Engender Health- Contraceptive Sterilization: Index

Publication date: 2002

© 2002 EngenderHealth Abortion, female sterilization associated with, 142 Africa female sterilization in, family size and, 71f future sterilization prevalence projections for, 183–184f, 185–186 sterilization prevalence in, 27f, 28 Sub-Saharan female sterilization incidence in, 23 status of sterilization laws in, 90, 92f Age minimum, in sterilization laws, 93–94 of nonusers considering sterilization, 187t, 189 at sterilization, 112–113t, 114 for females, 67–69, 79–81t cohort trends in, 68–69, 70f by country, 82–85f sterilization prevalence and, 26 AIDS, as public health threat, xi Anesthesia for female sterilization complications of, 150 safe regimens for, 140, 146–147 for male sterilization, 163 Antisperm antibodies, increase in, after vasectomy, 170 Argentina, change in law in, 96 Asia female sterilization in, family size and, 71f future sterilization prevalence projections for, 185f, 186 status of sterilization laws in, 90, 92f sterilization prevalence in, 26, 29f sterilization users in, 32 female, 33 Australia, sterilization laws in, 95 Azoospermia, in evaluating vasectomy effectiveness, 166 Bangladesh compensation programs in, 5–6 female sterilization in, by age, 85f sterilization laws in, 96 sterilization prevalence in, 29 Beijing program of action, 98 Bipolar electrocoagulation, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144, 145f Bleeding, heavy, complicating vasectomy, 165t, 168–169 Brazil female sterilization in, by age, 82f sterilization laws in, 96 Cairo program of action, xi, 97–98 Canada, sterilization laws in, 95 Cancer ovarian, risk of, female sterilization and, 152 prostate, vasectomy and, 170 Cardiovascular function, male sterilization and, 169–170 Caribbean female sterilization in family size and, 71f incidence of, 22 future sterilization prevalence projections for, 182f, 184, 185 status of sterilization laws in, 90, 92f sterilization prevalence in, 28f Cautery, in male sterilization, 165 Central America future sterilization prevalence projections for, 182f sterilization prevalence in, 28f Cervical cancer screening of sterilization clients, 12, 130 Child(ren), living, number of among nonusers considering sterilization, 187t, 189 at time of female sterilization, 69, 79–81 China female sterilization efficacy study in, 148–149 sterilization incidence in, changes in, 19 sterilization laws in, 95 sterilization prevalence in, 26 sterilization users in, 32 female, 33 vasectomy effectiveness study from, 167–168 Civil law, sterilization and, 90s Clients continuity of care for, 12–14 intentions/needs of, addressing, 11 interactions with providers, 12 Clips for fallopian tube occlusion, 144, 145f for male sterilization, 165 effectiveness of, 167 Coercion, informed consent, in sterilization laws, 94 Collaborative Review of Sterilization (CREST), 148 Colombia, vasectomy clinics in, 5 Common law, sterilization and, 90s Community influences on sterilization service delivery, 8–9 Compensation programs for family planning services, 5–6 Condom promotion, 13–14 Consent guardian, in sterilization laws, 91 informed, 7–8 research needs on, 131 in sterilization laws, coercion and, 94 sterilization use and, 121–122 need for, current legal status of, 100–106t parental, in sterilization laws, 91 physician committee, in sterilization laws, 91, 93 spousal, in sterilization laws, 91 Contraception, unmet need for, 180–181 Contraceptive sterilization counseling on, 8 current legal status of, 100–106t female (See Female sterilization) future use of, 179–199 global status of, 18 incidence of, 18–24, 52–55 (See also Incidence of sterilization) developments in, xii informed consent for, 7–8 international law and, 98s laws on, 87–106 (See also Laws, sterilization) male, 161–173 (See also Male sterilization) outcomes related to, 124–127 (See also Outcomes related to sterilization) postpartum, delivery of, 3 prevalence of, 24–35, 47–51, 55–64 (See also Prevalence of sterilization) developments in, xii research on additional needs in, 130–131 gaps in, addressing, 127, 130 service delivery for challenges in, 12–14 client-provider interactions in, 12 communications in, 11–12 community influences on, 8–9 compensation programs for, 5–6 costs of, 6–7 demand factors in, 3t, 7–12 developments in, xii fees for, 5–6 gender influences on, 8–9 informed choice in, 7–8 mobile services in, 3–5 modalities in, 2–3 in post-Cairo era, 1–14 postpartum services in, 3 program policies and, 9 provider needs in, 9–10 quality, provision of, 2 sociocultural influences on, 8–9 supply factors in, 2–7 usage of factors influencing, developments in, xiii–xiv future trends in, xiv–xv use of age at sterilization and, 112–113t, 114 contraceptive knowledge/previous experience and, 116–118 culture and, 120 decision-making process and, 122–123 empowerment and, 120 ethnicity and, 114–115 factors influencing, 107–124 gender and, 120 marital status and, 111, 112–113t misconceptions/misinformation and, 118–120 number of children at time of, 111, 114 psychological factors influencing, 115–124 race and, 114–115 religion and, 111 sex of children and, 112–113t, 114 social factors influencing, 115–124 socioeconomic status and, 108–111 union status and, 111, 112–113t users of (See Users, sterilization) utilization of, developments in, xiii Index 201 From Contraceptive Sterilization: Global Issues and Trends, EngenderHealth 202 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Contraceptives knowledge and/or previous experience with, sterilization use and, 116–118 modern ever-use of, by nonusers considering sterilization, 187t, 190 prior use of, in female sterilization users, 74, 79–81t Costs of providing sterilization services, 6–7 Counseling in family planning, 8 for female sterilization, 139–140 Culture, sterilization use and, 120 Decision-making process, sterilization use and, 122–123 Delivery, term, female sterilization associated with, 142 Demographic factors, sterilization incidence related to, 19 Disincentives, sterilization use and, 121 Dominican Republic, female sterilization in, by age, 82f Ectopic pregnancy, in sterilized women, 150–151 Education male sterilization prevalence and, 32 sterilization use and, 109–110t Educational attainment of female sterilization users, 72, 79–81t of nonusers considering sterilization, 187t, 189 Egypt, female sterilization in, by age, 84f El Salvador, female sterilization in, by age, 83f Electrical methods, of fallopian tube occlusion, 144, 145f Electrocoagulation, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144, 145f Empowerment, sterilization use and, 120 Epidural anesthesia, for female sterilization, 146–147 Essure Device, for female sterilization, 155 Ethnicity, sterilization use and, 114–115 Europe Eastern status of sterilization laws in, 92f sterilization laws in, 95 status of sterilization laws in, 90 Western status of sterilization laws in, 92f sterilization prevalence in, 26f Fallopian tubes ligation of, 139–156 (See also Female sterilization) occlusion of, in female sterilization, 144–146 reaching of, for ligation, 141–143 Falope ring, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144, 145f Family planning services access to, right of, 98 broader approach to, xi challenges to, xi unmet need for, 180–181 Family size, of female sterilization users, 69–72 Fascial interposition effectiveness of, 167 in male sterilization, 165, 166f Fees for family planning services, 5–6 Female sterilization, 139–156 abdominal approaches to, 142–143 age at, 67–69, 79–81t cohort trends in, 68–69, 70f by country, 82–85f anesthesia regimens for, 140, 146–147 choice between male sterilization and, 123–124 complications of, 149–150 counseling for, 140 developments in, xiv ectopic pregnancy after, 150–151 effectiveness of, 147–149 family size, changes in, and, 69, 72 hysterectomy and, 152 incidence of, 20–21t, 22–23 by country and number of years prior to survey, 52–53t innovations for, 155–156 long-term effects of, 150–153 misconceptions about, 119 mortality related to, 152–153 nonsurgical mechanisms for, 155–156 number of living children at time of, 69, 79–81t occlusion methods electrical methods, 144, 145f ligation and excision, 144, 145f mechanical devices, 144, 145f ovarian cancer risk and, 152 pelvic inflammatory disease and, 152 postoperative care and instructions for, 147 poststerilization syndrome after, 151 prevalence of, 30–31, 33f procedures for, 141–146 regret after, 153–154 restrictions for, 140 reversal of, 154–155 safe, requirements for a, 139–141 sexually transmitted infections and, 152 surgical procedures for laparoscopy, 141t, 143 laparotomy, 141t, 143 minilaparotomy, 141t, 143 transcervical, 141t timing of, 141–142 transvaginal approaches to, 143 users of, current numbers of, 32–33 Filshie clip, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144, 145f Gender of children, sterilization use and, 112–113t, 114 influences of, on sterilization service delivery, 8–9 sterilization use and, 120 General anesthesia, for female sterilization, 146 Government policy, sterilization incidence related to, 19 Granulomas, sperm, complicating vasectomy, 169 Guardian, consent of, in sterilization laws, 91 Hematoma, complicating vasectomy, 165t, 168–169 Hulka clip, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144 Hysterectomy, female sterilization and, 152 Incentives, sterilization use and, 121–122 Incidence definition of, 17 of sterilization, 18–24 changes in, causes of, 19 female, 20–21t, 22–23 by region and number of years prior to survey, 52–53t male, 20–21t, 24 by region and number of years prior to survey, 54–55t India compensation programs in, 5 factors affecting sterilization incidence in, 19 female sterilization in, by age, 85f mobile sterilization services in, 4 sterilization laws in, 95 sterilization users in, 32 female, 33 Indonesia, sterilization laws in, 95–96 Infection(s) complicating vasectomy, 165t prevention of in female sterilization, 140 in male sterilization, 163 Influence, sources of, sterilization use and, 116 Information, sources of, sterilization use and, 116 Informed choice in family planning, 7 research needs on, 131 sterilization use and, 121–122 Informed consent, 7–8 research needs on, 131 in sterilization laws, coercion and, 94 sterilization use and, 121–122 International Conference on Population and Development, xi, 1, 13, 97–98 International human rights law and sterilization, 97 International law and policy, impact on sterilization, 96–98 Interval sterilization, postpartum sterilization versus, 75–76, 79–81t Iran, change in law, 96 Islamic law, sterilization and, 90s, 111 Japan law and sterilization, 90, 95, 96 sterilization prevalence, changes in, 28–29 Kenya, female sterilization in, by age, 84f Laparoscopy, for female sterilization, 141t, 143 complications of, 150 mortality related to, 153 Laparotomy, for female sterilization, 141t, 143 Latin America female sterilization in family size and, 71f incidence of, 22 status of sterilization laws in, 90, 92f sterilization prevalence in, 26 female, 30 Laws, sterilization, 87–106 conditions and limitations on, 91, 93–94 consent of spouse, parent, guardian in, 91, 93 current status of, 88–92 by country, 89t in developed world, 94–95 in developing world, 95–96 gender-based, 94 informed consent in, coercion and, 94 international, 96–98 minimum age requirements in, 93–94 parity requirements in, 93–94 recent changes in, 96 sources of, 90s Legal issues. See also Laws, sterilization developments in, xiii © 2002 EngenderHealth INDEX 203 Ligation, of vas deferens for male sterilization, 165 effectiveness of, 167 Local anesthesia, for female sterilization, 146 Male sterilization, 161–173 approaches to, 163–164 cardiovascular function and, 169–170 choice between female sterilization and, 123–124 complications of, 168–169 conventional, 164 developments in, xiv effectiveness of, 165–168 failure of, causes of, 168 incidence of, 20–21t, 24 by region and number of years prior to survey, 54–55t infection prevention in, 163 innovations in, 172–173 long-term effects of, 169–171 mortality from, 170–171 no-scalpel, 164 complications of, 169 occlusion techniques in, 164–165 prevalence of, 31–32, 33f regret after, 171 restrictions on, 163 reversal of, 171–172 safe, requirements for, 163 service delivery for, in male-only clinics, 5 users of, current numbers of, 35 Marital relations, impact of sterilization on, 124 Marital status and use of sterilization, 111, 112–113t, 131 Mass media, male sterilization prevalence and, 32 Mexico sterilization laws in, 96 vasectomy effectiveness study from, 167 Microlaparoscopy, for female sterilization, 156 Middle East future sterilization prevalence projections for, 184f status of sterilization laws in, 92f sterilization prevalence in, 27f Minilaparotomy, for female sterilization, 141t, 142–143 complications of, 149–150 mortality related to, 153 postpartum, 3 Misconceptions, sterilization use and, 118–120 Mobile services, delivery of, 3–5 at existing adequate health facilities, 4 at inadequate facilities, 4 through “camps,” 4 Mortality female sterilization–related, 152–153 male sterilization–related, 170–171 Mumford model of decision-making process, 122–123 Nepal compensation programs in, 5 female sterilization in, by age, 85f mobile sterilization services in, 4 vasectomy effectiveness study from, 168 Nigeria, sterilization laws in, 96 North America, sterilization prevalence in, 26f Oceania, status of sterilization laws in, 92f Outcomes related to sterilization, 124–127 impact on sexual and marital relations as, 124 regret for sterilization as, 124–126, 128–129t request for reversal as, 126–127 satisfaction with sterilization as, 124–126 Ovarian cancer risk, female sterilization and, 152 Pain syndrome, postvasectomy, 170 Pakistan compensation programs in, 5 sterilization laws in, 96 Parental consent, in sterilization laws, 91 Parity, requirements for, in sterilization laws, 93–94 Parkland technique, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144, 145f Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), female sterilization and, 152 Peru liberalization of sterilization law in, 96 mobile sterilization services in, 4–5 Philippines, future sterilization prevalence projections for, 186 PID. See Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Policy issues developments in, xiii sterilization incidence related to, 19 Policy(ies), international sources of, 97 on sterilization, 96–98 Pomeroy technique, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144, 145f Postpartum sterilization interval sterilization versus, 75–76, 79–81t popularity of, 11 service delivery for, 3 Poststerilization syndrome, 151 Postvasectomy pain syndrome, 170 Pregnancy ectopic, in sterilized women, 150–151 unintended, risk of, continuum of, 193t Prevalence definition of, 17 of female sterilization, 30–31, 33f of male sterilization, 31–32, 33f of sterilization, 24–35 factors affecting, 25–26 future, projections of, 181–186 regional variations in, 26–29 Program factors sterilization incidence related to, 19 sterilization prevalence related to, 25–26 Programme of Action, International Conference on Population and Development, xi Prostate cancer, vasectomy and, 170 Providers, needs of, in sterilization service delivery, 9–10 Provision of quality services, 2 Psychological factors influencing sterilization use, 115–124 Puerto Rico, sterilization use in, 114–115 Quality services, provision of, 2 Quinacrine, for female sterilization, 155–156 Race, sterilization use and, 114–115 Recanalization of vas deferens, 168 Regional anesthesia, for female sterilization, 146–147 Regret after sterilization, 124–126, 128–129t female, 153–154 male, 171 Reproductive choice, right to, 97–98 Research, sterilization additional needs in, 130–131 gaps in, addressing, 127, 130 Residence, urban-rural of female sterilization users, 73, 79–81t of nonusers considering sterilization, 187t, 189–190 Reversal of female sterilization, 154–155 of male sterilization, 171–172 request for, 126–127 Satisfaction with sterilization, 124–126 Semen analysis in evaluating vasectomy effectiveness, 166 Sex. See Gender Sexual relations, impact of sterilization on, 119, 124 Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) female sterilization and, 152 as public health threat, xi sterilization and, research needs on, 131 Silastic bands, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144 Silastic plugs, for female sterilization, 155 Silicone plugs, formed-in-place, for male sterilization, 173 Social factors influencing sterilization use, 115–124 Sociocultural influences on sterilization service delivery, 8–9 Socioeconomic status, sterilization use and, 108–111 South America future sterilization prevalence projections for, 182f, 184–185 sterilization prevalence in, 28f South Asia, sterilization prevalence in, 29f Southeast Asia, sterilization prevalence in, 29f Sperm granulomas complicating vasectomy, 169 Spinal anesthesia for female sterilization, 146–147 Spouse, consent of, in sterilization laws, 91 STIs. See Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Tanzania, female sterilization in, by age, 84f Term delivery, female sterilization associated with, 142 Transcervical methods of female sterilization, 155–156 Transvaginal approaches to female sterilization, 143 Tubal ligation, 139–156. See also Female sterilization Tubal reanastomosis, 154–155 United Kingdom, sterilization laws in, 95 United States female sterilization in, by age, 83f female sterilization incidence in, 22 race and sterilization use in, 114–115 Unmet need for contraception, 180–181 Urban-rural residence patterns of female sterilization users, 73, 79–81t Users of contraception, as percentage of women of reproductive age in union, 55–64t sterilization current numbers of, 32–35 female, 32–33 male, 35 © 2002 EngenderHealth 204 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS regional variations in, 32, 34f, 34t, 47–51t, 55–64t female age of, 67–69, 70f, 79–81t, 82–85f characteristics of, 65–84 educational attainment of, 72, 79–81t family size changes for, 69, 71f, 72 modern contraceptive use in, 74, 79–81t number of living children at time of, 69, 71f, 79–81t timing of, 75–76, 79–81t urban-rural residence patterns of, 73, 79–81t as percentage of women of reproductive age in union, 55–64t potential categories of, 187t, 188–191 characteristics of, 186–191 nonusers considering sterilization as, 188–190 users of temporary methods as, 190 projected female, 194–196t male, 197–199t research needs on, 130–131 urban-rural residence patterns of, 73, 79–81t Vas deferens, recanalization, spontaneous, vasectomy failure from, 168 Vasectomy, 161–173. See also Male sterilization misconceptions about, 119 Vasectomy clinics, 5 Vasoepididymostomy, 171 Vasovasostomy, 171 Vietnam compensation programs in, 5 enactment of incentives in, 96 future sterilization prevalence projections for, 186 Voluntary sterilization, developments in, xii–xv Women’s Convention, 98 Yoon ring, for fallopian tube occlusion, 144 © 2002 EngenderHealth

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