Findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3 Syrian Arab Republic 2006: Preliminary Report

Publication date: 2007

Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women Findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3 Syrian Arab Republic, 2006 PRELIMINARY REPORT April 2007 Central Bureau of Statistics United Nations Children’s Fund Pan-Arab project for Family Health Unit Summary Table of Findings MICS and MDG Indicators, Syria, 2006 TOPIC MICS3 INDICATOR NUMBER MDG INDICATOR NUMBER INDICATOR VALUE UNIT 1 13 U5MR 22 1000 Child mortality 2 14 IMR 18 1000 Underweight prevalence 9.7 % 6 Underweight, severe 1.8 % Stunting prevalence 22.4 % 7 Stunting severe 10.1 % Wasting prevalence 8.6 % 8 Wasting severe 2.3 % 15 Exclusive breastfeeding rate 0-3 months 35.3 % 16 Continued breastfeeding rate 12-15 months 63.9 % Nutrition 17 4 Timely complementary feeding rate 6-9 months 36.5 % 25 Tuberculosis immunization coverage, 99.9 % 26 Polio1 immunization coverage, 99.3 % 27 DPT1 immunization coverage, 99.4 % 28 15 Measles immunization coverage 92.4 % 31 Fully immunized children 87.3 % 22 Antibiotic treatment of children with suspected pneumonia 71.0 % Child Health 24 29 Gas fuel use 98.1 % 11 30 Use of improved drinking water sources 88.3 % Environment 12 31 Use of improved sanitation facilities 97.3 % 21 19c Contraceptive prevalence 58.3 % Reproductive health 4 17 Deliveries attended by skilled personnel 93.0 % 55 6 Net primary school attendance rate 96.7 % Education 61 9 Gender parity index (Primary) 1.00 % 62 Birth registration 95.2 % Marriage before age 15 3.4 % 67 Marriage before age 18 17.7 % Child protection 68 Young women aged 15-19 currently married 9.7 % HIV/AIDS sexual Behaviors Orphaned and Vulnerable Children 82 19b Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 32 % 2 CONTENT: TU ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.5 TU I. BACKGROUND .6 TU INTRODUCTION:.6 TU SURVEY OBJECTIVES.7 TU II. SAMPLE DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY .8 TU SAMPLE DESIGN.8 TU QUESTIONNAIRES.8 TU FIELDWORK AND DATA PROCESSING .9 TU SAMPLE COVERAGE.9 TU III. RESULTS.10 TU CHILD MORTALITY .10 TU NUTRITIONAL STATUS.10 TU BREASTFEEDING.12 TU IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE.12 TU ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED PNEUMONIA .13 TU SOLID FUEL USE .14 TU WATER AND SANITATION .14 TU CONTRACEPTION.15 TU ASSISTANCE AT DELIVERY.15 TU PRIMARY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE .16 TU BIRTH REGISTRATION .16 TU EARLY MARRIGES .17 TU KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS TRANSMISSION .17 TU CONCLUSION .18 3 TABLES PAGE TABLE HH.1: Results of household and individual interviews 19 TABLE CM 1: Child mortality 20 TABLE NU.1: Child malnourishment 21 TABLE NU.3: Breastfeeding 22 TABLE CH.1: Vaccinations in first year of life 23 TABLE CH.7: Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia 24 TABLE CH.8: Solid fuel use 25 TABLE EN.1: Use of improved water sources 26 TABLE EN.5: Use of sanitary means to dispose of excreta 27 TABLE RH.1: Use of contraception 28 TABLE RH.5: Assistance during delivery 29 TABLE ED.3: Primary school net attendance ratio 30 TABLE ED.7: Education gender parity 31 TABLE CP.1: Birth registration 32 TABLE CP.5: Early marriage 33 TABLE HA.3: Comprehensive knowledge of AIDS/HIV transmission 34 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Within the framework of cooperation between the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the Pan-Arab Project for Family Health of the League of Arab States, the CBS, in cooperation with the State Planning Commission and the Ministry of Health, conducted a Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS) in 2006. The survey aimed to provide data with updated indicators which reflect children’s health, social and educational status, and assess the progress made towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and national goals on survival, protection and development of children during the new millennium. The survey also aimed to measure the changes that had occurred in the situation of children since the performance of the MICS on child health in the mid-1990. This would make it possible to diagnose the situation of children, to conduct comparative analytical studies, and to prepare appropriate programmes for upholding their status in various fields. The Central Bureau of Statistics wishes to seize the opportunity of the issuance of the preliminary report of the survey to extend sincere thanks and appreciation to the UNICEF, the Pan-Arab Project for Family Health of the League of Arab States, and to all local parties for their support and contributions. Besides, we hope the results thereof will meet the needs of all the parties concerned, so that such parties can depend on these findings and use them in drawing up the policies and programmes pertinent to children. Dr. Ibrahim Ali Director Central Bureau of Statistics 5 I. BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION: This preliminary report is based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2006, in cooperation between the Central Bureau of Statistics and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), in coordination with the State Planning Commission and the Ministry of Health. The survey was based, in large part, on monitoring progress towards the goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit for Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children. This is in addition to the decisions issued by the League of Arab States and other related institutions and organizations with regard to the Arab framework for Arab child rights, the Cairo declaration towards an “ Arab World Fit for Children”, and the second Arab plan for childhood (2004-2015) adopted by the Arab summits. In signing these international agreements, governments committed themselves to improving conditions for their children and to monitoring progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task (see Table1.1). Table 1.1 A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and sub-national levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: 6 “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” The eight main goals which the Millennium Declaration focused on have always constituted key priorities in the economic and social development plans in Syria. The successive, five-year plans have aimed to enhance the citizens’ prosperity and increase their income, and to insure the best means to expand education in both urban and rural areas, for males and females alike. Such plans also paid special attention to the sectors of health, the environment, the empowerment of women, and others. The MICS3 will form an important source of the data necessary for monitoring progress towards the goals of the millennium. This preliminary report presents selected results on some of the principal topics covered in the survey and on a subset of indicators1. The results in this report are preliminary and are subject to change, although major changes are not expected. The main report is expected to be published at the end of May, 2007. SURVEY OBJECTIVES The primary objectives of the 2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of the Syrian Arab Republic are as follows: 1. To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in the Syrian Arab Republic. 2. To furnish data needed for monitoring progress towards the goals established by the Millennium Development Goals and the goals of A World Fit for Children (WFFC) as a basis for future action; 3. To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in the Syrian Arab Republic, and to strengthen technical expertise in the design implementation, and analysis of such systems. 1 1 For more information on the definitions, numerators, denominators and algorithms of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators covered in the survey: see Chapter 1, Appendix 1 and Appendix 7 of the MICS Manual – Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Manual 2005: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women, also available at www.childinfo.org 7 II. SAMPLE DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY SAMPLE DESIGN The sample for the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of the Syrian Arab Republic was designed to estimate a number of indicators on the situation of women and children at the national, and governorate levels, for urban and rural areas. The framework of the Overall Census of Inhabitants and Dwellings, 2004, was used as the sampling domain. The sample was selected in two stages in each area. In the first stage, the clusters were drawn as census areas in proportion to size with a total of 1000 clusters. In the second stage, the counting units were drawn (households) in a regular arbitrary manner. The sample was stratified as per areas, and the sample was a self-weighted sampling design. QUESTIONNAIRES Three questionnaires were used in the survey. In addition to a household questionnaire which was used to collect information on all household members, the household, and the dwelling, questionnaires were administered in each household to women aged 15-49 ــــ mothers or caretakers of under -5 children were identified in each household. The questionnaires included the following modules: Household Questionnaires ƒ Household Listing ƒ Education ƒ Water and Sanitation ƒ Household Characteristics ƒ Child Labor Questionnaires for Individual Women ƒ Child Mortality ƒ Tetanus Toxoid ƒ Maternal and Newborn Health ƒ Marriage ƒ Contraception ƒ HIV/AIDS Questionnaires for Children under Five ƒ Birth Registration and Early Learning ƒ Vitamin A ƒ Breastfeeding ƒ Care of Illness ƒ Immunization ƒ Anthropometry The questionnaires are based on the MICS3 model questionnaire and were pre-tested during February, 2006. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording of the questionnaires. 8 FIELDWORK AND DATA PROCESSING Members of the fieldwork staff were trained for ten days in early April, 2006. In total, 35 teams collected the data, each comprising 4 interviewers, a team leader, and a supervisor for each governorate. Fieldwork began on April 19th, 2006 and lasted until the end of May, 2006. The data were entered on microcomputers using the CSPro software. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS3 project and adapted to the questionnaires used in the Syrian Arab Republic. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in May 2006 and finished in July 2006. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software program and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed for this purpose. SAMPLE COVERAGE Out of 20.022 households selected for sampling, 19.870 were actually found, while the dwellings of the remaining households were either not occupied, or else the households themselves were out. 19.019 households were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 95.7 percent. In the interviewed households 25.563 women aged 15-49 were identified. Out of these 25.026 women were interviewed, for a response rate of 97.9 percent. The number of children under - five listed in the household questionnaire totaled 11.104. Out of these, 11.017 children were interviewed, which corresponds to a response rate of 99.2%. The overall response rate for the women's questionnaires was 93.7 percent, while the one for the children under-five was 95 percent, as Table HH.1 shows. 9 III. RESULTS CHILD MORTALITY One of the overarching goals of the MDGs and the World Fit for Children is to reduce infant and under-five mortality. MICS3 estimates the rate of child mortality using indirect method based on the data of the average number of live birth and average number of those surviving disaggregated by women’s age at the time of the survey. By using the “UN life tabulation model” the infant mortality rate is established as 18 per 1000 live birth, 21/1.000 for males and 14/1.000 for females. In urban areas the rate is 16/1.000 and in rural 20/1.000. The under five mortality for U5 the rate is 22 per 1.000, 26/1.000 for males and 17/1.000 for females. The rate is 19/1.000 for urban areas and 24/1.000 for rural. It should be noted that using the indirect method in estimating child mortality provides data for the three years prior to the survey. This data corresponds with the mortality rates estimates from the PAPFAM Family Health Survey in 2002 and the population Census in 2004. NUTRITIONAL STATUS Children's nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. In a well-nourished population, there is a standard distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Undernourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to a reference distribution. The reference population used here is the WHO/CDC/NCHS reference, which is recommended for use by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Each of the three nutritional status indicators can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of this reference population. Weight for age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight, while those whose weight for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height for age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. 10 Finally, children whose weight for height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. Table NU.1 shows percentages of children classified into each of these categories, based on the anthropometric measurements that were taken during fieldwork. Additionally, the table includes the percentage of children who are overweight, which takes into account those children whose weight for height is above 2 standard deviations from the median of the reference population. Almost one in ten children under age five in the Syrian Arab Republic are moderately underweight, 9.7 percent, and 1.8 percent are severely underweight for their age (NU.1). Around 2.3 percent are severely wasted and 10 percent of children are severely stunted for their age. There are visible disparities, showing that the prevalence of underweight and wasted children is more prevalent in the governorate of Deir-Ezzor, while stunting is more common in Raqqa. Moreover, children with mothers having secondary or higher education level are the least likely to be underweight and stunted. Boys also appear to be more likely to be underweight and stunted, than girls. The age pattern shows that a higher percentage of children aged 12-23 months are undernourished according to all three indices in comparison to children who are younger and older. This pattern is expected and is related to the age at which many children cease to be breastfed and are exposed to contamination in water, food, and environment (See Figure 1). Figure 1 Child malnourishment Percentage of under-five children who are severely or moderately undernourished, Syria, 2006 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 < 6 6--11 12--23 24--35 36--47 48--59 Weight for age: % below -2 SD Weight for age: % below -3 SD* Height for age: % below -2 SD Height for age: % below -3 SD** Weight for height: % below -2 SD Weight for height: % below -3 SD*** Weight for height: % above +2 SD 11 BREASTFEEDING Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. The World Fit for Children goal states that children should be exclusively breastfed for 6 months and continued breastfeeding with safe, appropriate and adequate complementary feeding up to 2 years of age and beyond. In Table NU.3, breastfeeding status is based on the reports of mothers/caretakers of children’s consumption of food and fluids in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusively breastfed refers to infants who received only breast milk and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine. The table shows exclusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life (separately for 0-3 months and 0-5 months), as well as complementary feeding of children 6-9 months and continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 and 20-23 months of age. Approximately 29 percent of children aged less than six months are being exclusively breastfed. At age 6-9 months, 36.5 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or soft foods. By age 12-15 months 63.9 percent of children are still being breastfed, and by age 20-23 months, 16.3 percent are still breastfed. The rates differ between urban and rural areas with higher breastfeeding rates among the rural populations. There are also differences between the governorates with the highest percentage of infants breastfed for less than six months of age is in Lattakia 45.7 percent, while the lowest is in Sweida 6.2 percent. Noteworthy is that the rate of exclusive breast feeding tends to decline as the mother/caretaker's education level rises. The rate is also higher among poor households compared to richer ones. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. Mothers were asked to provide vaccination cards for children under the age of five. Interviewers copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS3 questionnaire. The percentage of children aged 12 to 23 months who received each of the vaccinations is shown in Table CH.1. The denominator for the table is comprised of children aged 12-23 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination card or the mother's report. In the bottom panel, only those who were vaccinated before their first birthday are included. For children without vaccination cards, the proportion of vaccinations given 12 before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. Approximately 99.9 percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to 99.4 percent. The percentage for subsequent doses of DPT is 96.6 percent for the second dose, and 91.2 percent for the third dose (see Figure 2). Similarly 99.3 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months declining to 96.7 percent by the second dose. The coverage for measles vaccine is 92.4 percent. Figure 2 Vaccinations in f irst year of life Percentage of children aged 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before the first birthday, Country, Year 99.4 99.3 80.0 99.9 99.9 104.0 96.6 91.2 96.7 91.3 92.4 87.3 84.0 88.0 92.0 96.0 100.0 BCG * DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 ** Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 **** Measles **** All ***** suspected neumonia are those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or d whose symptoms were due to a problem in the chest and a locked nose. This question was limited to children who had suspected pneumonia able CH.7 presents the use of antibiotics for the treatment of suspected pneumonia in percent, while the lowest percentage was in Rural Damascus; only 52 percent. The table also shows that the t of children with suspected pneumonia is high for ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED PNEUMONIA Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children and the use of antibiotics in under-5s with suspected pneumonia is a key intervention. Children with p difficult breathing an b within the previous two weeks and whether or not they had received an antibiotic within the previous two weeks. T under-5s by sex, age, region, residence, and socioeconomic factors. The table shows that 71 percent of under-5 children with suspected pneumonia had received antibiotic treatment during the two weeks prior to the survey. The percentage was considerably higher in Quneitra, 100 percentage of antibiotic treatmen 13 rich households and for children whose mothers/caretakers have received secondary school education or higher. The percentage also rises as a child gets older. SOLID FUEL USE Cooking with solid fuels (biomass and coal) leads to high levels of indoor pollution and is a major cause of ill health in the world, particularly among children under-five, the form of acute respiratory illness. and poor households (Table CH.8). ATER AND SANITATION al areas, who bear the primary responsibility r carrying water, often for long distances. g types of supply: piped water, public tap, borehole/tubewell, protected ell, protected spring or rainwater. Overall, 88.3 percent of the population has access rnorate (Table EN.1). network is the main source of drinking water, with the highest percentages in the governorates of Damascus, Dara'a, Sweida, and Qunaitra, and the lowest is in Rural Damascus. Despite that the majority of households in rural Damascus (94.1 %) are connected to the public network, 43.4% of the household get their main source of drinking water from mobile tanks. This is because the water from the network contains calcium. There is a considerable difference between the richer and poorer household, 99,3 and 69,5 respectively. Inadequate disposal of human excreta is associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio. Improved sanitation facilities include: flush toilets connected to sewage systems, or septic tanks. They also include ventilated pit latrines with slabs. The findings of the survey show that 97.3 percent of the household population lives in dwellings with improved sewage facilities (Table EN.5). 99.7 percent of these live in urban areas, while 94.2 percent live in rural areas (Figure. 3). in The survey findings show that 98.1 percent of households use gas for cooking. Almost the same percentage applies to both urban and rural areas, while 1.4 percent of households use electricity. There is a slight difference between the urban and rural households; 1.7 percent and 1.1 percent respectively using electricity. There is no difference between rich W Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be especially important for women and children, particularly in rur fo The distribution of the population by source of drinking water is shown in Table EN.1. The population using improved drinking water sources is those who use any of the followin w to improved sources of drinking water, 93.5 percent living in urban areas and 81.2 percent in rural areas. The source of drinking water for the population varies by gove The public 14 Figure 3 Other Pit latrine w ithout slab/open pit 0% No facilities or bush or field facility 2% 1% Unimproved sanitation 7% facility Type of toilet facility Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP) 19% Flush to septic tank Flush to piped sew er system Improved sanitation used by household 71% Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal Percent distribution of household population cording to type of toilet used by the household and the percentage of household members ing sanitary means of excreta disposal, Country, Year hat 58.3 percent of married women have reported level is strongly associated with contraceptive prevalence. The is highest in the governorate of ac us CONTRACEPTION The findings of the survey show t se of contraceptives. u The highest percentage of women using contraceptives is in Sweida, 74.9 percent, next comes Damascus with 70.8 percent, while the lowest is reported in Quneitra where it declines to 37 percent. he usage of contraception is lower for young married women; with a rate of 21.6T percent among 15-19 years. Meanwhile, around 40.4 percent of women aged 20-24 use contraception and the percentage continuous to rise for older women (Table RH.1). omen's educationW percentage of women using contraceptives rises from 45.2 percent among uneducated women to 57.5 percent among those with primary education and to 65 percent among those with secondary or higher education. The percentage is also higher among richest households, 68.3, in relation to poorest ones 41.8. ASSISTANCE AT DELIVERY The provision of delivery assistance by skilled attendants can greatly improve outcomes for mothers and infants by the use of technically appropriate procedures, and accurate and speedy diagnosis and treatment of complications. Skilled assistance at delivery is defined as assistance provided by a doctor, nurse, or auxiliary midwife. About 93 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MICS were delivered by killed personnel (Table RH.5). This percentages 15 Tartous, 100 percent. In Hassake only 80.3 percent of deliveries were attended by skilled attendants. The more educated a woman is, the more likely she is to have delivered with the niversal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the orld's children is one of the most important goals of the Millennium Development Goals and A World Fit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating n, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative bour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the ing primary school (Table ED.3). In urban areas 97.3 percent of children ttend, while in rural areas 96.1 percent attend. or primary school is close to 1.00 indicating no difference in e attendance of girls and boys. The parity, however, rises to 1.05 percent for IRTH REGISTRATION and among richest households 98.6, in comparison with poorer nes, 91.6 (Table CP.1). nt, the cost, travel distance, and ck of knowledge are the reasons for not registration their children. assistance of a skilled person. The percentage of assistance at delivery also rises among richest households, 98.9, in relation to poorest ones 77.6. PRIMARY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE U w poverty, empowering wome la environment, and influencing population growth. Overall, 96.7 percent of children of primary school age in the Syrian Arab Republic are attend a The highest percentage of primary school attendance is among rich households, 98.5 percent, while the lowest is found among poorer ones with 92.9 percent. Table ED.7 provides the ratio of girls to boys attending primary school. The table shows that gender parity f th secondary school attendance. B The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. The births of 95.2 percent of children born in the five years prior to the survey in the Syrian Arab Republic have been registered (Table CP.1). There is no significance variation in birth registration across sex but there are differences according to the mother's age and educational status. The percentage rises among mothers of higher educational levels o Among those whose births are not registered 4.8 perce la 16 EARLY MARRIGES Child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising the development of girls and often resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty. Women married at younger ages are more likely to dropout of school, experience higher levels of rtility, domestic violence, and maternal mortality. omen married at various ages is provided in Table (CP.5). The . 2 her SION One of the most important prerequisites for reducing the rate of HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and strategies for preventing transmission. Correct information is the first step toward raising awareness and giving young people the tools to protect themselves from infection. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can confuse young people and hinder prevention efforts. Different regions are likely to have variations in misconceptions although some appear to be universal (for example that sharing food can transmit HIV or mosquito bites can transmit HIV). Table HA.3 provides the percentage of women aged 15-49 who know two ways of HIV transmission. The table shows that around 32 percent of women report knowing two ways of HIV transmission. The level of knowledge in urban areas is around 34.6 percent and in rural areas 28.9 percent. There are also differences between the governorates. Tartous has the highest level of knowledge with 57.6 percent, while the lowest level is in Deir-Ezzor, 8.3 percent. The level of knowledge of HIV transmission methods also rises with women's higher educational levels. fe The percentage of w findings indicate that 3.4 percent of women are married before the age 15 years old The percentage varies at governorate level with the highest level in Daraa, 5. percent, and the lowest in Tartous, 1.1 percent. The percentage declines with hig educational levels. KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS TRANSMIS 17 CONCLUSION The following points are highlighted in view of the results presented: - Worth noticing is that the percentage of severely underweighted and stunted children decreases by the increase of the mother’s educational level. Also, the severe underweight, stunting and wasting is higher among males compared to females and among the age group 12-23 months compared to other age groups. - Breastfeeding is more spread in rural areas, and among poor families compared to the richer ones. - The percentage of children vaccinations increases among children of 12-23 months old. - The percentage of utilizing improved drinking water and safe sanitary disposal are higher in urban areas compared to rural ones. - The education level of the mother is strongly correlated with the percentage of prevalence of family planning methods. - The percentage of deliveries assisted by skilled personnel increases by the rise of the woman’s educational level and wealth index level. 18 Table HH.1: Results of household and individual interviews Numbers of households, women and children under 5 by results of the household, women's and under-five's interviews, and household, women's and under-five's response rates, Syria, 2006 Urban_Rural Governorates U rb an R ur al D am as cu s Al ep po R ur al -D am H om s H am a La tta ki a Id le b H as sa ke D ei r E zz or Ta rto us R aq qa D ar aa Sw ei da Q un ei tra Total Sampled households 11,317 8,705 2,100 4,560 2,780 1,720 1,445 1,139 1,280 1,140 860 878 780 840 400 100 20,022 Occupied households 11,202 8,668 2,078 4,552 2,714 1,710 1,426 1,132 1,272 1,139 857 878 778 835 399 100 19,870 Interviewed households 10,717 8,302 1,970 4,522 2,571 1,630 1,395 1,064 1,174 1,002 826 871 737 782 378 97 19,019 Household response rate 95.7 95.8 94.8 99.3 94.7 95.3 97.8 94.0 92.3 88.0 96.4 99.2 94.7 93.7 94.7 97.0 95.7 Eligible women 13,764 11,799 2,259 5,531 3,644 2,199 1,946 1,368 1,551 1,635 1,232 1,220 1,075 1,261 495 147 25,563 Interviewed women 13,467 11,559 2,211 5,492 3,370 2,171 1,921 1,366 1,509 1,594 1,219 1,219 1,069 1,246 492 147 25.026 Women response rate 97.8 98.0 97.9 99.3 92.5 98.7 98.7 99.9 97.3 97.5 98.9 99.9 99.4 98.8 99.4 100.0 97.9 Women's overall response rate 93.6 93.8 92.8 98.6 87.6 94.1 96.6 93.9 89.8 85.8 95.4 99.1 94.2 92.5 94.2 97.0 93.7 Eligible children under 5 5,526 5,578 596 2,293 1,638 1,036 842 440 930 678 630 448 494 812 180 87 11,104 Mother/Caretaker Interviewed 5,483 5,534 591 2,284 1,598 1,032 838 440 927 668 626 447 491 808 180 87 11,017 Child response rate 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.6 97.6 99.6 99.5 100.0 99.7 98.5 99.4 99.8 99.4 99.5 100.0 100.0 99.2 Children's overall response rate 94.9 95.0 94.0 99.0 92.4 95.0 97.4 94.0 92.0 86.7 95.8 99.0 94.2 93.2 94.7 97.0 95.0 19 * MICS indicator 2; MDG indicator 14, ** MICS indicator 1; MDG indicator 13 Table CM.1: Child mortality Infant and under-five mortality rates by background and demographic characteristics [BASED ON NORTH], Syria, 2006 Infant Mortality Rate* Under-five Mortality Rate** Male 21 26 Sex Female 14 17 Urban 16 19 Area Rural 20 24 Total Total 18 22 20 Table NU.1: Child malnourishment Percentage of under-five children who are severely or moderately undernourished, Syria 2006 Weight for age: % below -2 SD Weight for age: % below - 3 SD* Height for age: % below - 2 SD Height for age: % below - 3 SD** Weight for height: % below - 2 SD Weight for height: % below - 3 SD*** Weight for height: % above +2 SD Number of children Male 10.7 2.1 23.6 11.0 9.5 2.8 11.8 5,042 Sex Female 8.6 1.6 21.1 9.1 7.6 1.7 13.1 4,536 Damascus 12.0 3.2 23.7 11.6 12.0 4.4 19.3 476 Aleppo 10.2 1.3 36.0 19.7 8.0 2.5 16.0 1,909 Rural-Dam 12.4 2.4 20.6 7.9 11.3 2.6 11.5 1,430 Homs 10.2 1.7 24.0 9.3 7.5 1.4 15.9 875 Hama 10.1 2.5 17.5 7.2 13.5 3.7 10.5 753 Lattakia 4.9 0.5 9.7 2.3 10.0 0.8 10.7 391 Idleb 3.8 0.5 16.5 5.0 1.4 0.3 5.4 878 Hassake 11.0 2.8 17.1 7.1 10.8 3.5 15.8 538 Deir Ezzor 17.9 5.2 29.4 15.1 16.1 5.4 13.3 496 Tartous 3.7 0.9 9.5 2.5 5.8 0.7 12.0 432 Raqqa 22.7 3.7 35.4 19.5 12.2 3.7 9.5 401 Daraa 3.8 0.3 11.5 3.3 3.3 0.3 8.4 738 Sweida 0.6 0.0 4.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 177 Governorates Quneitra 1.2 0.0 15.5 6.0 2.4 1.2 8.3 84 Urban 9.4 1.6 21.9 10.0 8.5 2.4 12.9 4,728 Urban_Rural Rural 10.0 2.1 22.9 10.2 8.8 2.2 11.9 4,850 < 6 months 4.1 0.5 16.4 5.7 7.6 2.1 20.5 959 6-11 months 10.4 2.9 20.2 6.8 10.4 2.6 15.5 734 12-23 months 11.2 2.5 28.3 13.7 9.1 2.4 15.3 1,731 24-35 months 13.4 2.0 22.3 11.0 9.1 2.0 7.8 2,154 36-47 months 8.4 1.6 24.4 11.1 8.6 2.5 11.3 2,314 Age 48-59 months 8.3 1.4 18.1 7.8 7.6 2.3 10.8 1,686 None 13.8 3.6 29.1 15.1 11.8 3.6 12.9 1,613 Primary 10.2 1.9 25.2 11.3 8.1 2.3 13.0 3,630 Secondary 8.1 1.1 18.1 7.1 7.7 1.7 11.3 3,499 Higher institutions 6.8 2.0 17.4 8.5 9.4 2.4 13.3 541 Mother's education University+ 6.1 0.3 11.5 6.4 7.8 1.7 13.2 295 Poorest 12.7 3.3 29.5 14.6 10.4 3.0 13.4 1,961 Second 10.2 1.7 21.1 8.8 8.1 2.2 11.4 2,244 Middle 9.9 1.7 20.9 8.9 8.6 2.4 11.6 2,092 Fourth 7.2 1.1 20.2 7.8 7.2 1.5 13.5 1,704 Wealth index quintiles Richest 7.9 1.2 19.9 10.3 8.8 2.0 12.4 1,577 Total 9.7 1.8 22.4 10.1 8.6 2.3 12.4 9,578 * MICS indicator 6; MDG indicator ** MICS indicator 7, *** MICS indicator 8 21 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding Percent of living children according to breastfeeding status at each age group, Syria 2006 Children 0-3 months Children 0-5 months Children 6-9 months Children 12-15 months Children 20-23 months Percent excl. breast- fed Number of children Percent excl. breast- fed * Number of children Percent receiving breast- milk and solid/mus hy food ** Number of children Percent breast- fed*** Number of children Percent breast- fed *** Number of children Male 33.0 348 27.2 621 35.2 327 64.1 457 18.3 263 Sex Female 37.6 327 30.4 542 38.1 265 63.7 410 14.0 222 Damascus 21.4 42 21.4 70 31.6 38 69.2 52 18.8 32 Aleppo 36.5 148 36.3 251 17.8 90 75.0 204 22.5 40 Rural-Dam 34.3 99 22.9 170 52.8 89 48.5 101 9.1 99 Homs 40.8 76 33.3 120 45.0 60 59.0 83 25.5 55 Hama 33.3 36 21.9 64 44.1 59 72.6 62 13.3 45 Lattakia 46.4 28 45.7 46 25.0 24 41.4 29 10.7 28 Idleb 39.6 48 22.9 109 33.3 42 66.2 71 14.8 27 Hassake 27.5 40 23.2 69 17.1 35 65.3 49 20.0 30 Deir Ezzor 35.6 45 30.3 76 38.5 39 64.5 62 42.4 33 Tartous 42.1 19 26.7 30 45.0 20 38.5 39 3.2 31 Raqqa 26.7 30 26.5 49 16.7 24 69.1 55 14.3 7 Daraa 40.4 52 29.4 85 43.1 51 65.9 44 10.3 39 Sweida 11.1 9 6.2 16 70.6 17 70.0 10 0.0 14 Governo- rates Quneitra 33.3 3 37.5 8 0.0 4 33.3 6 40.0 5 Urban 31.3 371 27.6 609 36.1 277 62.4 436 15.4 247 Urban_ Rural Rural 40.1 304 30.0 554 36.8 315 65.4 431 17.2 238 None 38.0 100 31.4 188 22.5 89 76.4 161 37.7 53 Primary 34.4 273 29.3 478 36.6 216 65.0 340 18.3 164 Secondary 36.3 245 27.9 408 40.5 227 55.9 295 9.3 205 Higher institutions 32.5 40 25.0 60 37.1 35 69.8 43 19.4 36 Mother's education University+ 23.5 17 20.7 29 48.0 25 53.6 28 11.1 27 Poorest 41.7 139 35.5 248 28.6 119 73.2 194 27.8 79 Second 38.3 128 28.6 248 39.1 151 63.3 207 13.2 121 Middle 36.7 169 29.6 280 41.7 139 57.9 178 11.1 117 Fourth 30.6 124 23.8 202 35.0 100 62.7 150 12.6 87 Wealth index quintiles Richest 27.0 115 23.8 185 36.1 83 60.9 138 21.0 81 Total 35.3 675 28.7 1,163 36.5 592 63.9 867 16.3 485 22 Table CH.1: Vaccinations in first year of life Percentage of children aged 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before the first birthday, Syria 2006 BCG * DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 ** Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 **** Measles **** All ***** None Number of children aged 12-23 months Vaccination card 99.9 99.4 96.6 91.2 99.9 99.3 96.7 91.3 92.4 87.8 0.0 1,152 Mother's report 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 1,152 Either 99.9 99.4 96.8 91.6 99.9 99.4 96.9 91.7 92.4 87.8 0.0 1,152 Vaccinated by 12 months of age 99.7 98.6 95.6 89.0 99.7 98.6 95.8 88.9 85.2 79.0 0.1 1,152 23 Table CH.7: Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotic treatment, Syria, 2006 % of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics in the last two weeks * Number of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the two weeks prior to the survey Male 70.2 329 Sex Female 72.0 261 Damascus 72.2 36 Aleppo 79.8 99 Rural-Dam 52.0 127 Homs 66.7 63 Hama 71.4 42 Lattakia 78.8 33 Idleb 71.8 39 Hassake 91.3 46 Deir Ezzor 86.4 22 Tartous 85.0 20 Raqqa 77.8 18 Daraa 63.6 33 Sweida 72.7 11 Governorates Quneitra 100.0 1 Urban 75.3 328 Urban_Rural Rural 65.6 262 0-11 months 68.8 125 12-23 months 67.4 138 24-35 months 72.2 126 36-47 months 75.8 128 Age 48-59 months 71.2 73 None 70.9 86 Primary 66.8 217 Secondary 72.2 230 Higher institutions 86.1 36 Mother's education University+ 76.2 21 Poorest 71.6 95 Second 64.5 141 Middle 63.6 143 Fourth 79.4 102 Wealth index quintiles Richest 80.7 109 Total 71.0 590 * MICS indicator 22 24 Table CH.8: Solid fuel use Percent distribution of households according to type of cooking fuel, and percentage of households used solid fuels for cooking, Syria 2006 Type of fuel using for cooking Electricity Liquid propane gas (LPG) Other Total Solid fuels for cooking * Number of households Damascus 1.4 98.6 0.0 100.0 0.0 1,971 Aleppo 0.6 99.2 0.3 100.0 0.3 4,523 Rural-Dam 2.4 97.6 0.0 100.0 0.0 2,571 Homs 1.9 97.7 0.4 100.0 0.4 1,630 Hama 0.9 98.8 0.3 100.0 0.3 1,395 Lattakia 1.1 98.8 0.1 100.0 0.0 1,064 Idleb 0.7 99.3 0.0 100.0 0.0 1,174 Hassake 1.2 97.9 0.9 100.0 0.1 1,002 Deir Ezzor 5.6 89.6 4.9 100.0 2.1 826 Tartous 0.7 98.9 0.4 100.0 0.3 871 Raqqa 1.1 98.4 0.5 100.0 0.4 737 Daraa 1.9 97.8 0.3 100.0 0.3 782 Sweida 0.3 99.2 0.5 100.0 0.5 378 Governorates Quneitra 2.1 97.9 0.0 100.0 0.0 97 Urban 1.7 98.2 0.1 100.0 0.0 10,722 Urban_Rural Rural 1.1 98.0 0.3 100.0 0.6 8,297 None 1.1 97.6 1.2 100.0 0.8 4,116 Primary 1.0 98.6 0.4 100.0 0.2 6,186 Secondary 1.7 98.2 0.2 100.0 0.1 6,072 Higher Institutions 1.4 98.6 0.0 100.0 0.0 1,156 University+ 2.9 97.1 0.1 100.0 0.0 1,462 Education of household head Missing/DK 3.8 96.2 0.0 100.0 0.0 26 Poorest 1.4 96.4 2.2 100.0 1.4 3,520 Second 1.6 98.2 0.2 100.0 0.0 3,622 Middle 1.6 98.4 0.0 100.0 0.0 3,889 Fourth 1.5 98.5 0.0 100.0 0.0 3,541 Wealth index quintiles Richest 1.1 98.9 0.0 100.0 0.0 4,447 Total 1.4 98.1 0.4 100.0 0.3 19,019 * MICS indicator 24; MDG indicator 29 25 Table EN.1: Use of improved water sources Percent distribution of household population according to main source of drinking water and percentage of household members using improved drinking water sources, Syria 2006 Main source of drinking water Improved sources Unimproved sources P ip ed in to d w el lin g P ip ed in to y ar d or p lo t P ub lic ta p/ st an dp ip e Tu be w el l/b or eh ol e P ro te ct ed w el l P ro te ct ed s pr in g R ai nw at er c ol le ct io n B ot tle d w at er U np ro te ct ed w el l U np ro te ct ed s pr in g Ta nk er -tr uc k C ar t w ith s m al l t an k/ dr um S ur fa ce w at er O th er To ta l Im pr ov ed s ou rc e of d rin ki ng w at er N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs Damascus 99.2 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.6 1,970 Aleppo 75.3 1.0 0.1 4.4 9.7 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 8.6 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 90.8 4,522 Rural-Dam 50.7 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.4 0.2 0.0 1.9 0.2 0.0 43.4 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 55.8 2,571 Homs 87.5 1.2 0.0 5.4 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.2 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 97.0 1,630 Hama 88.5 2.7 0.1 1.8 3.9 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.1 1.5 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 97.3 1,395 Lattakia 87.2 0.8 0.0 6.1 3.5 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.4 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 97.8 1,064 Idleb 83.1 2.5 2.0 0.5 5.0 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.9 0.1 4.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 94.1 1,174 Hassake 53.1 3.6 0.1 2.6 7.9 0.3 0.0 0.3 2.2 0.5 28.4 0.9 0.0 0.1 100.0 67.9 1,002 Deir Ezzor 78.9 8.5 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.5 0.4 0.5 0.0 100.0 87.7 826 Tartous 95.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 2.5 1.7 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.9 871 Raqqa 79.5 11.7 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.2 0.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 92.4 737 Daraa 97.8 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 98.7 782 Sweida 97.9 1.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 99.7 378 Governorates Quneitra 95.9 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.9 97 Urban 91.7 0.8 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 5.9 0.1 0.0 0.2 100.0 93.7 10,717 Urban_Rural Rural 63.0 3.2 0.6 5.0 8.4 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.7 0.3 17.2 0.3 0.0 0.2 100.0 81.2 8,302 None 70.7 3.2 0.4 3.4 6.4 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.1 13.9 0.2 0.1 0.3 100.0 84.8 4,117 Primary 75.9 2.1 0.2 2.4 5.0 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.2 12.9 0.2 0.0 0.1 100.0 86.2 6,186 Secondary 84.0 1.1 0.2 1.8 2.6 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 8.9 0.1 0.0 0.2 100.0 90.3 6,072 Higher Institutions 86.8 1.0 0.3 2.2 2.2 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.1 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 93.1 1,156 University+ 90.2 1.0 0.3 1.0 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.1 5.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 94.3 1,462 Education of household head Missing/DK 92.3 0.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.2 26 Poorest 36.6 7.3 0.9 7.7 17.2 0.9 0.1 0.3 1.6 0.3 26.0 0.5 0.1 0.5 100.0 70.9 3,522 Second 76.3 1.6 0.3 3.4 3.6 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.3 13.3 0.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 85.8 3,623 Middle 84.3 0.6 0.1 1.1 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.1 12.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 87.6 3,889 Fourth 93.8 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.0 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 95.0 3,540 Wealth index quintiles Richest 99.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.3 4,445 Total 79.1 1.9 0.3 2.3 4.0 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.1 10.9 0.1 0.0 0.2 100.0 88.3 19,019 * MICS indicator 11; MDG indicator 30 26 Table EN.5: Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal Percent distribution of household population according to type of toilet used by the household and the percentage of household members using sanitary means of excreta disposal, Syria 2006 Type of toilet facility used by household Improved sanitation facility Unimproved sanitation facility F lu sh to p ip ed s ew er sy st em Fl us h to s ep tic ta nk Ve nt ila te d Im pr ov ed P it la tri ne (V IP ) P it la tri ne w ith ou t sl ab /o pe n pi t N o fa ci lit ie s or b us h or fie ld O th er To ta l Pe rc en ta ge o f p op ul at io n us in g sa ni ta ry m ea ns o f e xc re ta di sp os al * N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s m em be rs Damascus 99.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 99.8 1,970 Aleppo 75.1 3.7 18.1 1.8 1.0 0.2 100.0 97.0 4,522 Rural-Dam 96.5 0.9 2.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 100.0 99.5 2,571 Homs 88.4 2.7 8.0 0.4 0.5 0.0 100.0 99.1 1,630 Hama 61.9 9.6 26.7 1.6 0.1 0.1 100.0 98.1 1,395 Lattakia 83.1 5.4 11.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 100.0 99.6 1,064 Idleb 62.5 20.5 14.7 1.6 0.6 0.0 100.0 97.8 1,174 Hassake 48.4 6.5 34.2 4.3 6.5 0.1 100.0 89.1 1,002 Deir Ezzor 55.4 10.2 32.0 0.5 1.9 0.0 100.0 97.6 826 Tartous 68.7 8.2 22.2 0.9 0.1 0.0 100.0 99.0 871 Raqqa 36.5 1.8 46.3 12.1 3.3 0.1 100.0 84.5 737 Daraa 51.9 17.6 27.9 1.4 0.9 0.3 100.0 97.4 782 Sweida 46.8 29.1 20.1 2.6 1.1 0.3 100.0 96.0 378 Governorates Quneitra 43.3 3.1 52.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.0 97 Urban 96.6 1.1 2.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 99.7 10,717Urban_Rural Rural 46.2 12.7 35.4 3.5 2.1 0.2 100.0 94.2 8,302 None 60.3 9.3 24.8 3.2 2.2 0.2 100.0 94.3 4,117 Primary 73.3 5.8 18.2 1.6 1.0 0.0 100.0 97.4 6,186 Secondary 80.1 5.3 12.9 1.1 0.5 0.0 100.0 98.4 6,072 Higher Institutions 81.1 5.1 12.6 0.7 0.3 0.1 100.0 98.9 1,156 University+ 91.9 2.7 5.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 100.0 99.6 1,462 Education of household head Missing/DK 92.3 3.8 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 26 Poorest 17.3 13.8 56.5 7.1 5.0 0.3 100.0 87.6 3,522 Second 58.9 13.6 25.7 1.3 0.3 0.2 100.0 98.2 3,623 Middle 90.4 4.1 5.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.8 3,889 Fourth 98.5 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 99.9 3,540 Wealth index quintiles Richest 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 4,445 Total 74.6 6.1 16.6 1.6 1.0 0.1 100.0 97.3 19,019 * MICS Indicator 12; MDG Indicator 31 27 Table RH.1: Use of contraception Percentage of women aged 15-49 years married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, syria 2006 Percent of women (currently married or inunion) who are using: N ot u si ng a ny m et ho d Fe m al e st er ili za tio n Pi ll IU D In je ct io ns C on do m D ia ph ra gm /fo am /je lly LA M P er io di c ab st in en ce W ith dr aw al O th er To ta l An y m od er n m et ho d A ny tr ad iti on al m et ho d An y m et ho d * N um be r o f w om en cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n Damascus 29.2 0.1 14.1 40.3 0.7 2.6 0.0 2.8 8.1 1.4 0.5 100.0 58.0 12.9 70.8 1,181 Aleppo 40.2 1.3 17.1 27.1 2.4 1.5 0.1 3.7 5.1 1.2 0.2 100.0 49.6 10.2 59.8 3,148 Rural-Dam 35.6 1.5 13.3 26.1 0.2 2.1 0.2 3.5 12.2 4.2 1.0 100.0 43.5 20.9 64.4 2,071 Homs 40.5 0.8 8.9 29.3 0.6 0.9 0.5 5.8 10.3 1.7 0.7 100.0 41.0 18.4 59.5 1,209 Hama 43.8 1.5 9.1 27.5 0.3 0.5 0.1 2.7 12.9 0.7 0.9 100.0 39.0 17.2 56.2 964 Lattakia 29.5 0.7 10.7 29.9 0.1 1.5 0.0 5.3 20.1 0.1 2.0 100.0 42.9 27.6 70.5 685 Idleb 42.8 1.5 16.0 19.5 1.1 0.6 0.4 6.0 8.9 1.5 1.7 100.0 39.1 18.1 57.2 811 Hassake 55.9 1.8 5.7 18.0 0.4 0.4 0.4 6.0 8.9 2.2 0.3 100.0 26.7 17.3 44.1 733 Deir Ezzor 62.2 0.3 15.3 13.4 0.7 0.5 0.0 5.4 1.6 0.0 0.5 100.0 30.3 7.5 37.8 614 Tartous 34.1 2.6 7.3 26.0 0.2 5.1 0.0 2.8 20.1 0.0 1.8 100.0 41.2 24.7 65.9 607 Raqqa 66.3 0.6 13.8 10.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 2.9 4.0 1.1 0.2 100.0 25.4 8.2 33.7 523 Daraa 56.9 1.0 13.0 18.5 0.7 2.0 0.0 2.4 3.6 0.4 1.0 100.0 35.6 7.4 43.1 713 Sweida 25.1 1.1 8.6 28.7 1.4 3.9 0.7 6.8 13.3 9.0 1.4 100.0 44.4 30.5 74.9 279 Governorates Quneitra 63.0 0.0 6.2 18.5 1.2 6.2 0.0 1.2 3.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 32.1 4.9 37.0 81 Urban 36.5 1.2 14.3 29.8 0.9 1.8 0.2 3.3 9.4 1.8 0.7 100.0 48.2 15.2 63.5 7,598 Urban_Rural Rural 48.2 1.2 11.0 20.6 1.0 1.3 0.2 5.0 9.0 1.5 0.8 100.0 35.4 16.4 51.8 6,019 15-19 78.4 0.0 6.0 3.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 7.3 2.9 0.2 0.0 100.0 11.2 10.4 21.6 546 20-24 59.6 0.0 11.3 13.8 0.3 0.7 0.3 6.7 5.9 1.3 0.2 100.0 26.3 14.1 40.4 1,811 25-29 43.9 0.1 14.7 23.4 0.6 1.5 0.1 6.3 7.3 1.9 0.2 100.0 40.3 15.8 56.1 2,536 30-34 35.6 0.5 15.3 30.4 0.9 2.1 0.2 4.5 9.3 0.9 0.4 100.0 49.4 15.0 64.4 2,533 35-39 30.3 1.2 15.1 34.1 1.1 1.6 0.1 3.1 10.6 2.0 0.8 100.0 53.2 16.5 69.7 2,643 40-44 31.1 2.8 11.7 32.3 1.9 1.7 0.3 1.4 12.9 2.5 1.4 100.0 50.7 18.1 68.9 2,139 Age 45-49 48.9 3.7 7.7 19.9 1.0 2.7 0.1 0.2 11.0 2.1 2.6 100.0 35.2 15.9 51.1 1,409 0 98.6 0.0 0.2 0.6 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 100.0 0.8 0.6 1.4 1,089 1 66.5 0.0 9.4 4.9 0.2 1.1 0.2 6.8 9.2 1.5 0.2 100.0 15.8 17.6 33.5 1,315 2 38.6 0.1 13.7 25.6 0.5 1.9 0.1 5.3 11.9 1.9 0.4 100.0 42.0 19.4 61.4 2,188 3 31.1 0.9 13.6 34.1 0.7 2.0 0.1 4.6 10.8 1.7 0.4 100.0 51.4 17.5 68.9 2,313 Number of living children 4+ 32.3 2.0 15.1 31.1 1.5 1.7 0.3 3.5 9.2 2.0 1.3 100.0 51.8 16.0 67.7 6,712 None 54.8 2.1 12.5 17.1 1.7 0.7 0.2 3.0 5.7 1.2 0.9 100.0 34.3 10.9 45.2 2,649 Primary 42.5 1.3 14.1 24.6 1.2 1.4 0.1 4.9 7.2 1.8 0.8 100.0 42.6 14.8 57.5 4,734 Secondary 36.5 0.7 13.0 29.3 0.5 2.1 0.3 4.0 11.0 1.9 0.7 100.0 46.0 17.5 63.5 4,850 Higher institutions 33.7 0.9 9.2 32.4 0.2 1.7 0.0 3.7 16.0 1.7 0.5 100.0 44.4 21.9 66.3 887 Mother's education University+ 29.0 0.6 9.5 35.2 0.2 3.6 0.4 2.2 16.9 1.8 0.4 100.0 49.7 21.3 71.0 497 Poorest 58.2 0.9 11.0 14.8 1.2 1.1 0.3 5.5 5.2 1.3 0.5 100.0 29.4 12.4 41.8 2,372 Second 47.2 1.2 12.4 20.1 1.0 1.6 0.2 5.0 8.6 1.7 0.9 100.0 36.6 16.3 52.8 2,674 Middle 38.8 1.0 14.3 25.6 0.8 1.6 0.1 4.5 9.7 2.3 0.9 100.0 43.6 17.6 61.2 2,858 Fourth 36.3 1.3 13.8 30.2 1.0 1.3 0.1 3.3 10.0 1.9 0.8 100.0 47.7 16.0 63.7 2,577 Wealth index quintiles Richest 31.7 1.4 12.6 35.2 0.8 2.2 0.2 2.3 11.6 1.3 0.7 100.0 52.5 15.9 68.3 3,136 Total 41.7 1.2 12.9 25.7 0.9 1.6 0.2 4.0 9.2 1.7 0.8 100.0 42.6 15.7 58.3 13,618 * MICS indicator 21; MDG indicator 19C 28 Table RH.5: Assistance during delivery Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in two years preceding the survey by type of personnel assisting at delivery, syria 2006 Person assisting at delivery M ed ic al d oc to r N ur se /m id w ife Au xi lia ry m id w ife Tr ad iti on al b irt h at te nd an t O th er N o at te nd an t To ta l An y sk ill ed p er so nn el * D el iv er ed in h ea lth fa ci lit y ** N um be r o f w om en w ho g av e bi rth in pr ec ed in g tw o ye ar s Damascus 88.3 9.2 0.4 2.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.9 92.5 240 Aleppo 41.8 47.5 1.8 7.9 0.8 0.1 100.0 91.2 53.6 734 Rural-Dam 78.3 19.9 0.2 0.8 0.3 0.5 100.0 98.4 86.3 613 Homs 67.0 27.9 1.1 2.9 0.8 0.3 100.0 96.0 69.7 373 Hama 62.8 29.7 1.7 4.1 1.4 0.3 100.0 94.3 70.3 296 Lattakia 84.6 13.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 100.0 98.0 87.2 149 Idleb 46.7 41.4 1.9 5.0 0.6 4.4 100.0 90.0 61.1 319 Hassake 49.4 26.8 4.1 16.9 1.6 1.2 100.0 80.3 58.9 243 Deir Ezzor 42.4 36.2 6.6 14.0 0.8 0.0 100.0 85.2 56.4 257 Tartous 92.6 6.7 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 93.9 163 Raqqa 57.1 26.9 1.1 12.6 0.0 2.3 100.0 85.2 62.9 175 Daraa 43.3 50.9 0.7 3.1 0.7 1.4 100.0 94.8 69.2 289 Sweida 74.7 24.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 98.7 93.3 75 Governorates Quneitra 80.6 12.9 0.0 6.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 93.5 90.3 31 Urban 66.8 29.6 1.3 1.5 0.2 0.7 100.0 97.6 75.3 1,987 Urban_Rural Rural 54.3 32.2 1.9 9.5 1.1 1.0 100.0 88.4 65.5 1,969 15-19 67.2 28.7 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.8 100.0 97.2 78.5 247 20-24 61.4 31.2 1.8 4.4 0.4 0.8 100.0 94.4 72.0 1,001 25-29 59.0 33.6 1.6 5.0 0.3 0.5 100.0 94.2 68.5 1,114 30-34 58.7 31.7 1.0 6.6 0.7 1.2 100.0 91.4 70.0 801 35-39 63.5 26.5 1.8 6.2 1.3 0.7 100.0 91.8 71.3 551 40-44 57.1 28.8 2.4 8.8 1.5 1.5 100.0 88.3 63.9 205 Age 45-49 55.3 15.8 0.0 26.3 0.0 2.6 100.0 71.1 60.5 38 None 42.4 31.7 3.3 19.4 2.1 1.1 100.0 77.3 51.9 609 Primary 54.5 37.1 1.7 5.1 0.5 1.2 100.0 93.3 66.3 1,535 Secondary 68.9 27.8 1.0 1.4 0.2 0.6 100.0 97.8 78.1 1,451 Higher institutions 79.0 19.2 0.4 0.9 0.0 0.4 100.0 98.7 85.2 229 Mother's education University+ 90.2 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 100.0 99.2 94.0 133 Poorest 42.4 32.5 2.7 18.7 1.9 1.7 100.0 77.6 55.3 815 Second 57.9 35.1 2.1 3.6 0.6 0.7 100.0 95.1 71.2 972 Middle 62.4 34.2 1.4 1.0 0.2 0.7 100.0 98.1 71.2 876 Fourth 68.6 27.2 0.9 2.6 0.2 0.6 100.0 96.7 75.2 666 Wealth index quintiles Richest 77.2 21.4 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.5 100.0 98.9 82.6 626 Total 60.6 30.9 1.6 5.5 0.6 0.9 100.0 93.0 70.4 3,957 * MICS indicator 4; MDG indicator 17 ** MICS indicator 5 29 Table ED.3: Primary school net attendance ratio Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school or secondary school (NAR), Syria 2006 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio Number of children Damascus 98.1 633 98.6 575 98.3 1,209 Aleppo 96.1 2,122 95.2 1,817 95.7 3,939 Rural-Dam 98.3 1,095 98.4 1,053 98.3 2,148 Homs 98.7 685 98.3 664 98.5 1,349 Hama 97.9 615 97.5 643 97.7 1,258 Lattakia 98.3 348 99.7 312 98.9 660 Idleb 96.9 588 97.7 533 97.3 1,121 Hassake 95.0 561 94.8 485 94.9 1,046 Deir Ezzor 91.8 526 90.6 470 91.3 996 Tartous 98.5 265 99.0 286 98.7 551 Raqqa 92.8 391 90.2 378 91.5 769 Daraa 99.1 427 98.0 445 98.5 872 Sweida 99.0 101 99.1 107 99.0 208 Governorates Quneitra 97.6 42 98.4 62 98.1 104 Urban 97.2 4,272 97.3 3,955 97.3 8,227 Urban_Rural Rural 96.4 4,126 95.7 3,875 96.1 8,001 6 98.7 1,038 98.3 923 98.5 1,961 7 93.5 1,329 94.2 1,281 93.8 2,610 8 97.1 1,541 97.3 1,405 97.2 2,946 9 98.1 1,447 97.2 1,339 97.7 2,786 10 97.4 1,653 96.5 1,565 97.0 3,218 Age 11 96.2 1,391 96.1 1,317 96.1 2,708 None 93.2 2,463 92.4 2,226 92.8 4,690 Primary 97.4 2,756 97.4 2,651 97.4 5,407 Secondary 99.1 2,553 98.9 2,335 99.0 4,888 Higher institutions 98.8 410 99.0 400 98.9 810 University+ 99.5 212 98.1 216 98.8 428 Mother's education Missing/DK 100.0 4 100.0 1 100.0 5 Poorest 93.7 1,884 92.1 1,624 92.9 3,508 Second 97.3 1,699 97.0 1,658 97.2 3,356 Middle 97.1 1,704 97.7 1,608 97.4 3,312 Fourth 98.0 1,511 97.7 1,363 97.9 2,875 Wealth index quintiles Richest 98.6 1,600 98.4 1,576 98.5 3,177 Total 96.8 8,398 96.5 7,829 96.7 16,228 * MICS indicator 55; MDG indicator 6 30 Table ED.7 : Education gender parity Ratio of girls to boys attending primary education and ratio of girls to boys attending secondary education, Syria 2006 Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school NAR* Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school NAR* Male . 96.8 . . 50.6 . Sex Female 96.5 . . 53.1 . . Damascus 98.6 98.1 1.01 67.2 54.7 1.23 Aleppo 95.2 96.1 0.99 34.7 39.6 0.88 Rural-Dam 98.4 98.3 1.00 61.8 47.1 1.31 Homs 98.3 98.7 1.00 63.5 53.6 1.19 Hama 97.5 97.9 1.00 60.2 57.8 1.04 Lattakia 99.7 98.3 1.01 78.7 73.5 1.07 Idleb 97.7 96.9 1.01 43.9 49.7 0.88 Hassake 94.8 95.0 1.00 51.8 55.8 0.93 Deir Ezzor 90.6 91.8 0.99 45.8 49.7 0.92 Tartous 99.0 98.5 1.00 77.5 65.9 1.17 Raqqa 90.2 92.8 0.97 35.0 45.9 0.76 Daraa 98.0 99.1 0.99 58.8 56.3 1.04 Sweida 99.1 99.0 1.00 84.7 70.8 1.20 Governorates Quneitra 98.4 97.6 1.01 52.9 74.3 0.71 Urban 97.3 97.2 1.00 58.7 51.0 1.15 Urban_Rural Rural 95.7 96.4 0.99 47.3 50.3 0.94 None 92.4 93.2 0.99 37.0 40.3 0.92 Primary 97.4 97.4 1.00 54.5 46.4 1.18 Secondary 98.9 99.1 1.00 75.2 66.4 1.13 Higher institutions 99.0 98.8 1.00 88.3 87.1 1.01 University+ 98.1 99.5 0.99 41.8 73.6 0.57 Mother's education Missing/DK 100.0 100.0 1.00 100.0 100.0 1.00 Poorest 92.1 93.7 0.98 31.4 39.8 0.79 Second 97.0 97.3 1.00 49.5 49.4 1.00 Middle 97.7 97.1 1.01 56.1 47.0 1.19 Fourth 97.7 98.0 1.00 58.8 51.8 1.13 Wealth index quintiles Richest 98.4 98.6 1.00 70.6 65.0 1.09 Total 96.5 96.8 1.00 53.1 50.6 1.05 * MICS Indicator 61; MDG Indicator 9 31 Table CP.1: Birth registration Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reasons for non-registration, Syria 2006 Birth is not registered because: B irt h is re gi st er ed * D on 't kn ow if b irt h is re gi st er ed N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s C os ts to o m uc h M us t t ra ve l t oo fa r D id n' t k no w c hi ld s ho ul d be re gi st er ed La te , d id n' t w an t t o pa y fin e D oe sn 't kn ow w he re to re gi st er O th er D on 't kn ow M is si ng To ta l N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith ou t b irt h re gi st ra tio n Male 95.4 0.6 5,804 8.1 14.5 2.6 2.1 1.7 41.3 29.4 0.4 100.0 235 Sex Female 95.1 0.6 5,213 7.9 7.5 1.3 3.9 0.4 50.4 28.5 0.0 100.0 228 Damascus 99.0 0.0 591 0.0 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 66.7 16.7 0.0 100.0 6 Aleppo 95.0 0.7 2,284 9.1 11.1 1.0 4.0 1.0 32.3 41.4 0.0 100.0 99 Rural-Dam 97.1 0.1 1,598 4.4 26.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 53.3 15.6 0.0 100.0 45 Homs 94.1 0.4 1,032 0.0 14.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 75.4 10.5 0.0 100.0 57 Hama 97.0 0.0 838 0.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 44.0 36.0 0.0 100.0 25 Lattakia 99.3 0.0 440 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 0.0 100.0 3 Idleb 94.3 1.0 927 0.0 0.0 2.3 9.1 0.0 52.3 34.1 2.3 100.0 44 Hassake 86.2 1.3 668 12.0 7.2 0.0 6.0 1.2 51.8 21.7 0.0 100.0 83 Deir Ezzor 94.1 2.1 626 20.8 20.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 33.3 0.0 100.0 24 Tartous 99.1 0.0 447 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 0.0 100.0 4 Raqqa 96.5 0.8 491 15.4 46.2 7.7 0.0 7.7 23.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 13 Daraa 92.2 1.0 808 16.4 1.8 1.8 1.8 3.6 30.9 43.6 0.0 100.0 55 Sweida 97.8 0.0 180 0.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 75.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 4 Governorates Quneitra 98.9 0.0 87 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1 Urban 95.8 0.6 5,486 8.1 12.7 1.0 2.5 1.0 45.2 29.4 0.0 100.0 197 Urban_Rural Rural 94.6 0.6 5,531 7.9 9.8 2.6 3.4 1.1 46.2 28.6 0.4 100.0 266 0-11 months 87.2 1.0 2,030 4.6 11.3 0.4 0.8 0.8 52.5 29.4 0.0 100.0 238 12-23 months 95.8 0.8 2,083 13.9 9.7 2.8 5.6 1.4 34.7 30.6 1.4 100.0 72 24-35 months 96.7 0.5 2,410 9.1 9.1 3.0 6.1 1.5 47.0 24.2 0.0 100.0 66 36-47 months 97.5 0.3 2,609 14.0 14.0 3.5 5.3 1.8 29.8 31.6 0.0 100.0 57 Age 48-59 months 98.1 0.3 1,885 6.7 10.0 6.7 3.3 0.0 46.7 26.7 0.0 100.0 30 None 92.1 1.2 1,947 17.1 14.0 3.9 3.9 1.5 28.7 31.0 0.0 100.0 129 Primary 94.0 0.6 4,164 5.7 6.2 1.3 4.0 0.9 50.2 31.3 0.4 100.0 227 Secondary 97.2 0.3 3,961 2.0 19.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 55.6 21.2 0.0 100.0 99 Higher institutions 99.2 0.2 608 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 4 Mother's education University+ 97.9 0.9 337 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 100.0 4 Poorest 91.6 0.9 2,342 12.1 12.1 4.0 4.6 0.6 42.0 24.7 0.0 100.0 174 Second 94.3 0.6 2,536 6.2 10.8 0.8 2.3 2.3 46.2 30.8 0.8 100.0 130 Middle 96.3 0.5 2,396 1.3 7.7 1.3 0.0 0.0 52.6 37.2 0.0 100.0 78 Fourth 96.3 0.6 1,927 11.7 15.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 48.3 20.0 0.0 100.0 60 Wealth index quintiles Richest 98.6 0.3 1,816 0.0 4.8 0.0 0.0 4.8 42.9 47.6 0.0 100.0 21 Total 95.2 0.6 11,017 8.0 11.0 1.9 3.0 1.1 45.8 28.9 0.2 100.0 463 * MICS Indicator 62 32 Table CP.5: Early marriage and polygyny Percentage of women aged 15-49 in marriage or union before their 15th birthday, percentage of women aged 20-49 in marriage or union before their 18th birthday, percentage of women aged 15-19 currently married or in union, syria 2006 Percenta ge married before age 15 * Number of women aged 15- 49 years Percentage married before age 18 * Number of women aged 20- 49 years Percentage of women 15-19 years married** Number of women aged 15- 19 years Number of women aged 15- 49 currently married Damascus 3.1 2,213 15.3 1,776 11.2 437 1,181 Aleppo 4.2 5,494 18.2 4,217 10.7 1,276 3,148 Rural-Dam 4.8 3,370 24.9 2,664 14.9 706 2,071 Homs 3.0 2,171 19.7 1,706 10.1 465 1,209 Hama 3.5 1,920 18.2 1,455 8.2 465 964 Lattakia 1.6 1,366 10.8 1,122 3.7 244 685 Idleb 3.7 1,508 20.2 1,131 9.8 377 811 Hassake 1.6 1,593 9.5 1,234 4.4 360 733 Deir Ezzor 2.5 1,219 14.0 881 7.4 338 614 Tartous 1.1 1,218 10.1 981 2.1 237 607 Raqqa 3.4 1,069 13.9 783 3.8 286 523 Daraa 5.2 1,246 26.2 912 18.0 334 713 Sweida 2.2 492 16.6 415 5.2 77 279 Governorates Quneitra 2.0 147 23.2 112 11.4 35 81 Urban 4.0 13,482 18.6 10,572 11.0 2,910 7,598 Urban_Rural Rural 2.7 11,544 16.7 8,818 8.3 2,726 6,019 15-19 1.8 5,637 . 0 9.7 5,637 546 20-24 2.5 4,944 13.3 4,944 . 0 1,811 25-29 3.6 4,088 17.2 4,088 . 0 2,536 30-34 3.9 3,250 18.8 3,250 . 0 2,533 35-39 4.7 3,070 20.0 3,070 . 0 2,643 40-44 5.6 2,430 20.9 2,430 . 0 2,139 Age 45-49 5.0 1,607 21.4 1,607 . 0 1,409 None 5.9 3,555 19.7 3,300 12.6 255 2,649 Primary 5.3 8,102 23.4 6,428 15.7 1,673 4,734 Secondary 2.1 10,177 18.3 6,728 7.3 3,448 4,850 Higher institutions 0.5 1,674 2.3 1,576 2.0 98 887 Mother's education University+ 0.0 1,519 1.3 1,357 0.0 162 497 Poorest 2.8 4,617 14.6 3,516 7.3 1,102 2,372 Second 3.1 4,909 17.9 3,771 11.5 1,138 2,674 Middle 3.9 5,186 19.7 3,952 12.6 1,234 2,858 Fourth 4.0 4,521 20.3 3,547 10.7 974 2,577 Wealth index quintiles Richest 3.4 5,791 16.3 4,604 6.3 1,188 3,136 Total 3.4 25,026 17.7 19,389 9.7 5,637 13,618 * MICS Indicator 67 ** MICS Indicator 68 *** MICS Indicator 70 33 Table HA.3: Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, syria 2006 Knows 2 ways to prevent HIV transmission Number of women Damascus 28.3 2,213 Aleppo 35.4 5,494 Rural-Dam 34.4 3,370 Homs 41.4 2,171 Hama 35.9 1,920 Lattakia 39.8 1,366 Idleb 18.0 1,508 Hassake 20.6 1,593 Deir Ezzor 8.3 1,219 Tartous 57.6 1,218 Raqqa 19.2 1,069 Daraa 27.9 1,246 Sweida 30.7 492 Governorates Quneitra 21.8 147 Urban 34.6 13,482 Urban_Rural Rural 28.9 11,544 15-19 25.6 5,637 Age 20-24 33.1 4,944 15-24 29.1 10,581 25-29 36.1 4,088 30-34 36.2 3,250 35-39 33.6 3,070 40-44 32.3 2,430 45-49 28.1 1,607 None 11.5 3,555 Primary 25.7 8,102 Secondary 38.2 10,177 Higher institutions 49.1 1,674 Mother's education University+ 52.6 1,519 Poorest 19.0 4,617 Second 27.6 4,909 Middle 31.5 5,186 Fourth 36.1 4,521 Wealth index quintiles Richest 43.2 5,791 Total 32.0 25,026 * MICS Indicator 82; MDG Indicator 19b 34

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