest percentages. It is interesting to note that just over one-half of women (53%) stay three days or more at a private facility compared with 43 percent at a public facility. On the other hand, a larger percent (55%) stay for less number of days (1-2 days) at a public facility compared with 45 percent at a private facility. As is expected, women who had a C-section (88%) are more likely to stay longer at a health facility (3 days or more) compared to those who had a vaginal birth (35%). 196 Table RH.12: Post-partum stay in health facility Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who had their last birth delivered in a health facility by duration of stay in health facility, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Duration of stay in health facility Total 12 hours or more1 Number of women who had their last birth delivered in a health facility in the last 2 years Less than 6 hours 6-11 hours 12-23 hours 1-2 days 3 days or more Missing /DK Total 1.3 0.5 0.2 53.2 44.6 0.2 100.0 98.0 713 Region Region 1 0.0 8.6 1.4 61.5 28.5 0.0 100.0 91.4 21 Region 2 2.1 0.0 0.0 62.1 35.9 0.0 100.0 97.9 39 Region 3 1.2 0.0 0.0 60.1 38.1 0.5 100.0 98.3 106 Region 4 0.7 0.3 0.4 52.4 46.2 0.0 100.0 99.0 318 Region 5 1.9 1.2 0.0 50.7 46.3 0.0 100.0 97.0 51 Region 6 1.9 0.0 0.0 47.9 49.2 1.0 100.0 97.1 92 Regions 7 & 8 3.5 1.7 0.0 52.5 41.9 0.4 100.0 94.4 25 Region 9 4.3 0.0 0.0 41.0 54.7 0.0 100.0 95.7 20 Region 10 1.2 0.0 0.0 50.3 48.5 0.0 100.0 98.8 43 Area Urban 0.4 0.3 0.7 47.2 51.3 0.0 100.0 99.3 182 Rural 1.6 0.6 0.1 55.2 42.3 0.3 100.0 97.5 531 Location Coastal 0.9 0.3 0.2 53.5 44.9 0.2 100.0 98.6 593 Urban Coastal 0.3 0.3 0.9 48.0 50.4 0.0 100.0 99.3 153 Rural Coastal 1.1 0.3 0.0 55.4 42.9 0.3 100.0 98.3 441 Interior 3.3 1.6 0.2 51.5 43.2 0.1 100.0 94.9 120 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 0.9 0.4 0.5 56.1 41.7 0.4 100.0 98.3 144 20-34 1.3 0.6 0.2 53.8 43.9 0.2 100.0 97.9 486 35-49 1.8 0.4 0.0 44.4 53.4 0.0 100.0 97.8 84 Type of health facility Public 1.4 0.5 0.2 54.7 43.0 0.3 100.0 97.9 605 Private 0.7 0.9 0.5 44.7 53.2 0.0 100.0 98.4 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 1.5 0.6 0.3 62.5 34.9 0.3 100.0 97.6 582 C-section 0.4 0.0 0.0 11.8 87.8 0.0 100.0 99.6 131 Education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 10 Primary 1.6 0.9 0.0 49.9 47.6 0.0 100.0 97.5 79 Secondary 1.4 0.2 0.2 54.0 43.9 0.3 100.0 98.0 554 Higher 0.0 1.4 0.8 49.8 48.1 0.0 100.0 98.6 70 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 2.6 1.0 0.2 55.9 40.1 0.3 100.0 96.1 183 Second 0.4 0.5 0.0 53.0 46.1 0.0 100.0 99.1 170 Middle 0.0 0.0 0.0 51.5 48.1 0.4 100.0 99.6 148 Fourth 1.8 0.0 1.3 53.0 43.9 0.0 100.0 98.2 103 Richest 1.8 1.0 0.0 51.2 45.6 0.4 100.0 96.8 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 1.3 0.4 0.3 55.2 42.2 0.6 100.0 97.7 247 African 0.8 0.2 0.0 51.1 47.8 0.0 100.0 99.0 231 Amerindian 4.8 1.8 0.2 58.3 35.0 0.0 100.0 93.5 73 Mixed Race 0.4 0.6 0.4 51.2 47.4 0.1 100.0 99.0 158 1 MICS indicator 5.10 - Post-partum stay in health facility a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table RH.12: Post-partum stay in health facility Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who had their last birth delivered in a health facility by duration of stay in health facility, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Duration of stay in health facility Total 12 hours or more1 Number of women who had their last birth delivered in a health facility in the last 2 years Less than 6 hours 6-11 hours 12-23 hours 1-2 days 3 days or more Missing /DK Total 1.3 0.5 0.2 53.2 44.6 0.2 100.0 98.0 713 Region Region 1 0.0 8.6 1.4 61.5 28.5 0.0 100.0 91.4 21 Region 2 2.1 0.0 0.0 62.1 35.9 0.0 100.0 97.9 39 Region 3 1.2 0.0 0.0 60.1 38.1 0.5 100.0 98.3 106 Region 4 0.7 0.3 0.4 52.4 46.2 0.0 100.0 99.0 318 Region 5 1.9 1.2 0.0 50.7 46.3 0.0 100.0 97.0 51 Region 6 1.9 0.0 0.0 47.9 49.2 1.0 100.0 97.1 92 Regions 7 & 8 3.5 1.7 0.0 52.5 41.9 0.4 100.0 94.4 25 Region 9 4.3 0.0 0.0 41.0 54.7 0.0 100.0 95.7 20 Region 10 1.2 0.0 0.0 50.3 48.5 0.0 100.0 98.8 43 Area Urban 0.4 0.3 0.7 47.2 51.3 0.0 100.0 99.3 182 Rural 1.6 0.6 0.1 55.2 42.3 0.3 100.0 97.5 531 Location Coastal 0.9 0.3 0.2 53.5 44.9 0.2 100.0 98.6 593 Urban Coastal 0.3 0.3 0.9 48.0 50.4 0.0 100.0 99.3 153 Rural Coastal 1.1 0.3 0.0 55.4 42.9 0.3 100.0 98.3 441 Interior 3.3 1.6 0.2 51.5 43.2 0.1 100.0 94.9 120 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 0.9 0.4 0.5 56.1 41.7 0.4 100.0 98.3 144 20-34 1.3 0.6 0.2 53.8 43.9 0.2 100.0 97.9 486 35-49 1.8 0.4 0.0 44.4 53.4 0.0 100.0 97.8 84 Type of health facility Public 1.4 0.5 0.2 54.7 43.0 0.3 100.0 97.9 605 Private 0.7 0.9 0.5 44.7 53.2 0.0 100.0 98.4 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 1.5 0.6 0.3 62.5 34.9 0.3 100.0 97.6 582 C-section 0.4 0.0 0.0 11.8 87.8 0.0 100.0 99.6 131 Education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 10 Primary 1.6 0.9 0.0 49.9 47.6 0.0 100.0 97.5 79 Secondary 1.4 0.2 0.2 54.0 43.9 0.3 100.0 98.0 554 Higher 0.0 1.4 0.8 49.8 48.1 0.0 100.0 98.6 70 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 2.6 1.0 0.2 55.9 40.1 0.3 100.0 96.1 183 Second 0.4 0.5 0.0 53.0 46.1 0.0 100.0 99.1 170 Middle 0.0 0.0 0.0 51.5 48.1 0.4 100.0 99.6 148 Fourth 1.8 0.0 1.3 53.0 43.9 0.0 100.0 98.2 103 Richest 1.8 1.0 0.0 51.2 45.6 0.4 100.0 96.8 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 1.3 0.4 0.3 55.2 42.2 0.6 100.0 97.7 247 African 0.8 0.2 0.0 51.1 47.8 0.0 100.0 99.0 231 Amerindian 4.8 1.8 0.2 58.3 35.0 0.0 100.0 93.5 73 Mixed Race 0.4 0.6 0.4 51.2 47.4 0.1 100.0 99.0 158 1 MICS indicator 5.10 - Post-partum stay in health facility a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table RH.12: Post-partum stay in health facility Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who had their last birth delivered in a health facility by duration of stay in health facility, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Duration of stay in health facility Total 12 hours or more1 Number of women who had their last birth delivered in a health facility in the last 2 years Less than 6 hours 6-11 hours 12-23 hours 1-2 days 3 days or more Missing /DK Total 1.3 0.5 0.2 53.2 44.6 0.2 100.0 98.0 713 Region Region 1 0.0 8.6 1.4 61.5 28.5 0.0 100.0 91.4 21 Region 2 2.1 0.0 0.0 62.1 35.9 0.0 100.0 97.9 39 Region 3 1.2 0.0 0.0 60.1 38.1 0.5 100.0 98.3 106 Region 4 0.7 0.3 0.4 52.4 46.2 0.0 100.0 99.0 318 Region 5 1.9 1.2 0.0 50.7 46.3 0.0 100.0 97.0 51 Region 6 1.9 0.0 0.0 47.9 49.2 1.0 100.0 97.1 92 Regions 7 & 8 3.5 1.7 0.0 52.5 41.9 0.4 100.0 94.4 25 Region 9 4.3 0.0 0.0 41.0 54.7 0.0 100.0 95.7 20 Region 10 1.2 0.0 0.0 50.3 48.5 0.0 100.0 98.8 43 Area Urban 0.4 0.3 0.7 47.2 51.3 0.0 100.0 99.3 182 Rural 1.6 0.6 0.1 55.2 42.3 0.3 100.0 97.5 531 Location Coastal 0.9 0.3 0.2 53.5 44.9 0.2 100.0 98.6 593 Urban Coastal 0.3 0.3 0.9 48.0 50.4 0.0 100.0 99.3 153 Rural Coastal 1.1 0.3 0.0 55.4 42.9 0.3 100.0 98.3 441 Interior 3.3 1.6 0.2 51.5 43.2 0.1 100.0 94.9 120 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 0.9 0.4 0.5 56.1 41.7 0.4 100.0 98.3 144 20-34 1.3 0.6 0.2 53.8 43.9 0.2 100.0 97.9 486 35-49 1.8 0.4 0.0 44.4 53.4 0.0 100.0 97.8 84 Type of health facility Public 1.4 0.5 0.2 54.7 43.0 0.3 100.0 97.9 605 Private 0.7 0.9 0.5 44.7 53.2 0.0 100.0 98.4 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 1.5 0.6 0.3 62.5 34.9 0.3 100.0 97.6 582 C-section 0.4 0.0 0.0 11.8 87.8 0.0 100.0 99.6 131 Education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 10 Primary 1.6 0.9 0.0 49.9 47.6 0.0 100.0 97.5 79 Secondary 1.4 0.2 0.2 54.0 43.9 0.3 100.0 98.0 554 Higher 0.0 1.4 0.8 49.8 48.1 0.0 100.0 98.6 70 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 2.6 1.0 0.2 55.9 40.1 0.3 100.0 96.1 183 Second 0.4 0.5 0.0 53.0 46.1 0.0 100.0 99.1 170 Middle 0.0 0.0 0.0 51.5 48.1 0.4 100.0 99.6 148 Fourth 1.8 0.0 1.3 53.0 43.9 0.0 100.0 98.2 103 Richest 1.8 1.0 0.0 51.2 45.6 0.4 100.0 96.8 110 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 1.3 0.4 0.3 55.2 42.2 0.6 100.0 97.7 247 African 0.8 0.2 0.0 51.1 47.8 0.0 100.0 99.0 231 Amerindian 4.8 1.8 0.2 58.3 35.0 0.0 100.0 93.5 73 Mixed Race 0.4 0.6 0.4 51.2 47.4 0.1 100.0 99.0 158 1 MICS indicator 5.10 - Post-partum stay in health facility a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 197Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Safe motherhood programmes have recently increased emphasis on the importance of post-natal care, recommending that all women and newborns receive a health check within two days of delivery. To assess the extent of post-natal care utilization, women were asked whether they and their newborn received a health check after the delivery, the timing of the first check, and the type of health provider, for the woman’s last birth in the two years preceding the survey. Table RH.13 shows the percentage of newborns born in the last two years who received health checks and post-natal care visits from any health provider after birth. It should be noted that health checks following birth while in facility or at home refer to checks provided by any health provider regardless of timing (column 1), whereas post-natal care visits (PNC visits) refer to a separate visit to check on the health of the newborn and provide preventive care services and therefore do not include health checks following birth while in facility or at home. The indicator Post-natal health checks (PNHC) includes any health check after birth received while in the health facility and at home (column 1), regardless of timing, as well as PNC visits within two days of delivery (columns 2, 3, and 4). Overall, 93 percent of newborns receive a health check following birth while in a facility or at home. With regards to PNC visits, more than half of newborns do not receive any (52%), and while 12 percent of newborns receive a visit on their day of birth, PNC visits occur predominantly after the first week following birth (23%). In total, 95 percent of all newborns receive a post-natal health check (PNHC), that is, a health check while in facility or at home following delivery or a post- natal visit within 2 days after delivery. Only 18 percent of newborns receive a PNC visit within two days of delivery. PNHC for newborns is lower in Regions 1, 7 & 8, and 9 (70-83%), than in the other regions (96- 100%); in rural areas (94%) than urban areas (100%), and in interior areas (84%) than coastal areas (98%). It is noteworthy that although in Regions 3, 6, and 10, health checks following birth while in health facility or at home are nearly universal (96-99%), more than two- thirds of newborns in these regions do not receive any PNC visit (69-71%). There is a clear positive relationship between PNHC and mother’s education as well as with household wealth. However, there is no clear pattern between women whose newborn did not receive PNC visits and mother’s education, household wealth, or mother’s age at birth. Health checks following birth are conducted for nearly all deliveries taking place in a health facility (99% public, 100% private), whereas for newborns delivered at home, such occurrence is relatively low (25%). In addition, 41 percent of newborns delivered at home do not receive any PNC visit, resulting in only 52 percent of newborns receiving post-natal health checks. Newborns from households with an Amerindian household head are less likely than others to receive a health check following birth while in health facility or at home (70% compared to 96-99%). 198 P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho se la st li ve b irt h re ce iv ed h ea lth c he ck s w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth , p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n w ho se la st li ve b irt h re ce iv ed p os t-n at al c ar e (P N C ) v is its fr om a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r a fte r b irt h, b y tim in g of v is it, an d pe rc en ta ge w ho re ce iv ed p os t n at al h ea lth c he ck s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 H ea lth ch ec k fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or at h om ea PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn sb P os t-n at al he al th ch ec k fo r th e ne w bo rn 1, c N um be r of la st li ve bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s S am e da y 1 da y fo llo w in g bi rth 2 da ys fo llo w in g bi rth 3- 6 da ys fo llo w in g bi rth A fte r t he fir st w ee k fo llo w in g bi rth N o po st - na ta l c ar e vi si t M is si ng /D K To ta l To ta l 93 .1 12 .0 3. 7 2. 7 5. 2 23 .1 52 .1 1. 2 10 0. 0 95 .4 76 9 R eg io n R eg io n 1 81 .9 4. 2 7. 1 5. 5 8. 3 28 .1 44 .8 2. 1 10 0. 0 83 .3 25 R eg io n 2 94 .2 9. 9 4. 2 0. 8 3. 8 40 .5 40 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .2 40 R eg io n 3 99 .1 8. 1 1. 5 0. 7 4. 7 15 .8 69 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 7 R eg io n 4 96 .4 15 .8 2. 9 2. 5 4. 9 28 .8 43 .1 2. 0 10 0. 0 97 .4 32 7 R eg io n 5 98 .0 16 .3 3. 1 2. 9 5. 7 16 .5 55 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 52 R eg io n 6 96 .3 4. 7 3. 2 2. 3 6. 0 13 .3 70 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 73 .9 15 .7 10 .4 2. 8 3. 5 28 .3 36 .0 3. 3 10 0. 0 82 .6 36 R eg io n 9 59 .0 14 .8 10 .5 5. 3 5. 7 16 .8 43 .8 3. 1 10 0. 0 70 .4 44 R eg io n 10 97 .2 4. 3 1. 6 6. 5 6. 3 10 .8 70 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .2 44 A re a U rb an 99 .5 11 .8 2. 7 3. 3 2. 5 24 .9 54 .1 0. 7 10 0. 0 99 .5 18 4 R ur al 91 .1 12 .1 4. 0 2. 5 6. 0 22 .6 51 .5 1. 4 10 0. 0 94 .2 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 97 .1 12 .7 2. 5 2. 5 5. 1 23 .2 52 .8 1. 1 10 0. 0 98 .4 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 99 .4 13 .5 2. 7 3. 9 1. 4 27 .2 50 .4 0. 8 10 0. 0 99 .4 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 96 .3 12 .5 2. 5 2. 1 6. 3 21 .8 53 .6 1. 2 10 0. 0 98 .1 45 3 In te rio r 78 .2 9. 4 7. 9 3. 2 5. 5 23 .0 49 .5 1. 6 10 0. 0 84 .3 16 1 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 95 .1 14 .7 4. 1 3. 6 3. 1 19 .1 54 .7 0. 7 10 0. 0 96 .2 15 1 20 -3 4 93 .8 10 .5 3. 5 2. 6 6. 0 24 .8 51 .2 1. 5 10 0. 0 96 .1 52 3 35 -4 9 86 .2 16 .5 3. 7 1. 6 3. 7 20 .7 53 .2 0. 5 10 0. 0 90 .6 95 Pl ac e of d el iv er yd H om e 24 .8 22 .0 14 .5 4. 2 5. 0 12 .4 40 .8 1. 2 10 0. 0 51 .8 46 H ea lth fa ci lit y 98 .8 11 .2 3. 0 2. 6 5. 2 24 .1 52 .7 1. 2 10 0. 0 99 .2 71 3 P ub lic 98 .5 11 .3 2. 9 2. 6 4. 4 23 .0 54 .7 1. 1 10 0. 0 99 .1 60 5 P riv at e 10 0. 0 11 .2 3. 4 2. 3 10 .0 29 .9 41 .5 1. 6 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 8 Ed uc at io n N on e (7 3. 3) (7 .9 ) (6 .0 ) (2 .7 ) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 0) (7 2. 4) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (8 2. 6) 13 P rim ar y 83 .4 13 .8 9. 4 1. 3 5. 2 21 .3 48 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 90 .3 95 S ec on da ry 94 .4 12 .0 2. 8 2. 9 4. 5 22 .3 54 .0 1. 5 10 0. 0 96 .1 59 0 H ig he r 98 .9 10 .3 2. 4 2. 7 11 .6 34 .6 38 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 83 .4 10 .8 5. 3 2. 6 5. 0 22 .7 52 .7 1. 0 10 0. 0 88 .3 22 7 S ec on d 95 .4 13 .3 3. 7 3. 9 4. 7 22 .3 50 .0 2. 1 10 0. 0 97 .2 17 6 M id dl e 95 .7 13 .3 2. 5 2. 3 4. 4 19 .1 57 .2 1. 2 10 0. 0 97 .9 15 2 Fo ur th 10 0. 0 13 .3 3. 2 1. 8 8. 1 25 .4 48 .0 0. 2 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 4 R ic he st 99 .5 9. 7 2. 2 2. 4 4. 5 28 .9 50 .9 1. 4 10 0. 0 99 .5 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de , f E as t I nd ia n 96 .1 12 .2 3. 2 1. 4 7. 0 20 .8 54 .7 0. 7 10 0. 0 98 .2 25 4 A fri ca n 98 .7 12 .9 2. 9 1. 5 3. 4 24 .0 54 .6 0. 7 10 0. 0 99 .3 23 5 A m er in di an 70 .4 10 .3 9. 3 3. 4 5. 1 24 .3 46 .0 1. 6 10 0. 0 78 .4 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 96 .1 11 .9 1. 6 5. 8 4. 8 24 .9 48 .3 2. 7 10 0. 0 97 .3 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .1 1 - P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck fo r t he n ew bo rn a H ea lth c he ck s by a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r f ol lo w in g fa ci lit y bi rth s (b ef or e di sc ha rg e fro m fa ci lit y) o r f ol lo w in g ho m e bi rth s (b ef or e de pa rtu re o f p ro vi de r fro m h om e) . b P os t-n at al c ar e vi si ts (P N C ) r ef er to a s ep ar at e vi si t b y an y he al th p ro vi de r t o ch ec k on th e he al th o f t he n ew bo rn a nd p ro vi de p re ve nt iv e ca re se rv ic es . P N C v is its d o no t i nc lu de h ea lth c he ck s fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e (s ee n ot e a a bo ve ). c P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s in cl ud e an y he al th c he ck p er fo rm ed w hi le in th e he al th fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth (s ee n ot e a ab ov e) , a s w el l a s P N C vi si ts (s ee n ot e b a bo ve ) w ith in tw o da ys o f d el iv er y. d C at eg or y "O th er /M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) Ta bl e R H .1 3: P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s fo r n ew bo rn s 199Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho se la st li ve b irt h re ce iv ed h ea lth c he ck s w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth , p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n w ho se la st li ve b irt h re ce iv ed p os t-n at al c ar e (P N C ) v is its fr om a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r a fte r b irt h, b y tim in g of v is it, an d pe rc en ta ge w ho re ce iv ed p os t n at al h ea lth c he ck s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 H ea lth ch ec k fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or at h om ea PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn sb P os t-n at al he al th ch ec k fo r th e ne w bo rn 1, c N um be r of la st li ve bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s S am e da y 1 da y fo llo w in g bi rth 2 da ys fo llo w in g bi rth 3- 6 da ys fo llo w in g bi rth A fte r t he fir st w ee k fo llo w in g bi rth N o po st - na ta l c ar e vi si t M is si ng /D K To ta l To ta l 93 .1 12 .0 3. 7 2. 7 5. 2 23 .1 52 .1 1. 2 10 0. 0 95 .4 76 9 R eg io n R eg io n 1 81 .9 4. 2 7. 1 5. 5 8. 3 28 .1 44 .8 2. 1 10 0. 0 83 .3 25 R eg io n 2 94 .2 9. 9 4. 2 0. 8 3. 8 40 .5 40 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .2 40 R eg io n 3 99 .1 8. 1 1. 5 0. 7 4. 7 15 .8 69 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 7 R eg io n 4 96 .4 15 .8 2. 9 2. 5 4. 9 28 .8 43 .1 2. 0 10 0. 0 97 .4 32 7 R eg io n 5 98 .0 16 .3 3. 1 2. 9 5. 7 16 .5 55 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 52 R eg io n 6 96 .3 4. 7 3. 2 2. 3 6. 0 13 .3 70 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 73 .9 15 .7 10 .4 2. 8 3. 5 28 .3 36 .0 3. 3 10 0. 0 82 .6 36 R eg io n 9 59 .0 14 .8 10 .5 5. 3 5. 7 16 .8 43 .8 3. 1 10 0. 0 70 .4 44 R eg io n 10 97 .2 4. 3 1. 6 6. 5 6. 3 10 .8 70 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .2 44 A re a U rb an 99 .5 11 .8 2. 7 3. 3 2. 5 24 .9 54 .1 0. 7 10 0. 0 99 .5 18 4 R ur al 91 .1 12 .1 4. 0 2. 5 6. 0 22 .6 51 .5 1. 4 10 0. 0 94 .2 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 97 .1 12 .7 2. 5 2. 5 5. 1 23 .2 52 .8 1. 1 10 0. 0 98 .4 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 99 .4 13 .5 2. 7 3. 9 1. 4 27 .2 50 .4 0. 8 10 0. 0 99 .4 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 96 .3 12 .5 2. 5 2. 1 6. 3 21 .8 53 .6 1. 2 10 0. 0 98 .1 45 3 In te rio r 78 .2 9. 4 7. 9 3. 2 5. 5 23 .0 49 .5 1. 6 10 0. 0 84 .3 16 1 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 95 .1 14 .7 4. 1 3. 6 3. 1 19 .1 54 .7 0. 7 10 0. 0 96 .2 15 1 20 -3 4 93 .8 10 .5 3. 5 2. 6 6. 0 24 .8 51 .2 1. 5 10 0. 0 96 .1 52 3 35 -4 9 86 .2 16 .5 3. 7 1. 6 3. 7 20 .7 53 .2 0. 5 10 0. 0 90 .6 95 Pl ac e of d el iv er yd H om e 24 .8 22 .0 14 .5 4. 2 5. 0 12 .4 40 .8 1. 2 10 0. 0 51 .8 46 H ea lth fa ci lit y 98 .8 11 .2 3. 0 2. 6 5. 2 24 .1 52 .7 1. 2 10 0. 0 99 .2 71 3 P ub lic 98 .5 11 .3 2. 9 2. 6 4. 4 23 .0 54 .7 1. 1 10 0. 0 99 .1 60 5 P riv at e 10 0. 0 11 .2 3. 4 2. 3 10 .0 29 .9 41 .5 1. 6 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 8 Ed uc at io n N on e (7 3. 3) (7 .9 ) (6 .0 ) (2 .7 ) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 0) (7 2. 4) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (8 2. 6) 13 P rim ar y 83 .4 13 .8 9. 4 1. 3 5. 2 21 .3 48 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 90 .3 95 S ec on da ry 94 .4 12 .0 2. 8 2. 9 4. 5 22 .3 54 .0 1. 5 10 0. 0 96 .1 59 0 H ig he r 98 .9 10 .3 2. 4 2. 7 11 .6 34 .6 38 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 83 .4 10 .8 5. 3 2. 6 5. 0 22 .7 52 .7 1. 0 10 0. 0 88 .3 22 7 S ec on d 95 .4 13 .3 3. 7 3. 9 4. 7 22 .3 50 .0 2. 1 10 0. 0 97 .2 17 6 M id dl e 95 .7 13 .3 2. 5 2. 3 4. 4 19 .1 57 .2 1. 2 10 0. 0 97 .9 15 2 Fo ur th 10 0. 0 13 .3 3. 2 1. 8 8. 1 25 .4 48 .0 0. 2 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 4 R ic he st 99 .5 9. 7 2. 2 2. 4 4. 5 28 .9 50 .9 1. 4 10 0. 0 99 .5 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de , f E as t I nd ia n 96 .1 12 .2 3. 2 1. 4 7. 0 20 .8 54 .7 0. 7 10 0. 0 98 .2 25 4 A fri ca n 98 .7 12 .9 2. 9 1. 5 3. 4 24 .0 54 .6 0. 7 10 0. 0 99 .3 23 5 A m er in di an 70 .4 10 .3 9. 3 3. 4 5. 1 24 .3 46 .0 1. 6 10 0. 0 78 .4 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 96 .1 11 .9 1. 6 5. 8 4. 8 24 .9 48 .3 2. 7 10 0. 0 97 .3 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .1 1 - P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck fo r t he n ew bo rn a H ea lth c he ck s by a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r f ol lo w in g fa ci lit y bi rth s (b ef or e di sc ha rg e fro m fa ci lit y) o r f ol lo w in g ho m e bi rth s (b ef or e de pa rtu re o f p ro vi de r fro m h om e) . b P os t-n at al c ar e vi si ts (P N C ) r ef er to a s ep ar at e vi si t b y an y he al th p ro vi de r t o ch ec k on th e he al th o f t he n ew bo rn a nd p ro vi de p re ve nt iv e ca re se rv ic es . P N C v is its d o no t i nc lu de h ea lth c he ck s fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e (s ee n ot e a a bo ve ). c P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s in cl ud e an y he al th c he ck p er fo rm ed w hi le in th e he al th fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth (s ee n ot e a ab ov e) , a s w el l a s P N C vi si ts (s ee n ot e b a bo ve ) w ith in tw o da ys o f d el iv er y. d C at eg or y "O th er /M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho se la st li ve b irt h re ce iv ed h ea lth c he ck s w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth , p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n w ho se la st li ve b irt h re ce iv ed p os t-n at al c ar e (P N C ) v is its fr om a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r a fte r b irt h, b y tim in g of v is it, an d pe rc en ta ge w ho re ce iv ed p os t n at al h ea lth c he ck s, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 H ea lth ch ec k fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or at h om ea PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn sb P os t-n at al he al th ch ec k fo r th e ne w bo rn 1, c N um be r of la st li ve bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s S am e da y 1 da y fo llo w in g bi rth 2 da ys fo llo w in g bi rth 3- 6 da ys fo llo w in g bi rth A fte r t he fir st w ee k fo llo w in g bi rth N o po st - na ta l c ar e vi si t M is si ng /D K To ta l To ta l 93 .1 12 .0 3. 7 2. 7 5. 2 23 .1 52 .1 1. 2 10 0. 0 95 .4 76 9 R eg io n R eg io n 1 81 .9 4. 2 7. 1 5. 5 8. 3 28 .1 44 .8 2. 1 10 0. 0 83 .3 25 R eg io n 2 94 .2 9. 9 4. 2 0. 8 3. 8 40 .5 40 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .2 40 R eg io n 3 99 .1 8. 1 1. 5 0. 7 4. 7 15 .8 69 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 7 R eg io n 4 96 .4 15 .8 2. 9 2. 5 4. 9 28 .8 43 .1 2. 0 10 0. 0 97 .4 32 7 R eg io n 5 98 .0 16 .3 3. 1 2. 9 5. 7 16 .5 55 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 52 R eg io n 6 96 .3 4. 7 3. 2 2. 3 6. 0 13 .3 70 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 94 R eg io ns 7 & 8 73 .9 15 .7 10 .4 2. 8 3. 5 28 .3 36 .0 3. 3 10 0. 0 82 .6 36 R eg io n 9 59 .0 14 .8 10 .5 5. 3 5. 7 16 .8 43 .8 3. 1 10 0. 0 70 .4 44 R eg io n 10 97 .2 4. 3 1. 6 6. 5 6. 3 10 .8 70 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .2 44 A re a U rb an 99 .5 11 .8 2. 7 3. 3 2. 5 24 .9 54 .1 0. 7 10 0. 0 99 .5 18 4 R ur al 91 .1 12 .1 4. 0 2. 5 6. 0 22 .6 51 .5 1. 4 10 0. 0 94 .2 58 5 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 97 .1 12 .7 2. 5 2. 5 5. 1 23 .2 52 .8 1. 1 10 0. 0 98 .4 60 8 U rb an C oa st al 99 .4 13 .5 2. 7 3. 9 1. 4 27 .2 50 .4 0. 8 10 0. 0 99 .4 15 5 R ur al C oa st al 96 .3 12 .5 2. 5 2. 1 6. 3 21 .8 53 .6 1. 2 10 0. 0 98 .1 45 3 In te rio r 78 .2 9. 4 7. 9 3. 2 5. 5 23 .0 49 .5 1. 6 10 0. 0 84 .3 16 1 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 95 .1 14 .7 4. 1 3. 6 3. 1 19 .1 54 .7 0. 7 10 0. 0 96 .2 15 1 20 -3 4 93 .8 10 .5 3. 5 2. 6 6. 0 24 .8 51 .2 1. 5 10 0. 0 96 .1 52 3 35 -4 9 86 .2 16 .5 3. 7 1. 6 3. 7 20 .7 53 .2 0. 5 10 0. 0 90 .6 95 Pl ac e of d el iv er yd H om e 24 .8 22 .0 14 .5 4. 2 5. 0 12 .4 40 .8 1. 2 10 0. 0 51 .8 46 H ea lth fa ci lit y 98 .8 11 .2 3. 0 2. 6 5. 2 24 .1 52 .7 1. 2 10 0. 0 99 .2 71 3 P ub lic 98 .5 11 .3 2. 9 2. 6 4. 4 23 .0 54 .7 1. 1 10 0. 0 99 .1 60 5 P riv at e 10 0. 0 11 .2 3. 4 2. 3 10 .0 29 .9 41 .5 1. 6 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 8 Ed uc at io n N on e (7 3. 3) (7 .9 ) (6 .0 ) (2 .7 ) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 0) (7 2. 4) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (8 2. 6) 13 P rim ar y 83 .4 13 .8 9. 4 1. 3 5. 2 21 .3 48 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 90 .3 95 S ec on da ry 94 .4 12 .0 2. 8 2. 9 4. 5 22 .3 54 .0 1. 5 10 0. 0 96 .1 59 0 H ig he r 98 .9 10 .3 2. 4 2. 7 11 .6 34 .6 38 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 71 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 83 .4 10 .8 5. 3 2. 6 5. 0 22 .7 52 .7 1. 0 10 0. 0 88 .3 22 7 S ec on d 95 .4 13 .3 3. 7 3. 9 4. 7 22 .3 50 .0 2. 1 10 0. 0 97 .2 17 6 M id dl e 95 .7 13 .3 2. 5 2. 3 4. 4 19 .1 57 .2 1. 2 10 0. 0 97 .9 15 2 Fo ur th 10 0. 0 13 .3 3. 2 1. 8 8. 1 25 .4 48 .0 0. 2 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 4 R ic he st 99 .5 9. 7 2. 2 2. 4 4. 5 28 .9 50 .9 1. 4 10 0. 0 99 .5 11 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de , f E as t I nd ia n 96 .1 12 .2 3. 2 1. 4 7. 0 20 .8 54 .7 0. 7 10 0. 0 98 .2 25 4 A fri ca n 98 .7 12 .9 2. 9 1. 5 3. 4 24 .0 54 .6 0. 7 10 0. 0 99 .3 23 5 A m er in di an 70 .4 10 .3 9. 3 3. 4 5. 1 24 .3 46 .0 1. 6 10 0. 0 78 .4 11 3 M ix ed R ac e 96 .1 11 .9 1. 6 5. 8 4. 8 24 .9 48 .3 2. 7 10 0. 0 97 .3 16 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .1 1 - P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck fo r t he n ew bo rn a H ea lth c he ck s by a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r f ol lo w in g fa ci lit y bi rth s (b ef or e di sc ha rg e fro m fa ci lit y) o r f ol lo w in g ho m e bi rth s (b ef or e de pa rtu re o f p ro vi de r fro m h om e) . b P os t-n at al c ar e vi si ts (P N C ) r ef er to a s ep ar at e vi si t b y an y he al th p ro vi de r t o ch ec k on th e he al th o f t he n ew bo rn a nd p ro vi de p re ve nt iv e ca re se rv ic es . P N C v is its d o no t i nc lu de h ea lth c he ck s fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e (s ee n ot e a a bo ve ). c P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s in cl ud e an y he al th c he ck p er fo rm ed w hi le in th e he al th fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth (s ee n ot e a ab ov e) , a s w el l a s P N C vi si ts (s ee n ot e b a bo ve ) w ith in tw o da ys o f d el iv er y. d C at eg or y "O th er /M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e R H .1 3: P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s fo r n ew bo rn s 200 In Table RH.14, the percentage of newborns who received the first PNC visit within one week of birth is shown by location and type of provider of service. As defined above, a visit does not include a check in the facility or at home following birth. In Guyana, 60 percent of the first PNC visits for newborns occur in a public facility, followed by 27 percent at home, and 13 percent in a private facility. The proportions are different according to the location of residence. In interior areas, more than half of the first PNC visits for newborns occur at home (54%), and 46 percent in a public facility; as expected, no PNC visits are made in a private facility as there are no private facilities in interior areas. Home visits are much more prevalent in the interior than on the coast and among newborns living in households with an Amerindian household head than those living in households with a household head of other ethnicities. The majority (86%) of the first PNC visits for newborns are provided by either a doctor/nurse/midwife in Guyana, while ten (10) percent of newborns are seen by a community health worker, and five (5) percent by a Medex. However, in the interior areas, only 45 percent are provided by a doctor/nurse/midwife, 40 percent by a community health worker, and 14 percent by a Medex. This is in stark contrast with newborns living in the urban areas and coastal areas, in which case almost all are attended by a doctor/nurse/ midwife (98-100%). A great majority (82%) of the rural newborns are also attended by a doctor/nurse/ midwife. It should be pointed out that coastal areas are linear and contiguous and are more easily accessible. On the other hand, interior communities are nucleated and scattered in either riverain or hilly/mountainous areas and are not easily accessible, both in terms of time and cost. In addition, the level of health care provided in the interior areas is largely at the primary level (facilities and personnel). 201Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table RH.14: Post-natal care visits for newborns within one week of birth Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years whose last live birth received a post-natal care (PNC) visit within one week of birth, by location and provider of the first PNC visit, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Location of first PNC visit for newborns Total Provider of first PNC visit for newborns Total Number of last live births in the last two years with a PNC visit within the first week of life Home Public Sector Private sector Other location Missing Doctor/ nurse/ midwife Medex Community health worker Total 26.9 59.7 12.6 0.4 0.5 100.0 85.6 4.8 9.6 100.0 181 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 52.5 47.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 38.9 16.1 44.9 100.0 34 Regions 2, 3 (17.6) (71.0) (9.5) (0.0) (1.9) 100.0 (93.5) (2.1) (4.4) 100.0 24 Region 4 12.6 62.6 23.6 0.8 0.5 100.0 97.4 2.6 0.0 100.0 85 Regions 5, 6 (39.7) (59.2) (1.1) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (96.7) (1.6) (1.7) 100.0 30 Region 10 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 8 Area Urban 15.7 68.0 16.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 37 Rural 29.8 57.6 11.6 0.5 0.6 100.0 81.9 6.0 12.1 100.0 144 Location Coastal 18.8 63.7 16.3 0.5 0.6 100.0 97.7 2.0 0.4 100.0 139 Urban Coastal (15.4) (66.4) (18.2) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 33 Rural Coastal 19.9 62.9 15.7 0.6 0.8 100.0 96.9 2.6 0.5 100.0 106 Interior 53.7 46.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 45.4 14.2 40.4 100.0 42 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 32.5 64.9 2.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 87.1 1.5 11.4 100.0 38 20-34 26.6 55.4 16.6 0.6 0.8 100.0 83.9 6.0 10.1 100.0 118 35-49 (19.1) (72.3) (8.6) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (91.5) (3.9) (4.6) 100.0 24 Place of deliveryb Home (73.6) (26.4) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (29.2) (15.0) (55.8) 100.0 21 Health facility 21.0 63.6 14.5 0.4 0.6 100.0 93.0 3.5 3.5 100.0 157 Public 22.1 77.0 0.0 0.5 0.3 100.0 91.4 4.3 4.3 100.0 128 Private (16.0) (4.9) (77.6) (0.0) (1.5) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 29 Education None (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Primary 41.2 55.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 79.1 6.7 14.2 100.0 28 Secondary 26.6 60.9 11.3 0.5 0.7 100.0 86.1 4.4 9.6 100.0 131 Higher (8.4) (55.9) (35.7) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (98.3) (1.7) (0.0) 100.0 19 Wealth indexc Poorest 40% 32.2 64.2 2.5 0.7 0.5 100.0 75.9 6.4 17.6 100.0 99 Richest 60% 20.5 54.3 24.6 0.0 0.5 100.0 97.2 2.8 0.0 100.0 82 Ethnicity of household headd, e East Indian 24.0 53.8 20.4 1.1 0.7 100.0 94.6 4.5 0.8 100.0 60 African 7.1 82.9 9.1 0.0 0.9 100.0 99.2 0.4 0.4 100.0 49 Amerindian 58.0 42.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 36.0 14.5 49.5 100.0 32 Mixed Race 30.8 55.2 14.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 94.8 2.9 2.4 100.0 40 a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c Wealth index have been grouped into two categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile dThis is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head. eCategory "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 202 Tables RH.15 and RH.16 present information collected on post-natal health checks and visits of the mother and are identical to Tables RH.13 and RH.14 that presented the data collected for newborns. Table RH.15 presents a pattern very similar to Table RH.13. Overall, 92 percent of mothers receive a health check following birth while in a facility or at home. With regards to PNC visits, the largest proportion of mothers received such visits only after the first week following the birth (16%). More than two-thirds of mothers do not receive any PNC visit (68%), and only 13 percent of such visits take place within the first two days following delivery. In total, 93 percent of all mothers receive a post-natal health check, that is, a health check while in facility or at home following delivery or a post-natal visit within two days after delivery. As with newborns, this percentage is lower in Regions 1, 7 & 8, and 9 (82%, 75% and 63% respectively), compared to the rest of the regions (94-98%). Again, it should be noted that, although coverage of health checks following birth while in health facility or at home in Regions 3, 6 and 10 is generally high (93-98%),about three out of four mothers (74-79%) in these regions Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who received health checks while in facility or at home following birth, percent distribution who received post-natal care (PNC) visits from any health provider after birth at the time of last birth, by timing of visit, and percentage who received post natal health checks, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Health check following birth while in facility or at homea PNC visit for mothersb Post- natal health check for the mother1, c Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Same day 1 day following birth 2 days following birth 3-6 days following birth After the first week following birth No post- natal care visit Missing /DK Total Total 91.7 7.3 2.8 2.7 3.2 16.0 67.6 0.4 100.0 93.0 769 Region Region 1 80.8 3.6 5.3 2.5 7.4 20.5 59.2 1.4 100.0 82.2 25 Region 2 92.3 4.2 3.5 0.8 2.4 28.0 59.9 1.0 100.0 94.3 40 Region 3 93.1 4.9 0.6 0.9 3.4 10.9 79.4 0.0 100.0 94.1 107 Region 4 96.3 8.8 2.8 1.8 1.5 20.1 64.5 0.4 100.0 97.1 327 Region 5 93.7 17.6 5.4 2.9 3.8 8.8 61.6 0.0 100.0 94.8 52 Region 6 97.7 0.5 2.7 4.7 5.6 8.2 78.3 0.0 100.0 98.2 94 Regions 7 & 8 69.7 9.0 4.2 2.3 3.3 22.6 56.1 2.4 100.0 74.8 36 Region 9 56.6 11.5 3.4 6.6 7.1 10.4 61.0 0.0 100.0 62.9 44 Region 10 97.1 3.1 1.6 7.4 2.8 10.8 74.3 0.0 100.0 97.1 44 Area Urban 98.3 6.9 3.5 3.5 2.6 19.7 63.5 0.4 100.0 98.3 184 Rural 89.6 7.4 2.6 2.4 3.3 14.9 68.9 0.4 100.0 91.4 585 Location Coastal 95.7 7.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 15.9 68.8 0.3 100.0 96.5 608 Urban Coastal 98.2 7.5 3.7 4.2 2.3 20.8 61.2 0.5 100.0 98.2 155 Rural Coastal 94.8 7.3 2.0 2.0 2.8 14.2 71.4 0.2 100.0 95.9 453 Interior 76.4 7.0 4.3 3.2 5.0 16.7 63.1 0.8 100.0 80.0 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 91.4 3.9 2.3 3.6 2.7 13.5 73.7 0.4 100.0 92.7 151 20-34 92.5 8.1 2.9 2.4 3.4 17.4 65.4 0.4 100.0 93.9 523 35-49 87.4 8.3 2.9 3.2 2.4 12.7 70.1 0.5 100.0 88.8 95 Place of deliveryd Home 24.8 21.4 4.3 5.6 5.0 6.7 56.2 0.8 100.0 43.0 46 Health facility 97.2 6.2 2.7 2.5 3.1 16.8 68.3 0.4 100.0 97.2 713 Public 96.8 5.2 2.8 2.8 2.7 14.3 71.8 0.3 100.0 96.8 605 Private 99.1 11.7 2.4 0.9 5.0 30.7 48.7 0.7 100.0 99.1 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 90.3 7.1 2.5 2.8 2.8 12.9 71.4 0.4 100.0 92.0 638 C-section 98.2 8.0 4.1 2.2 4.7 31.2 49.2 0.6 100.0 98.2 131 Education None (73.3) (10.7) (0.0) (0.0) (3.2) (1.2) (84.8) (0.0) 100.0 (76.6) 13 Primary 83.8 7.1 2.9 6.5 2.2 11.5 68.0 1.7 100.0 87.5 95 Secondary 92.4 7.0 3.1 2.3 3.1 15.5 68.7 0.2 100.0 93.5 590 Higher 99.3 8.8 0.8 1.8 4.4 29.1 55.1 0.0 100.0 99.3 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 80.7 6.5 4.4 2.2 4.1 13.1 69.2 0.5 100.0 83.8 227 Second 92.6 7.3 0.7 3.4 0.7 16.6 70.7 0.6 100.0 94.1 176 Middle 96.0 9.6 2.1 2.7 3.4 10.8 71.2 0.1 100.0 96.6 152 Fourth 100.0 5.1 4.8 3.3 4.1 21.3 61.4 0.0 100.0 100.0 104 Richest 98.8 7.7 2.0 1.9 3.8 23.5 60.3 0.7 100.0 98.8 110 Ethnicity of household heade, f East Indian 96.7 6.3 2.5 2.5 3.4 15.9 69.4 0.0 100.0 97.9 254 African 95.4 7.8 2.8 2.5 2.6 14.9 69.5 0.0 100.0 96.0 235 Amerindian 68.5 8.3 4.2 3.3 5.0 13.2 65.0 1.0 100.0 73.4 113 Mixed Race 94.2 7.6 2.3 2.9 2.4 19.6 64.0 1.2 100.0 94.7 164 1 MICS indicator 5.12 - Post-natal health check for the mother a Health checks by any health provider following facility births (before discharge from facility) or following home births (before departure of provider from home). b Post-natal care visits (PNC) refer to a separate visit by any health provider to check on the health of the mother and provide preventive care services. PNC visits do not include health checks following birth while in facility or at home (see note a above). c Post-natal health checks include any health check performed while in the health facility or at home following birth (see note a above), as well as PNC visits (see note b above) within two days of delivery. d Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases e This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head f Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (Continued)Table RH.15: Post-natal health checks for mothers 203Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | do not receive any PNC visit. Mothers in interior areas are less likely to receive a health check following birth than mothers in coastal areas (76 compared to 96%). There is a positive correlation between health check following birth and both education and household wealth; however, there is no clear pattern with regards to timely PNC visits. Health checks following birth occur mainly in health facility deliveries (97% public, 99% private), whereas for mothers delivering at home the figure is only 25 percent. In addition, as was the case for newborns but with even higher proportions, 56 percent of mothers who delivered at home do not receive any PNC visit, resulting in only 43 percent of mothers receiving post-natal health checks. The difference between the data for newborns and mothers is that the overall percentage of PNC visits as well as that of timely PNC visits is lower for mothers than for newborns. Studying only those mothers who did not receive a PNC visit, the percentage is much higher for mothers (68%) than for newborns (52%). Mothers from households with an Amerindian household head are less likely to receive a health check following birth than those from households with a household head of other ethnicities (69% compared to 94-97%). Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who received health checks while in facility or at home following birth, percent distribution who received post-natal care (PNC) visits from any health provider after birth at the time of last birth, by timing of visit, and percentage who received post natal health checks, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Health check following birth while in facility or at homea PNC visit for mothersb Post- natal health check for the mother1, c Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Same day 1 day following birth 2 days following birth 3-6 days following birth After the first week following birth No post- natal care visit Missing /DK Total Total 91.7 7.3 2.8 2.7 3.2 16.0 67.6 0.4 100.0 93.0 769 Region Region 1 80.8 3.6 5.3 2.5 7.4 20.5 59.2 1.4 100.0 82.2 25 Region 2 92.3 4.2 3.5 0.8 2.4 28.0 59.9 1.0 100.0 94.3 40 Region 3 93.1 4.9 0.6 0.9 3.4 10.9 79.4 0.0 100.0 94.1 107 Region 4 96.3 8.8 2.8 1.8 1.5 20.1 64.5 0.4 100.0 97.1 327 Region 5 93.7 17.6 5.4 2.9 3.8 8.8 61.6 0.0 100.0 94.8 52 Region 6 97.7 0.5 2.7 4.7 5.6 8.2 78.3 0.0 100.0 98.2 94 Regions 7 & 8 69.7 9.0 4.2 2.3 3.3 22.6 56.1 2.4 100.0 74.8 36 Region 9 56.6 11.5 3.4 6.6 7.1 10.4 61.0 0.0 100.0 62.9 44 Region 10 97.1 3.1 1.6 7.4 2.8 10.8 74.3 0.0 100.0 97.1 44 Area Urban 98.3 6.9 3.5 3.5 2.6 19.7 63.5 0.4 100.0 98.3 184 Rural 89.6 7.4 2.6 2.4 3.3 14.9 68.9 0.4 100.0 91.4 585 Location Coastal 95.7 7.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 15.9 68.8 0.3 100.0 96.5 608 Urban Coastal 98.2 7.5 3.7 4.2 2.3 20.8 61.2 0.5 100.0 98.2 155 Rural Coastal 94.8 7.3 2.0 2.0 2.8 14.2 71.4 0.2 100.0 95.9 453 Interior 76.4 7.0 4.3 3.2 5.0 16.7 63.1 0.8 100.0 80.0 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 91.4 3.9 2.3 3.6 2.7 13.5 73.7 0.4 100.0 92.7 151 20-34 92.5 8.1 2.9 2.4 3.4 17.4 65.4 0.4 100.0 93.9 523 35-49 87.4 8.3 2.9 3.2 2.4 12.7 70.1 0.5 100.0 88.8 95 Place of deliveryd Home 24.8 21.4 4.3 5.6 5.0 6.7 56.2 0.8 100.0 43.0 46 Health facility 97.2 6.2 2.7 2.5 3.1 16.8 68.3 0.4 100.0 97.2 713 Public 96.8 5.2 2.8 2.8 2.7 14.3 71.8 0.3 100.0 96.8 605 Private 99.1 11.7 2.4 0.9 5.0 30.7 48.7 0.7 100.0 99.1 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 90.3 7.1 2.5 2.8 2.8 12.9 71.4 0.4 100.0 92.0 638 C-section 98.2 8.0 4.1 2.2 4.7 31.2 49.2 0.6 100.0 98.2 131 Education None (73.3) (10.7) (0.0) (0.0) (3.2) (1.2) (84.8) (0.0) 100.0 (76.6) 13 Primary 83.8 7.1 2.9 6.5 2.2 11.5 68.0 1.7 100.0 87.5 95 Secondary 92.4 7.0 3.1 2.3 3.1 15.5 68.7 0.2 100.0 93.5 590 Higher 99.3 8.8 0.8 1.8 4.4 29.1 55.1 0.0 100.0 99.3 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 80.7 6.5 4.4 2.2 4.1 13.1 69.2 0.5 100.0 83.8 227 Second 92.6 7.3 0.7 3.4 0.7 16.6 70.7 0.6 100.0 94.1 176 Middle 96.0 9.6 2.1 2.7 3.4 10.8 71.2 0.1 100.0 96.6 152 Fourth 100.0 5.1 4.8 3.3 4.1 21.3 61.4 0.0 100.0 100.0 104 Richest 98.8 7.7 2.0 1.9 3.8 23.5 60.3 0.7 100.0 98.8 110 Ethnicity of household heade, f East Indian 96.7 6.3 2.5 2.5 3.4 15.9 69.4 0.0 100.0 97.9 254 African 95.4 7.8 2.8 2.5 2.6 14.9 69.5 0.0 100.0 96.0 235 Amerindian 68.5 8.3 4.2 3.3 5.0 13.2 65.0 1.0 100.0 73.4 113 Mixed Race 94.2 7.6 2.3 2.9 2.4 19.6 64.0 1.2 100.0 94.7 164 1 MICS indicator 5.12 - Post-natal health check for the mother a Health checks by any health provider following facility births (before discharge from facility) or following home births (before departure of provider from home). b Post-natal care visits (PNC) refer to a separate visit by any health provider to check on the health of the mother and provide preventive care services. PNC visits do not include health checks following birth while in facility or at home (see note a above). c Post-natal health checks include any health check performed while in the health facility or at home following birth (see note a above), as well as PNC visits (see note b above) within two days of delivery. d Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases e This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head f Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who received health checks while in facility or at home following birth, percent distribution who received post-natal care (PNC) visits from any health provider after birth at the time of last birth, by timing of visit, and percentage who received post natal health checks, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Health check following birth while in facility or at homea PNC visit for mothersb Post- natal health check for the mother1, c Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Same day 1 day following birth 2 days following birth 3-6 days following birth After the first week following birth No post- natal care visit Missing /DK Total Total 91.7 7.3 2.8 2.7 3.2 16.0 67.6 0.4 100.0 93.0 769 Region Region 1 80.8 3.6 5.3 2.5 7.4 20.5 59.2 1.4 100.0 82.2 25 Region 2 92.3 4.2 3.5 0.8 2.4 28.0 59.9 1.0 100.0 94.3 40 Region 3 93.1 4.9 0.6 0.9 3.4 10.9 79.4 0.0 100.0 94.1 107 Region 4 96.3 8.8 2.8 1.8 1.5 20.1 64.5 0.4 100.0 97.1 327 Region 5 93.7 17.6 5.4 2.9 3.8 8.8 61.6 0.0 100.0 94.8 52 Region 6 97.7 0.5 2.7 4.7 5.6 8.2 78.3 0.0 100.0 98.2 94 Regions 7 & 8 69.7 9.0 4.2 2.3 3.3 22.6 56.1 2.4 100.0 74.8 36 Region 9 56.6 11.5 3.4 6.6 7.1 10.4 61.0 0.0 100.0 62.9 44 Region 10 97.1 3.1 1.6 7.4 2.8 10.8 74.3 0.0 100.0 97.1 44 Area Urban 98.3 6.9 3.5 3.5 2.6 19.7 63.5 0.4 100.0 98.3 184 Rural 89.6 7.4 2.6 2.4 3.3 14.9 68.9 0.4 100.0 91.4 585 Location Coastal 95.7 7.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 15.9 68.8 0.3 100.0 96.5 608 Urban Coastal 98.2 7.5 3.7 4.2 2.3 20.8 61.2 0.5 100.0 98.2 155 Rural Coastal 94.8 7.3 2.0 2.0 2.8 14.2 71.4 0.2 100.0 95.9 453 Interior 76.4 7.0 4.3 3.2 5.0 16.7 63.1 0.8 100.0 80.0 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 91.4 3.9 2.3 3.6 2.7 13.5 73.7 0.4 100.0 92.7 151 20-34 92.5 8.1 2.9 2.4 3.4 17.4 65.4 0.4 100.0 93.9 523 35-49 87.4 8.3 2.9 3.2 2.4 12.7 70.1 0.5 100.0 88.8 95 Place of deliveryd Home 24.8 21.4 4.3 5.6 5.0 6.7 56.2 0.8 100.0 43.0 46 Health facility 97.2 6.2 2.7 2.5 3.1 16.8 68.3 0.4 100.0 97.2 713 Public 96.8 5.2 2.8 2.8 2.7 14.3 71.8 0.3 100.0 96.8 605 Private 99.1 11.7 2.4 0.9 5.0 30.7 48.7 0.7 100.0 99.1 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 90.3 7.1 2.5 2.8 2.8 12.9 71.4 0.4 100.0 92.0 638 C-section 98.2 8.0 4.1 2.2 4.7 31.2 49.2 0.6 100.0 98.2 131 Education None (73.3) (10.7) (0.0) (0.0) (3.2) (1.2) (84.8) (0.0) 100.0 (76.6) 13 Primary 83.8 7.1 2.9 6.5 2.2 11.5 68.0 1.7 100.0 87.5 95 Secondary 92.4 7.0 3.1 2.3 3.1 15.5 68.7 0.2 100.0 93.5 590 Higher 99.3 8.8 0.8 1.8 4.4 29.1 55.1 0.0 100.0 99.3 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 80.7 6.5 4.4 2.2 4.1 13.1 69.2 0.5 100.0 83.8 227 Second 92.6 7.3 0.7 3.4 0.7 16.6 70.7 0.6 100.0 94.1 176 Middle 96.0 9.6 2.1 2.7 3.4 10.8 71.2 0.1 100.0 96.6 152 Fourth 100.0 5.1 4.8 3.3 4.1 21.3 61.4 0.0 100.0 100.0 104 Richest 98.8 7.7 2.0 1.9 3.8 23.5 60.3 0.7 100.0 98.8 110 Ethnicity of household heade, f East Indian 96.7 6.3 2.5 2.5 3.4 15.9 69.4 0.0 100.0 97.9 254 African 95.4 7.8 2.8 2.5 2.6 14.9 69.5 0.0 100.0 96.0 235 Amerindian 68.5 8.3 4.2 3.3 5.0 13.2 65.0 1.0 100.0 73.4 113 Mixed Race 94.2 7.6 2.3 2.9 2.4 19.6 64.0 1.2 100.0 94.7 164 1 MICS indicator 5.12 - Post-natal health check for the mother a Health checks by any health provider following facility births (before discharge from facility) or following home births (before departure of provider from home). b Post-natal care visits (PNC) refer to a separate visit by any health provider to check on the health of the mother and provide preventive care services. PNC visits do not include health checks following birth while in facility or at home (see note a above). c Post-natal health checks include any health check performed while in the health facility or at home following birth (see note a above), as well as PNC visits (see note b above) within two days of delivery. d Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases e This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head f Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.15: Post-natal health checks for mothers 204 visit, whereas for four (4) percent of births, neither receives health checks or timely visits. There are large variations across the background characteristics. Urban births (98%) are slightly better served with health checks or timely visits as compared to rural births (90%), and coastal births (96%) are much better served as compared to interior births (79%). For 15 percent of births in interior areas, neither the mother nor the newborn receive any post-natal health check. The figures for the regions vary from 61 percent in Region 9 to 98 percent in Region 6. In Region 9, no post-natal health check is made for either the mother or the newborn in 28 percent of births. Whereas nearly all births taking place in a health facility (97%) are provided with post-natal health checks for both the mother and the newborn, only 41 percent of home births access such service. Nearly half of home births (46%) do not receive any post-natal health checks. There are correlations to household wealth and the education of the woman relative to post-natal health checks for both the mother and the newborn. The proportion of births with post-natal health checks is low among women with primary education compared to those with secondary or higher education. The findings are similar among women from the poorest households, compared to those from the richest households. The proportion of births without any post-natal health checks increases with the mother’s age: nine (9) percent of births whose mother is aged between 35-49 years do not receive post-natal health checks, compared with two (2) percent of births whose mother is aged less than 20 years. Up to 20 percent of births in households with an Amerindian household head do not receive any post-natal health checks, compared to one (1) to three (3) percent of births in households with a household head of the other ethnicities. With regard to patterns on health checks or timely PNC visits for either the mother or the newborn alone, there is generally a higher level of coverage for newborns. Table RH.16 matches Table RH.14, but now deals with PNC visits for mothers by location and type of provider. As defined above, a visit does not include a check in the facility or at home following birth. The patterns among women are similar to those among newborns. Overall, 53 percent of the first PNC visits occur in a public facility, followed by 32 percent at home, and 15 percent in a private facility. In interior areas, the majority, nearly two-thirds, of the first PNC visits for mothers occur at home (63%), 37 percent in a public facility, and as noted in the case of newborns, no PNC visits are made in a private facility as there are no private facilities in interior areas. On the other hand, in coastal areas, the majority (59%) of the first PNC visits are made in a public facility, 21 percent at home, and 20 percent in a private facility. With regards to provider of the first PNC visit for mothers, as is the case for newborns, the majority (79%) are provided by a doctor/nurse/midwife. However, only 45 percent of these visits are provided by any of those health professionals in the interior areas, compared to 91 percent in the coastal areas. The other common providers seen by interior women are community health workers (37%), followed by Medex (18%). Due to the small number of women with a live birth in the last two years who received a PNC visit within the first week of birth, only limited comparison can be made across different background characteristics. Table RH.17 presents the distribution of women with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by receipt of health checks or PNC visits within two days of birth for the mother and the newborn, thus combining the indicators presented in Tables RH.13 and RH.15. The Guyana MICS5 shows that for 92 percent of live births, both the mothers and their newborns receive either a health check following birth or a timely PNC 205Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table RH.16: Post-natal care visits for mothers within one week of birth Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who received a post-natal care (PNC) visit within one week of birth, by location and provider of the first PNC visit, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Location of first PNC visit for mothers Total Provider of first PNC visit for mothers Total Number of women with a live birth in the last two years who received a PNC visit within one week of birth Home Public Sector Private sector Doctor/ nurse/ midwife Single midwife Medex Community health worker Total 32.0 53.0 14.9 100.0 78.7 5.0 6.3 10.0 100.0 123 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 60.9 39.1 0.0 100.0 38.3 0.0 19.7 41.9 100.0 24 Regions 2, 3 (20.3) (70.5) (9.2) 100.0 (87.5) (2.2) (3.4) (6.9) 100.0 15 Region 4 11.8 53.7 34.5 100.0 96.0 0.9 3.2 0.0 100.0 49 Regions 5, 6 (41.6) (58.4) (0.0) 100.0 (84.4) (10.5) (3.3) (1.8) 100.0 28 Region 10 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 7 Area Urban (19.3) (57.2) (23.5) 100.0 (89.4) (10.6) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 30 Rural 36.2 51.7 12.1 100.0 75.2 3.1 8.4 13.3 100.0 92 Location Coastal 21.4 58.5 20.1 100.0 90.5 6.7 2.3 0.6 100.0 91 Urban Coastal (18.9) (54.9) (26.2) 100.0 (88.2) (11.8) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 27 Rural Coastal 22.4 60.1 17.5 100.0 91.5 4.5 3.2 0.8 100.0 64 Interior 62.9 37.1 0.0 100.0 44.6 0.0 18.1 37.3 100.0 31 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 (51.6) (43.1) (5.3) 100.0 (71.6) (0.0) (5.8) (22.6) 100.0 19 20-34 29.8 52.8 17.5 100.0 78.6 6.3 6.9 8.2 100.0 88 35-49 (21.6) (66.2) (12.2) 100.0 (87.9) (3.5) (3.8) (4.8) 100.0 16 Place of deliveryb Home (74.2) (25.8) (0.0) 100.0 (28.0) (5.8) (17.2) (49.0) 100.0 17 Health facility 25.8 56.5 17.7 100.0 86.6 4.9 4.7 3.8 100.0 104 Public 28.6 71.4 0.0 100.0 83.1 6.2 5.9 4.8 100.0 82 Private (14.9) (0.0) (85.1) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 22 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 33.4 59.4 7.2 100.0 75.8 3.8 7.9 12.5 100.0 98 C-section (26.6) (28.0) (45.3) 100.0 (90.3) (9.7) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 25 Education None (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Primary (54.0) (40.0) (6.0) 100.0 (68.6) (3.2) (10.3) (18.0) 100.0 18 Secondary 30.1 57.2 12.7 100.0 78.4 6.0 5.7 9.8 100.0 92 Higher (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 11 Wealth indexc Poorest 40% 44.9 53.3 1.9 100.0 63.4 6.2 10.1 20.3 100.0 60 Richest 60% 19.6 52.8 27.6 100.0 93.6 3.8 2.6 0.0 100.0 62 Ethnicity of household headd East Indian 33.6 42.2 24.3 100.0 87.9 5.2 5.5 1.4 100.0 37 African 9.6 82.8 7.6 100.0 97.4 2.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 37 Amerindian 67.6 32.4 0.0 100.0 33.6 0.0 21.3 45.1 100.0 23 Mixed Race (29.2) (45.0) (25.8) 100.0 (80.0) (13.6) (2.7) (3.7) 100.0 25 a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases cWealth index have been grouped into three categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile dThis is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table RH.16: Post-natal care visits for mothers within one week of birth Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who received a post-natal care (PNC) visit within one week of birth, by location and provider of the first PNC visit, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Location of first PNC visit for mothers Total Provider of first PNC visit for mothers Total Number of women with a live birth in the last two years who received a PNC visit within one week of birth Home Public Sector Private sector Doctor/ nurse/ midwife Single midwife Medex Community health worker Total 32.0 53.0 14.9 100.0 78.7 5.0 6.3 10.0 100.0 123 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 60.9 39.1 0.0 100.0 38.3 0.0 19.7 41.9 100.0 24 Regions 2, 3 (20.3) (70.5) (9.2) 100.0 (87.5) (2.2) (3.4) (6.9) 100.0 15 Region 4 11.8 53.7 34.5 100.0 96.0 0.9 3.2 0.0 100.0 49 Regions 5, 6 (41.6) (58.4) (0.0) 100.0 (84.4) (10.5) (3.3) (1.8) 100.0 28 Region 10 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 7 Area Urban (19.3) (57.2) (23.5) 100.0 (89.4) (10.6) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 30 Rural 36.2 51.7 12.1 100.0 75.2 3.1 8.4 13.3 100.0 92 Location Coastal 21.4 58.5 20.1 100.0 90.5 6.7 2.3 0.6 100.0 91 Urban Coastal (18.9) (54.9) (26.2) 100.0 (88.2) (11.8) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 27 Rural Coastal 22.4 60.1 17.5 100.0 91.5 4.5 3.2 0.8 100.0 64 Interior 62.9 37.1 0.0 100.0 44.6 0.0 18.1 37.3 100.0 31 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 (51.6) (43.1) (5.3) 100.0 (71.6) (0.0) (5.8) (22.6) 100.0 19 20-34 29.8 52.8 17.5 100.0 78.6 6.3 6.9 8.2 100.0 88 35-49 (21.6) (66.2) (12.2) 100.0 (87.9) (3.5) (3.8) (4.8) 100.0 16 Place of deliveryb Home (74.2) (25.8) (0.0) 100.0 (28.0) (5.8) (17.2) (49.0) 100.0 17 Health facility 25.8 56.5 17.7 100.0 86.6 4.9 4.7 3.8 100.0 104 Public 28.6 71.4 0.0 100.0 83.1 6.2 5.9 4.8 100.0 82 Private (14.9) (0.0) (85.1) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 22 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 33.4 59.4 7.2 100.0 75.8 3.8 7.9 12.5 100.0 98 C-section (26.6) (28.0) (45.3) 100.0 (90.3) (9.7) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 25 Education None (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Primary (54.0) (40.0) (6.0) 100.0 (68.6) (3.2) (10.3) (18.0) 100.0 18 Secondary 30.1 57.2 12.7 100.0 78.4 6.0 5.7 9.8 100.0 92 Higher (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 11 Wealth indexc Poorest 40% 44.9 53.3 1.9 100.0 63.4 6.2 10.1 20.3 100.0 60 Richest 60% 19.6 52.8 27.6 100.0 93.6 3.8 2.6 0.0 100.0 62 Ethnicity of household headd East Indian 33.6 42.2 24.3 100.0 87.9 5.2 5.5 1.4 100.0 37 African 9.6 82.8 7.6 100.0 97.4 2.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 37 Amerindian 67.6 32.4 0.0 100.0 33.6 0.0 21.3 45.1 100.0 23 Mixed Race (29.2) (45.0) (25.8) 100.0 (80.0) (13.6) (2.7) (3.7) 100.0 25 a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases cWealth index have been grouped into three categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile dThis is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table RH.16: Post-natal care visits for mothers within one week of birth Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who received a post-natal care (PNC) visit within one week of birth, by location and provider of the first PNC visit, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Location of first PNC visit for mothers Total Provider of first PNC visit for mothers Total Number of women with a live birth in the last two years who received a PNC visit within one week of birth Home Public Sector Private sector Doctor/ nurse/ midwife Single midwife Medex Community health worker Total 32.0 53.0 14.9 100.0 78.7 5.0 6.3 10.0 100.0 123 Regiona Regions 1, 7, 8, 9 60.9 39.1 0.0 100.0 38.3 0.0 19.7 41.9 100.0 24 Regions 2, 3 (20.3) (70.5) (9.2) 100.0 (87.5) (2.2) (3.4) (6.9) 100.0 15 Region 4 11.8 53.7 34.5 100.0 96.0 0.9 3.2 0.0 100.0 49 Regions 5, 6 (41.6) (58.4) (0.0) 100.0 (84.4) (10.5) (3.3) (1.8) 100.0 28 Region 10 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 7 Area Urban (19.3) (57.2) (23.5) 100.0 (89.4) (10.6) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 30 Rural 36.2 51.7 12.1 100.0 75.2 3.1 8.4 13.3 100.0 92 Location Coastal 21.4 58.5 20.1 100.0 90.5 6.7 2.3 0.6 100.0 91 Urban Coastal (18.9) (54.9) (26.2) 100.0 (88.2) (11.8) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 27 Rural Coastal 22.4 60.1 17.5 100.0 91.5 4.5 3.2 0.8 100.0 64 Interior 62.9 37.1 0.0 100.0 44.6 0.0 18.1 37.3 100.0 31 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 (51.6) (43.1) (5.3) 100.0 (71.6) (0.0) (5.8) (22.6) 100.0 19 20-34 29.8 52.8 17.5 100.0 78.6 6.3 6.9 8.2 100.0 88 35-49 (21.6) (66.2) (12.2) 100.0 (87.9) (3.5) (3.8) (4.8) 100.0 16 Place of deliveryb Home (74.2) (25.8) (0.0) 100.0 (28.0) (5.8) (17.2) (49.0) 100.0 17 Health facility 25.8 56.5 17.7 100.0 86.6 4.9 4.7 3.8 100.0 104 Public 28.6 71.4 0.0 100.0 83.1 6.2 5.9 4.8 100.0 82 Private (14.9) (0.0) (85.1) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 22 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 33.4 59.4 7.2 100.0 75.8 3.8 7.9 12.5 100.0 98 C-section (26.6) (28.0) (45.3) 100.0 (90.3) (9.7) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 25 Education None (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Primary (54.0) (40.0) (6.0) 100.0 (68.6) (3.2) (10.3) (18.0) 100.0 18 Secondary 30.1 57.2 12.7 100.0 78.4 6.0 5.7 9.8 100.0 92 Higher (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 11 Wealth indexc Poorest 40% 44.9 53.3 1.9 100.0 63.4 6.2 10.1 20.3 100.0 60 Richest 60% 19.6 52.8 27.6 100.0 93.6 3.8 2.6 0.0 100.0 62 Ethnicity of household headd East Indian 33.6 42.2 24.3 100.0 87.9 5.2 5.5 1.4 100.0 37 African 9.6 82.8 7.6 100.0 97.4 2.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 37 Amerindian 67.6 32.4 0.0 100.0 33.6 0.0 21.3 45.1 100.0 23 Mixed Race (29.2) (45.0) (25.8) 100.0 (80.0) (13.6) (2.7) (3.7) 100.0 25 a Regions with similar characteristics have been merged into regional groupings because of the small number of cases in individual regions b Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases cWealth index have been grouped into three categories instead of five because of the small number of cases by quintile dThis is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 206 Table RH.17: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborns Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by post-natal health checks for the mother and newborn, within two days of the most recent birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Post-natal health checks within two days of birth for: Missing Total Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Both mothers and newborns Mothers only Newborns only Neither mother nor newborn Total 92.2 0.6 3.0 4.0 0.2 100.0 769 Region Region 1 82.2 0.0 1.1 16.7 0.0 100.0 25 Region 2 94.3 0.0 1.9 3.8 0.0 100.0 40 Region 3 94.1 0.0 5.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 107 Region 4 95.9 0.8 1.1 1.8 0.4 100.0 327 Region 5 94.8 0.0 5.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 52 Region 6 98.2 0.0 1.3 0.5 0.0 100.0 94 Regions 7 & 8 71.6 2.0 9.8 15.4 1.2 100.0 36 Region 9 61.1 1.8 9.3 27.8 0.0 100.0 44 Region 10 96.5 0.6 0.7 2.2 0.0 100.0 44 Area Urban 98.2 0.0 1.1 0.5 0.2 100.0 184 Rural 90.3 0.8 3.6 5.1 0.3 100.0 585 Location Coastal 95.8 0.4 2.3 1.2 0.2 100.0 608 Urban Coastal 98.0 0.0 1.1 0.6 0.2 100.0 155 Rural Coastal 95.1 0.6 2.8 1.3 0.2 100.0 453 Interior 78.6 1.1 5.4 14.6 0.3 100.0 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 90.7 1.8 5.3 2.0 0.1 100.0 151 20-34 93.4 0.3 2.5 3.6 0.2 100.0 523 35-49 88.3 0.0 1.8 9.4 0.5 100.0 95 Place of deliverya Home 40.6 2.4 11.2 45.8 0.0 100.0 46 Health facility 96.5 0.5 2.5 0.3 0.3 100.0 713 Public 96.1 0.5 2.8 0.4 0.2 100.0 605 Private 98.4 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.7 100.0 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 91.2 0.7 3.2 4.8 0.2 100.0 638 C-section 97.4 0.2 1.8 0.0 0.6 100.0 131 Education None (76.6) (0.0) (6.0) (17.4) (0.0) 100.0 13 Primary 86.6 0.0 2.8 9.7 0.9 100.0 95 Secondary 92.7 0.7 3.3 3.2 0.2 100.0 590 Higher 98.9 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.0 100.0 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 82.9 0.8 5.3 10.9 0.2 100.0 227 Second 92.2 1.5 4.6 1.3 0.4 100.0 176 Middle 96.6 0.0 1.3 2.1 0.0 100.0 152 Fourth 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 104 Richest 98.1 0.0 0.7 0.5 0.7 100.0 110 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 96.9 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.0 100.0 254 African 95.9 0.1 3.4 0.6 0.0 100.0 235 Amerindian 71.7 1.3 6.4 20.3 0.4 100.0 113 Mixed Race 93.7 0.1 2.7 2.5 0.9 100.0 164 a Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.17: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborns Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by post-natal health checks for the mother and newborn, within two days of the most recent birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Post-natal health checks within two days of birth for: Missing Total Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Both mothers and newborns Mothers only Newborns only Neither mother nor newborn Total 92.2 0.6 3.0 4.0 0.2 100.0 769 Region Region 1 82.2 0.0 1.1 16.7 0.0 100.0 25 Region 2 94.3 0.0 1.9 3.8 0.0 100.0 40 Region 3 94.1 0.0 5.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 107 Region 4 95.9 0.8 1.1 1.8 0.4 100.0 327 Region 5 94.8 0.0 5.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 52 Region 6 98.2 0.0 1.3 0.5 0.0 100.0 94 Regions 7 & 8 71.6 2.0 9.8 15.4 1.2 100.0 36 Region 9 61.1 1.8 9.3 27.8 0.0 100.0 44 Region 10 96.5 0.6 0.7 2.2 0.0 100.0 44 Area Urban 98.2 0.0 1.1 0.5 0.2 100.0 184 Rural 90.3 0.8 3.6 5.1 0.3 100.0 585 Location Coastal 95.8 0.4 2.3 1.2 0.2 100.0 608 Urban Coastal 98.0 0.0 1.1 0.6 0.2 100.0 155 Rural Coastal 95.1 0.6 2.8 1.3 0.2 100.0 453 Interior 78.6 1.1 5.4 14.6 0.3 100.0 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 90.7 1.8 5.3 2.0 0.1 100.0 151 20-34 93.4 0.3 2.5 3.6 0.2 100.0 523 35-49 88.3 0.0 1.8 9.4 0.5 100.0 95 Place of deliverya Home 40.6 2.4 11.2 45.8 0.0 100.0 46 Health facility 96.5 0.5 2.5 0.3 0.3 100.0 713 Public 96.1 0.5 2.8 0.4 0.2 100.0 605 Private 98.4 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.7 100.0 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 91.2 0.7 3.2 4.8 0.2 100.0 638 C-section 97.4 0.2 1.8 0.0 0.6 100.0 131 Education None (76.6) (0.0) (6.0) (17.4) (0.0) 100.0 13 Primary 86.6 0.0 2.8 9.7 0.9 100.0 95 Secondary 92.7 0.7 3.3 3.2 0.2 100.0 590 Higher 98.9 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.0 100.0 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 82.9 0.8 5.3 10.9 0.2 100.0 227 Second 92.2 1.5 4.6 1.3 0.4 100.0 176 Middle 96.6 0.0 1.3 2.1 0.0 100.0 152 Fourth 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 104 Richest 98.1 0.0 0.7 0.5 0.7 100.0 110 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 96.9 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.0 100.0 254 African 95.9 0.1 3.4 0.6 0.0 100.0 235 Amerindian 71.7 1.3 6.4 20.3 0.4 100.0 113 Mixed Race 93.7 0.1 2.7 2.5 0.9 100.0 164 a Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.17: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborns Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by post-natal health checks for the mother and newborn, within two days of the most recent birth, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Post-natal health checks within two days of birth for: Missing Total Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Both mothers and newborns Mothers only Newborns only Neither mother nor newborn Total 92.2 0.6 3.0 4.0 0.2 100.0 769 Region Region 1 82.2 0.0 1.1 16.7 0.0 100.0 25 Region 2 94.3 0.0 1.9 3.8 0.0 100.0 40 Region 3 94.1 0.0 5.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 107 Region 4 95.9 0.8 1.1 1.8 0.4 100.0 327 Region 5 94.8 0.0 5.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 52 Region 6 98.2 0.0 1.3 0.5 0.0 100.0 94 Regions 7 & 8 71.6 2.0 9.8 15.4 1.2 100.0 36 Region 9 61.1 1.8 9.3 27.8 0.0 100.0 44 Region 10 96.5 0.6 0.7 2.2 0.0 100.0 44 Area Urban 98.2 0.0 1.1 0.5 0.2 100.0 184 Rural 90.3 0.8 3.6 5.1 0.3 100.0 585 Location Coastal 95.8 0.4 2.3 1.2 0.2 100.0 608 Urban Coastal 98.0 0.0 1.1 0.6 0.2 100.0 155 Rural Coastal 95.1 0.6 2.8 1.3 0.2 100.0 453 Interior 78.6 1.1 5.4 14.6 0.3 100.0 161 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 90.7 1.8 5.3 2.0 0.1 100.0 151 20-34 93.4 0.3 2.5 3.6 0.2 100.0 523 35-49 88.3 0.0 1.8 9.4 0.5 100.0 95 Place of deliverya Home 40.6 2.4 11.2 45.8 0.0 100.0 46 Health facility 96.5 0.5 2.5 0.3 0.3 100.0 713 Public 96.1 0.5 2.8 0.4 0.2 100.0 605 Private 98.4 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.7 100.0 108 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 91.2 0.7 3.2 4.8 0.2 100.0 638 C-section 97.4 0.2 1.8 0.0 0.6 100.0 131 Education None (76.6) (0.0) (6.0) (17.4) (0.0) 100.0 13 Primary 86.6 0.0 2.8 9.7 0.9 100.0 95 Secondary 92.7 0.7 3.3 3.2 0.2 100.0 590 Higher 98.9 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.0 100.0 71 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 82.9 0.8 5.3 10.9 0.2 100.0 227 Second 92.2 1.5 4.6 1.3 0.4 100.0 176 Middle 96.6 0.0 1.3 2.1 0.0 100.0 152 Fourth 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 104 Richest 98.1 0.0 0.7 0.5 0.7 100.0 110 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 96.9 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.0 100.0 254 African 95.9 0.1 3.4 0.6 0.0 100.0 235 Amerindian 71.7 1.3 6.4 20.3 0.4 100.0 113 Mixed Race 93.7 0.1 2.7 2.5 0.9 100.0 164 a Category "Other/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 207Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 208 Early Childhood Care and Education Readiness of children for primary school can be improved through attendance65 to early childhood education programmes or through nursery school attendance. Early childhood education programmes include programmes for children that have organised learning components as opposed to baby-sitting and day-care which do not typically have organised education and learning. In Guyana, 61 percent of children aged 36-59 months are attending an organised early childhood education programme (Table CD.1). It is noteworthy that this figure reflects a 12 percentage point increase from 2006.66 This considerable improvement may be in part due to the creation of nursery classrooms within primary schools in interior regions, greater access to early childhood education services in Regions 5 and 6 through the Day Care and play groups programme, and the introduction of these services in the Maternal and Child Health programme. 65In MICS5, school attendance is considered to be the percentage of children who were attending school regardless of the frequency of attendance. 66Guyana MICS3 2006 Urban-rural, coastal-interior and regional differentials are notable – the figure is as high as 68 percent in urban areas, compared to 59 percent in rural areas, and 64 percent in coastal areas, compared to 49 percent in interior areas. Among children aged 36-59 months, attendance to early childhood education programmes is most prevalent in Region 5 (70%), and least prevalent in Region 1 (18%). A very small differential by sex exists, but there are relatively large differentials by ethnicity of household head, with 72 percent of children living in households with an African household head having the highest attendance to early childhood education programmes, and those living in Amerindian headed households having the lowest attendance (40%). Early childhood education increases with the level of mother’s education and the household wealth: 85 percent of children whose mother has a higher education attend such programmes, while the figure drops to 55 percent among children whose mother has only primary education; similarly, the proportion ranges between 45 percent for children in the poorest households to 76 percent for those in the richest households. The proportion of children attending early childhood education programmes at ages 48- 59 months is much higher (85%) than at ages 36-47 months (38%). IX. EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT 209Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CD.1: Early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an organised early childhood education programme, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 36- 59 months attending early childhood education1 Number of children age 36- 59 months Total 61.0 1,337 Sex Male 63.0 723 Female 58.7 614 Region Region 1 18.1 37 Region 2 49.2 74 Region 3 60.8 159 Region 4 65.1 557 Region 5 70.0 104 Region 6 62.6 177 Regions 7 & 8 51.0 70 Region 9 55.6 75 Region 10 62.7 84 Area Urban 67.5 332 Rural 58.9 1,004 Location Coastal 64.4 1,046 Urban Coastal 66.8 284 Rural Coastal 63.6 762 Interior 48.7 290 Age of child 36-47 months 37.7 683 48-59 months 85.4 653 Mother's educationa None (36.0) 29 Primary 54.6 216 Secondary 59.8 955 Higher 84.7 133 Wealth index quintile Poorest 44.9 406 Second 62.5 302 Middle 65.2 247 Fourth 72.3 179 Richest 76.2 202 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 62.1 438 African 72.3 414 Amerindian 40.0 185 Mixed Race 56.3 295 1 MICS indicator 6.1 - Attendance to early childhood education a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table CD.1: Early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an organised early childhood education programme, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 36- 59 months attending early childhood education1 Number of children age 36- 59 months Total 61.0 1,337 Sex Male 63.0 723 Female 58.7 614 Region Region 1 18.1 37 Region 2 49.2 74 Region 3 60.8 159 Region 4 65.1 557 Region 5 70.0 104 Region 6 62.6 177 Regions 7 & 8 51.0 70 Region 9 55.6 75 Region 10 62.7 84 Area Urban 67.5 332 Rural 58.9 1,004 Location Coastal 64.4 1,046 Urban Coastal 66.8 284 Rural Coastal 63.6 762 Interior 48.7 290 Age of child 36-47 months 37.7 683 48-59 months 85.4 653 Mother's educationa None (36.0) 29 Primary 54.6 216 Secondary 59.8 955 Higher 84.7 133 Wealth index quintile Poorest 44.9 406 Second 62.5 302 Middle 65.2 247 Fourth 72.3 179 Richest 76.2 202 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 62.1 438 African 72.3 414 Amerindian 40.0 185 Mixed Race 56.3 295 1 MICS indicator 6.1 - Attendance to early childhood education a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table CD.1: Early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an organised early childhood education programme, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 36- 59 months attending early childhood education1 Number of children age 36- 59 months Total 61.0 1,337 Sex Male 63.0 723 Female 58.7 614 Region Region 1 18.1 37 Region 2 49.2 74 Region 3 60.8 159 Region 4 65.1 557 Region 5 70.0 104 Region 6 62.6 177 Regions 7 & 8 51.0 70 Region 9 55.6 75 Region 10 62.7 84 Area Urban 67.5 332 Rural 58.9 1,004 Location Coastal 64.4 1,046 Urban Coastal 66.8 284 Rural Coastal 63.6 762 Interior 48.7 290 Age of child 36-47 months 37.7 683 48-59 months 85.4 653 Mother's educationa None (36.0) 29 Primary 54.6 216 Secondary 59.8 955 Higher 84.7 133 Wealth index quintile Poorest 44.9 406 Second 62.5 302 Middle 65.2 247 Fourth 72.3 179 Richest 76.2 202 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 62.1 438 African 72.3 414 Amerindian 40.0 185 Mixed Race 56.3 295 1 MICS indicator 6.1 - Attendance to early childhood education a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 210 Quality of Care It is well recognized that a period of rapid brain development occurs in the first 3-4 years of life, and the quality of home care is a major determinant of the child’s development during this period.67,68 In this context, engagement of adults in activities with children, presence of books in the home for the child, and the conditions of care are important indicators of quality of home care. As set out in A World Fit for Children, children should be “physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally secure, socially competent and able to learn.”69 Information on a number of activities that support early learning was collected in the survey. These included the involvement of adults with children in the following activities: reading books or looking at picture books, telling stories, singing songs, taking children outside the home, compound or yard, playing with children, and spending time with children to assist in identifying, naming, counting, or drawing things. For almost nine out of ten (87%) children aged 36- 59 months, an adult household member engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness during the three days preceding the survey (Table CD.2). The mean number of activities that adults engaged with children was 5.1. The table also indicates that the father’s involvement in four or more activities was somewhat limited (16%), with a mean number of 1.3 activities, compared to that of the mother (55%), with a mean number of 3.4 activities. Of note, 36 percent of children aged 36-59 months live without their biological father. There are no differentials with regards to areas and location of residence and age, in terms of engagement of adults in activities with children, but strong differentials by region, ethnicity of household head and 67Grantham-McGregor S. Cheung Y.B., Cueto S. et al. (2007). Developmental potential in the first 5 Years for children in developing countries. The Lancet 369(9555): 60–70. 68Belsky J., Bell B., Bradley R.H. et al. (2007). Socioeconomic risk, parenting during the preschool years and child health age 6 years. European Journal of Public Health 17(5): 508-13. 69United Nations (2002).A World Fit For Children, Adopted by the UN General Assembly at the 27th Special Session, 10 May 2002, p. 2. socio-economic status are observed. There is a small variation by sex (male 85% and female 90%). Adult engagement in activities with children was greatest in Region 10 (95%) and lowest in Region 1 (65%), while the proportion was 94 percent for children living in the richest households, as opposed to those living in the poorest households (82%). Father’s involvement showed a similar pattern in terms of engagement in such activities, but father’s involvement was greatest in Region 2, with 26 percent and almost non-existent in Region 1, with only three (3) percent. Additionally, support for learning by fathers is considerably greater in households headed by an East Indian (21%) than the other households. Father’s involvement clearly increased with the father’s education, increasing from 19 percent for those with a primary education to 39 percent for those with a higher education. The pattern in mother’s involvement was similar to father’s involvement, with the lowest involvement observed in Region 1 (32%) and the highest in Region 2 (63%), and increasing with the mother’s education, from 37 percent for those with primary education, to 78 percent for those with a higher education. There were hardly any observed differentials by ethnicity of household head. 211Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e C D .2 : S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs e ng ag ed in a ct iv iti es th at p ro m ot e le ar ni ng a nd s ch oo l r ea di ne ss d ur in g th e la st th re e da ys , a nd e ng ag em en t i n su ch ac tiv iti es b y bi ol og ic al fa th er s an d m ot he rs , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur or m or e ac tiv iti es 1 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n liv in g w ith th ei r: N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m bi ol og ic al fa th er s ha ve en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 2 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith bi ol og ic al fa th er s N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r bi ol og ic al fa th er s P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m bi ol og ic al m ot he rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 3 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith bi ol og ic al m ot he rs N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r bi ol og ic al m ot he rs B io lo gi ca l fa th er B io lo gi ca l m ot he r To ta l 87 .2 5. 1 64 .1 87 .4 1 ,3 37 15 .9 1. 3 85 6 54 .8 3. 4 1 ,1 69 Se x M al e 85 .0 5. 0 62 .0 87 .5 7 23 15 .5 1. 3 44 8 54 .6 3. 4 6 33 Fe m al e 89 .8 5. 2 66 .6 87 .3 6 14 16 .4 1. 3 40 8 54 .9 3. 4 5 36 R eg io n R eg io n 1 64 .9 3. 9 68 .8 91 .1 3 7 2. 5 0. 4 25 32 .4 2. 0 3 3 R eg io n 2 95 .2 5. 6 86 .2 87 .3 7 4 25 .8 1. 7 64 62 .7 3. 5 6 5 R eg io n 3 86 .3 5. 1 59 .2 89 .2 1 59 14 .8 1. 1 94 56 .0 3. 4 1 42 R eg io n 4 86 .0 5. 1 59 .8 84 .9 5 57 17 .4 1. 4 33 3 54 .6 3. 4 4 73 R eg io n 5 91 .6 5. 3 66 .5 88 .8 1 04 13 .2 1. 2 69 47 .6 3. 1 9 2 R eg io n 6 90 .8 5. 3 69 .1 90 .4 1 77 13 .3 1. 4 12 2 57 .5 3. 6 1 60 R eg io ns 7 & 8 84 .7 4. 9 68 .7 90 .9 7 0 15 .3 1. 4 48 55 .6 3. 3 6 4 R eg io n 9 80 .1 4. 7 82 .8 90 .3 7 5 21 .2 1. 7 62 57 .1 3. 5 6 8 R eg io n 10 94 .8 5. 4 45 .8 86 .4 8 4 10 .2 0. 8 39 56 .0 3. 6 7 3 A re a U rb an 87 .5 5. 2 50 .5 79 .0 3 32 15 .3 1. 1 16 8 54 .2 3. 4 2 62 R ur al 87 .1 5. 1 68 .6 90 .2 1 ,0 04 16 .1 1. 4 68 9 54 .9 3. 4 9 06 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 87 .9 5. 2 62 .7 86 .7 1 ,0 46 16 .2 1. 3 65 6 54 .7 3. 4 9 07 U rb an C oa st al 86 .2 5. 1 52 .0 77 .5 2 84 16 .0 1. 2 14 8 51 .6 3. 2 2 20 R ur al C oa st al 88 .6 5. 2 66 .7 90 .2 7 62 16 .3 1. 4 50 8 55 .8 3. 5 6 87 In te rio r 84 .5 4. 9 68 .9 90 .0 2 90 15 .0 1. 2 20 0 55 .0 3. 3 2 61 A ge 36 -4 7 m on th s 85 .1 5. 0 65 .3 88 .3 6 83 16 .3 1. 3 44 7 55 .4 3. 4 6 03 48 -5 9 m on th s 89 .3 5. 2 62 .7 86 .6 6 53 15 .5 1. 3 41 0 54 .0 3. 4 5 65 M ot he r's e du ca tio na ,b N on e (6 6. 1) (3 .9 ) (8 2. 7) (9 7. 7) 2 9 (1 7. 2) (1 .3 ) 24 (4 1. 8) (2 .3 ) 2 9 P rim ar y 78 .8 4. 7 62 .1 81 .2 2 16 10 .4 0. 9 13 4 37 .1 2. 6 1 75 S ec on da ry 88 .7 5. 2 64 .1 88 .3 9 55 15 .3 1. 3 61 2 56 .1 3. 5 8 43 H ig he r 96 .5 5. 5 62 .7 90 .5 1 33 29 .5 2. 0 83 77 .8 4. 4 1 20 Fa th er 's e du ca tio nb N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 6 (* ) (* ) 16 (* ) (* ) 1 6 P rim ar y 84 .8 5. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 1 89 18 .6 1. 6 18 9 55 .9 3. 4 1 88 S ec on da ry 90 .1 5. 2 10 0. 0 93 .5 5 64 23 .4 1. 9 56 4 59 .5 3. 7 5 28 H ig he r 93 .0 5. 5 10 0. 0 91 .1 6 9 39 .2 2. 8 69 78 .0 4. 5 6 3 Fa th er n ot in th e ho us eh ol d 84 .9 5. 1 0. 0 74 .6 4 80 na na na 45 .7 3. 0 3 58 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 81 .6 4. 8 67 .8 91 .0 40 6 13 .6 1. 1 27 5 50 .7 3. 1 36 9 S ec on d 85 .7 5. 1 60 .9 83 .9 30 2 8. 4 1. 0 18 4 43 .9 2. 9 25 4 M id dl e 89 .9 5. 3 63 .2 89 .9 24 7 21 .5 1. 5 15 6 63 .5 3. 9 22 2 Fo ur th 90 .6 5. 3 58 .2 88 .4 17 9 18 .1 1. 5 10 4 60 .6 3. 8 15 8 R ic he st 94 .2 5. 5 67 .5 81 .8 20 2 23 .2 1. 8 13 7 63 .3 3. 7 16 5 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d E as t I nd ia n 90 .6 5. 3 80 .7 91 .2 4 38 21 .3 1. 7 35 3 57 .8 3. 6 3 99 A fri ca n 84 .3 5. 0 45 .6 82 .5 4 14 13 .7 1. 1 18 9 52 .7 3. 2 3 41 A m er in di an 79 .0 4. 7 74 .5 91 .0 1 85 15 .1 1. 2 13 8 50 .1 3. 0 1 68 M ix ed R ac e 91 .1 5. 3 59 .0 86 .3 2 95 11 .6 1. 1 17 4 55 .3 3. 5 2 55 1 M IC S in di ca to r 6 .2 - Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng 2 M IC S In di ca to r 6 .3 - Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g 3 M IC S In di ca to r 6 .4 - M ot he r’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g a Th e ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is tic " M ot he r's e du ca tio n" r ef er s to th e ed uc at io n le ve l o f t he r es po nd en t t o th e Q ue st io nn ai re fo r C hi ld re n U nd er F iv e, a nd c ov er s bo th m ot he rs a nd p rim ar y ca re ta ke rs , w ho a re in te rv ie w ed w he n th e m ot he r i s no t l is te d in th e sa m e ho us eh ol d. S in ce in di ca to r 6 .4 re po rts o n th e bi ol og ic al m ot he r's s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g, th is b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic re fe rs to o nl y th e ed uc at io na l l ev el s of b io lo gi ca l m ot he rs w he n ca lc ul at ed fo r t he in di ca to r i n qu es tio n. b C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 212 Ta bl e C D .2 : S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs e ng ag ed in a ct iv iti es th at p ro m ot e le ar ni ng a nd s ch oo l r ea di ne ss d ur in g th e la st th re e da ys , a nd e ng ag em en t i n su ch ac tiv iti es b y bi ol og ic al fa th er s an d m ot he rs , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur or m or e ac tiv iti es 1 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n liv in g w ith th ei r: N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m bi ol og ic al fa th er s ha ve en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 2 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith bi ol og ic al fa th er s N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r bi ol og ic al fa th er s P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m bi ol og ic al m ot he rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 3 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith bi ol og ic al m ot he rs N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r bi ol og ic al m ot he rs B io lo gi ca l fa th er B io lo gi ca l m ot he r To ta l 87 .2 5. 1 64 .1 87 .4 1 ,3 37 15 .9 1. 3 85 6 54 .8 3. 4 1 ,1 69 Se x M al e 85 .0 5. 0 62 .0 87 .5 7 23 15 .5 1. 3 44 8 54 .6 3. 4 6 33 Fe m al e 89 .8 5. 2 66 .6 87 .3 6 14 16 .4 1. 3 40 8 54 .9 3. 4 5 36 R eg io n R eg io n 1 64 .9 3. 9 68 .8 91 .1 3 7 2. 5 0. 4 25 32 .4 2. 0 3 3 R eg io n 2 95 .2 5. 6 86 .2 87 .3 7 4 25 .8 1. 7 64 62 .7 3. 5 6 5 R eg io n 3 86 .3 5. 1 59 .2 89 .2 1 59 14 .8 1. 1 94 56 .0 3. 4 1 42 R eg io n 4 86 .0 5. 1 59 .8 84 .9 5 57 17 .4 1. 4 33 3 54 .6 3. 4 4 73 R eg io n 5 91 .6 5. 3 66 .5 88 .8 1 04 13 .2 1. 2 69 47 .6 3. 1 9 2 R eg io n 6 90 .8 5. 3 69 .1 90 .4 1 77 13 .3 1. 4 12 2 57 .5 3. 6 1 60 R eg io ns 7 & 8 84 .7 4. 9 68 .7 90 .9 7 0 15 .3 1. 4 48 55 .6 3. 3 6 4 R eg io n 9 80 .1 4. 7 82 .8 90 .3 7 5 21 .2 1. 7 62 57 .1 3. 5 6 8 R eg io n 10 94 .8 5. 4 45 .8 86 .4 8 4 10 .2 0. 8 39 56 .0 3. 6 7 3 A re a U rb an 87 .5 5. 2 50 .5 79 .0 3 32 15 .3 1. 1 16 8 54 .2 3. 4 2 62 R ur al 87 .1 5. 1 68 .6 90 .2 1 ,0 04 16 .1 1. 4 68 9 54 .9 3. 4 9 06 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 87 .9 5. 2 62 .7 86 .7 1 ,0 46 16 .2 1. 3 65 6 54 .7 3. 4 9 07 U rb an C oa st al 86 .2 5. 1 52 .0 77 .5 2 84 16 .0 1. 2 14 8 51 .6 3. 2 2 20 R ur al C oa st al 88 .6 5. 2 66 .7 90 .2 7 62 16 .3 1. 4 50 8 55 .8 3. 5 6 87 In te rio r 84 .5 4. 9 68 .9 90 .0 2 90 15 .0 1. 2 20 0 55 .0 3. 3 2 61 A ge 36 -4 7 m on th s 85 .1 5. 0 65 .3 88 .3 6 83 16 .3 1. 3 44 7 55 .4 3. 4 6 03 48 -5 9 m on th s 89 .3 5. 2 62 .7 86 .6 6 53 15 .5 1. 3 41 0 54 .0 3. 4 5 65 M ot he r's e du ca tio na ,b N on e (6 6. 1) (3 .9 ) (8 2. 7) (9 7. 7) 2 9 (1 7. 2) (1 .3 ) 24 (4 1. 8) (2 .3 ) 2 9 P rim ar y 78 .8 4. 7 62 .1 81 .2 2 16 10 .4 0. 9 13 4 37 .1 2. 6 1 75 S ec on da ry 88 .7 5. 2 64 .1 88 .3 9 55 15 .3 1. 3 61 2 56 .1 3. 5 8 43 H ig he r 96 .5 5. 5 62 .7 90 .5 1 33 29 .5 2. 0 83 77 .8 4. 4 1 20 Fa th er 's e du ca tio nb N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 6 (* ) (* ) 16 (* ) (* ) 1 6 P rim ar y 84 .8 5. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 1 89 18 .6 1. 6 18 9 55 .9 3. 4 1 88 S ec on da ry 90 .1 5. 2 10 0. 0 93 .5 5 64 23 .4 1. 9 56 4 59 .5 3. 7 5 28 H ig he r 93 .0 5. 5 10 0. 0 91 .1 6 9 39 .2 2. 8 69 78 .0 4. 5 6 3 Fa th er n ot in th e ho us eh ol d 84 .9 5. 1 0. 0 74 .6 4 80 na na na 45 .7 3. 0 3 58 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 81 .6 4. 8 67 .8 91 .0 40 6 13 .6 1. 1 27 5 50 .7 3. 1 36 9 S ec on d 85 .7 5. 1 60 .9 83 .9 30 2 8. 4 1. 0 18 4 43 .9 2. 9 25 4 M id dl e 89 .9 5. 3 63 .2 89 .9 24 7 21 .5 1. 5 15 6 63 .5 3. 9 22 2 Fo ur th 90 .6 5. 3 58 .2 88 .4 17 9 18 .1 1. 5 10 4 60 .6 3. 8 15 8 R ic he st 94 .2 5. 5 67 .5 81 .8 20 2 23 .2 1. 8 13 7 63 .3 3. 7 16 5 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d E as t I nd ia n 90 .6 5. 3 80 .7 91 .2 4 38 21 .3 1. 7 35 3 57 .8 3. 6 3 99 A fri ca n 84 .3 5. 0 45 .6 82 .5 4 14 13 .7 1. 1 18 9 52 .7 3. 2 3 41 A m er in di an 79 .0 4. 7 74 .5 91 .0 1 85 15 .1 1. 2 13 8 50 .1 3. 0 1 68 M ix ed R ac e 91 .1 5. 3 59 .0 86 .3 2 95 11 .6 1. 1 17 4 55 .3 3. 5 2 55 1 M IC S in di ca to r 6 .2 - Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng 2 M IC S In di ca to r 6 .3 - Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g 3 M IC S In di ca to r 6 .4 - M ot he r’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g a Th e ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is tic " M ot he r's e du ca tio n" r ef er s to th e ed uc at io n le ve l o f t he r es po nd en t t o th e Q ue st io nn ai re fo r C hi ld re n U nd er F iv e, a nd c ov er s bo th m ot he rs a nd p rim ar y ca re ta ke rs , w ho a re in te rv ie w ed w he n th e m ot he r i s no t l is te d in th e sa m e ho us eh ol d. S in ce in di ca to r 6 .4 re po rts o n th e bi ol og ic al m ot he r's s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g, th is b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic re fe rs to o nl y th e ed uc at io na l l ev el s of b io lo gi ca l m ot he rs w he n ca lc ul at ed fo r t he in di ca to r i n qu es tio n. b C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e C D .2 : S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs e ng ag ed in a ct iv iti es th at p ro m ot e le ar ni ng a nd s ch oo l r ea di ne ss d ur in g th e la st th re e da ys , a nd e ng ag em en t i n su ch ac tiv iti es b y bi ol og ic al fa th er s an d m ot he rs , G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur or m or e ac tiv iti es 1 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n liv in g w ith th ei r: N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m bi ol og ic al fa th er s ha ve en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 2 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith bi ol og ic al fa th er s N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r bi ol og ic al fa th er s P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m bi ol og ic al m ot he rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 3 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith bi ol og ic al m ot he rs N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r bi ol og ic al m ot he rs B io lo gi ca l fa th er B io lo gi ca l m ot he r To ta l 87 .2 5. 1 64 .1 87 .4 1 ,3 37 15 .9 1. 3 85 6 54 .8 3. 4 1 ,1 69 Se x M al e 85 .0 5. 0 62 .0 87 .5 7 23 15 .5 1. 3 44 8 54 .6 3. 4 6 33 Fe m al e 89 .8 5. 2 66 .6 87 .3 6 14 16 .4 1. 3 40 8 54 .9 3. 4 5 36 R eg io n R eg io n 1 64 .9 3. 9 68 .8 91 .1 3 7 2. 5 0. 4 25 32 .4 2. 0 3 3 R eg io n 2 95 .2 5. 6 86 .2 87 .3 7 4 25 .8 1. 7 64 62 .7 3. 5 6 5 R eg io n 3 86 .3 5. 1 59 .2 89 .2 1 59 14 .8 1. 1 94 56 .0 3. 4 1 42 R eg io n 4 86 .0 5. 1 59 .8 84 .9 5 57 17 .4 1. 4 33 3 54 .6 3. 4 4 73 R eg io n 5 91 .6 5. 3 66 .5 88 .8 1 04 13 .2 1. 2 69 47 .6 3. 1 9 2 R eg io n 6 90 .8 5. 3 69 .1 90 .4 1 77 13 .3 1. 4 12 2 57 .5 3. 6 1 60 R eg io ns 7 & 8 84 .7 4. 9 68 .7 90 .9 7 0 15 .3 1. 4 48 55 .6 3. 3 6 4 R eg io n 9 80 .1 4. 7 82 .8 90 .3 7 5 21 .2 1. 7 62 57 .1 3. 5 6 8 R eg io n 10 94 .8 5. 4 45 .8 86 .4 8 4 10 .2 0. 8 39 56 .0 3. 6 7 3 A re a U rb an 87 .5 5. 2 50 .5 79 .0 3 32 15 .3 1. 1 16 8 54 .2 3. 4 2 62 R ur al 87 .1 5. 1 68 .6 90 .2 1 ,0 04 16 .1 1. 4 68 9 54 .9 3. 4 9 06 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 87 .9 5. 2 62 .7 86 .7 1 ,0 46 16 .2 1. 3 65 6 54 .7 3. 4 9 07 U rb an C oa st al 86 .2 5. 1 52 .0 77 .5 2 84 16 .0 1. 2 14 8 51 .6 3. 2 2 20 R ur al C oa st al 88 .6 5. 2 66 .7 90 .2 7 62 16 .3 1. 4 50 8 55 .8 3. 5 6 87 In te rio r 84 .5 4. 9 68 .9 90 .0 2 90 15 .0 1. 2 20 0 55 .0 3. 3 2 61 A ge 36 -4 7 m on th s 85 .1 5. 0 65 .3 88 .3 6 83 16 .3 1. 3 44 7 55 .4 3. 4 6 03 48 -5 9 m on th s 89 .3 5. 2 62 .7 86 .6 6 53 15 .5 1. 3 41 0 54 .0 3. 4 5 65 M ot he r's e du ca tio na ,b N on e (6 6. 1) (3 .9 ) (8 2. 7) (9 7. 7) 2 9 (1 7. 2) (1 .3 ) 24 (4 1. 8) (2 .3 ) 2 9 P rim ar y 78 .8 4. 7 62 .1 81 .2 2 16 10 .4 0. 9 13 4 37 .1 2. 6 1 75 S ec on da ry 88 .7 5. 2 64 .1 88 .3 9 55 15 .3 1. 3 61 2 56 .1 3. 5 8 43 H ig he r 96 .5 5. 5 62 .7 90 .5 1 33 29 .5 2. 0 83 77 .8 4. 4 1 20 Fa th er 's e du ca tio nb N on e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 6 (* ) (* ) 16 (* ) (* ) 1 6 P rim ar y 84 .8 5. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 1 89 18 .6 1. 6 18 9 55 .9 3. 4 1 88 S ec on da ry 90 .1 5. 2 10 0. 0 93 .5 5 64 23 .4 1. 9 56 4 59 .5 3. 7 5 28 H ig he r 93 .0 5. 5 10 0. 0 91 .1 6 9 39 .2 2. 8 69 78 .0 4. 5 6 3 Fa th er n ot in th e ho us eh ol d 84 .9 5. 1 0. 0 74 .6 4 80 na na na 45 .7 3. 0 3 58 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 81 .6 4. 8 67 .8 91 .0 40 6 13 .6 1. 1 27 5 50 .7 3. 1 36 9 S ec on d 85 .7 5. 1 60 .9 83 .9 30 2 8. 4 1. 0 18 4 43 .9 2. 9 25 4 M id dl e 89 .9 5. 3 63 .2 89 .9 24 7 21 .5 1. 5 15 6 63 .5 3. 9 22 2 Fo ur th 90 .6 5. 3 58 .2 88 .4 17 9 18 .1 1. 5 10 4 60 .6 3. 8 15 8 R ic he st 94 .2 5. 5 67 .5 81 .8 20 2 23 .2 1. 8 13 7 63 .3 3. 7 16 5 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dc , d E as t I nd ia n 90 .6 5. 3 80 .7 91 .2 4 38 21 .3 1. 7 35 3 57 .8 3. 6 3 99 A fri ca n 84 .3 5. 0 45 .6 82 .5 4 14 13 .7 1. 1 18 9 52 .7 3. 2 3 41 A m er in di an 79 .0 4. 7 74 .5 91 .0 1 85 15 .1 1. 2 13 8 50 .1 3. 0 1 68 M ix ed R ac e 91 .1 5. 3 59 .0 86 .3 2 95 11 .6 1. 1 17 4 55 .3 3. 5 2 55 1 M IC S in di ca to r 6 .2 - Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng 2 M IC S In di ca to r 6 .3 - Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g 3 M IC S In di ca to r 6 .4 - M ot he r’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g a Th e ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is tic " M ot he r's e du ca tio n" r ef er s to th e ed uc at io n le ve l o f t he r es po nd en t t o th e Q ue st io nn ai re fo r C hi ld re n U nd er F iv e, a nd c ov er s bo th m ot he rs a nd p rim ar y ca re ta ke rs , w ho a re in te rv ie w ed w he n th e m ot he r i s no t l is te d in th e sa m e ho us eh ol d. S in ce in di ca to r 6 .4 re po rts o n th e bi ol og ic al m ot he r's s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g, th is b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic re fe rs to o nl y th e ed uc at io na l l ev el s of b io lo gi ca l m ot he rs w he n ca lc ul at ed fo r t he in di ca to r i n qu es tio n. b C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s c Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d d C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 213Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Exposure to books in early years not only provides the child with greater understanding of the nature of print, but may also give the child opportunities to see others reading, such as older siblings doing school work. Presence of books is important for later school performance. The mothers/caretakers of all children under five were asked about number of children’s books or picture books they have for the child, and the types of playthings that are available at home. In Guyana, 47 percent of children aged 0-59 months live in households where at least three children’s books are present for the child (Table CD.3). The proportion of children with ten or more books declines to 24 percent. While no differentials by sex are observed, a higher percentage of urban children have access to children’s books than those living in rural households, and also a higher percentage of coastal children than interior children. The proportion of under-five children who have three or more children’s books is 55 percent in urban areas, compared to 45 percent in rural areas, and 51 percent in coastal areas, compared to 33 percent in interior areas. Only 23 percent of the children living in households with an Amerindian household head have three or more children’s books compared to over 50 percent of those living in the other households. The presence of children’s books is positively correlated with the child’s age; in the homes of 61 percent of children aged 24-59 months, there are three or more children’s books, while the figure is 28 percent for children aged 0-23 months. The proportion of children with three or more children’s books is very strongly correlated with the mother’s education (from 9% for mothers with no education to 78% with higher education) and socio-economic status of the household (from 25% in the poorest households to 76% in the richest households). For children for whom there are ten or more children’s books or picture books, the figures are drastically lower, but the pattern is similar to that of three or more books. Table CD.3 also shows that 69 percent of children aged 0-59 months had two or more types of playthings to play with in their homes. The types of playthings included in the questionnaires were homemade toys (such as dolls and cars, or other toys made at home), toys that came from a store, and household objects (such as pots and bowls) or objects and materials found outside the home (such as sticks, rocks, animal shells, or leaves). It is interesting to note that 87 percent of children play with toys that come from a store; the percentage for other types of toys are between 50 and 55 percent. No sex, urban-rural, or coastal- interior differentials are observed; an increasing trend is observed in terms of mother’s education, though to a lesser extent compared to the trend seen with children’s books – 71 percent of children whose mothers are educated have two or more types of playthings, while the proportion is 61 percent for children whose mothers have no education. Contrary to the availability of children’s books, the trend is less clear with respect to the socio-economic status of the household. Percentages vary from 43 percent in Region 1 to 79 percent in Region 2. As with children’s books, the proportion of children who have two or more types of playthings increases with age, with 78 percent of children aged 24-59 months, as opposed to 55 percent of children aged 0-23 months. Ethnicity of household head is somewhat correlated with children having two or more types of playthings. The highest proportion of under-five children with two or more types of playthings is in households headed by a person of mixed race, while the lowest percentage is in those headed by an Amerindian. Leaving children alone or in the presence of other young children is known to increase the risk of injuries.70 In MICS5, two questions were asked to find out whether children aged 0-59 months were left alone (for more than an hour) during the week preceding the interview, and whether children were left (for more than an hour) in the care of other children under ten years of age. Table CD.4 shows that three (3) percent of children aged 0-59 months were left in the care of other children, and the same proportion (3%) were left alone during the week preceding the interview. Combining the two care indicators, it is calculated that a total of five (5) percent of children were left with inadequate care during the past week, either by being left alone or in the care of another child for more than an hour. No differences were observed by the sex or age of the child. Rural children (6%) were twice as likely to be left with inadequate care as urban children (3%) and interior children (11%) were almost three times as likely as coastal children (4%). Inadequate care was more prevalent among children whose mothers had no education (12%), as opposed to children whose mothers had at least primary education (3-6%), and among children living in the poorest households (10%), as opposed to children living in wealthier households (1- 4%). Great regional disparities are observed, with the highest percentage found in Region 9 (21%), followed by Regions 7 & 8 (10%) then by Region 6 (8%), and the others five (5) percent or less. Inadequate care was most prevalent in children living in households with an Amerindian household head (14%). 70Grossman D.C. (2000). The history of injury control and the epidemiology of child and adolescent injuries.The Future of Children, 10(1): 23-52. 214 Table CD.3: Learning materials Percentage of children under age 5 by numbers of children's books present in the household, and by playthings that child plays with, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children living in households that have for the child: Percentage of children who play with: Number of children under age 5 3 or more children's books1 10 or more children's books Homemade toys Toys from a shop/ manufactured toys Household objects/ objects found outside Two or more types of playthings2 Total 47.3 23.8 49.6 86.7 55.4 68.5 3,358 Sex Male 46.6 23.7 49.2 87.8 57.8 69.9 1,722 Female 48.1 23.9 49.9 85.6 52.8 67.1 1,636 Region Region 1 17.7 2.9 38.6 72.1 22.1 43.1 96 Region 2 46.9 20.9 62.6 92.6 67.0 79.3 185 Region 3 50.7 26.3 40.2 91.3 57.3 65.1 452 Region 4 54.1 29.2 47.3 89.9 52.9 68.6 1,382 Region 5 52.2 24.1 41.0 92.5 55.3 66.2 236 Region 6 39.8 20.5 66.8 83.6 55.2 75.1 443 Regions 7 & 8 29.5 11.0 54.4 65.8 70.4 65.0 164 Region 9 23.7 7.2 48.3 75.3 58.2 65.8 198 Region 10 56.5 27.6 48.8 84.7 59.4 71.8 202 Area Urban 54.6 31.3 53.6 87.8 48.3 68.8 838 Rural 44.9 21.3 48.2 86.4 57.8 68.5 2,520 Location Coastal 51.4 26.6 49.7 89.5 55.1 69.6 2,634 Urban Coastal 53.4 30.7 54.7 88.5 46.8 68.8 711 Rural Coastal 50.6 25.1 47.9 89.9 58.2 69.8 1,923 Interior 32.6 13.5 49.1 76.6 56.5 64.8 724 Age 0-23 months 28.0 11.2 42.8 78.7 38.7 54.7 1,373 24-59 months 60.7 32.5 54.2 92.3 67.0 78.1 1,985 Mother’s educationa None 8.8 1.2 30.8 68.8 73.3 60.6 64 Primary 27.3 10.3 46.0 76.0 53.6 61.8 483 Secondary 48.3 23.6 50.8 88.3 56.1 69.7 2,485 Higher 78.1 50.4 49.0 94.2 48.9 70.9 321 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 24.6 6.7 45.8 78.1 57.1 64.7 1,003 Second 42.7 17.7 49.3 86.1 55.1 68.3 755 Middle 55.5 28.1 52.6 90.8 52.9 69.6 616 Fourth 61.9 35.3 53.9 91.8 58.9 74.5 486 Richest 75.7 51.2 49.6 95.1 52.1 69.7 497 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 52.2 27.0 49.3 91.8 57.1 70.1 1,118 African 50.6 27.9 48.1 88.3 53.1 67.6 1,037 Amerindian 22.6 6.3 46.3 73.2 55.4 61.5 492 Mixed Race 52.1 25.0 54.2 86.2 55.8 72.3 697 1 MICS indicator 6.5 - Availability of children’s books 2 MICS indicator 6.6 - Availability of playthings a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases Table CD.3: Learning materials Percentage of children under age 5 by numbers of children's books present in the household, and by playthings that child plays with, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children living in households that have for the child: Percentage of children who play with: Number of children under age 5 3 or more children's books1 10 or more children's books Homemade toys Toys from a shop/ manufactured toys Household objects/ objects found outside Two or more types of playthings2 Total 47.3 23.8 49.6 86.7 55.4 68.5 3,358 Sex Male 46.6 23.7 49.2 87.8 57.8 69.9 1,722 Female 48.1 23.9 49.9 85.6 52.8 67.1 1,636 Region Region 1 17.7 2.9 38.6 72.1 22.1 43.1 96 Region 2 46.9 20.9 62.6 92.6 67.0 79.3 185 Region 3 50.7 26.3 40.2 91.3 57.3 65.1 452 Region 4 54.1 29.2 47.3 89.9 52.9 68.6 1,382 Region 5 52.2 24.1 41.0 92.5 55.3 66.2 236 Region 6 39.8 20.5 66.8 83.6 55.2 75.1 443 Regions 7 & 8 29.5 11.0 54.4 65.8 70.4 65.0 164 Region 9 23.7 7.2 48.3 75.3 58.2 65.8 198 Region 10 56.5 27.6 48.8 84.7 59.4 71.8 202 Area Urban 54.6 31.3 53.6 87.8 48.3 68.8 838 Rural 44.9 21.3 48.2 86.4 57.8 68.5 2,520 Location Coastal 51.4 26.6 49.7 89.5 55.1 69.6 2,634 Urban Coastal 53.4 30.7 54.7 88.5 46.8 68.8 711 Rural Coastal 50.6 25.1 47.9 89.9 58.2 69.8 1,923 Interior 32.6 13.5 49.1 76.6 56.5 64.8 724 Age 0-23 months 28.0 11.2 42.8 78.7 38.7 54.7 1,373 24-59 months 60.7 32.5 54.2 92.3 67.0 78.1 1,985 Mother’s educationa None 8.8 1.2 30.8 68.8 73.3 60.6 64 Primary 27.3 10.3 46.0 76.0 53.6 61.8 483 Secondary 48.3 23.6 50.8 88.3 56.1 69.7 2,485 Higher 78.1 50.4 49.0 94.2 48.9 70.9 321 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 24.6 6.7 45.8 78.1 57.1 64.7 1,003 Second 42.7 17.7 49.3 86.1 55.1 68.3 755 Middle 55.5 28.1 52.6 90.8 52.9 69.6 616 Fourth 61.9 35.3 53.9 91.8 58.9 74.5 486 Richest 75.7 51.2 49.6 95.1 52.1 69.7 497 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 52.2 27.0 49.3 91.8 57.1 70.1 1,118 African 50.6 27.9 48.1 88.3 53.1 67.6 1,037 Amerindian 22.6 6.3 46.3 73.2 55.4 61.5 492 Mixed Race 52.1 25.0 54.2 86.2 55.8 72.3 697 1 MICS indicator 6.5 - Availability of children’s books 2 MICS indicator 6.6 - Availability of playthings a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases Table CD.3: Learning materials Percentage of children under age 5 by numbers of children's books present in the household, and by playthings that child plays with, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children living in households that have for the child: Percentage of children who play with: Number of children under age 5 3 or more children's books1 10 or more children's books Homemade toys Toys from a shop/ manufactured toys Household objects/ objects found outside Two or more types of playthings2 Total 47.3 23.8 49.6 86.7 55.4 68.5 3,358 Sex Male 46.6 23.7 49.2 87.8 57.8 69.9 1,722 Female 48.1 23.9 49.9 85.6 52.8 67.1 1,636 Region Region 1 17.7 2.9 38.6 72.1 22.1 43.1 96 Region 2 46.9 20.9 62.6 92.6 67.0 79.3 185 Region 3 50.7 26.3 40.2 91.3 57.3 65.1 452 Region 4 54.1 29.2 47.3 89.9 52.9 68.6 1,382 Region 5 52.2 24.1 41.0 92.5 55.3 66.2 236 Region 6 39.8 20.5 66.8 83.6 55.2 75.1 443 Regions 7 & 8 29.5 11.0 54.4 65.8 70.4 65.0 164 Region 9 23.7 7.2 48.3 75.3 58.2 65.8 198 Region 10 56.5 27.6 48.8 84.7 59.4 71.8 202 Area Urban 54.6 31.3 53.6 87.8 48.3 68.8 838 Rural 44.9 21.3 48.2 86.4 57.8 68.5 2,520 Location Coastal 51.4 26.6 49.7 89.5 55.1 69.6 2,634 Urban Coastal 53.4 30.7 54.7 88.5 46.8 68.8 711 Rural Coastal 50.6 25.1 47.9 89.9 58.2 69.8 1,923 Interior 32.6 13.5 49.1 76.6 56.5 64.8 724 Age 0-23 months 28.0 11.2 42.8 78.7 38.7 54.7 1,373 24-59 months 60.7 32.5 54.2 92.3 67.0 78.1 1,985 Mother’s educationa None 8.8 1.2 30.8 68.8 73.3 60.6 64 Primary 27.3 10.3 46.0 76.0 53.6 61.8 483 Secondary 48.3 23.6 50.8 88.3 56.1 69.7 2,485 Higher 78.1 50.4 49.0 94.2 48.9 70.9 321 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 24.6 6.7 45.8 78.1 57.1 64.7 1,003 Second 42.7 17.7 49.3 86.1 55.1 68.3 755 Middle 55.5 28.1 52.6 90.8 52.9 69.6 616 Fourth 61.9 35.3 53.9 91.8 58.9 74.5 486 Richest 75.7 51.2 49.6 95.1 52.1 69.7 497 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 52.2 27.0 49.3 91.8 57.1 70.1 1,118 African 50.6 27.9 48.1 88.3 53.1 67.6 1,037 Amerindian 22.6 6.3 46.3 73.2 55.4 61.5 492 Mixed Race 52.1 25.0 54.2 86.2 55.8 72.3 697 1 MICS indicator 6.5 - Availability of children’s books 2 MICS indicator 6.6 - Availability of playthings a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases 215Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CD.4: Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once during the past week, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children under age 5: Left alone in the past week Left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week Left with inadequate care in the past week1 Number of children under age 5 Total 3.3 3.1 5.0 3,358 Sex Male 3.0 3.3 4.8 1,722 Female 3.6 2.9 5.2 1,636 Region Region 1 1.1 2.7 3.0 96 Region 2 3.0 1.9 3.3 185 Region 3 1.7 1.4 3.0 452 Region 4 0.9 2.2 2.5 1,382 Region 5 0.9 1.5 2.1 236 Region 6 7.6 1.5 8.3 443 Regions 7 & 8 5.5 7.7 10.1 164 Region 9 15.9 14.1 21.1 198 Region 10 3.6 4.8 5.3 202 Area Urban 2.2 1.4 3.1 838 Rural 3.7 3.7 5.6 2,520 Location Coastal 2.2 1.8 3.5 2,634 Urban Coastal 2.3 1.4 3.3 711 Rural Coastal 2.1 2.0 3.5 1,923 Interior 7.3 7.8 10.6 724 Age 0-23 months 2.8 2.2 4.2 1,373 24-59 months 3.6 3.7 5.5 1,985 Mother’s educationa None 6.4 9.9 11.6 64 Primary 4.5 3.8 5.8 483 Secondary 3.3 2.9 5.0 2,485 Higher 1.0 2.3 2.9 321 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 6.7 6.7 10.0 1,003 Second 2.6 1.8 3.8 755 Middle 1.8 1.7 3.2 616 Fourth 2.0 1.9 3.0 486 Richest 0.5 0.7 1.0 497 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 2.8 1.4 3.6 1,118 African 1.7 2.3 3.4 1,037 Amerindian 9.8 10.0 13.7 492 Mixed Race 1.8 2.3 3.5 697 1 MICS indicator 6.7 - Inadequate care a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases Table CD.4: Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once during the past week, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children under age 5: Left alone in the past week Left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week Left with inadequate care in the past week1 Number of children under age 5 Total 3.3 3.1 5.0 3,358 Sex Male 3.0 3.3 4.8 1,722 Female 3.6 2.9 5.2 1,636 Region Region 1 1.1 2.7 3.0 96 Region 2 3.0 1.9 3.3 185 Region 3 1.7 1.4 3.0 452 Region 4 0.9 2.2 2.5 1,382 Region 5 0.9 1.5 2.1 236 Region 6 7.6 1.5 8.3 443 Regions 7 & 8 5.5 7.7 10.1 164 Region 9 15.9 14.1 21.1 198 Region 10 3.6 4.8 5.3 202 Area Urban 2.2 1.4 3.1 838 Rural 3.7 3.7 5.6 2,520 Location Coastal 2.2 1.8 3.5 2,634 Urban Coastal 2.3 1.4 3.3 711 Rural Coastal 2.1 2.0 3.5 1,923 Interior 7.3 7.8 10.6 724 Age 0-23 months 2.8 2.2 4.2 1,373 24-59 months 3.6 3.7 5.5 1,985 Mother’s educationa None 6.4 9.9 11.6 64 Primary 4.5 3.8 5.8 483 Secondary 3.3 2.9 5.0 2,485 Higher 1.0 2.3 2.9 321 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 6.7 6.7 10.0 1,003 Second 2.6 1.8 3.8 755 Middle 1.8 1.7 3.2 616 Fourth 2.0 1.9 3.0 486 Richest 0.5 0.7 1.0 497 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 2.8 1.4 3.6 1,118 African 1.7 2.3 3.4 1,037 Amerindian 9.8 10.0 13.7 492 Mixed Race 1.8 2.3 3.5 697 1 MICS indicator 6.7 - Inadequate care a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases Table CD.4: Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once during the past week, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children under age 5: Left alone in the past week Left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week Left with inadequate care in the past week1 Number of children under age 5 Total 3.3 3.1 5.0 3,358 Sex Male 3.0 3.3 4.8 1,722 Female 3.6 2.9 5.2 1,636 Region Region 1 1.1 2.7 3.0 96 Region 2 3.0 1.9 3.3 185 Region 3 1.7 1.4 3.0 452 Region 4 0.9 2.2 2.5 1,382 Region 5 0.9 1.5 2.1 236 Region 6 7.6 1.5 8.3 443 Regions 7 & 8 5.5 7.7 10.1 164 Region 9 15.9 14.1 21.1 198 Region 10 3.6 4.8 5.3 202 Area Urban 2.2 1.4 3.1 838 Rural 3.7 3.7 5.6 2,520 Location Coastal 2.2 1.8 3.5 2,634 Urban Coastal 2.3 1.4 3.3 711 Rural Coastal 2.1 2.0 3.5 1,923 Interior 7.3 7.8 10.6 724 Age 0-23 months 2.8 2.2 4.2 1,373 24-59 months 3.6 3.7 5.5 1,985 Mother’s educationa None 6.4 9.9 11.6 64 Primary 4.5 3.8 5.8 483 Secondary 3.3 2.9 5.0 2,485 Higher 1.0 2.3 2.9 321 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 6.7 6.7 10.0 1,003 Second 2.6 1.8 3.8 755 Middle 1.8 1.7 3.2 616 Fourth 2.0 1.9 3.0 486 Richest 0.5 0.7 1.0 497 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 2.8 1.4 3.6 1,118 African 1.7 2.3 3.4 1,037 Amerindian 9.8 10.0 13.7 492 Mixed Race 1.8 2.3 3.5 697 1 MICS indicator 6.7 - Inadequate care a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases 216 Developmental Status of Children Early childhood development is defined as an orderly, predictable process along a continuous path, in which a child learns to handle more complicated levels of moving, thinking, speaking, feeling and relating to others. Physical growth, literacy and numeracy skills, socio-emotional development and readiness to learn are vital domains of a child’s overall development, which is a basis for overall human development.71 A ten-item module was used to calculate the Early Child Development Index (ECDI). The primary purpose of the ECDI is to inform public policy regarding the developmental status of children in Guyana. The index is based on selected milestones that children are expected to achieve by ages three and four. The ten items are used to determine if children (36-59 months) are developmentally on track in four domains:  Literacy-numeracy: Children are identified as being developmentally on track based on whether they can identify/name at least ten letters of the alphabet, whether they can read at least four simple, popular words, and whether they know the name and recognize the symbols of all numbers from 1 to 10. If at least two of these are true, then the child is considered developmentally on track.  Physical: If the child can pick up a small object with two fingers, like a stick or a rock from the ground and/or the mother/caretaker does not indicate that the child is sometimes too sick to play, then the child is regarded as being developmentally on track in the physical domain.  Social-emotional: Children are considered to be developmentally on track if two of the following are true: If the child gets along well with other children, if the child does not kick, bite, or hit other children and if the child does not get distracted easily.  Learning: If the child follows simple directions on how to do something correctly and/or when given something to do, is able to do it independently, then the child is considered to be developmentally on track in this domain. ECDI is then calculated as the percentage of children who are developmentally on track in at least three of these four domains. The results are presented in Table CD.5. In Guyana, 86 percent of children aged 36-59 months are developmentally on track. ECDI is similar between boys (85%) and girls (87%). As expected, ECDI is 71Shonkoff J.P. and Phillips D.A. (eds) (2000).From neurons to neighborhoods: the science of early childhood development, Committee on Integratingthe Science of Early Childhood Development, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. much higher in the older age group (93% among children aged 48-59 months compared to 78% among those aged 36-47 months), since children mature more skills with increasing age. Higher ECDI is seen in children attending an early childhood education programme at 91 percent, compared to 77 percent among those who are not attending. Children living in the poorest households have lower ECDI (78%) compared to children living in households of the other four quintiles (88-90% of children developmentally on track). EDCI increases with the level of mother’s education, from 77 percent among children whose mothers have primary education, to 90 percent among those whose mothers have higher education. There is no urban-rural difference, but a coastal-interior difference is observed, with 88 percent for coastal children, as opposed to 79 percent for interior children. The proportion of children living in households with an Amerindian household head developmentally on track is smaller than those living in households of other ethnicities, with 73 percent of children on track, compared to 87-88 percent for others. Considerable regional disparities are observed, with the lowest found in Region 1 (73%), and the highest in Region 5 (92%). The analysis of four domains of child development shows that 97 percent of children are on track in the physical domain, 95 percent in the learning domain, but much less on track in social-emotional (75%) and literacy-numeracy (63%) domains. The coastal-interior differential is seen for literacy-numeracy and social- emotional domains, to a lesser extent for learning, but not for the physical domain. A similar pattern is observed for the ethnicity of household head, where children living in households with an Amerindian household head are less on track for literacy-numeracy and social-emotional domains than those in other households. Looking at individual domains by region, it should be noted that the literacy-numeracy is the domain that has the greatest disparities and the lowest percentages of children on track. In Region 1, only one in four children (26%) is on track in the literacy- numeracy domain. In each individual domain, the higher score is associated with children attending an early childhood education programme, older children, children in richer households and whose mother has higher education. 217Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table CD.5: Early child development index Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning domains, and the early child development index score, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track for indicated domains Early child development index score1 Number of children age 36-59 months Literacy- numeracy Physical Social- Emotional Learning Total 63.0 97.3 74.5 95.0 85.6 1,337 Sex Male 60.2 97.1 72.5 93.9 84.9 723 Female 66.2 97.4 76.8 96.2 86.5 614 Region Region 1 25.6 92.2 77.1 84.4 73.1 37 Region 2 35.6 99.0 76.2 98.2 85.5 74 Region 3 57.8 97.8 70.8 92.4 84.6 159 Region 4 68.6 98.0 77.2 97.5 88.8 557 Region 5 69.3 97.4 77.3 97.8 92.2 104 Region 6 72.1 97.9 77.0 93.0 87.5 177 Regions 7 & 8 51.3 95.5 67.9 93.2 74.1 70 Region 9 61.5 91.4 56.8 86.0 73.6 75 Region 10 59.8 97.0 73.0 94.6 80.4 84 Area Urban 68.1 97.4 77.4 96.0 87.0 332 Rural 61.2 97.2 73.5 94.6 85.2 1,004 Location Coastal 65.5 97.9 76.0 95.9 87.6 1,046 Urban Coastal 68.2 97.5 76.9 96.3 86.9 284 Rural Coastal 64.6 98.1 75.7 95.8 87.8 762 Interior 53.6 94.9 68.9 91.6 78.5 290 Age 36-47 months 46.9 95.7 71.1 92.7 78.3 683 48-59 months 79.7 98.9 78.0 97.3 93.3 653 Attendance to early childhood education Attending 77.2 99.2 76.0 97.8 91.4 816 Not attending 40.7 94.3 72.0 90.5 76.5 521 Mother’s educationa None (35.7) (95.5) (85.6) (93.6) (86.6) 29 Primary 52.5 95.3 73.0 91.4 77.4 216 Secondary 65.0 97.6 73.3 95.4 86.8 955 Higher 70.6 98.2 84.1 97.7 90.0 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 49.1 95.8 69.1 91.6 77.9 406 Second 62.7 98.3 78.4 94.4 89.2 302 Middle 74.5 97.2 71.2 97.6 88.4 247 Fourth 69.3 97.7 77.7 97.6 88.6 179 Richest 71.5 98.2 80.3 97.2 89.9 202 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 63.8 96.8 79.0 96.0 88.4 438 African 69.4 98.2 73.5 95.6 87.4 414 Amerindian 47.1 93.7 61.2 89.5 73.2 185 Mixed Race 62.2 98.8 77.4 96.0 86.5 295 1 MICS indicator 6.8 - Early child development index a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table CD.5: Early child development index Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning domains, and the early child development index score, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track for indicated domains Early child development index score1 Number of children age 36-59 months Literacy- numeracy Physical Social- Emotional Learning Total 63.0 97.3 74.5 95.0 85.6 1,337 Sex Male 60.2 97.1 72.5 93.9 84.9 723 Female 66.2 97.4 76.8 96.2 86.5 614 Region Region 1 25.6 92.2 77.1 84.4 73.1 37 Region 2 35.6 99.0 76.2 98.2 85.5 74 Region 3 57.8 97.8 70.8 92.4 84.6 159 Region 4 68.6 98.0 77.2 97.5 88.8 557 Region 5 69.3 97.4 77.3 97.8 92.2 104 Region 6 72.1 97.9 77.0 93.0 87.5 177 Regions 7 & 8 51.3 95.5 67.9 93.2 74.1 70 Region 9 61.5 91.4 56.8 86.0 73.6 75 Region 10 59.8 97.0 73.0 94.6 80.4 84 Area Urban 68.1 97.4 77.4 96.0 87.0 332 Rural 61.2 97.2 73.5 94.6 85.2 1,004 Location Coastal 65.5 97.9 76.0 95.9 87.6 1,046 Urban Coastal 68.2 97.5 76.9 96.3 86.9 284 Rural Coastal 64.6 98.1 75.7 95.8 87.8 762 Interior 53.6 94.9 68.9 91.6 78.5 290 Age 36-47 months 46.9 95.7 71.1 92.7 78.3 683 48-59 months 79.7 98.9 78.0 97.3 93.3 653 Attendance to early childhood education Attending 77.2 99.2 76.0 97.8 91.4 816 Not attending 40.7 94.3 72.0 90.5 76.5 521 Mother’s educationa None (35.7) (95.5) (85.6) (93.6) (86.6) 29 Primary 52.5 95.3 73.0 91.4 77.4 216 Secondary 65.0 97.6 73.3 95.4 86.8 955 Higher 70.6 98.2 84.1 97.7 90.0 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 49.1 95.8 69.1 91.6 77.9 406 Second 62.7 98.3 78.4 94.4 89.2 302 Middle 74.5 97.2 71.2 97.6 88.4 247 Fourth 69.3 97.7 77.7 97.6 88.6 179 Richest 71.5 98.2 80.3 97.2 89.9 202 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 63.8 96.8 79.0 96.0 88.4 438 African 69.4 98.2 73.5 95.6 87.4 414 Amerindian 47.1 93.7 61.2 89.5 73.2 185 Mixed Race 62.2 98.8 77.4 96.0 86.5 295 1 MICS indicator 6.8 - Early child development index a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table CD.5: Early child development index Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning domains, and the early child development index score, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track for indicated domains Early child development index score1 Number of children age 36-59 months Literacy- numeracy Physical Social- Emotional Learning Total 63.0 97.3 74.5 95.0 85.6 1,337 Sex Male 60.2 97.1 72.5 93.9 84.9 723 Female 66.2 97.4 76.8 96.2 86.5 614 Region Region 1 25.6 92.2 77.1 84.4 73.1 37 Region 2 35.6 99.0 76.2 98.2 85.5 74 Region 3 57.8 97.8 70.8 92.4 84.6 159 Region 4 68.6 98.0 77.2 97.5 88.8 557 Region 5 69.3 97.4 77.3 97.8 92.2 104 Region 6 72.1 97.9 77.0 93.0 87.5 177 Regions 7 & 8 51.3 95.5 67.9 93.2 74.1 70 Region 9 61.5 91.4 56.8 86.0 73.6 75 Region 10 59.8 97.0 73.0 94.6 80.4 84 Area Urban 68.1 97.4 77.4 96.0 87.0 332 Rural 61.2 97.2 73.5 94.6 85.2 1,004 Location Coastal 65.5 97.9 76.0 95.9 87.6 1,046 Urban Coastal 68.2 97.5 76.9 96.3 86.9 284 Rural Coastal 64.6 98.1 75.7 95.8 87.8 762 Interior 53.6 94.9 68.9 91.6 78.5 290 Age 36-47 months 46.9 95.7 71.1 92.7 78.3 683 48-59 months 79.7 98.9 78.0 97.3 93.3 653 Attendance to early childhood education Attending 77.2 99.2 76.0 97.8 91.4 816 Not attending 40.7 94.3 72.0 90.5 76.5 521 Mother’s educationa None (35.7) (95.5) (85.6) (93.6) (86.6) 29 Primary 52.5 95.3 73.0 91.4 77.4 216 Secondary 65.0 97.6 73.3 95.4 86.8 955 Higher 70.6 98.2 84.1 97.7 90.0 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 49.1 95.8 69.1 91.6 77.9 406 Second 62.7 98.3 78.4 94.4 89.2 302 Middle 74.5 97.2 71.2 97.6 88.4 247 Fourth 69.3 97.7 77.7 97.6 88.6 179 Richest 71.5 98.2 80.3 97.2 89.9 202 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 63.8 96.8 79.0 96.0 88.4 438 African 69.4 98.2 73.5 95.6 87.4 414 Amerindian 47.1 93.7 61.2 89.5 73.2 185 Mixed Race 62.2 98.8 77.4 96.0 86.5 295 1 MICS indicator 6.8 - Early child development index a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 218 @UNICEF Guyana 219Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 220 Literacy among young Women and Men The Youth Literacy Rate reflects the outcomes of primary education over the previous ten years or so. As a measure of the effectiveness of the primary education system, it is often seen as a proxy measure of social progress and economic achievement. In Guyana MICS5 2014, literacy is assessed on the ability of the respondent to read a short simple statement or based on the highest level of education reached.72 The percent literate is presented in Tables ED.1 and ED.1M. Table ED.1 indicates that 98 percent of young women (i.e. 15-24 years) in Guyana are literate and that literacy status does not vary by area, location or age of women. Additionally, the region of residence has little influence on whether or not a young woman is literate except for those who reside in Region 1, in which case only 83 percent are literate compared to over 96 percent in the other regions. Of women who stated that primary school was their highest level of education, just 52 percent were actually able to read the statement shown to them. Table ED.1M shows that, for men, the relationships between literacy status and background characteristics are generally similar to those observed among women. It should be emphasized that literacy in MICS surveys is measured by the ability to read a short simple statement. The literacy status as measured by the present survey may not accurately capture the different degrees of literacy among the population in Guyana, and therefore needs to be interpreted with caution. 72The request to read the simple statement was made to women and men who have not attended school, or did not attend school beyond the primary level. It was assumed that respondents who have attended secondary school or higher were literate. Therefore, the literacy rate among young people is the percentage of respondents aged 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education. Blind or visually impaired respondents were not assessed. The following sentences were utilised in the present survey: -The cows drink water. -I love to eat food. -We are happy at home. -The road is not a place to play. -I do not know my man. -How are you today? -Cats and dogs are animals. -Fishes swim in the trench. 73In MICS5, school attendance is considered to be the percentage of children who were attending school regardless of the frequency of attendance. 74The computation of the indicator does not exclude repeaters, and therefore is inclusive of both children who are attending primary school for the first time, as well as those who were in the first grade of primary school the previous school year and are repeating. Children repeating may have attended nursery school prior to the school year during which they attended the first grade of primary school for the first time; these children are not captured in the numerator of the indicator. School Readiness Attendance73 to nursery school is important for the readiness of children to school. Table ED.2 shows the proportion of children in the first grade of primary school (regardless of age) who attended nursery school the previous year74 (school readiness). Overall, 85 percent of children who are currently attending the first grade of primary school were attending nursery school the previous year. This indicator is similar by sex (87% males and 83% females), as well as by area of residence (84% urban and 85% rural). However, there are variations by ethnicity of household head. The highest proportion of children in the first grade of primary school who attended nursery school the previous year is from African headed households, with 91 percent, and the lowest proportion is from households headed by East Indians, with 80 percent. Interestingly, there does not seem to be a correlation between school readiness and socio-economic status of the household in Guyana. X. LITERACY AND EDUCATION 221Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table ED.1: Literacy (young women) Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are literate, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage literate1 Percentage not known Number of women age 15-24 years Total 98.0 0.2 1,868 Region Region 1 83.3 0.0 25 Region 2 100.0 0.0 88 Region 3 98.8 0.2 333 Region 4 98.2 0.1 829 Region 5 96.5 0.0 117 Region 6 97.1 0.5 277 Regions 7 & 8 96.3 1.0 58 Region 9 98.6 0.0 43 Region 10 100.0 0.0 98 Area Urban 99.8 0.1 494 Rural 97.4 0.2 1,374 Location Coastal 98.1 0.2 1,616 Urban Coastal 99.7 0.2 419 Rural Coastal 97.5 0.1 1,197 Interior 97.2 0.2 252 Education None (*) (*) 6 Primary 51.7 3.5 66 Secondary 100.0 0.0 1,579 Higher 100.0 0.0 217 Age 15-19 98.8 0.1 1,025 20-24 97.0 0.2 843 Wealth index quintile Poorest 94.4 0.3 370 Second 97.7 0.4 349 Middle 98.9 0.0 366 Fourth 99.6 0.2 409 Richest 99.2 0.0 374 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 97.0 0.1 816 African 99.6 0.0 565 Amerindian 96.1 0.4 139 Mixed Race 98.5 0.4 342 1 MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3 - Literacy rate among young women a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 222 Table ED.1M: Literacy (young men) Percentage of men age 15-24 years who are literate, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage literate1 Percentage not known Number of men age 15- 24 years Total 97.7 0.2 629 Region Region 1 (*) (*) 8 Region 2 (100.0) (0.0) 34 Region 3 99.4 0.0 99 Region 4 97.4 0.3 283 Region 5 (98.5) (0.0) 49 Region 6 95.5 0.4 104 Regions 7 & 8 (98.5) (0.0) 12 Region 9 (*) (*) 10 Region 10 (100.0) (0.0) 28 Area Urban 97.3 0.0 160 Rural 97.8 0.3 469 Location Coastal 97.6 0.2 560 Urban Coastal 96.9 0.0 140 Rural Coastal 97.9 0.3 421 Interior 97.9 0.4 69 Education None (*) (*) 6 Primary (*) (*) 17 Secondary 100.0 0.0 516 Higher 100.0 0.0 91 Age 15-19 98.0 0.4 374 20-24 97.1 0.0 255 Wealth index quintile Poorest 92.5 0.2 103 Second 96.0 0.9 138 Middle 99.4 0.0 151 Fourth 100.0 0.0 116 Richest 99.5 0.0 120 Ethnicity of household heada, b East Indian 96.0 0.1 267 African 99.8 0.0 219 Amerindian 95.1 0.6 40 Mixed Race 98.4 0.9 99 1 MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3 - Literacy rate among young men[M] a This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head b Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 223Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table ED.2: School readiness a Percentage of children attending first grade of primary school who attended nursery school the previous year, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children attending first grade who attended nursery school in previous year1 Number of children attending first grade of primary school Total 84.9 301 Sex Male 87.4 141 Female 82.7 160 Region Region 1 (64.9) 9 Region 2 (*) 15 Region 3 (78.2) 31 Region 4 90.4 119 Region 5 (91.7) 28 Region 6 78.8 43 Regions 7 & 8 68.3 13 Region 9 100.0 19 Region 10 (93.8) 24 Area Urban 83.8 69 Rural 85.2 232 Location Coastal 83.7 230 Urban Coastal 79.0 53 Rural Coastal 85.1 177 Interior 88.8 71 Mother's educationb None (*) 10 Primary 66.7 58 Secondary 90.1 199 Higher (86.3) 28 Mother not in household (*) 3 Wealth index quintile Poorest 79.9 89 Second 81.6 56 Middle 96.5 57 Fourth 90.2 48 Richest 79.3 52 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 79.5 99 African 90.9 104 Amerindian 83.8 38 Mixed Race 83.6 57 1 MICS indicator 7.2 - School readiness a In MICS5, school attendance is considered to be the percentage of children who were attending school regardless of the frequency of attendance b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.2: School readiness a Percentage of children attending first grade of primary school who attended nursery school the previous year, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children attending first grade who attended nursery school in previous year1 Number of children attending first grade of primary school Total 84.9 301 Sex Male 87.4 141 Female 82.7 160 Region Region 1 (64.9) 9 Region 2 (*) 15 Region 3 (78.2) 31 Region 4 90.4 119 Region 5 (91.7) 28 Region 6 78.8 43 Regions 7 & 8 68.3 13 Region 9 100.0 19 Region 10 (93.8) 24 Area Urban 83.8 69 Rural 85.2 232 Location Coastal 83.7 230 Urban Coastal 79.0 53 Rural Coastal 85.1 177 Interior 88.8 71 Mother's educationb None (*) 10 Primary 66.7 58 Secondary 90.1 199 Higher (86.3) 28 Mother not in household (*) 3 Wealth index quintile Poorest 79.9 89 Second 81.6 56 Middle 96.5 57 Fourth 90.2 48 Richest 79.3 52 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 79.5 99 African 90.9 104 Amerindian 83.8 38 Mixed Race 83.6 57 1 MICS indicator 7.2 - School readiness a In MICS5, school attendance is considered to be the percentage of children who were attending school regardless of the frequency of attendance b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.2: School readiness a Percentage of children attending first grade of primary school who attended nursery school the previous year, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children attending first grade who attended nursery school in previous year1 Number of children attending first grade of primary school Total 84.9 301 Sex Male 87.4 141 Female 82.7 160 Region Region 1 (64.9) 9 Region 2 (*) 15 Region 3 (78.2) 31 Region 4 90.4 119 Region 5 (91.7) 28 Region 6 78.8 43 Regions 7 & 8 68.3 13 Region 9 100.0 19 Region 10 (93.8) 24 Area Urban 83.8 69 Rural 85.2 232 Location Coastal 83.7 230 Urban Coastal 79.0 53 Rural Coastal 85.1 177 Interior 88.8 71 Mother's educationb None (*) 10 Primary 66.7 58 Secondary 90.1 199 Higher (86.3) 28 Mother not in household (*) 3 Wealth index quintile Poorest 79.9 89 Second 81.6 56 Middle 96.5 57 Fourth 90.2 48 Richest 79.3 52 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 79.5 99 African 90.9 104 Amerindian 83.8 38 Mixed Race 83.6 57 1 MICS indicator 7.2 - School readiness a In MICS5, school attendance is considered to be the percentage of children who were attending school regardless of the frequency of attendance b Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Primary and Secondary School Participation Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the Millennium Development Goals (2, A). Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. In Guyana, children enter primary school at age six, and secondary school at age 12. There are six grades in primary school and five grades in secondary school. In primary school, grades are referred to as Grade 1 to Grade 6. For secondary school, grades are referred to as Form 1 to Form 5. The school year typically runs from September of one year to July of the following year. Of children who are of primary school entry age (age 6) in Guyana, 83 percent are attending the first grade of primary school (Table ED.3). There are slight differences by sex (82% for boys and 85% for girls) and coastal- interior areas (83% versus 86%). Interestingly, children’s entry to primary school is slightly timelier in rural areas (85%) than in urban areas (78%). There are also disparities relative to the ethnicity of the household head - children’s entry to primary school is most timely among those from households headed by East Indians (87%) and least timely among those from households headed by a person of mixed race (80%). 224 Table ED.3: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11 Number of children of primary school entry age Total 83.3 345 Sex Male 81.6 175 Female 84.9 170 Region Region 1 (89.4) 9 Region 2 (83.4) 27 Region 3 (73.3) 43 Region 4 80.6 147 Region 5 (84.6) 21 Region 6 95.1 45 Regions 7 & 8 87.1 12 Region 9 91.7 22 Region 10 (82.0) 19 Area Urban 77.9 94 Rural 85.3 251 Location Coastal 82.5 277 Urban Coastal 76.2 85 Rural Coastal 85.3 192 Interior 86.4 68 Mother's educationa None (*) 8 Primary 86.6 74 Secondary 82.0 224 Higher (84.0) 36 Mother not in household (*) 2 Wealth index quintile Poorest 83.1 96 Second 83.2 67 Middle 83.2 54 Fourth 83.8 63 Richest 83.1 65 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 87.1 123 African 80.4 103 Amerindian 83.9 53 Mixed Race 79.6 65 1 MICS indicator 7.3 - Net intake rate in primary education a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.3: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11 Number of children of primary school entry age Total 83.3 345 Sex Male 81.6 175 Female 84.9 170 Region Region 1 (89.4) 9 Region 2 (83.4) 27 Region 3 (73.3) 43 Region 4 80.6 147 Region 5 (84.6) 21 Region 6 95.1 45 Regions 7 & 8 87.1 12 Region 9 91.7 22 Region 10 (82.0) 19 Area Urban 77.9 94 Rural 85.3 251 Location Coastal 82.5 277 Urban Coastal 76.2 85 Rural Coastal 85.3 192 Interior 86.4 68 Mother's educationa None (*) 8 Primary 86.6 74 Secondary 82.0 224 Higher (84.0) 36 Mother not in household (*) 2 Wealth index quintile Poorest 83.1 96 Second 83.2 67 Middle 83.2 54 Fourth 83.8 63 Richest 83.1 65 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 87.1 123 African 80.4 103 Amerindian 83.9 53 Mixed Race 79.6 65 1 MICS indicator 7.3 - Net intake rate in primary education a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.3: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11 Number of children of primary school entry age Total 83.3 345 Sex Male 81.6 175 Female 84.9 170 Region Region 1 (89.4) 9 Region 2 (83.4) 27 Region 3 (73.3) 43 Region 4 80.6 147 Region 5 (84.6) 21 Region 6 95.1 45 Regions 7 & 8 87.1 12 Region 9 91.7 22 Region 10 (82.0) 19 Area Urban 77.9 94 Rural 85.3 251 Location Coastal 82.5 277 Urban Coastal 76.2 85 Rural Coastal 85.3 192 Interior 86.4 68 Mother's educationa None (*) 8 Primary 86.6 74 Secondary 82.0 224 Higher (84.0) 36 Mother not in household (*) 2 Wealth index quintile Poorest 83.1 96 Second 83.2 67 Middle 83.2 54 Fourth 83.8 63 Richest 83.1 65 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 87.1 123 African 80.4 103 Amerindian 83.9 53 Mixed Race 79.6 65 1 MICS indicator 7.3 - Net intake rate in primary education a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.4 provides the percentage of children of primary school age (6 to 11 years) who have attended primary or secondary school75 at least once in the school year of the survey and those who are out of school. The great majority of children of primary school age (97%) have attended school at least once in the school year of the survey. Two (2) percent of the children are out of school, though primarily due to an out-of-school rate of ten (10) percent for children age six, who appear to be starting late in school, as seen by a relatively high percentage attending nursery school (9%). Overall, the percentage of children of primary school age who have attended school at least once in the school year of the survey is generally high and there are hardly any variations according to sex, regions, areas, location, mother’s education, ethnicity of household head and socio-economic status of the household. However, it is noteworthy that the highest proportion of children of primary school age who are out of school is living in Region 2, in the poorest households and in households headed by a person of mixed race. 75Ratios presented in this table are “adjusted” since they include not only primary school attendance, but also secondary school attendance in the numerator. 225Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e ED .4 : P rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce a an d ou t o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge a tte nd in g pr im ar y or s ec on da ry s ch oo l ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce ra tio ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol , a nd p er ce nt ag e ou t o f s ch oo l, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b To ta l 96 .9 0. 7 1. 5 2. 2 1 ,0 80 97 .1 0. 9 1. 5 2. 4 1 ,0 87 97 .0 0. 8 1. 5 2. 3 2 ,1 66 R eg io n R eg io n 1 94 .1 2. 7 1. 1 3. 8 3 4 96 .9 0. 6 0. 3 0. 9 33 95 .5 1. 7 0. 7 2. 4 6 6 R eg io n 2 94 .9 3. 6 1. 5 5. 1 7 2 96 .5 1. 9 1. 6 3. 5 63 95 .6 2. 8 1. 5 4. 4 1 34 R eg io n 3 97 .3 0. 4 0. 8 1. 1 1 59 95 .9 0. 4 3. 4 3. 8 15 5 96 .6 0. 4 2. 0 2. 4 3 14 R eg io n 4 96 .5 0. 1 2. 2 2. 3 4 61 96 .5 0. 8 1. 7 2. 5 44 9 96 .5 0. 4 2. 0 2. 4 9 10 R eg io n 5 98 .2 0. 0 1. 1 1. 1 6 5 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 69 99 .1 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 1 34 R eg io n 6 98 .4 0. 0 1. 1 1. 1 1 33 98 .0 1. 8 0. 3 2. 0 15 7 98 .2 1. 0 0. 7 1. 6 2 90 R eg io ns 7 & 8 95 .3 2. 6 1. 2 3. 8 3 3 98 .4 0. 0 1. 6 1. 6 34 96 .9 1. 3 1. 4 2. 7 6 7 R eg io n 9 98 .3 1. 2 0. 5 1. 7 6 3 98 .3 1. 3 0. 0 1. 3 70 98 .3 1. 3 0. 2 1. 5 1 33 R eg io n 10 97 .0 3. 0 0. 0 3. 0 6 0 97 .3 0. 7 2. 0 2. 7 57 97 .2 1. 9 1. 0 2. 8 1 18 A re a U rb an 94 .8 1. 2 3. 0 4. 2 2 86 96 .9 0. 3 2. 5 2. 8 27 7 95 .9 0. 8 2. 7 3. 5 5 63 R ur al 97 .6 0. 6 0. 9 1. 5 7 94 97 .1 1. 1 1. 1 2. 2 81 0 97 .4 0. 8 1. 0 1. 9 1 ,6 03 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 96 .9 0. 4 1. 7 2. 1 8 62 97 .0 0. 8 1. 6 2. 4 87 9 96 .9 0. 6 1. 7 2. 3 1 ,7 41 U rb an C oa st al 94 .4 1. 0 3. 4 4. 4 2 50 96 .5 0. 4 2. 9 3. 2 24 3 95 .5 0. 7 3. 1 3. 8 4 93 R ur al C oa st al 97 .9 0. 2 1. 0 1. 2 6 13 97 .2 1. 0 1. 1 2. 1 63 6 97 .5 0. 6 1. 1 1. 7 1 ,2 49 In te rio r 96 .8 2. 0 0. 5 2. 5 2 17 97 .5 1. 1 0. 9 2. 1 20 8 97 .1 1. 6 0. 7 2. 3 4 25 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 6 88 .9 1. 4 8. 6 10 .0 1 75 89 .5 1. 4 8. 9 10 .3 17 0 89 .1 1. 4 8. 8 10 .1 3 45 7 98 .0 1. 5 0. 4 1. 9 2 05 99 .7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 17 9 98 .8 0. 8 0. 2 1. 1 3 84 8 97 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1 74 97 .2 2. 1 0. 0 2. 1 16 8 97 .1 1. 1 0. 0 1. 1 3 41 9 98 .8 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 1 76 97 .6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 19 0 98 .1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 5 3 65 10 99 .0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 1 85 99 .6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 20 8 99 .3 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 3 94 11 99 .4 0. 6 0. 0 0. 6 1 65 98 .2 1. 6 0. 0 1. 6 17 2 98 .8 1. 1 0. 0 1. 1 3 37 M ot he r's e du ca tio nc N on e 92 .4 2. 0 3. 1 5. 2 2 8 98 .0 0. 9 0. 0 0. 9 22 94 .8 1. 5 1. 8 3. 3 5 0 P rim ar y 96 .3 0. 4 1. 0 1. 4 2 31 97 .3 1. 8 0. 5 2. 3 24 7 96 .8 1. 1 0. 8 1. 9 4 77 S ec on da ry 97 .6 0. 6 1. 3 1. 9 7 04 96 .8 0. 7 1. 9 2. 6 71 0 97 .2 0. 7 1. 6 2. 2 1 ,4 14 H ig he r 93 .6 2. 2 4. 3 6. 4 9 2 98 .5 0. 0 1. 5 1. 5 82 95 .9 1. 1 3. 0 4. 1 1 75 M ot he r n ot in h ou se ho ld (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 9 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 22 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 95 .6 1. 5 1. 1 2. 6 31 0 95 .8 3. 0 0. 5 3. 5 27 6 95 .7 2. 2 0. 8 3. 0 58 6 S ec on d 98 .0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 8 20 4 97 .2 0. 2 2. 1 2. 2 22 9 97 .6 0. 1 1. 5 1. 6 43 3 M id dl e 98 .9 0. 2 0. 9 1. 1 20 5 97 .2 0. 3 2. 5 2. 8 18 0 98 .1 0. 3 1. 6 1. 9 38 5 Fo ur th 96 .0 0. 5 3. 1 3. 5 17 0 97 .1 0. 2 1. 2 1. 4 20 9 96 .7 0. 3 2. 0 2. 4 37 9 R ic he st 96 .4 1. 0 2. 0 3. 1 19 1 98 .5 0. 0 1. 5 1. 5 19 3 97 .4 0. 5 1. 8 2. 3 38 4 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dd , e E as t I nd ia n 98 .0 0. 1 0. 9 1. 0 4 00 98 .0 0. 8 0. 4 1. 2 40 6 98 .0 0. 5 0. 6 1. 1 8 06 A fri ca n 97 .6 0. 3 1. 5 1. 9 2 99 96 .1 1. 1 2. 8 3. 9 32 6 96 .8 0. 7 2. 2 2. 9 6 25 A m er in di an 96 .1 2. 5 0. 5 2. 9 1 47 96 .9 1. 5 1. 0 2. 5 15 1 96 .5 2. 0 0. 7 2. 7 2 98 M ix ed R ac e 94 .5 1. 2 3. 0 4. 2 2 32 97 .1 0. 2 1. 9 2. 1 19 7 95 .7 0. 7 2. 5 3. 2 4 29 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .4 ; M D G in di ca to r 2 .1 - Pr im ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) a P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge w ho h av e at te nd ed p rim ar y or h ig he r e du ca tio n at le as t o nc e in th e sc ho ol y ea r o f t he s ur ve y b C hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge w ho a re o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e th at a re n ot a tte nd in g an y sc ho ol a nd th os e at te nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol s c C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s d T hi s is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d e C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 226 Ta bl e ED .4 : P rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce a an d ou t o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge a tte nd in g pr im ar y or s ec on da ry s ch oo l ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce ra tio ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol , a nd p er ce nt ag e ou t o f s ch oo l, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b To ta l 96 .9 0. 7 1. 5 2. 2 1 ,0 80 97 .1 0. 9 1. 5 2. 4 1 ,0 87 97 .0 0. 8 1. 5 2. 3 2 ,1 66 R eg io n R eg io n 1 94 .1 2. 7 1. 1 3. 8 3 4 96 .9 0. 6 0. 3 0. 9 33 95 .5 1. 7 0. 7 2. 4 6 6 R eg io n 2 94 .9 3. 6 1. 5 5. 1 7 2 96 .5 1. 9 1. 6 3. 5 63 95 .6 2. 8 1. 5 4. 4 1 34 R eg io n 3 97 .3 0. 4 0. 8 1. 1 1 59 95 .9 0. 4 3. 4 3. 8 15 5 96 .6 0. 4 2. 0 2. 4 3 14 R eg io n 4 96 .5 0. 1 2. 2 2. 3 4 61 96 .5 0. 8 1. 7 2. 5 44 9 96 .5 0. 4 2. 0 2. 4 9 10 R eg io n 5 98 .2 0. 0 1. 1 1. 1 6 5 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 69 99 .1 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 1 34 R eg io n 6 98 .4 0. 0 1. 1 1. 1 1 33 98 .0 1. 8 0. 3 2. 0 15 7 98 .2 1. 0 0. 7 1. 6 2 90 R eg io ns 7 & 8 95 .3 2. 6 1. 2 3. 8 3 3 98 .4 0. 0 1. 6 1. 6 34 96 .9 1. 3 1. 4 2. 7 6 7 R eg io n 9 98 .3 1. 2 0. 5 1. 7 6 3 98 .3 1. 3 0. 0 1. 3 70 98 .3 1. 3 0. 2 1. 5 1 33 R eg io n 10 97 .0 3. 0 0. 0 3. 0 6 0 97 .3 0. 7 2. 0 2. 7 57 97 .2 1. 9 1. 0 2. 8 1 18 A re a U rb an 94 .8 1. 2 3. 0 4. 2 2 86 96 .9 0. 3 2. 5 2. 8 27 7 95 .9 0. 8 2. 7 3. 5 5 63 R ur al 97 .6 0. 6 0. 9 1. 5 7 94 97 .1 1. 1 1. 1 2. 2 81 0 97 .4 0. 8 1. 0 1. 9 1 ,6 03 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 96 .9 0. 4 1. 7 2. 1 8 62 97 .0 0. 8 1. 6 2. 4 87 9 96 .9 0. 6 1. 7 2. 3 1 ,7 41 U rb an C oa st al 94 .4 1. 0 3. 4 4. 4 2 50 96 .5 0. 4 2. 9 3. 2 24 3 95 .5 0. 7 3. 1 3. 8 4 93 R ur al C oa st al 97 .9 0. 2 1. 0 1. 2 6 13 97 .2 1. 0 1. 1 2. 1 63 6 97 .5 0. 6 1. 1 1. 7 1 ,2 49 In te rio r 96 .8 2. 0 0. 5 2. 5 2 17 97 .5 1. 1 0. 9 2. 1 20 8 97 .1 1. 6 0. 7 2. 3 4 25 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 6 88 .9 1. 4 8. 6 10 .0 1 75 89 .5 1. 4 8. 9 10 .3 17 0 89 .1 1. 4 8. 8 10 .1 3 45 7 98 .0 1. 5 0. 4 1. 9 2 05 99 .7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 17 9 98 .8 0. 8 0. 2 1. 1 3 84 8 97 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1 74 97 .2 2. 1 0. 0 2. 1 16 8 97 .1 1. 1 0. 0 1. 1 3 41 9 98 .8 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 1 76 97 .6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 19 0 98 .1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 5 3 65 10 99 .0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 1 85 99 .6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 20 8 99 .3 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 3 94 11 99 .4 0. 6 0. 0 0. 6 1 65 98 .2 1. 6 0. 0 1. 6 17 2 98 .8 1. 1 0. 0 1. 1 3 37 M ot he r's e du ca tio nc N on e 92 .4 2. 0 3. 1 5. 2 2 8 98 .0 0. 9 0. 0 0. 9 22 94 .8 1. 5 1. 8 3. 3 5 0 P rim ar y 96 .3 0. 4 1. 0 1. 4 2 31 97 .3 1. 8 0. 5 2. 3 24 7 96 .8 1. 1 0. 8 1. 9 4 77 S ec on da ry 97 .6 0. 6 1. 3 1. 9 7 04 96 .8 0. 7 1. 9 2. 6 71 0 97 .2 0. 7 1. 6 2. 2 1 ,4 14 H ig he r 93 .6 2. 2 4. 3 6. 4 9 2 98 .5 0. 0 1. 5 1. 5 82 95 .9 1. 1 3. 0 4. 1 1 75 M ot he r n ot in h ou se ho ld (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 9 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 22 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 95 .6 1. 5 1. 1 2. 6 31 0 95 .8 3. 0 0. 5 3. 5 27 6 95 .7 2. 2 0. 8 3. 0 58 6 S ec on d 98 .0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 8 20 4 97 .2 0. 2 2. 1 2. 2 22 9 97 .6 0. 1 1. 5 1. 6 43 3 M id dl e 98 .9 0. 2 0. 9 1. 1 20 5 97 .2 0. 3 2. 5 2. 8 18 0 98 .1 0. 3 1. 6 1. 9 38 5 Fo ur th 96 .0 0. 5 3. 1 3. 5 17 0 97 .1 0. 2 1. 2 1. 4 20 9 96 .7 0. 3 2. 0 2. 4 37 9 R ic he st 96 .4 1. 0 2. 0 3. 1 19 1 98 .5 0. 0 1. 5 1. 5 19 3 97 .4 0. 5 1. 8 2. 3 38 4 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dd , e E as t I nd ia n 98 .0 0. 1 0. 9 1. 0 4 00 98 .0 0. 8 0. 4 1. 2 40 6 98 .0 0. 5 0. 6 1. 1 8 06 A fri ca n 97 .6 0. 3 1. 5 1. 9 2 99 96 .1 1. 1 2. 8 3. 9 32 6 96 .8 0. 7 2. 2 2. 9 6 25 A m er in di an 96 .1 2. 5 0. 5 2. 9 1 47 96 .9 1. 5 1. 0 2. 5 15 1 96 .5 2. 0 0. 7 2. 7 2 98 M ix ed R ac e 94 .5 1. 2 3. 0 4. 2 2 32 97 .1 0. 2 1. 9 2. 1 19 7 95 .7 0. 7 2. 5 3. 2 4 29 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .4 ; M D G in di ca to r 2 .1 - Pr im ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) a P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge w ho h av e at te nd ed p rim ar y or h ig he r e du ca tio n at le as t o nc e in th e sc ho ol y ea r o f t he s ur ve y b C hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge w ho a re o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e th at a re n ot a tte nd in g an y sc ho ol a nd th os e at te nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol s c C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s d T hi s is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d e C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e ED .4 : P rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce a an d ou t o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge a tte nd in g pr im ar y or s ec on da ry s ch oo l ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce ra tio ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol , a nd p er ce nt ag e ou t o f s ch oo l, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol o r nu rs er y sc ho ol A tte nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b To ta l 96 .9 0. 7 1. 5 2. 2 1 ,0 80 97 .1 0. 9 1. 5 2. 4 1 ,0 87 97 .0 0. 8 1. 5 2. 3 2 ,1 66 R eg io n R eg io n 1 94 .1 2. 7 1. 1 3. 8 3 4 96 .9 0. 6 0. 3 0. 9 33 95 .5 1. 7 0. 7 2. 4 6 6 R eg io n 2 94 .9 3. 6 1. 5 5. 1 7 2 96 .5 1. 9 1. 6 3. 5 63 95 .6 2. 8 1. 5 4. 4 1 34 R eg io n 3 97 .3 0. 4 0. 8 1. 1 1 59 95 .9 0. 4 3. 4 3. 8 15 5 96 .6 0. 4 2. 0 2. 4 3 14 R eg io n 4 96 .5 0. 1 2. 2 2. 3 4 61 96 .5 0. 8 1. 7 2. 5 44 9 96 .5 0. 4 2. 0 2. 4 9 10 R eg io n 5 98 .2 0. 0 1. 1 1. 1 6 5 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 69 99 .1 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 1 34 R eg io n 6 98 .4 0. 0 1. 1 1. 1 1 33 98 .0 1. 8 0. 3 2. 0 15 7 98 .2 1. 0 0. 7 1. 6 2 90 R eg io ns 7 & 8 95 .3 2. 6 1. 2 3. 8 3 3 98 .4 0. 0 1. 6 1. 6 34 96 .9 1. 3 1. 4 2. 7 6 7 R eg io n 9 98 .3 1. 2 0. 5 1. 7 6 3 98 .3 1. 3 0. 0 1. 3 70 98 .3 1. 3 0. 2 1. 5 1 33 R eg io n 10 97 .0 3. 0 0. 0 3. 0 6 0 97 .3 0. 7 2. 0 2. 7 57 97 .2 1. 9 1. 0 2. 8 1 18 A re a U rb an 94 .8 1. 2 3. 0 4. 2 2 86 96 .9 0. 3 2. 5 2. 8 27 7 95 .9 0. 8 2. 7 3. 5 5 63 R ur al 97 .6 0. 6 0. 9 1. 5 7 94 97 .1 1. 1 1. 1 2. 2 81 0 97 .4 0. 8 1. 0 1. 9 1 ,6 03 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 96 .9 0. 4 1. 7 2. 1 8 62 97 .0 0. 8 1. 6 2. 4 87 9 96 .9 0. 6 1. 7 2. 3 1 ,7 41 U rb an C oa st al 94 .4 1. 0 3. 4 4. 4 2 50 96 .5 0. 4 2. 9 3. 2 24 3 95 .5 0. 7 3. 1 3. 8 4 93 R ur al C oa st al 97 .9 0. 2 1. 0 1. 2 6 13 97 .2 1. 0 1. 1 2. 1 63 6 97 .5 0. 6 1. 1 1. 7 1 ,2 49 In te rio r 96 .8 2. 0 0. 5 2. 5 2 17 97 .5 1. 1 0. 9 2. 1 20 8 97 .1 1. 6 0. 7 2. 3 4 25 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 6 88 .9 1. 4 8. 6 10 .0 1 75 89 .5 1. 4 8. 9 10 .3 17 0 89 .1 1. 4 8. 8 10 .1 3 45 7 98 .0 1. 5 0. 4 1. 9 2 05 99 .7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 17 9 98 .8 0. 8 0. 2 1. 1 3 84 8 97 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1 74 97 .2 2. 1 0. 0 2. 1 16 8 97 .1 1. 1 0. 0 1. 1 3 41 9 98 .8 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 1 76 97 .6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 19 0 98 .1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 5 3 65 10 99 .0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 1 85 99 .6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 20 8 99 .3 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 3 94 11 99 .4 0. 6 0. 0 0. 6 1 65 98 .2 1. 6 0. 0 1. 6 17 2 98 .8 1. 1 0. 0 1. 1 3 37 M ot he r's e du ca tio nc N on e 92 .4 2. 0 3. 1 5. 2 2 8 98 .0 0. 9 0. 0 0. 9 22 94 .8 1. 5 1. 8 3. 3 5 0 P rim ar y 96 .3 0. 4 1. 0 1. 4 2 31 97 .3 1. 8 0. 5 2. 3 24 7 96 .8 1. 1 0. 8 1. 9 4 77 S ec on da ry 97 .6 0. 6 1. 3 1. 9 7 04 96 .8 0. 7 1. 9 2. 6 71 0 97 .2 0. 7 1. 6 2. 2 1 ,4 14 H ig he r 93 .6 2. 2 4. 3 6. 4 9 2 98 .5 0. 0 1. 5 1. 5 82 95 .9 1. 1 3. 0 4. 1 1 75 M ot he r n ot in h ou se ho ld (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 9 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 22 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 95 .6 1. 5 1. 1 2. 6 31 0 95 .8 3. 0 0. 5 3. 5 27 6 95 .7 2. 2 0. 8 3. 0 58 6 S ec on d 98 .0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 8 20 4 97 .2 0. 2 2. 1 2. 2 22 9 97 .6 0. 1 1. 5 1. 6 43 3 M id dl e 98 .9 0. 2 0. 9 1. 1 20 5 97 .2 0. 3 2. 5 2. 8 18 0 98 .1 0. 3 1. 6 1. 9 38 5 Fo ur th 96 .0 0. 5 3. 1 3. 5 17 0 97 .1 0. 2 1. 2 1. 4 20 9 96 .7 0. 3 2. 0 2. 4 37 9 R ic he st 96 .4 1. 0 2. 0 3. 1 19 1 98 .5 0. 0 1. 5 1. 5 19 3 97 .4 0. 5 1. 8 2. 3 38 4 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea dd , e E as t I nd ia n 98 .0 0. 1 0. 9 1. 0 4 00 98 .0 0. 8 0. 4 1. 2 40 6 98 .0 0. 5 0. 6 1. 1 8 06 A fri ca n 97 .6 0. 3 1. 5 1. 9 2 99 96 .1 1. 1 2. 8 3. 9 32 6 96 .8 0. 7 2. 2 2. 9 6 25 A m er in di an 96 .1 2. 5 0. 5 2. 9 1 47 96 .9 1. 5 1. 0 2. 5 15 1 96 .5 2. 0 0. 7 2. 7 2 98 M ix ed R ac e 94 .5 1. 2 3. 0 4. 2 2 32 97 .1 0. 2 1. 9 2. 1 19 7 95 .7 0. 7 2. 5 3. 2 4 29 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .4 ; M D G in di ca to r 2 .1 - Pr im ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) a P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge w ho h av e at te nd ed p rim ar y or h ig he r e du ca tio n at le as t o nc e in th e sc ho ol y ea r o f t he s ur ve y b C hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge w ho a re o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e th at a re n ot a tte nd in g an y sc ho ol a nd th os e at te nd in g nu rs er y sc ho ol s c C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s d T hi s is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d e C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n le ss th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 227Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | The percentage of children of secondary school age (12 to 16 years) who have attended secondary or higher education at least once in the school year of the survey as well as those who are out of school is presented in Table ED.5.76 Attendance (at least once) is not as high as for primary school, with only 85 percent. Thirteen percent (13%) of children are out of school, while 1 percent of children are attending primary school. Attendance (at least once) to secondary school is higher for girls than for boys (88% and 81%, respectively), in urban areas than in rural areas (90% and 83%, respectively), and in coastal areas than in interior areas (86% and 78%, respectively). The highest net attendance ratio77 is found in Region 10 (90%) and the lowest in Region 1 (65%). Attendance at least once to secondary or higher education decreases with age: whereas between 94 and 96 percent of 12-13 year- olds are attending secondary school, the ratio drops to 86 percent for 14 year-olds, 76 percent for 15 year- olds, and only 71 percent for 16 year-olds. Secondary school net attendance ratio is positively correlated with the mother’s education, varying from 64 percent for children whose mother have no education to 100 percent for children whose mother has a higher education, as well as with the socio-economic status of the household, varying from 74 percent for children living in the poorest households, to 95 percent for children living in the richest households. Of note, the highest proportion of children of secondary school age who have attended secondary or higher education is living in households with an African household head (92%) while the lowest proportion is living in households with an Amerindian household head (74%). The percentage of children entering first grade who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (survival rate to last grade of primary school) is presented in Table ED.6. Of all children starting grade 1, the majority (96%) will eventually reach grade 6. The MICS5 included only questions on school attendance, attending at least once, in the current and previous year. Thus, the indicator is calculated synthetically by computing the cumulative probability of survival from the first to the last grade of primary school, as opposed to calculating the indicator for a real cohort which would need to be followed from the time a cohort of children entered primary school, up to the time they reached the last grade of primary school. Repeaters are excluded from the calculation of the indicator, because 76Ratios presented in this table are “adjusted” since they include not only secondary school attendance, but also attendance to higher levels in the numerator. 77Percentage of children of secondary school age who are currently attending or have attended secondary or higher education at least one in the current school year. it is not known whether they will eventually graduate. As an example, the probability that a child will move from the first grade to the second grade is computed by dividing the number of children who moved from the first grade to the second grade (during the two consecutive school years covered by the survey) by the number of children who have moved from the first to the second grade plus the number of children who were in the first grade the previous school year, but dropped out. Both the numerator and denominator exclude children who repeated during the two school years under consideration. In Guyana, between 99 and 100 percent of children pass from one grade to another throughout primary school, and 96 percent of those who enter grade 1 eventually reach grade 6. These high percentages may be due to the automatic promotion policy (Grade Retention policy) implemented by the Ministry of Education in 2011 and revised in 2013. The initial policy allowed for all students to be promoted to the next grade regardless of their performance at the annual assessments. However, the revised policy allows for students to repeat a grade if they score below the overall pass mark set by the school in more than 50 percent of the subjects. Nevertheless, it can be noted that the lowest percentages are among children in Region 2 (82%) and Region 1 (87%), compared to all other regions with percentages above 90 percent. The proportion of children reaching the last grade of primary is 76 percent for those with a mother with no education, whereas between 88 and 99 percent of children with an educated mother reach the last grade of primary. Of note, 91 percent of children from the richest households reach the last grade of primary, a proportion that is lower than the first four quintiles. The survival rate to last grade of primary school is highest among children living in households with an African household head (100%) and lowest among those living in households with a household head of mixed ethnicities (93%). 228 Ta bl e ED .5 : S ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce a an d ou t o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge a tte nd in g se co nd ar y sc ho ol o r hi gh er ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce r at io ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol , an d pe rc en ta ge o ut o f s ch oo l, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b To ta l 81 .0 1. 5 16 .9 1 ,0 61 87 .9 0. 8 9. 6 1 ,0 75 84 .5 1. 2 13 .2 2 ,1 36 R eg io n R eg io n 1 59 .2 17 .3 22 .4 22 71 .5 10 .4 12 .8 22 65 .4 13 .8 17 .5 4 4 R eg io n 2 73 .2 0. 0 26 .8 45 79 .6 0. 5 18 .6 65 77 .0 0. 3 22 .0 1 10 R eg io n 3 82 .0 0. 6 17 .4 16 9 88 .3 0. 0 11 .3 15 4 85 .0 0. 3 14 .5 3 23 R eg io n 4 83 .4 1. 7 14 .1 44 7 90 .4 0. 7 6. 6 46 3 86 .9 1. 2 10 .3 9 10 R eg io n 5 79 .8 0. 0 20 .2 94 88 .7 0. 6 8. 5 95 84 .3 0. 3 14 .3 1 88 R eg io n 6 77 .5 1. 6 20 .9 16 6 87 .4 0. 0 10 .7 15 5 82 .3 0. 8 16 .0 3 22 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .3 4. 6 26 .0 24 78 .6 4. 9 16 .0 34 74 .4 4. 8 20 .1 5 8 R eg io n 9 84 .0 0. 0 13 .3 29 83 .5 1. 0 15 .5 32 83 .7 0. 5 14 .4 6 1 R eg io n 10 89 .6 0. 0 10 .4 65 90 .6 0. 7 8. 7 55 90 .0 0. 3 9. 7 1 20 A re a U rb an 85 .2 2. 1 11 .7 29 0 94 .1 0. 0 4. 1 28 4 89 .6 1. 1 7. 9 5 74 R ur al 79 .5 1. 3 18 .9 77 1 85 .7 1. 1 11 .5 79 1 82 .6 1. 2 15 .2 1 ,5 62 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 81 .6 1. 2 16 .7 90 4 89 .5 0. 3 8. 6 90 6 85 .6 0. 8 12 .7 1 ,8 10 U rb an C oa st al 82 .5 2. 6 13 .6 24 0 94 .3 0. 0 3. 5 24 6 88 .5 1. 3 8. 5 4 86 R ur al C oa st al 81 .3 0. 8 17 .8 66 4 87 .8 0. 5 10 .5 65 9 84 .5 0. 6 14 .2 1 ,3 24 In te rio r 77 .5 3. 1 18 .5 15 6 79 .1 3. 3 14 .5 17 0 78 .4 3. 2 16 .4 3 26 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 12 94 .3 1. 5 4. 0 20 8 93 .1 3. 6 2. 9 18 1 93 .7 2. 4 3. 5 3 89 13 93 .7 1. 9 3. 6 22 1 98 .6 0. 3 1. 1 21 7 96 .2 1. 1 2. 3 4 37 14 85 .1 0. 5 14 .1 22 2 87 .9 0. 1 7. 8 20 6 86 .4 0. 3 11 .0 4 28 15 68 .2 1. 8 29 .5 21 1 83 .5 0. 0 15 .6 22 8 76 .1 0. 9 22 .3 4 38 16 62 .2 2. 0 35 .1 20 0 78 .7 0. 6 18 .0 24 3 71 .2 1. 2 25 .7 4 43 M ot he r's e du ca tio nc N on e (6 0. 0) (2 .9 ) (3 6. 0) 20 (6 6. 4) (2 .3 ) (1 9. 7) 29 63 .8 2. 5 26 .4 4 9 P rim ar y 70 .1 2. 1 27 .5 24 7 83 .9 2. 6 11 .9 23 6 76 .9 2. 3 19 .9 4 83 S ec on da ry 86 .0 1. 0 12 .3 63 0 92 .1 0. 1 6. 6 61 0 89 .0 0. 6 9. 5 1 ,2 39 H ig he r 99 .2 0. 0 0. 8 48 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 48 99 .6 0. 0 0. 4 9 6 C an no t b e de te rm in ed d 74 .7 3. 1 22 .2 11 1 78 .4 0. 8 18 .1 14 7 76 .8 1. 8 19 .9 2 57 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 72 .7 3. 5 22 .7 24 0 76 .0 2. 8 18 .9 24 8 74 .3 3. 1 20 .7 48 8 S ec on d 74 .4 0. 7 24 .1 24 0 88 .0 0. 3 11 .5 19 6 80 .6 0. 5 18 .5 43 6 M id dl e 80 .7 1. 9 17 .4 20 6 91 .0 0. 2 6. 8 21 2 85 .9 1. 0 12 .1 41 8 Fo ur th 89 .3 0. 8 9. 5 20 6 91 .2 0. 1 7. 4 23 5 90 .3 0. 4 8. 4 44 1 R ic he st 92 .7 0. 3 7. 0 16 7 96 .1 0. 3 0. 7 18 4 94 .5 0. 3 3. 7 35 1 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de , f E as t I nd ia n 76 .9 0. 2 22 .8 40 5 84 .8 0. 6 11 .9 44 1 81 .0 0. 4 17 .1 8 45 A fri ca n 88 .9 2. 0 8. 4 38 1 96 .4 0. 2 2. 8 30 3 92 .2 1. 2 5. 9 6 84 A m er in di an 68 .8 5. 2 24 .9 89 77 .8 4. 0 16 .4 10 4 73 .6 4. 5 20 .3 1 93 M ix ed R ac e 80 .1 1. 7 17 .5 18 4 87 .5 0. 6 10 .6 22 4 84 .1 1. 1 13 .7 4 08 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .5 - Se co nd ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) a P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge w ho h av e at te nd ed s ec on da ry o r h ig he r e du ca tio n at le as t o nc e in th e sc ho ol y ea r o f t he s ur ve y b C hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge th at a re o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e w ho a re n ot a tte nd in g pr im ar y, s ec on da ry , o r h ig he r e du ca tio n c C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s d C hi ld re n ag ed 1 5 or h ig he r a t t he ti m e of th e in te rv ie w w ho se m ot he rs w er e no t l iv in g in th e ho us eh ol d e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (C on tin ue d) 229Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Ta bl e ED .5 : S ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce a an d ou t o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge a tte nd in g se co nd ar y sc ho ol o r hi gh er ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce r at io ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol , an d pe rc en ta ge o ut o f s ch oo l, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b To ta l 81 .0 1. 5 16 .9 1 ,0 61 87 .9 0. 8 9. 6 1 ,0 75 84 .5 1. 2 13 .2 2 ,1 36 R eg io n R eg io n 1 59 .2 17 .3 22 .4 22 71 .5 10 .4 12 .8 22 65 .4 13 .8 17 .5 4 4 R eg io n 2 73 .2 0. 0 26 .8 45 79 .6 0. 5 18 .6 65 77 .0 0. 3 22 .0 1 10 R eg io n 3 82 .0 0. 6 17 .4 16 9 88 .3 0. 0 11 .3 15 4 85 .0 0. 3 14 .5 3 23 R eg io n 4 83 .4 1. 7 14 .1 44 7 90 .4 0. 7 6. 6 46 3 86 .9 1. 2 10 .3 9 10 R eg io n 5 79 .8 0. 0 20 .2 94 88 .7 0. 6 8. 5 95 84 .3 0. 3 14 .3 1 88 R eg io n 6 77 .5 1. 6 20 .9 16 6 87 .4 0. 0 10 .7 15 5 82 .3 0. 8 16 .0 3 22 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .3 4. 6 26 .0 24 78 .6 4. 9 16 .0 34 74 .4 4. 8 20 .1 5 8 R eg io n 9 84 .0 0. 0 13 .3 29 83 .5 1. 0 15 .5 32 83 .7 0. 5 14 .4 6 1 R eg io n 10 89 .6 0. 0 10 .4 65 90 .6 0. 7 8. 7 55 90 .0 0. 3 9. 7 1 20 A re a U rb an 85 .2 2. 1 11 .7 29 0 94 .1 0. 0 4. 1 28 4 89 .6 1. 1 7. 9 5 74 R ur al 79 .5 1. 3 18 .9 77 1 85 .7 1. 1 11 .5 79 1 82 .6 1. 2 15 .2 1 ,5 62 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 81 .6 1. 2 16 .7 90 4 89 .5 0. 3 8. 6 90 6 85 .6 0. 8 12 .7 1 ,8 10 U rb an C oa st al 82 .5 2. 6 13 .6 24 0 94 .3 0. 0 3. 5 24 6 88 .5 1. 3 8. 5 4 86 R ur al C oa st al 81 .3 0. 8 17 .8 66 4 87 .8 0. 5 10 .5 65 9 84 .5 0. 6 14 .2 1 ,3 24 In te rio r 77 .5 3. 1 18 .5 15 6 79 .1 3. 3 14 .5 17 0 78 .4 3. 2 16 .4 3 26 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 12 94 .3 1. 5 4. 0 20 8 93 .1 3. 6 2. 9 18 1 93 .7 2. 4 3. 5 3 89 13 93 .7 1. 9 3. 6 22 1 98 .6 0. 3 1. 1 21 7 96 .2 1. 1 2. 3 4 37 14 85 .1 0. 5 14 .1 22 2 87 .9 0. 1 7. 8 20 6 86 .4 0. 3 11 .0 4 28 15 68 .2 1. 8 29 .5 21 1 83 .5 0. 0 15 .6 22 8 76 .1 0. 9 22 .3 4 38 16 62 .2 2. 0 35 .1 20 0 78 .7 0. 6 18 .0 24 3 71 .2 1. 2 25 .7 4 43 M ot he r's e du ca tio nc N on e (6 0. 0) (2 .9 ) (3 6. 0) 20 (6 6. 4) (2 .3 ) (1 9. 7) 29 63 .8 2. 5 26 .4 4 9 P rim ar y 70 .1 2. 1 27 .5 24 7 83 .9 2. 6 11 .9 23 6 76 .9 2. 3 19 .9 4 83 S ec on da ry 86 .0 1. 0 12 .3 63 0 92 .1 0. 1 6. 6 61 0 89 .0 0. 6 9. 5 1 ,2 39 H ig he r 99 .2 0. 0 0. 8 48 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 48 99 .6 0. 0 0. 4 9 6 C an no t b e de te rm in ed d 74 .7 3. 1 22 .2 11 1 78 .4 0. 8 18 .1 14 7 76 .8 1. 8 19 .9 2 57 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 72 .7 3. 5 22 .7 24 0 76 .0 2. 8 18 .9 24 8 74 .3 3. 1 20 .7 48 8 S ec on d 74 .4 0. 7 24 .1 24 0 88 .0 0. 3 11 .5 19 6 80 .6 0. 5 18 .5 43 6 M id dl e 80 .7 1. 9 17 .4 20 6 91 .0 0. 2 6. 8 21 2 85 .9 1. 0 12 .1 41 8 Fo ur th 89 .3 0. 8 9. 5 20 6 91 .2 0. 1 7. 4 23 5 90 .3 0. 4 8. 4 44 1 R ic he st 92 .7 0. 3 7. 0 16 7 96 .1 0. 3 0. 7 18 4 94 .5 0. 3 3. 7 35 1 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de , f E as t I nd ia n 76 .9 0. 2 22 .8 40 5 84 .8 0. 6 11 .9 44 1 81 .0 0. 4 17 .1 8 45 A fri ca n 88 .9 2. 0 8. 4 38 1 96 .4 0. 2 2. 8 30 3 92 .2 1. 2 5. 9 6 84 A m er in di an 68 .8 5. 2 24 .9 89 77 .8 4. 0 16 .4 10 4 73 .6 4. 5 20 .3 1 93 M ix ed R ac e 80 .1 1. 7 17 .5 18 4 87 .5 0. 6 10 .6 22 4 84 .1 1. 1 13 .7 4 08 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .5 - Se co nd ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) a P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge w ho h av e at te nd ed s ec on da ry o r h ig he r e du ca tio n at le as t o nc e in th e sc ho ol y ea r o f t he s ur ve y b C hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge th at a re o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e w ho a re n ot a tte nd in g pr im ar y, s ec on da ry , o r h ig he r e du ca tio n c C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s d C hi ld re n ag ed 1 5 or h ig he r a t t he ti m e of th e in te rv ie w w ho se m ot he rs w er e no t l iv in g in th e ho us eh ol d e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s Ta bl e ED .5 : S ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce a an d ou t o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge a tte nd in g se co nd ar y sc ho ol o r hi gh er ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce r at io ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol , an d pe rc en ta ge o ut o f s ch oo l, G uy an a M IC S 5, 2 01 4 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n: N um be r of ch ild re n A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol b To ta l 81 .0 1. 5 16 .9 1 ,0 61 87 .9 0. 8 9. 6 1 ,0 75 84 .5 1. 2 13 .2 2 ,1 36 R eg io n R eg io n 1 59 .2 17 .3 22 .4 22 71 .5 10 .4 12 .8 22 65 .4 13 .8 17 .5 4 4 R eg io n 2 73 .2 0. 0 26 .8 45 79 .6 0. 5 18 .6 65 77 .0 0. 3 22 .0 1 10 R eg io n 3 82 .0 0. 6 17 .4 16 9 88 .3 0. 0 11 .3 15 4 85 .0 0. 3 14 .5 3 23 R eg io n 4 83 .4 1. 7 14 .1 44 7 90 .4 0. 7 6. 6 46 3 86 .9 1. 2 10 .3 9 10 R eg io n 5 79 .8 0. 0 20 .2 94 88 .7 0. 6 8. 5 95 84 .3 0. 3 14 .3 1 88 R eg io n 6 77 .5 1. 6 20 .9 16 6 87 .4 0. 0 10 .7 15 5 82 .3 0. 8 16 .0 3 22 R eg io ns 7 & 8 68 .3 4. 6 26 .0 24 78 .6 4. 9 16 .0 34 74 .4 4. 8 20 .1 5 8 R eg io n 9 84 .0 0. 0 13 .3 29 83 .5 1. 0 15 .5 32 83 .7 0. 5 14 .4 6 1 R eg io n 10 89 .6 0. 0 10 .4 65 90 .6 0. 7 8. 7 55 90 .0 0. 3 9. 7 1 20 A re a U rb an 85 .2 2. 1 11 .7 29 0 94 .1 0. 0 4. 1 28 4 89 .6 1. 1 7. 9 5 74 R ur al 79 .5 1. 3 18 .9 77 1 85 .7 1. 1 11 .5 79 1 82 .6 1. 2 15 .2 1 ,5 62 Lo ca tio n C oa st al 81 .6 1. 2 16 .7 90 4 89 .5 0. 3 8. 6 90 6 85 .6 0. 8 12 .7 1 ,8 10 U rb an C oa st al 82 .5 2. 6 13 .6 24 0 94 .3 0. 0 3. 5 24 6 88 .5 1. 3 8. 5 4 86 R ur al C oa st al 81 .3 0. 8 17 .8 66 4 87 .8 0. 5 10 .5 65 9 84 .5 0. 6 14 .2 1 ,3 24 In te rio r 77 .5 3. 1 18 .5 15 6 79 .1 3. 3 14 .5 17 0 78 .4 3. 2 16 .4 3 26 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 12 94 .3 1. 5 4. 0 20 8 93 .1 3. 6 2. 9 18 1 93 .7 2. 4 3. 5 3 89 13 93 .7 1. 9 3. 6 22 1 98 .6 0. 3 1. 1 21 7 96 .2 1. 1 2. 3 4 37 14 85 .1 0. 5 14 .1 22 2 87 .9 0. 1 7. 8 20 6 86 .4 0. 3 11 .0 4 28 15 68 .2 1. 8 29 .5 21 1 83 .5 0. 0 15 .6 22 8 76 .1 0. 9 22 .3 4 38 16 62 .2 2. 0 35 .1 20 0 78 .7 0. 6 18 .0 24 3 71 .2 1. 2 25 .7 4 43 M ot he r's e du ca tio nc N on e (6 0. 0) (2 .9 ) (3 6. 0) 20 (6 6. 4) (2 .3 ) (1 9. 7) 29 63 .8 2. 5 26 .4 4 9 P rim ar y 70 .1 2. 1 27 .5 24 7 83 .9 2. 6 11 .9 23 6 76 .9 2. 3 19 .9 4 83 S ec on da ry 86 .0 1. 0 12 .3 63 0 92 .1 0. 1 6. 6 61 0 89 .0 0. 6 9. 5 1 ,2 39 H ig he r 99 .2 0. 0 0. 8 48 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 48 99 .6 0. 0 0. 4 9 6 C an no t b e de te rm in ed d 74 .7 3. 1 22 .2 11 1 78 .4 0. 8 18 .1 14 7 76 .8 1. 8 19 .9 2 57 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 72 .7 3. 5 22 .7 24 0 76 .0 2. 8 18 .9 24 8 74 .3 3. 1 20 .7 48 8 S ec on d 74 .4 0. 7 24 .1 24 0 88 .0 0. 3 11 .5 19 6 80 .6 0. 5 18 .5 43 6 M id dl e 80 .7 1. 9 17 .4 20 6 91 .0 0. 2 6. 8 21 2 85 .9 1. 0 12 .1 41 8 Fo ur th 89 .3 0. 8 9. 5 20 6 91 .2 0. 1 7. 4 23 5 90 .3 0. 4 8. 4 44 1 R ic he st 92 .7 0. 3 7. 0 16 7 96 .1 0. 3 0. 7 18 4 94 .5 0. 3 3. 7 35 1 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea de , f E as t I nd ia n 76 .9 0. 2 22 .8 40 5 84 .8 0. 6 11 .9 44 1 81 .0 0. 4 17 .1 8 45 A fri ca n 88 .9 2. 0 8. 4 38 1 96 .4 0. 2 2. 8 30 3 92 .2 1. 2 5. 9 6 84 A m er in di an 68 .8 5. 2 24 .9 89 77 .8 4. 0 16 .4 10 4 73 .6 4. 5 20 .3 1 93 M ix ed R ac e 80 .1 1. 7 17 .5 18 4 87 .5 0. 6 10 .6 22 4 84 .1 1. 1 13 .7 4 08 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .5 - Se co nd ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) a P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge w ho h av e at te nd ed s ec on da ry o r h ig he r e du ca tio n at le as t o nc e in th e sc ho ol y ea r o f t he s ur ve y b C hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge th at a re o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e w ho a re n ot a tte nd in g pr im ar y, s ec on da ry , o r h ig he r e du ca tio n c C at eg or y "M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s d C hi ld re n ag ed 1 5 or h ig he r a t t he ti m e of th e in te rv ie w w ho se m ot he rs w er e no t l iv in g in th e ho us eh ol d e Th is is b as ed o n th e et hn ic g ro up id en tif ie d by th e re sp on de nt o f t he H ou se ho ld Q ue st io nn ai re to b e th at o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d f C at eg or y "O th er s/ M is si ng /D K " h as b ee n su pp re ss ed fr om th e ta bl e du e to a s m al l n um be r o f u nw ei gh te d ca se s ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 230 Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (Survival rate to last grade of primary school), Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percent attending grade 1 last school year who are in grade 2 this school year Percent attending grade 2 last school year who are attending grade 3 this school year Percent attending grade 3 last school year who are attending grade 4 this school year Percent attending grade 4 last school year who are attending grade 5 this school year Percent attending grade 5 last school year who are attending grade 6 this school year Percent who reach grade 6 of those who enter grade 11 Total 98.9 98.8 99.7 99.9 99.1 96.4 Sex Male 99.1 97.8 99.4 99.8 98.9 95.1 Female 98.7 100.0 99.9 99.9 99.3 97.9 Region Region 1 96.9 100.0 95.2 (95.7) 97.9 86.5 Region 2 (91.0) (91.8) (100.0) (*) (98.2) 82.0 Region 3 100.0 96.3 100.0 (100.0) (95.6) 92.1 Region 4 99.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 99.1 Region 5 (97.9) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (*) 97.9 Region 6 100.0 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Regions 7 & 8 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Region 9 100.0 (100.0) 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Region 10 (100.0) (100.0) (96.5) (100.0) (100.0) 96.5 Area Urban 97.9 97.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.9 Rural 99.3 99.1 99.5 99.8 98.8 96.7 Location Coastal 98.8 98.6 100.0 100.0 99.0 96.3 Urban Coastal 97.7 97.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.5 Rural Coastal 99.3 98.9 100.0 100.0 98.6 96.8 Interior 99.5 100.0 98.2 99.2 99.7 96.6 Mother's educationa None (96.3) (*) (*) (*) (*) 75.9 Primary 99.6 100.0 98.9 99.5 100.0 98.0 Secondary 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.1 99.1 Higher (93.5) (94.5) (100.0) (*) (*) 88.4 Mother not in household (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Wealth index quintile Poorest 99.6 100.0 98.8 99.5 98.6 96.5 Second 98.5 96.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.4 Middle 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Fourth 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Richest 96.5 97.0 100.0 100.0 96.8 90.7 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 99.7 98.3 100.0 100.0 98.1 96.2 African 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 100.0 99.9 Amerindian 99.4 100.0 97.7 99.3 98.3 94.8 Mixed Race 95.9 97.0 99.6 100.0 100.0 92.7 1 MICS indicator 7.6; MDG indicator 2.2 - Children reaching last grade of primary a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (Survival rate to last grade of primary school), Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percent attending grade 1 last school year who are in grade 2 this school year Percent attending grade 2 last school year who are attending grade 3 this school year Percent attending grade 3 last school year who are attending grade 4 this school year Percent attending grade 4 last school year who are attending grade 5 this school year Percent attending grade 5 last school year who are attending grade 6 this school year Percent who reach grade 6 of those who enter grade 11 Total 98.9 98.8 99.7 99.9 99.1 96.4 Sex Male 99.1 97.8 99.4 99.8 98.9 95.1 Female 98.7 100.0 99.9 99.9 99.3 97.9 Region Region 1 96.9 100.0 95.2 (95.7) 97.9 86.5 Region 2 (91.0) (91.8) (100.0) (*) (98.2) 82.0 Region 3 100.0 96.3 100.0 (100.0) (95.6) 92.1 Region 4 99.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 99.1 Region 5 (97.9) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (*) 97.9 Region 6 100.0 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Regions 7 & 8 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Region 9 100.0 (100.0) 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Region 10 (100.0) (100.0) (96.5) (100.0) (100.0) 96.5 Area Urban 97.9 97.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.9 Rural 99.3 99.1 99.5 99.8 98.8 96.7 Location Coastal 98.8 98.6 100.0 100.0 99.0 96.3 Urban Coastal 97.7 97.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.5 Rural Coastal 99.3 98.9 100.0 100.0 98.6 96.8 Interior 99.5 100.0 98.2 99.2 99.7 96.6 Mother's educationa None (96.3) (*) (*) (*) (*) 75.9 Primary 99.6 100.0 98.9 99.5 100.0 98.0 Secondary 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.1 99.1 Higher (93.5) (94.5) (100.0) (*) (*) 88.4 Mother not in household (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Wealth index quintile Poorest 99.6 100.0 98.8 99.5 98.6 96.5 Second 98.5 96.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.4 Middle 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Fourth 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Richest 96.5 97.0 100.0 100.0 96.8 90.7 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 99.7 98.3 100.0 100.0 98.1 96.2 African 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 100.0 99.9 Amerindian 99.4 100.0 97.7 99.3 98.3 94.8 Mixed Race 95.9 97.0 99.6 100.0 100.0 92.7 1 MICS indicator 7.6; MDG indicator 2.2 - Children reaching last grade of primary a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (Survival rate to last grade of primary school), Guyana MICS5, 2014 Percent attending grade 1 last school year who are in grade 2 this school year Percent attending grade 2 last school year who are attending grade 3 this school year Percent attending grade 3 last school year who are attending grade 4 this school year Percent attending grade 4 last school year who are attending grade 5 this school year Percent attending grade 5 last school year who are attending grade 6 this school year Percent who reach grade 6 of those who enter grade 11 Total 98.9 98.8 99.7 99.9 99.1 96.4 Sex Male 99.1 97.8 99.4 99.8 98.9 95.1 Female 98.7 100.0 99.9 99.9 99.3 97.9 Region Region 1 96.9 100.0 95.2 (95.7) 97.9 86.5 Region 2 (91.0) (91.8) (100.0) (*) (98.2) 82.0 Region 3 100.0 96.3 100.0 (100.0) (95.6) 92.1 Region 4 99.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 99.1 Region 5 (97.9) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (*) 97.9 Region 6 100.0 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Regions 7 & 8 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Region 9 100.0 (100.0) 100.0 (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 Region 10 (100.0) (100.0) (96.5) (100.0) (100.0) 96.5 Area Urban 97.9 97.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.9 Rural 99.3 99.1 99.5 99.8 98.8 96.7 Location Coastal 98.8 98.6 100.0 100.0 99.0 96.3 Urban Coastal 97.7 97.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.5 Rural Coastal 99.3 98.9 100.0 100.0 98.6 96.8 Interior 99.5 100.0 98.2 99.2 99.7 96.6 Mother's educationa None (96.3) (*) (*) (*) (*) 75.9 Primary 99.6 100.0 98.9 99.5 100.0 98.0 Secondary 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.1 99.1 Higher (93.5) (94.5) (100.0) (*) (*) 88.4 Mother not in household (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Wealth index quintile Poorest 99.6 100.0 98.8 99.5 98.6 96.5 Second 98.5 96.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.4 Middle 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Fourth 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Richest 96.5 97.0 100.0 100.0 96.8 90.7 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 99.7 98.3 100.0 100.0 98.1 96.2 African 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 100.0 99.9 Amerindian 99.4 100.0 97.7 99.3 98.3 94.8 Mixed Race 95.9 97.0 99.6 100.0 100.0 92.7 1 MICS indicator 7.6; MDG indicator 2.2 - Children reaching last grade of primary a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 231Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | The primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary education are presented in Table ED.7. The primary completion rate is the ratio of the total number of students, regardless of age, entering the last grade of primary school for the first time (i.e. excluding repeaters), to the number of children of the primary graduation age at the beginning of the current (or most recent) school year. Table ED.7 shows that the primary school completion rate is 109 percent. This percentage that is over 100 percent is suggestive of early (under-aged) and late (over-aged) entry, as well as grade repetition. The primary school completion rate varies by sex, coastal- interior area, mother’s education, household wealth and ethnicity of household head. More male children complete primary school than female children, with 111 percent and 108 percent respectively. As expected, the highest percentage of children that complete primary school are from the richer households and live in the coastal areas. There is hardly any variation within the coastal areas. Primary school completion rate is highest among children living with an African household head. As it relates to the transition rate to secondary school, 96 percent of the children, regardless of sex, who were attending the last grade of primary school in the previous school year, were found to be attending the first grade of secondary school in the school year of the survey. The largest proportion of children who transitioned to secondary school is from households headed by an African (99%), while the smallest proportion is from households headed by an Amerindian (88%). There is no differential by sex. The table also provides “effective” transition rate, which takes into account the presence of repeaters in the final grade of primary school. This indicator better reflects situations in which pupils repeat the last grade of primary education but eventually make the transition to the secondary level. The simple transition rate tends to underestimate pupils’ progression to secondary school as it assumes that the repeaters never reach secondary school. The table shows that in total 98 percent of the children in the last grade of primary school are expected to move on to secondary school. There are no observed differences in the effective transition rate to secondary school by sex, area or location of residence. However, the more educated the mother, the more likely the children in the last grade of primary school are expected to move on to secondary school. The ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education is provided in Table ED.8. These ratios are better known as the Gender Parity Index (GPI). Notice that the ratios included here are obtained from net attendance ratios rather than gross attendance ratios. The latter provide an erroneous description of the GPI mainly because, in most cases, the majority of over-age children attending primary education tend to be boys. It is important to note that attendance was measured by asking whether or not the child attended school at any time during the school year of the survey. Therefore, for example, as indicated in Tables ED.4, net attendance ratio is the percentage of children of primary school age (6 to 11 years) who have attended primary or secondary school at least once in the school year of the survey. The table shows that gender parity for primary school is 1.00, indicating no difference in the attendance of girls and boys to primary school. The indicator increases to 1.08 for secondary education, indicating a slightly higher attendance of girls than boys. Whether for primary school or secondary school and across background characteristics, no disadvantage of girls is observed, as the indicator is 1.00 at the lowest. The percentage of girls in the total out-of-school population, in both primary and secondary school, are provided in Table ED.9. The table shows that at the primary level, girls account for about half (52%) of the out-of-school population. Girls’ share decreases to 36 percent, however, at the secondary level. Figure ED.1 brings together all of the attendance as defined above and progression related education indicators covered in this chapter, by sex. Information on attendance to early childhood education is also included, which was covered in Chapter 9, in Table CD.1. The table summarizes well the generally high attendance and gender parity, from nursery school to secondary school. 232 Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school Primary school completion rates and transition and effective transition rates to secondary school, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Primary school completion rate1 Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary school2 Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Effective transition rate to secondary school Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year and are not repeating that grade in the current school year Total 109.1 337 95.9 339 98.0 332 Sex Male 110.7 165 95.8 185 97.8 181 Female 107.7 172 96.1 155 98.3 151 Region Region 1 80.0 14 67.0 14 75.7 13 Region 2 (*) 18 (*) 11 (*) 11 Region 3 (97.4) 48 (96.0) 41 (98.5) 40 Region 4 123.0 136 96.8 151 98.9 147 Region 5 (*) 15 (100.0) 29 (100.0) 29 Region 6 (89.3) 54 (97.7) 39 (98.4) 39 Regions 7 & 8 (111.6) 10 (84.7) 6 (89.5) 6 Region 9 83.1 23 98.4 20 100.0 20 Region 10 (88.1) 19 (98.6) 28 (100.0) 28 Area Urban 107.8 83 98.4 103 98.4 103 Rural 109.6 253 94.9 236 97.9 229 Location Coastal 114.2 260 97.2 266 98.9 261 Urban Coastal 115.2 68 97.9 80 97.9 80 Rural Coastal 113.9 192 96.9 186 99.3 181 Interior 91.7 76 91.4 74 94.9 71 Mother's educationa None (*) 8 (85.3) 10 (85.3) 10 Primary 123.5 81 90.9 76 97.0 72 Secondary 108.0 211 97.8 221 98.9 219 Higher (73.7) 30 (99.6) 20 (99.6) 20 Mother not in household (*) 5 (*) 9 (*) 9 Wealth index quintile Poorest 99.5 89 89.5 96 94.2 91 Second 106.3 67 98.4 76 99.9 75 Middle 106.0 62 96.8 57 97.9 56 Fourth 143.6 53 99.5 60 100.0 60 Richest 99.8 65 (99.1) 51 (100.0) 51 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 110.3 122 95.9 108 98.9 105 African 124.8 95 98.7 117 99.3 117 Amerindian 92.1 51 87.9 48 93.0 46 Mixed Race 101.2 66 96.8 64 97.9 63 1 MICS indicator 7.7 - Primary completion rate 2 MICS indicator 7.8 - Transition rate to secondary school a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school Primary school completion rates and transition and effective transition rates to secondary school, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Primary school completion rate1 Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary school2 Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Effective transition rate to secondary school Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year and are not repeating that grade in the current school year Total 109.1 337 95.9 339 98.0 332 Sex Male 110.7 165 95.8 185 97.8 181 Female 107.7 172 96.1 155 98.3 151 Region Region 1 80.0 14 67.0 14 75.7 13 Region 2 (*) 18 (*) 11 (*) 11 Region 3 (97.4) 48 (96.0) 41 (98.5) 40 Region 4 123.0 136 96.8 151 98.9 147 Region 5 (*) 15 (100.0) 29 (100.0) 29 Region 6 (89.3) 54 (97.7) 39 (98.4) 39 Regions 7 & 8 (111.6) 10 (84.7) 6 (89.5) 6 Region 9 83.1 23 98.4 20 100.0 20 Region 10 (88.1) 19 (98.6) 28 (100.0) 28 Area Urban 107.8 83 98.4 103 98.4 103 Rural 109.6 253 94.9 236 97.9 229 Location Coastal 114.2 260 97.2 266 98.9 261 Urban Coastal 115.2 68 97.9 80 97.9 80 Rural Coastal 113.9 192 96.9 186 99.3 181 Interior 91.7 76 91.4 74 94.9 71 Mother's educationa None (*) 8 (85.3) 10 (85.3) 10 Primary 123.5 81 90.9 76 97.0 72 Secondary 108.0 211 97.8 221 98.9 219 Higher (73.7) 30 (99.6) 20 (99.6) 20 Mother not in household (*) 5 (*) 9 (*) 9 Wealth index quintile Poorest 99.5 89 89.5 96 94.2 91 Second 106.3 67 98.4 76 99.9 75 Middle 106.0 62 96.8 57 97.9 56 Fourth 143.6 53 99.5 60 100.0 60 Richest 99.8 65 (99.1) 51 (100.0) 51 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 110.3 122 95.9 108 98.9 105 African 124.8 95 98.7 117 99.3 117 Amerindian 92.1 51 87.9 48 93.0 46 Mixed Race 101.2 66 96.8 64 97.9 63 1 MICS indicator 7.7 - Primary completion rate 2 MICS indicator 7.8 - Transition rate to secondary school a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school Primary school completion rates and transition and effective transition rates to secondary school, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Primary school completion rate1 Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary school2 Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Effective transition rate to secondary school Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year and are not repeating that grade in the current school year Total 109.1 337 95.9 339 98.0 332 Sex Male 110.7 165 95.8 185 97.8 181 Female 107.7 172 96.1 155 98.3 151 Region Region 1 80.0 14 67.0 14 75.7 13 Region 2 (*) 18 (*) 11 (*) 11 Region 3 (97.4) 48 (96.0) 41 (98.5) 40 Region 4 123.0 136 96.8 151 98.9 147 Region 5 (*) 15 (100.0) 29 (100.0) 29 Region 6 (89.3) 54 (97.7) 39 (98.4) 39 Regions 7 & 8 (111.6) 10 (84.7) 6 (89.5) 6 Region 9 83.1 23 98.4 20 100.0 20 Region 10 (88.1) 19 (98.6) 28 (100.0) 28 Area Urban 107.8 83 98.4 103 98.4 103 Rural 109.6 253 94.9 236 97.9 229 Location Coastal 114.2 260 97.2 266 98.9 261 Urban Coastal 115.2 68 97.9 80 97.9 80 Rural Coastal 113.9 192 96.9 186 99.3 181 Interior 91.7 76 91.4 74 94.9 71 Mother's educationa None (*) 8 (85.3) 10 (85.3) 10 Primary 123.5 81 90.9 76 97.0 72 Secondary 108.0 211 97.8 221 98.9 219 Higher (73.7) 30 (99.6) 20 (99.6) 20 Mother not in household (*) 5 (*) 9 (*) 9 Wealth index quintile Poorest 99.5 89 89.5 96 94.2 91 Second 106.3 67 98.4 76 99.9 75 Middle 106.0 62 96.8 57 97.9 56 Fourth 143.6 53 99.5 60 100.0 60 Richest 99.8 65 (99.1) 51 (100.0) 51 Ethnicity of household headb, c East Indian 110.3 122 95.9 108 98.9 105 African 124.8 95 98.7 117 99.3 117 Amerindian 92.1 51 87.9 48 93.0 46 Mixed Race 101.2 66 96.8 64 97.9 63 1 MICS indicator 7.7 - Primary completion rate 2 MICS indicator 7.8 - Transition rate to secondary school a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head c Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 233Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | Table ED.8: Education gender parity Ratio of adjusted net attendance ratios of girls to boys, in primary and secondary school, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Primary school Secondary school Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school adjusted NAR1 Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school adjusted NAR2 Total 97.1 96.9 1.00 87.9 81.0 1.08 Region Region 1 96.9 94.1 1.03 71.5 59.2 1.21 Region 2 96.5 94.9 1.02 79.6 73.2 1.09 Region 3 95.9 97.3 0.99 88.3 82.0 1.08 Region 4 96.5 96.5 1.00 90.4 83.4 1.08 Region 5 100.0 98.2 1.02 88.7 79.8 1.11 Region 6 98.0 98.4 1.00 87.4 77.5 1.13 Regions 7 & 8 98.4 95.3 1.03 78.6 68.3 1.15 Region 9 98.3 98.3 1.00 83.5 84.0 0.99 Region 10 97.3 97.0 1.00 90.6 89.6 1.01 Area Urban 96.9 94.8 1.02 94.1 85.2 1.10 Rural 97.1 97.6 0.99 85.7 79.5 1.08 Location Coastal 97.0 96.9 1.00 89.5 81.6 1.10 Urban Coastal 96.5 94.4 1.02 94.3 82.5 1.14 Rural Coastal 97.2 97.9 0.99 87.8 81.3 1.08 Interior 97.5 96.8 1.01 79.1 77.5 1.02 Mother's educationa None 98.0 92.4 1.06 (66.4) (60.0) (1.11) Primary 97.3 96.3 1.01 83.9 70.1 1.20 Secondary 96.8 97.6 0.99 92.1 86.0 1.07 Higher 98.5 93.6 1.05 100.0 99.2 1.01 Cannot be determinedb na na na 78.4 74.7 1.05 Wealth index quintile Poorest 95.8 95.6 1.00 76.0 72.7 1.05 Second 97.2 98.0 0.99 88.0 74.4 1.18 Middle 97.2 98.9 0.98 91.0 80.7 1.13 Fourth 97.1 96.0 1.01 91.2 89.3 1.02 Richest 98.5 96.4 1.02 96.1 92.7 1.04 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 98.0 98.0 1.00 84.8 76.9 1.10 African 96.1 97.6 0.98 96.4 88.9 1.08 Amerindian 96.9 96.1 1.01 77.8 68.8 1.13 Mixed Race 97.1 94.5 1.03 87.5 80.1 1.09 1 MICS indicator 7.9; MDG indicator 3.1 - Gender parity index (primary school) 2 MICS indicator 7.10; MDG indicator 3.1 - Gender parity index (secondary school) a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases na: not applicable ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 234 Table ED.9: Out of school gender parity Percentage of girls in the total out of school population, in primary and secondary school, Guyana MICS5, 2014 Primary school Secondary school Percentage of out of school children Number of children of primary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of primary school age Number of children of primary school age out of school Percentage of out of school children Number of children of secondary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of secondary school age Number of children of secondary school age out of school Total 2.3 2,166 51.8 49 14.4 2,136 36.3 307 Region Region 1 2.4 66 (*) 2 31.4 44 37.4 14 Region 2 4.4 134 (*) 6 22.3 110 (50.9) 24 Region 3 2.4 314 (*) 8 14.8 323 (36.3) 48 Region 4 2.4 910 (*) 22 11.4 910 32.3 104 Region 5 0.5 134 (*) 1 14.6 188 (31.4) 28 Region 6 1.6 290 (*) 5 16.8 322 (30.7) 54 Regions 7 & 8 2.7 67 (*) 2 24.9 58 (49.1) 15 Region 9 1.5 133 (*) 2 14.9 61 (*) 9 Region 10 2.8 118 (*) 3 10.0 120 (*) 12 Area Urban 3.5 563 (*) 20 9.0 574 (22.5) 51 Rural 1.9 1,603 (59.9) 30 16.4 1,562 39.0 256 Location Coastal 2.3 1,741 (53.7) 40 13.4 1,810 33.4 243 Urban Coastal 3.8 493 (*) 19 9.8 486 (18.3) 48 Rural Coastal 1.7 1,249 (64.3) 21 14.8 1,324 37.0 196 Interior 2.3 425 (44.1) 10 19.6 326 (47.2) 64 Mother's educationa None 3.3 50 (*) 2 28.9 49 (44.6) 14 Primary 1.9 477 (*) 9 22.2 483 31.8 107 Secondary 2.2 1,414 (58.2) 32 10.1 1,239 33.0 125 Higher 4.1 175 (*) 7 0.4 96 (*) Cannot be determinedb na na na na 21.7 257 49.8 56 Wealth index quintile Poorest 3.0 586 (54.6) 18 23.9 488 46.1 117 Second 1.6 433 (*) 7 19.0 436 28.0 83 Middle 1.9 385 (*) 7 13.1 418 (27.2) 55 Fourth 2.4 379 (*) 9 8.8 441 (45.4) 39 Richest 2.3 384 (*) 9 4.0 351 (*) 14 Ethnicity of household headc, d East Indian 1.1 806 (*) 9 17.5 845 37.0 148 African 2.9 625 (*) 18 7.2 684 19.0 49 Amerindian 2.7 298 (*) 8 24.8 193 44.1 48 Mixed Race 3.2 429 (*) 14 14.8 408 41.6 61 a Category "Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases b Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household c This is based on the ethnic group identified by the respondent of the Household Questionnaire to be that of the household head d Category "Others/Missing/DK" has been suppressed from the table due to a small number of unweighted cases na: not applicable ( ) Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases 235Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | F igure ED.1: Education indicators by sex , Guyana MICS5, 2014 School readiness 87 83 Net intake rate in primary education Primary school completion rate Transition rate to secondary school 82 85 111 108 96 96 Attendance to early childhood education Primary school attendance Secondary school attendance 63 59 97 97 81 88 Children reaching last grade of primary 95 98 Boys Girls Note: All indicator values are in per cent 236 @UNICEF Guyana 237Multiple indicator cluster survey 2014 | @UNICEF Guyana 238 Birth Registration Every child has the right from birth to a name and the right to acquire a nationality, enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and other international treaties. Yet the births of around one in four children under the age of five worldwide have never been recorded.78 This lack of formal recognition by the State usually means that a child is unable to obtain a birth certificate. As a result, the child does not “exist,” and he or she may be denied health care or education. Later in life, the lack of official identification documents can mean that a child may enter into marriage or the labour market, or be conscripted into the armed forces, before the legal age. In adulthood, birth certificates may be required to obtain social assistance or a job in the formal sector, to buy or prove the right to inherit property, to vote and to obtain a passport. Registering children at birth is the first step in securing their recognition before the law, safeguarding their rights, and ensuring that any violation of these rights does not go unnoticed.79 The legal framework for birth registration is contained in Chapter 44:01 of the Laws of Guyana: Registration of Births and Deaths Act. The General Register Office (GRO) is responsible for recording births, deaths and marriages, and issuing relevant certificates. In Guyana, deliveries generally take place at a health institution, either public or private80. In 2013, Guyana introduced bedside registration; at the institution, the staff provide assistance in completing the necessary documentation for the registration of the birth. According to law, the parent/s or nurse or anyone present at the time of the birth shall give notice, to the Registrar, of the birth within 21 days. In addition, any of the afore-mentioned persons is required to sign the registration form in the presence of the Registrar, within three months after the date of the birth. It is noteworthy that the name of the child’s father is not stated unless he is present at the time of the registration and signs the form. Registration is free of charge in all ten (10) administrative regions of Guyana. Together with the Ministry of Public Health, a number of registration centres were created in all the ten (10) administrative regions as follows, with the majority of those created in hospitals and health centres: The law provides for registration within 12 months of birth. For children born out of wedlock, the name of the father is not stated except at the joint request of the mother and of the person who acknowledges himself to be the father and both are required to sign the required form. This form is then processed by the GRO and the birth certificate is sent to the address provided. 78UNICEF (2014). The State of the World’s Children 2015. 79UNICEF (2013).Every Child’s Birth Right: Inequities and trends in birth registration. 80See Chapter VIII. Reproductive health Region no. of Registration Centres 1 13 2 13 3 16 4 27 5 12 6 17 7 14 8 20 9 26 10