Engender Health- Contraceptive Sterilization: Chapter 8

Publication date: 2002

Chapter 8 Future Use of Sterilization Today, more than one-fourth of the world’s 6 billion people are between the ages of 10and 24, making this the largest group ever to enter adulthood (PRB, 2000). This “crit- ical cohort”—86% of whom live in developing countries—will determine the shape and size of the world’s future population through their fertility decisions during their repro- ductive years. While the total fertility rate is declining in many regions of the world, pop- ulation momentum necessitates that family planning programs adjust and expand to meet the needs of the growing population. In addition to offering comprehensive family plan- ning services, programs must consider the need to adopt a life-cycle approach, with edu- cation for young people about sexual and reproductive health and a range of temporary and permanent contraceptive methods that may be appropriate for them during different stages of their lives. No doubt, female and male sterilization will become a contraceptive choice for many of these individuals in the future. This chapter examines the changing definition of unmet need for contraception, the global demand for sterilization through a look at projections of future sterilization preva- lence, and the characteristics of potential sterilization users. Though future sterilization use in a particular country may be altered by unpredictable factors, such as a change in the legal status of sterilization, the development of new methods, or economic circum- stances affecting family planning programs, the estimates presented here should be use- ful for those who are planning and managing family planning services. 179 © 2002 EngenderHealth Highlights: • The prevalence of sterilization will rise substantially in the next 15 years in many countries, as part of a rise in overall contraceptive use, and the absolute number of users will increase as well, due both to climbing prevalence and to growing populations. • Between 2000 and 2015, sterilization prevalence is likely to grow in many countries in Latin Amer- ica and the Caribbean. Levels will remain highest in Brazil, and are likely to increase modestly in such countries as Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, and Peru. The very high levels of ster- ilization seen currently in the Dominican Republic probably will decline as temporary methods take a larger share of overall contraceptive use. • In Sub-Saharan Africa, where sterilization prevalence now is relatively low, usage is expected to rise along with contraceptive use in general. Sterilization prevalence is expected to rise substantially in Botswana, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Ghana and Nigeria, which currently have a low level of sterilization prevalence, can expect to see it rise modestly. • Sterilization prevalence in most Asian countries is projected to remain stable or decline slightly, but is likely to fall substantially in China, India, and the Republic of Korea, where prevalence currently is highest. Bangladesh and Pakistan, where sterilization prevalence is moderate, will see a more modest decline over the 15-year period. However, prevalence is expected to rise modestly in Viet- nam and more dramatically in the Philippines between 2000 and 2015, and Indonesia is expected to experience a slight rise in prevalence. From Contraceptive Sterilization: Global Issues and Trends, EngenderHealth 180 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Unmet Need for Contraception The concept of an unmet need for contraception emerged in the 1960s from the results of family planning knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys, which indicated that a considerable number of women who wanted to stop childbearing were not prac- ticing contraception. The definition of unmet need for family planning used in the De- mographic and Health Surveys (DHS) is as follows: A currently married/in union, fecund woman can be defined to have unmet need for family planning if she says she would prefer either to postpone her next preg- nancy by at least two years from the time of the survey or [to] avoid having any more children and is not using any method of family planning; or she is pregnant or amenorrheic postpartum, the current or recent pregnancy was mistimed or un- wanted, and she was not using any method of family planning at the time she conceived (Westoff & Ochoa, 1991). While this definition has been used to measure levels of unmet need worldwide, it has been criticized as a construct that is derived from large-scale surveys but that misses several key elements in addressing the issue of unmet need. Critics assert that it repre- sents a mechanistic approach to fertility regulation that excludes important categories of women from consideration (e.g., women using a less-effective method, those using a theoretically effective method incorrectly, and sexually active unmarried women, who are normally excluded from these surveys1) and is not a direct measure of women’s self- defined need for family planning services (Bongaarts & Bruce, 1995; Dixon-Mueller & Germain, 1992; Yinger, 1998). Thus, to capture the broad range of women who can be classified as having an unmet need, as well as to achieve a greater understanding of the underlying causes for this need, qualitative and quantitative research methodologies for measuring unmet need for contraception have had to become increasingly refined. A modified definition of unmet need presented by Yinger (1998) reflects the array of risks of unintended pregnancy rather than the risk from nonuse of family planning alone. Since unintended pregnancies result from method failure, incorrect use of meth- ods, use of highly ineffective methods, and nonuse of methods, a continuum of risk is proposed that includes each of these cases, in categories ranging from low risk to very high risk. Also considered in the continuum are factors such as contraceptive dissatis- faction and future intended use. As a result of the adoption of the more inclusive defin- ition of unmet need, women who are classified as having a “met” need at the time of measurement, yet who may have a subsequent unmet need (e.g., due to contraceptive discontinuation), are included in the continuum. This broader characterization of unmet need moves beyond the dichotomous measure of contraceptive use or nonuse to take into account the multiple pathways that can lead women to an unintended pregnancy (Supplement 8.1, page 193). Until recently, studies have focused exclusively on the unmet needs of women. Pol- icy formation and program development in many countries have relied on fertility and family planning data collected from women. However, as current research suggests, women and men do not necessarily have similar fertility attitudes or goals (Bankole & Singh, 1998; Becker, 1999; Klijzing, 2000; Ngom, 1997; Wolff, Blanc, & Ssekamatte- Ssebuliba, 2000). The decision to stop childbearing by using contraception often occurs as a result of a complex decision-making process, with results that may not reflect con- sensus between partners. In some countries or social groups, the male partner has greater influence on the decision, while in other areas, the female partner’s fertility preference exerts a stronger influence on the couple’s contraceptive behavior (Bankole & Singh, 1998). The decision likely varies by time and location, and depends on several factors, including cultural norms, communication, and amount of negotiation (Wolff et al., 2000). A failure to include men in family planning efforts may have serious conse- © 2002 EngenderHealth 1 The reproductive health surveys carried out by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention include an analysis of unmet need that encompasses all women (Morris, 2001). Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 181 quences for the level of unmet need for contraception in developed and developing countries alike (Cohn & Burger, 2000). The concept of men’s unmet need for contraception has been introduced through re- search in Ghana and Kenya that utilized DHS data to analyze unmet need among men and couples (Ngom, 1997). Couples’ unmet need is measured as the proportion of mar- ital pairs with at least one partner having an unmet need for contraception. Married men were found to have levels of unmet need slightly lower than those of women (Ngom, 1997). In contrast, an aggregate-level study on unmet need in Europe comparing the fer- tility preferences and contraceptive behavior of men and women in 10 countries (Klijz- ing, 2000) showed that men and women had differing levels of unmet need, with men having generally higher levels. A study that calculated unmet need among wives, hus- bands, and couples in Bangladesh, the Dominican Republic, and Zambia found a sub- stantial difference in estimates of unmet need between the three groups (Becker, 1999). Researchers from all of these studies posit that the discrepancies between the unmet need of men and women lie with disagreement or lack of communication about repro- ductive goals or contraceptive use among couples. This issue, along with several others not related to access, has not conventionally been included in the discussion of unmet need for contraception. Whereas the traditional interpretation of unmet need focused on access to contra- ceptive services and supplies as the main barrier to the use of family planning, research findings suggest that the principal reasons for nonuse are lack of knowledge, fear of side effects, and social or familial disapproval (Bongaarts & Bruce, 1995). Additional re- search concentrating on women’s perceptions of unmet need supports these findings and puts forward a multifaceted approach to understanding the causes for the gap between contraceptive need and use. Several issues that should be considered in the effort to re- fine the concept of unmet need and enhance its utility at the country level include in- formed choice, fears and rumors about contraceptive methods, sociocultural issues, and gender subordination as factors in contraceptive decision making among couples, as well as quality of care (Yinger, 1998). Many of the issues that have emerged from recent studies on unmet need for con- traception can be applied specifically to the unmet need for contraceptive sterilization to limit births. It is important to bear in mind the underlying causes of unmet need when considering the projected demand for sterilization. Countries that are able to address some of the key issues surrounding unmet need will likely experience a greater increase in demand for sterilization than will countries with policies that remain stagnant. Projections of Future Sterilization Prevalence The projections of the future prevalence of sterilization that are presented in this chap- ter derive from a method relating sterilization increases to total contraceptive use, which in turn is based on United Nations (UN) projections of fertility change. The data have been obtained from a previously published monograph (Ross, Stover, & Willard, 1999). The data presented here on the estimated future prevalence and numbers of female and male sterilization users are displayed by region. Supplement 8.2 (page 194) shows the projected prevalence for women in 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, while Supplement 8.3 (page 197) presents similar information for the male partners of women. Figure 8.1 (page 182) displays the projected trend in total sterilization prevalence (both women and men) for selected countries in each of the world’s regions, highlighting both countries with high sterilization prevalence and countries with large populations. Because recent trends for the more developed countries have been relatively stable, we did not generate projections of future sterilization prevalence for them. Sterilization prevalence in the next 15–20 years is not likely to differ dramatically from the level seen today in these countries, although the numbers of sterilization users may increase sim- ply as a factor of population growth. In many countries, the prevalence of sterilization will rise substantially in the next © 2002 EngenderHealth © 2002 EngenderHealth 182 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Cuba Dominican Republic Haiti Jamaica Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 The Caribbean Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Mexico Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Central America Panama Argentina Brazil Colombia Ecuador Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 South America Peru Figure 8.1. Projected total percentage of couples using sterilization, by year, according to region (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 183 Figure 8.1. Projected total percentage of couples using sterilization, by year, according to region (cont’d.) Kenya Malawi Tanzania Uganda Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 East Africa Cameroon Gambia Ghana Guinea Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 West Africa Mali Nigeria Angola Botswana South Africa Zimbabwe Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Southern Africa (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth 15 years, as part of a rise in overall contraceptive use. The numbers of users will rise as well, due both to increasing prevalence and to population growth. Prevalence may rise especially in countries with a changing age distribution—where the age distribution shifts in favor of the high-sterilization age-groups (centered on age 30, the mean age of sterilization in countries with high sterilization use). In countries where sterilization’s prevalence has been high for decades, use may remain level or even decline slightly, as temporary methods become more prominent. Declines are seen where sterilization prevalence is historically high in the population of reproductive age and where the old- est cohort of sterilization users will be aging out of the population of reproductive age at a higher rate than the younger age-groups adopt the method. The projected trend in sterilization prevalence between 2000 and 2015 for selected countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Figure 8.1) is that it will remain highest in Brazil, leveling off at slightly above 40%. Most other countries in the region (includ- ing Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, and Ecuador) are likely to experience a modest increase in sterilization prevalence over the 15-year period, with levels rising to ap- proximately 25–30% by 2015. Peru, like other Latin American countries with currently low reliance on sterilization, is expected to more closely resemble its neighbors in ster- 184 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Algeria Egypt Morocco Sudan Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 North Africa Tunisia Jordan Kuwait Turkey United Arab Emirates Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Middle East Figure 8.1. Projected total percentage of couples using sterilization, by year, according to region (cont’d.) (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 185 China Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Philippines Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 East and Southeast Asia Thailand Vietnam Bangladesh India Nepal Indonesia Pakistan Pe rc e n t Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 South Central Asia Sri Lanka ilization prevalence by 2015 (with an increase from roughly 10% to 25%). The very high levels of sterilization in the Dominican Republic (more than 40% in 2000) reflect past prosterilization policies and a high demand for the method (Portes, 1983; Potter, 1986), but sterilization prevalence there is expected to decline as temporary methods take a larger share, so that levels of sterilization eventually resemble those seen in some neigh- boring countries. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of sterilization, particularly of male steriliza- tion, is relatively low. However, sterilization usage is expected to rise along with contra- ceptive use in general. As shown in Figure 8.1, in 2000 the three countries in the region with the highest sterilization prevalence were South Africa (almost 15%) and Botswana and Kenya (roughly 7% each). Prevalence in these countries is expected to rise to between 13% and 20% by 2015, with the use level expected to be particularly high in Botswana. Sterilization prevalence is expected to rise dramatically in Zimbabwe over the same pe- riod, from approximately 5% to 25%, a change driven partly by its rapid population growth. Tanzania will likely experience a more moderate rise in sterilization prevalence (of about six percentage points). Ghana and Nigeria currently have a low level of steril- ization prevalence but are expected to see it rise modestly, to 8% and 12%, respectively. Figure 8.1. Projected total percentage of couples using sterilization, by year, according to region (cont’d.) 186 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS In North Africa and the Middle East, sterilization prevalence has historically been low everywhere but in Tunisia and is not expected to rise dramatically in the next 20 years. The projected trend for most countries in the regions, shown in Figure 8.1, is a modest increase in prevalence over the 15-year period, to a median level of roughly 5% in 2015. Tunisia is an exception to this projected trend: Under the projection methodol- ogy, its sterilization prevalence declines as total contraceptive prevalence rises and the use of other methods increases, especially among younger women. In the former Soviet republics, including the Caucasus, the Central Asian republics, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine, the prevalence of sterilization is projected to converge to roughly 25–30% in 2015 (data not shown), although current prevalence is low, at less than 5% (see Chapter 2). Under the projection methodology, the Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, as well as Moldova and Russia, may see a marked rise in sterilization prevalence if there is a change in public interest in the method and if access to services is expanded. Under the projection methodology, the rise in ster- ilization prevalence follows the course taken by total contraceptive prevalence. The lower the initial contraceptive prevalence estimate, the more marked a rise in steriliza- tion prevalence is expected. In Asia, where sterilization has for decades been the most commonly used contra- ceptive method, sterilization prevalence for most countries is expected to remain level or to decline slightly. Sterilization accounted for roughly 40% of modern method use in 2000 (Ross et al., 1999). Prevalence was highest in China, India, and the Republic of Korea in 2000 and is expected to decline substantially by 2015, to an estimated 25%, in the end matching the level expected in both Koreas and Sri Lanka (Figure 8.1).2 Coun- tries such as Bangladesh and Pakistan, where sterilization prevalence is moderate, will see a more modest decline over the 15-year period. Vietnam and the Philippines represent countries that are exceptions to the trend of decreasing prevalence seen in the region: Between 2000 and 2015, prevalence is ex- pected to rise modestly in Vietnam, from roughly 7% to 14%, and more dramatically in the Philippines, from slightly more than 10% to 25%. Indonesia is expected to experi- ence a slight rise in prevalence (of about one percentage point). In these cases, the in- creases are driven, under the projection methodology, by lower initial estimates of ster- ilization prevalence. In general, sterilization prevalence in Asia is projected to converge to between 15% and 30% overall. Even where prevalence may decline, however, the ab- solute numbers of sterilization users will nevertheless increase, due to projected popu- lation growth (see Supplements 8.2 and 8.3). Characteristics of Potential Sterilization Users Examining characteristics in order to monitor trends in sterilization use is essential for adapting sterilization and family planning programs to the changing needs of users. Chapter 3 examines selected characteristics of current sterilization users, such as age at sterilization (including trends over time), level of education, residence, and previous use of modern contraceptive methods. In this section, we examine selected characteristics of women who are currently in union, are fecund, and want no more children who may adopt sterilization in the future. Knowledge of the profiles of potential sterilization users can be used to estimate future sterilization demand, as well as to improve the quality of sterilization education and services. The data in Table 8.1 are derived from nationally representative population-based surveys conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of women of reproductive age. Three © 2002 EngenderHealth 2 China and the Republic of Korea show marked declines in prevalence for two reasons: First, under the projection methodology, the proportion of the total contraceptive prevalence taken up by sterilization is less at the highest levels of prevalence; additionally, prevalence is estimated using UN projections of the total fertility rate, which in China and the Republic of Korea are expected to reverse direction in the future (Ross, 2000). © 2002 EngenderHealth T ab le 8 .1 . P er ce nt ag e d is tr ib ut io n o f fe cu nd w o m en a g ed 1 5 – 49 c ur re nt ly in u ni o n an d w an ti ng n o m o re c hi ld re n, b y se le ct ed c ha ra ct er is ti cs , ac co rd in g t o p o te nt ia l s te ri liz at io n us e an d c o un tr y A g e N o . o f liv in g c hi ld re n Le ve l o f ed uc at io n R es id en ce M o d er n m et ho d u se C o un tr y/ ye ar /s o ur ce � 30 � 30 0– 2 3– 4 � 5 � p ri m ar y � se co nd ar y U rb an R ur al E ve r us ed N ev er u se d N o nu se rs c o ns id er in g s te ri liz at io n E gy p t, 1 99 5 –1 99 6 (D H S ) 24 .5 75 .5 26 .4 34 .5 39 .0 77 .4 22 .6 44 .6 55 .4 76 .5 23 .5 G ha na , 19 93 –1 99 4 (D H S ) 15 .6 84 .4 3. 1 31 .3 65 .6 96 .9 3. 1 31 .3 68 .8 12 .5 87 .5 In d on es ia , 19 97 (D H S ) 25 .2 74 .8 20 .3 57 .0 22 .7 59 .5 40 .5 41 .2 58 .8 66 .1 33 .9 K en ya , 19 98 (D H S ) 25 .8 74 .2 8. 0 27 .7 64 .4 79 .0 21 .0 10 .2 89 .8 35 .1 64 .9 M ol d ov a, 1 99 7 (C D C )* 50 .0 50 .0 58 .3 41 .7 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 33 .3 66 .7 75 .0 25 .0 M or oc co , 19 92 (D H S ) 7. 3 92 .7 4. 4 20 .4 75 .2 95 .6 4. 4 37 .2 62 .8 78 .8 21 .2 P er u, 1 99 6 (D H S ) 33 .6 66 .4 31 .1 38 .1 30 .8 51 .0 49 .0 60 .0 40 .0 28 .4 71 .6 P hi lip p in es , 19 98 (D H S ) 44 .8 55 .2 37 .4 34 .6 28 .0 31 .1 68 .9 53 .8 46 .2 58 .2 41 .8 Ta nz an ia , 19 96 (D H S ) 10 .0 90 .0 1. 8 11 .3 86 .9 98 .6 1. 4 15 .2 84 .8 15 .0 85 .0 Z im b ab w e, 1 99 4 (D H S ) 3. 5 96 .5 4. 6 25 .4 70 .0 84 .4 15 .2 33 .3 66 .7 83 .9 16 .1 U se rs o f te m p o ra ry m et ho d s E gy p t, 1 99 5 –1 99 6 (D H S ) 21 .9 78 .1 18 .6 50 .1 31 .3 67 .1 32 .9 54 .3 45 .7 67 .2 32 .8 G ha na , 19 93 –1 99 4 (D H S ) 16 .0 84 .0 11 .0 44 .8 44 .1 79 .7 20 .3 50 .5 49 .5 38 .8 61 .2 In d on es ia , 19 97 (D H S ) 17 .5 82 .5 35 .8 45 .4 18 .8 73 .8 26 .2 29 .8 70 .2 59 .2 40 .8 K en ya , 19 98 (D H S ) 28 .5 71 .5 19 .7 40 .0 40 .2 60 .6 39 .4 25 .3 74 .7 56 .1 43 .9 M ol d ov a, 1 99 7 (C D C )* 19 .2 80 .8 73 .1 25 .0 2. 0 0. 1 99 .9 49 .2 50 .8 82 .3 17 .7 M or oc co , 19 92 (D H S ) 14 .4 85 .6 11 .3 34 .7 54 .0 86 .3 13 .7 57 .2 42 .8 90 .7 9. 3 P er u, 1 99 6 (D H S ) 30 .7 69 .3 35 .9 41 .3 22 .7 46 .3 53 .7 70 .8 29 .2 38 .4 61 .6 P hi lip p in es , 19 98 (D H S ) 24 .7 75 .3 24 .5 45 .6 29 .9 34 .3 65 .7 50 .5 49 .5 51 .6 48 .4 Ta nz an ia , 19 96 (D H S ) 27 .1 72 .9 16 .6 30 .8 52 .6 92 .4 7. 6 38 .3 61 .7 57 .1 42 .9 Z im b ab w e, 1 99 4 (D H S ) 22 .8 77 .2 14 .3 29 .5 56 .2 71 .9 28 .1 37 .2 62 .8 90 .6 9. 4 O th er n o nu se rs E gy p t, 1 99 5 –1 99 6 (D H S ) 29 .0 71 .0 26 .5 34 .6 38 .9 79 .9 20 .1 38 .7 61 .3 45 .7 54 .3 G ha na , 19 93 –1 99 4 (D H S ) 19 .1 80 .9 13 .8 33 .9 52 .3 95 .7 4. 3 28 .4 71 .6 19 .3 80 .7 In d on es ia , 19 97 (D H S ) 12 .5 87 .5 29 .5 37 .7 32 .8 82 .2 17 .8 27 .0 73 .0 39 .3 60 .7 K en ya , 19 98 (D H S ) 31 .9 68 .1 17 .6 29 .8 52 .6 82 .3 17 .7 15 .5 84 .5 22 .7 77 .3 M ol d ov a, 1 99 7 (C D C )* 25 .6 74 .4 74 .4 22 .6 3. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 41 .0 59 .1 51 .0 49 .0 M or oc co , 19 92 (D H S ) 20 .7 79 .3 14 .9 28 .2 56 .9 95 .4 4. 6 34 .9 65 .1 49 .3 50 .7 P er u, 1 99 6 (D H S ) 36 .9 63 .1 36 .5 30 .2 33 .3 65 .8 34 .2 49 .8 50 .2 19 .2 80 .8 P hi lip p in es , 19 98 (D H S ) 23 .1 76 .9 27 .1 35 .3 37 .7 48 .3 51 .7 42 .6 57 .4 29 .7 70 .3 Ta nz an ia , 19 96 (D H S ) 23 .0 77 .0 13 .6 26 .5 59 .9 98 .2 1. 8 16 .6 83 .4 12 .5 87 .5 Z im b ab w e, 1 99 4 (D H S ) 16 .8 83 .2 14 .5 25 .3 60 .2 83 .4 16 .6 22 .8 77 .2 52 .9 47 .1 *D at a re fe r to a ge s 15 –4 4. Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 187 188 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS categories of potential sterilization users—falling on a crude continuum from most- likely to least-likely candidates—can be identified from the survey data (Rutenberg & Landry, 1993). The first category consists of women who are in union, are fecund, and want no more children, but who are not currently using a contraceptive method. These women intend to use a contraceptive method in the future, and have stated that sterilization is their preferred method. These women have the greatest potential to adopt sterilization in the near future. The second category is composed of women who are in union, are fecund, want no more children, and are using either a temporary modern method or a traditional method. The women were not asked about future use of any other method, as they are obviously motivated to control their fertility by using some type of method. Many of these women may switch to sterilization to replace a temporary contraceptive method, or to improve upon a method that they have found to be ineffective. The third category consists of women who are in union, are fecund, and want no more children, but who are not currently using a contraceptive method and do not intend to use sterilization. The women state that they either intend to use a method other than sterilization or that they do not intend to use any contraceptive method. Although the women in this group are less likely to choose sterilization than those in the other two groups, a great deal can be learned from these women, whose behavior seems contrary to their own expressed interests. To illustrate the changing profiles of users in countries with increasing sterilization use, we focus the discussion and analysis of data on the characteristics of potential users in 10 selected countries whose sterilization prevalence is projected to increase between 2000 and 2015—Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Moldova, Morocco, Peru, the Philip- pines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.3 The social and demographic characteristics examined in this section parallel those studied in Chapter 3. Data on the age and number of living children of potential users are useful for projecting the demand for sterilization, as well as for estimating demo- graphic impact (Rutenberg & Landry, 1993). Identifying potential users’ level of com- pleted schooling is important for designing appropriate educational materials for the in- tended audience. For example, if literacy is low among potential users, educational materials and strategies to convey sterilization information to a low-literacy audience can be utilized. Information on the residence of potential users is an indicator of where to establish service-delivery points or where to focus outreach efforts and referral sys- tems to increase access. Data on previous use of modern contraceptives is helpful in de- termining the scope of education and service provision needed to promote the use of temporary methods prior to permanent contraception. To ascertain whether social and demographic characteristics vary between women with differing propensities to use a permanent method, we examine the characteristics of potential sterilization users in each of the three categories and compare the three groups. The specific characteristics studied include current age (younger than 30 or 30 and older), the number of living children (0–2, 3–4, or five or more), residence (urban or rural), educational level (primary and less or secondary and higher), and previous use of a modern method (ever or never). Nonusers considering sterilization As stated earlier, we considered women to be potential sterilization users if they were in union, were fecund, wanted no more children, and were not currently using a contra- ceptive method, but if they were considering sterilization as their preferred contracep- tive method. © 2002 EngenderHealth 3 Countries with a projected decrease or a plateau in sterilization prevalence are not included in this discussion. Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 189 Age In each country, at least half of women considering sterilization were 30 or older (Table 8.1). Since the median age at sterilization is greater than 30 in all but two of these countries (Moldova, at 27.9, and the Philippines, at 29.6), it is not surprising that the age of potential users approximates that of the median age at sterilization. When we compared current data with those from an earlier study (Rutenberg & Landry, 1993), the proportion of potential users older than 30 increased in countries with a projected rise in sterilization prevalence. This may be due to an increase in contraceptive method choice in these countries, which al- lows more women to use temporary methods prior to choosing a permanent method. Number of living children The number of living children among nonusers considering sterilization varied greatly among countries and regions (Table 8.1). In five countries (Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe), more than half of these women had five or more children, while in the remaining five (Egypt, Indonesia, Moldova, Peru, and the Philippines), the majority had four or fewer children. These differences generally reflect differences be- tween the two groups of countries in past fertility levels. In some countries, the proportion of women with higher numbers of children is greater among those who are considering sterilization than among those who have al- ready been sterilized. This differential was notable in Ghana, Moldova, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. For example, in Zimbabwe, 70% of women who wanted no more children and were considering sterilization had five or more children, compared with 58% of cur- rent sterilization users (not shown). The opposite pattern can be seen in countries such as Egypt, Indonesia, Peru, and the Philippines, where women who are considering sterilization have fewer children than do those who have already been sterilized. In Egypt, 26% of potential users have 0–2 children, compared with only 4% of current sterilization users. In the Philippines, 37% of potential users have 0–2 children, compared with 13% of current users. While part of the difference in the number of living children between current sterilization users and potential users can be attributed to a general decline in desired family size, some of the difference may be because the number of living children at the time of the survey is an underestimation of the completed fertility of women who may be sterilized in the fu- ture (Rutenberg & Landry, 1993). Educational level Knowledge of the educational level of potential sterilization users is important in de- signing information and education messages for the appropriate audience. In several countries (including Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe), more than 75% of women who wanted no more children and who were considering steriliza- tion had a primary school education or less (Table 8.1). Many of these women were older than 30 at the time of the survey and lived in rural areas. In comparing current users and potential users, educational levels were lower among potential users in Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe than among current users (Supplement 3.1 and Table 8.1). In Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Moldova, Morocco, and the Philippines, educational levels within the two groups were approximately equivalent. Residence When sterilization services are initially introduced, they are generally concentrated in urban areas, where the necessary medical facilities and personnel are often located (Rutenberg & Landry, 1993). As sterilization techniques become simpler and outreach broadens, services are often extended to rural populations. With the exception of Peru and the Philippines, more than half of potential users in each of the selected countries lived in rural areas (Table 8.1). © 2002 EngenderHealth 190 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS In countries where rural residence is substantially higher among potential users than among current users, the need for improved access to sterilization in rural areas is great. In Morocco, for example, 63% of women considering sterilization live in rural areas, compared with 37% of current sterilization users. Similar patterns are seen in Egypt, Moldova, and Peru. In countries such as Kenya, sterilization services appear to be rela- tively accessible to rural populations, since a large proportion of both current and po- tential users of sterilization live in rural areas. Ever-use of modern contraceptives Ever-use of modern contraceptives among potential sterilization users varies widely across countries, as seen in Table 8.1. More than 75% of women considering steriliza- tion in Egypt, Moldova, Morocco, and Zimbabwe have used modern contraceptive methods, while fewer than 30% of potential sterilization users in Ghana, Peru, and Tan- zania have ever done so. There is a notable differential in ever-use of modern methods (other than steriliza- tion) between potential users and current users of sterilization in several of the countries. In Egypt, Indonesia, Moldova, Morocco, the Philippines, and Zimbabwe, the proportion of women who have ever used modern contraceptives is approximately 20% greater among those considering sterilization than among those currently sterilized. For exam- ple, 77% of potential users in Egypt have ever used modern methods, compared with 51% of current sterilization users. However, in Ghana, Kenya, Peru, and Tanzania, the proportion of women who have used modern contraceptives is lower among those con- sidering sterilization than among those currently sterilized. In Ghana and Tanzania, for instance, 13% and 15%, respectively, of potential users have ever used modern meth- ods, compared with 22% and 37% of current users. In Peru, this differential was slightly smaller, with 28% of potential users and 42% of current users having ever used modern contraceptive methods. Users of temporary methods Women who are in union, are fecund, want no more children, and are using either a tem- porary modern method or a traditional method may also be potential sterilization users. For most countries, data are not available on these women’s intentions to use a perma- nent method in the future.4 It is likely that some of these women will switch to steril- ization to replace their temporary method after they have reached their desired family size, while others may have already reached their desired family size but are using a less- effective method. As shown in Table 8.1, on average, users of temporary methods are slightly older and have fewer children than nonusers who are considering sterilization. In each of the selected countries except Peru, more than 70% of users of temporary contraceptive methods are older than 30. Users of temporary contraceptive methods also appear to be more urban than are nonusers considering sterilization. Levels of previous modern contraceptive use are higher among temporary users. This suggests that urban residence may allow people to gain more information about and greater access to a range of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, women currently using a temporary contraceptive method have a higher level of educational attainment than do nonusers considering sterilization. This may be related to urban residence, and may further explain the women’s greater experi- ence with modern contraceptives. © 2002 EngenderHealth 4 The exception is countries where the CDC has conducted reproductive health surveys. In these countries, all women, regardless of their contraceptive status, were asked about their intention to use other methods (including sterilization) in the future. Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 191 Other nonusers The final category in our examination of potential users consists of women who are in union, are fecund, want no more children, are not currently using a contraceptive method, and do not intend to use sterilization. These women either are considering a method other than sterilization or are not considering any method. If they are sexually active and do not use a contraceptive method, it is likely that many who do not want more children will experience an unintended pregnancy. There is no consistent trend in age within this category. In seven of the 10 countries, more than 20% of women are younger than 30 (Table 8.1) and presumably have several years of fertility ahead. In Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, women in this category have fewer living children than nonusers considering sterilization. In In- donesia, Peru, and the Philippines, the opposite pattern is found, with greater numbers of living children among women in this category. Finally, women not using a method and not considering sterilization are more likely to live in rural areas, have the lowest levels of education, and have the least amount of previous modern contraceptive use. References Bankole, A., and Singh, S. 1998. Couples’ fertility and contraceptive decision-making in devel- oping countries: Hearing the man’s voice. International Family Planning Perspectives 24(1):15–24. Becker, S. 1999. Measuring unmet need: Wives, husbands or couples? International Family Plan- ning Perspectives 25(4):172–180. Bongaarts, J., and Bruce, J. 1995. The causes of unmet need for contraception and the social con- tent of services. Studies in Family Planning 26(2):57–75. Cohn, S. I., and Burger, M. 2000. Partnering: A new approach to sexual and reproductive health. Technical Paper No. 3. New York: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Dixon-Mueller, R., and Germain, A. 1992. Stalking the elusive “unmet need” for family planning. Studies in Family Planning 23(5):330–335. Klijzing, E. 2000. Are there unmet family planning needs in Europe? Family Planning Perspec- tives 32(2):74–81. Morris, L. 2001. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Personal communication. Ngom, P. 1997. Men’s unmet need for family planning: Implications for African fertility transi- tions. Studies in Family Planning 28(3):192–202. Population Reference Bureau (PRB). 2000. Largest group ever now entering adulthood. Popula- tion Today 28(6). Portes, C. 1983. National family planning program of the Dominican Republic. Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Voluntary Sterilization, December 5–8, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Potter, J. E. 1986. Fertility decline in the Dominican Republic: Past determinants and future prospects. Report No. 86-75-020. Washington, DC: International Science and Technology Institute, Population and Technical Assistance Project. Ross, J., Stover, J., and Willard, A. 1999. Profiles for family planning and reproductive health programs: 116 countries. Glastonbury, CT: The Futures Group International. Ross, J., 2000. Futures Group International. Personal communication. Rutenberg, N., and Landry, E. 1993. A comparison of sterilization use and demand from the De- mographic and Health Surveys. International Family Planning Perspectives 19(1):4–13. United Nations Population Division (UNPD). 1996. Levels and trends in contraceptive use as as- sessed in 1994. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs. UNPD. 1999. Levels and trends in contraceptive use as assessed in 1998. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Westoff, C. F., and Ochoa, L. H. 1991. Unmet need and demand for family planning. Demo- graphic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies No. 5. Columbia, MD: Institute for Re- source Development/Macro International. Wolff, B., Blanc, A., and Ssekamatte-Ssebuliba, J. 2000. The role of couple negotiation in unmet need for contraception and the decision to stop childbearing in Uganda. Studies in Family Planning 31(2):124–137. Yinger, N. V. 1998. Unmet need for family planning: Reflecting women’s perceptions. Washing- ton, DC: International Center for Research on Women. © 2002 EngenderHealth 192 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Surveys Egypt National Population Council and Macro International. 1996. Egypt Demographic and Health Sur- vey 1995. Calverton, MD. Ghana Statistical Service and Macro International. 1994. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 1993. Calverton, MD. Kenya Central Bureau of Statistics, National Council for Population and Development, and Macro Inter- national. 1998. Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 1998—Preliminary report. Calver- ton, MD. Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, and Macro Interna- tional. 1998. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1997. Calverton, MD. Moldova Moldovan Ministry of Health and CDC. 1998. Reproductive Health Survey Moldova, 1997— Final report. Atlanta. Morocco Ministère de la Santé Publique and Macro International. 1993. Maroc Enquête Nationale sur la Population et la Santé 1992. Calverton, MD. Peru Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática and Macro International. 1997. Peru Encuesta De- mografica y de Salud Familiar 1996—Informe principal. Calverton, MD. Philippines National Statistics Office and Macro International. 1998. Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey 1998—Preliminary report. Calverton, MD. Tanzania Planning Commission, Bureau of Statistics, and Macro International. 1997. Tanzania Demo- graphic and Health Survey 1996. Calverton, MD. Zimbabwe Central Statistical Office and Macro International. 1995. Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey 1994. Calverton, MD. © 2002 EngenderHealth © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 193 S up p le m en t 8. 1. C o nt in uu m o f ri sk o f un in te nd ed p re g na nc y, b y le ve l o f ri sk , a cc o rd in g t o in d iv id ua ls ’ c ha ra ct er is ti cs a nd n ee d s as so ci at ed w it h ea ch le ve l o f ri sk Lo w r is k M o d er at e ri sk H ig h ri sk V er y hi g h ri sk C ha ra ct er is ti cs o f in d iv id ua ls in ea ch r is k ca te g o ry • U se rs o f p er m an en t m et ho d s • U se rs o f m od er n te m p or ar y m et ho d s— co rr ec t us e • U se rs o f tr ad iti on al m et ho d s— co rr ec t us e • U se rs o r p ar tn er s w ho a re d is sa tis fie d w ith c ur re nt m et ho d • U se rs o r p ar tn er s w ho a re u si ng m od er n or t ra d iti on al m et ho d s in co rr ec tly • U se rs o r p ar tn er s w ho a re u si ng hi gh ly in ef fe ct iv e m et ho d s • W om en w ho h av e ne ve r us ed a m et ho d a nd w ho d o no t kn ow if th ey w ill u se o ne in t he f ut ur e • W om en w ho h av e ne ve r us ed a m et ho d a nd w ho s ta te t ha t th ey d o no t in te nd t o us e on e in t he fu tu re • W om en w ho a re c ur re nt ly n ot us in g a m et ho d b ut w ho h av e us ed o ne in t he p as t an d w ho st at e th at t he y in te nd t o us e on e in th e fu tu re • W om en w ho a re n ot u si ng a m et ho d b ut w ho h av e us ed o ne in th e p as t an d w ho d o no t kn ow if th ey w ill u se o ne in t he f ut ur e • W om en w ho h av e ne ve r us ed a m et ho d b ut w ho s ta te t ha t th ey in te nd t o us e on e in t he f ut ur e N ee d s o f ea ch ri sk c at eg o ry • C on tin ui ng re p ro d uc tiv e he al th se rv ic es • C on tin ui ng r ep ro d uc tiv e he al th s er vi ce s, in cl ud in g re su p p ly o f co nt ra ce p tiv es , in fo rm at io n, a nd su p p or t • H ig he r q ua lit y re p ro d uc tiv e he al th se rv ic es (e sp ec ia lly b et te r co un se lin g an d m an ag em en t of si d e ef fe ct s) • R es ea rc h in to t he c au se s of d is sa tis fa ct io n an d m et ho d c ho ic e b ey on d s er vi ce -d el iv er y fa ct or s • R es ea rc h in to t he c au se s of n on us e an d p ro gr am s to a d d re ss t ho se c au se s (w hi ch of te n ar e no t re la te d t o se rv ic e d el iv er y) • B et te r p os tp ar tu m p ro gr am s • In fo rm at io n, e d uc at io n, c om m un ic at io n, an d c ou ns el in g S ou rc e: A d ap te d f ro m Y in ge r, 1 99 8. © 2002 EngenderHealth Supplement 8.2. Projected percentage and number of women using sterilization in selected developing countries, by region, according to year 2000 2005 2010 2015 Country % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) Asia 159,890 161,411 156,049 141,707 Afghanistan 1.0 41 1.6 84 2.1 127 2.7 183 Bangladesh 7.8 2,137 6.9 2,141 6.0 1,982 4.9 1,747 Bhutan 0.3 1 1.2 4 2.3 9 3.6 17 Cambodia 2.2 178 4.5 243 7.1 318 10.3 405 China, People’s Republic of 31.2 77,974 28.8 74,536 26.4 69,709 24.2 62,620 China, Republic of (Taiwan) 24.2 743 24.5 920 24.8 1,100 25.1 1,256 Hong Kong 23.2 259 24.4 274 25.6 271 26.8 261 India 34.0 63,870 31.5 66,537 27.6 64,429 22.3 56,114 Indonesia 3.6 1,397 4.4 1,825 4.9 2,166 5.4 2,442 Iran 10.7 1,375 9.0 1,326 7.1 1,168 5.2 896 Korea, Democratic People’s 23.4 1,001 23.8 1,065 24.0 1,110 24.2 1,144 Republic of Korea, Republic of 27.2 2,248 26.3 2,180 25.4 2,034 24.5 1,877 Laos 5.6 44 7.7 70 9.8 104 11.9 145 Malaysia 9.0 307 7.9 299 6.6 274 5.1 227 Mongolia 20.6 96 21.9 118 22.5 131 22.8 138 Myanmar 7.9 857 13.2 1,279 16.7 1,538 18.5 1,681 Nepal 13.7 621 13.8 722 14.1 839 14.6 970 Pakistan 6.4 1,603 5.4 1,569 4.5 1,507 3.6 1,372 Papua New Guinea 10.0 74 12.1 102 14.3 136 16.7 177 Philippines 11.2 1,303 14.7 1,988 18.3 2,716 21.5 3,477 Singapore 19.2 111 20.6 117 22.2 122 24.2 126 Sri Lanka 24.8 771 24.7 801 24.1 794 23.5 780 Thailand 18.4 1,983 17.6 1,984 16.7 1,891 15.8 1,764 Vietnam 6.6 896 8.1 1,227 9.7 1,574 11.2 1,888 Latin America and the Caribbean 25,413 27,512 29,203 30,424 Argentina 20.0 1,160 21.0 1,294 21.8 1,423 22.5 1,547 Bolivia 5.9 74 10.4 161 14.9 260 19.2 377 Brazil 39.4 12,893 38.9 13,578 38.7 14,043 38.7 14,299 Chile 20.9 471 21.4 511 21.9 541 22.3 564 Colombia 25.7 1,951 24.9 2,049 24.1 2,126 23.2 2,154 Costa Rica 20.0 150 21.5 179 22.9 206 24.4 231 Cuba 22.8 430 23.7 451 24.5 466 25.4 451 Dominican Republic 40.9 640 35.0 597 28.6 519 22.1 415 Ecuador 21.0 438 21.6 500 21.9 553 22.0 595 El Salvador 33.6 416 29.8 408 25.5 384 20.9 343 Guatemala 16.4 303 16.3 352 16.1 406 15.6 458 Guyana 22.0 37 22.6 40 22.7 41 22.8 41 Haiti 4.5 63 6.7 106 8.9 155 11.0 210 Honduras 19.5 207 20.4 254 20.8 300 20.9 340 Jamaica 14.0 72 17.0 93 20.1 114 23.1 134 Mexico 22.9 4,013 23.0 4,386 22.8 4,643 22.4 4,788 (cont’d.) 194 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS © 2002 EngenderHealth Supplement 8.2. Projected percentage and number of women using sterilization in selected developing countries, by region, according to year (cont’d.) 2000 2005 2010 2015 Country % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 195 Latin America and the Caribbean (cont’d.) Nicaragua 26.8 238 27.7 284 27.9 333 27.5 376 Panama 36.5 191 32.2 183 27.6 167 22.8 143 Paraguay 7.8 70 11.5 119 15.3 178 19.0 247 Peru 10.6 454 14.8 700 18.8 966 22.7 1,235 Puerto Rico 43.5 277 37.1 240 30.2 198 23.7 157 Trinidad and Tobago 12.9 35 17.3 49 21.4 61 25.5 71 Uruguay 21.2 102 21.7 109 22.2 114 22.6 120 Venezuela 18.1 728 19.4 869 20.6 1,006 21.7 1,128 Middle East and North Africa 1,557 2,145 2,745 3,355 Algeria 1.5 70 2.7 144 3.9 232 5.1 327 Egypt 1.5 147 2.0 232 2.3 320 2.6 395 Iraq 2.5 82 2.9 114 3.3 151 3.8 195 Jordan 4.4 39 4.6 48 4.8 57 4.8 67 Kuwait 3.2 10 3.9 14 4.6 18 5.0 21 Lebanon 4.7 28 5.0 32 5.1 34 5.1 36 Libya 14.1 127 16.9 177 19.7 230 22.0 288 Morocco 3.6 150 4.3 197 4.8 230 5.0 255 Oman 7.0 24 5.8 25 4.6 24 3.3 20 Saudi Arabia 2.0 57 2.5 87 3.0 125 3.6 174 Sudan 1.7 83 2.1 112 2.5 149 2.9 195 Syria 2.7 68 3.3 103 4.0 142 4.7 185 Tunisia 14.9 217 11.9 190 8.6 144 5.1 89 Turkey 3.3 413 4.3 577 5.2 737 6.0 886 United Arab Emirates 4.1 15 4.4 18 4.8 21 5.0 24 Yemen 1.1 27 2.5 75 3.6 131 4.5 198 Sub-Saharan Africa 3,147 6,553 11,000 16,765 Angola 2.4 44 4.3 91 6.1 155 8.0 237 Benin 1.0 15 3.6 62 6.3 124 9.1 204 Botswana 6.9 14 10.8 24 14.7 36 18.5 51 Burkina Faso 0.7 19 1.3 41 1.9 71 2.6 111 Burundi 0.7 8 3.1 43 5.7 90 8.3 150 Cameroon 2.0 87 4.2 210 6.5 372 9.0 586 Central African Republic 1.0 8 3.4 32 5.9 61 8.6 100 Chad 0.3 5 0.7 13 1.3 26 1.9 46 Congo 4.4 17 6.2 27 8.0 42 9.8 60 Côte d’Ivoire 1.0 35 4.8 189 8.7 390 12.9 657 Eritrea 1.3 9 4.6 36 8.0 72 11.5 120 Ethiopia 0.7 91 1.8 252 3.1 504 4.6 876 Gabon 6.8 12 8.7 17 10.6 24 12.5 32 Gambia 1.2 3 3.5 12 5.9 22 8.4 36 Ghana 1.8 62 4.9 256 8.0 484 11.2 773 (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth 196 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Sub-Saharan Africa (cont’d.) Guinea 6.4 69 8.6 106 10.7 151 12.8 206 Guinea-Bissau 5.5 10 7.2 14 8.9 20 10.7 27 Kenya 6.7 338 8.5 492 10.0 648 11.6 826 Lesotho 9.1 47 10.5 60 12.0 76 13.5 97 Liberia 2.3 30 3.4 41 4.7 63 6.1 95 Madagascar 1.6 49 4.1 143 6.7 275 9.4 449 Malawi 4.1 84 8.5 199 12.7 346 16.4 521 Mali 0.6 15 1.0 32 1.5 56 2.0 90 Mauritania 1.0 4 1.3 6 1.7 9 2.0 12 Mauritius 8.2 20 13.5 34 18.8 49 24.2 61 Mozambique 1.0 50 1.9 104 3.0 179 4.3 288 Namibia 9.3 19 10.8 24 12.3 30 13.8 37 Niger 0.5 11 2.4 61 4.3 133 6.4 231 Nigeria 1.2 373 3.1 1,165 5.2 2,201 7.4 3,562 Rwanda 1.9 22 6.6 90 11.3 175 15.7 276 Senegal 1.0 18 2.9 64 5.0 127 7.2 212 Sierra Leone 4.4 32 6.2 51 8.0 74 9.8 103 Somalia 1.1 16 2.6 44 4.4 88 6.2 149 South Africa 13.1 1,012 14.2 1,151 15.1 1,275 16.0 1,403 Swaziland 5.4 11 7.9 18 10.5 28 13.1 39 Tanzania 2.6 173 4.4 344 6.3 563 8.2 845 Togo 1.1 12 4.6 60 8.1 124 11.6 206 Uganda 2.3 98 6.0 307 10.1 621 13.8 1,017 Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) 0.8 78 2.5 292 4.2 600 6.1 1,040 Zambia 3.0 47 6.4 116 9.8 207 13.3 325 Zimbabwe 3.8 80 10.0 230 16.3 409 22.3 609 Note: Includes all developing countries with a population of more than 1 million. Sterilization prevalence is the percentage of women aged 15–49 currently married or living in union who are currently using sterilization. Numbers of users include women not married or in union in countries where there is substantial use of steril- ization among such women. Supplement 8.2. Projected percentage and number of women using sterilization in selected developing countries, by region, according to year (cont’d.) 2000 2005 2010 2015 Country % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 197 Supplement 8.3. Projected percentage and number of men using vasectomy in selected developing countries, by region, according to year 2000 2005 2010 2015 Country % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) Asia 33,383 29,754 24,871 18,678 Afghanistan 0.1 3 0.1 6 0.1 8 0.2 12 Bangladesh 1.1 303 0.9 266 0.6 199 0.3 117 Bhutan 0.1 0 0.1 0 0.1 0 0.1 0 Cambodia 0.1 12 0.3 20 0.5 31 0.7 44 China, People’s Republic of 8.9 22,345 7.1 18,262 5.2 13,646 3.3 8,546 China, Republic of (Taiwan) 1.5 48 2.2 82 2.8 126 3.5 175 Hong Kong 1.1 12 2.0 22 2.9 31 3.9 38 India 4.2 7,970 4.0 8,395 3.5 8,246 2.9 7,320 Indonesia 0.8 294 0.6 267 0.5 212 0.3 147 Iran 1.1 147 0.9 132 0.6 103 0.3 60 Korea, Democratic People’s 3.1 134 3.2 144 3.3 151 3.3 156 Republic of Korea, Republic of 10.6 879 8.3 686 5.9 469 3.4 258 Laos 0.2 1 0.4 4 0.7 7 0.9 12 Malaysia 0.3 9 0.3 11 0.3 13 0.3 15 Mongolia 2.6 12 2.8 15 2.9 17 3.0 18 Myanmar 2.8 382 3.0 373 2.9 294 2.1 201 Nepal 5.8 263 4.3 224 2.9 169 1.4 94 Pakistan 0.1 29 0.2 44 0.2 65 0.2 92 Papua New Guinea 0.7 5 1.0 9 1.4 13 1.8 19 Philippines 0.3 31 1.1 142 1.9 278 2.7 429 Singapore 0.7 4 1.4 8 2.3 13 3.3 17 Sri Lanka 3.9 120 3.7 119 3.4 113 3.2 105 Thailand 2.6 283 2.6 293 2.6 291 2.5 284 Vietnam 0.6 97 1.4 230 2.1 376 2.8 519 Latin America and the Caribbean 1,712 2,153 2,615 3,085 Argentina 2.4 142 2.6 164 2.8 183 3.0 203 Bolivia 1.2 16 1.6 24 1.9 33 2.3 44 Brazil 2.6 889 2.5 941 2.5 978 2.5 1,000 Chile 2.6 59 2.7 65 2.8 70 2.9 74 Colombia 0.9 66 1.6 134 2.3 211 3.1 293 Costa Rica 1.4 11 2.1 17 2.7 24 3.3 31 Cuba 3.5 66 3.5 67 3.5 67 3.6 63 Dominican Republic 0.3 4 1.1 20 2.0 37 2.9 54 Ecuador 2.0 42 2.3 53 2.6 65 2.9 76 El Salvador 0.6 7 1.3 17 2.0 28 2.6 42 Guatemala 1.7 32 1.7 37 1.7 42 1.6 48 Guyana 2.8 5 2.9 5 3.0 5 3.0 5 Haiti 0.3 4 0.5 8 0.6 11 0.8 16 Honduras 0.4 4 1.1 13 1.9 26 2.6 41 Jamaica 2.7 14 2.8 15 3.0 17 3.1 18 Mexico 1.1 192 1.7 326 2.3 471 2.9 619 (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth 198 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Latin America and the Caribbean (cont’d.) Nicaragua 0.7 6 1.6 15 2.6 29 3.6 47 Panama 0.6 3 1.4 8 2.2 13 3.0 19 Paraguay 1.4 14 1.7 19 2.0 25 2.2 32 Peru 0.4 17 1.3 61 2.1 113 3.0 168 Puerto Rico 3.4 22 3.4 22 3.3 22 3.2 21 Trinidad and Tobago 0.5 1 1.5 4 2.6 7 3.6 10 Uruguay 2.7 13 2.8 14 2.9 15 3.0 16 Venezuela 2.1 83 2.3 104 2.6 123 2.8 145 Middle East and North Africa 132 174 212 254 Algeria 0.3 13 0.3 16 0.3 19 0.3 22 Egypt 0.3 27 0.3 36 0.3 44 0.3 50 Iraq 0.2 5 0.2 8 0.2 10 0.3 13 Jordan 0.3 2 0.3 3 0.3 4 0.3 4 Kuwait 0.2 0 0.3 1 0.3 1 0.3 1 Lebanon 0.3 2 0.3 2 0.3 2 0.3 2 Libya 1.3 12 1.9 19 2.4 28 2.9 37 Morocco 0.2 10 0.3 13 0.3 16 0.3 18 Oman 0.1 0 0.2 0 0.2 1 0.2 1 Saudi Arabia 0.1 4 0.2 6 0.2 8 0.2 12 Sudan 0.1 4 0.1 7 0.2 9 0.2 13 Syria 0.2 6 0.3 8 0.3 10 0.3 12 Tunisia 0.3 5 0.3 5 0.3 6 0.3 6 Turkey 0.3 39 0.3 43 0.3 46 0.3 48 United Arab Emirates 0.3 1 0.3 1 0.3 1 0.3 2 Yemen 0.1 2 0.2 6 0.2 7 0.3 13 Sub-Saharan Africa 298 528 819 1,171 Angola 0.1 2 0.2 4 0.3 7 0.4 10 Benin 0.0 0 0.2 3 0.3 7 0.5 11 Botswana 0.5 2 1.1 4 1.6 7 2.2 10 Burkina Faso 0.1 2 0.1 3 0.1 5 0.2 7 Burundi 0.1 1 0.2 3 0.3 4 0.4 7 Cameroon 0.1 5 0.2 12 0.4 21 0.5 32 Central African Republic 0.1 1 0.2 2 0.3 3 0.4 5 Chad 0.0 0 0.1 1 0.1 2 0.1 3 Congo 0.1 0 0.3 1 0.5 2 0.6 4 Côte d’Ivoire 0.2 5 0.5 18 0.8 35 1.1 57 Eritrea 0.2 1 0.4 3 0.6 6 0.9 9 Ethiopia 0.1 10 0.1 12 0.1 15 0.1 19 Gabon 0.2 0 0.5 1 0.8 2 1.1 3 Gambia 0.0 0 0.2 1 0.3 1 0.4 2 Ghana 0.1 6 0.4 19 0.6 36 0.8 57 Supplement 8.3. Projected percentage and number of men using vasectomy in selected developing countries, by region, according to year (cont’d.) 2000 2005 2010 2015 Country % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 8 • FUTURE USE OF STERILIZATION 199 Sub-Saharan Africa (cont’d.) Guinea 0.2 2 0.5 6 0.8 11 1.1 18 Guinea-Bissau 0.1 0 0.3 1 0.5 1 0.7 2 Kenya 0.6 34 0.8 52 0.9 70 1.1 91 Lesotho 0.5 3 0.7 4 1.0 6 1.2 9 Liberia 0.1 0 0.1 1 0.1 2 0.1 2 Madagascar 0.1 4 0.3 9 0.4 17 0.5 26 Malawi 0.2 4 0.7 17 1.3 33 1.8 53 Mali 0.0 1 0.1 2 0.1 4 0.1 6 Mauritania 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.1 1 0.1 1 Mauritius 0.4 1 1.4 3 2.3 6 3.3 8 Mozambique 0.1 5 0.1 5 0.1 6 0.1 7 Namibia 0.3 1 0.6 2 0.9 4 1.3 5 Niger 0.1 2 0.1 3 0.1 4 0.2 6 Nigeria 0.1 35 0.2 60 0.2 93 0.3 135 Rwanda 0.2 3 0.7 9 1.2 18 1.6 28 Senegal 0.1 2 0.2 3 0.2 5 0.3 8 Sierra Leone 0.1 1 0.3 2 0.5 4 0.6 7 Somalia 0.1 1 0.1 2 0.1 2 0.1 3 South Africa 1.6 126 2.0 160 2.3 194 2.6 229 Swaziland 0.4 1 0.6 2 0.9 2 1.1 4 Tanzania 0.1 8 0.2 18 0.4 32 0.5 48 Togo 0.1 1 0.3 4 0.6 9 0.9 16 Uganda 0.2 7 0.5 27 0.9 56 1.3 94 Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) 0.1 10 0.1 12 0.1 16 0.1 21 Zambia 0.2 3 0.5 9 0.8 18 1.2 29 Zimbabwe 0.4 8 1.2 28 2.1 52 2.9 79 Note: Includes all developing countries with a population of more than 1 million. Sterilization prevalence is the number of male sterilization users as a percentage of women aged 15 – 49 who are currently married or living in union. Numbers of users include male partners of women aged 15 – 49 who are unmarried or not in union, in countries where there is substantial use of sterilization among such couples. Information on vasectomy was obtained from female partners who answered the survey. Supplement 8.3. Projected percentage and number of men using vasectomy in selected developing countries, by region, according to year (cont’d.) 2000 2005 2010 2015 Country % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s) % N (in 1,000s)

View the publication

You are currently offline. Some pages or content may fail to load.