Donor Support for Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005

Publication date: 2005

DONOR SUPPORT FOR CONTRACEPTIVES AND CONDOMS FOR STI/HIV PREVENTION 2005 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 2 – TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Table and Graphs. 3 List of Abbreviations and Acronyms. 4 Highlights of the Report . 5 I. Introduction . 6 II. Donor Support in 2005 . 6 - Support by Major Donors - Country Contributions III. Patterns of Donor Support. 8 IV. Projected Requirements and Costs. 9 V. Comparison of Need and Support . 10 - Discussion - Unmet Need - Standard Cost - Programming Costs - Self-Sufficient Countries - Sterilization VI. Donor Support by Region. 12 VII. Donor Support by Contraceptive Method. 13 VIII. Countries Receiving the Most Contraceptive Commodity Support . 15 IX. Donor Support for Male and Female Condoms . 16 - Donor Support for Male Condoms - Donor Support for Female Condoms ANNEXES I. Support for Male Condoms by Country, 2000 – 2005………………….…………………….20 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 3 – LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS TABLES 1 Contraceptive Commodity Support by Donor/Agency, 2000 – 2005 . 6 2 Loans/Grants provided by the World Bank for Contraceptive Commodities. 7 3 Donor Support by Region 2005. 12 4 Expenditure by Contraceptive Method 2000 – 2005 (in US$ and per cent of total) . 13 5 Expenditure by Contraceptive Method, 2000-2005 World Bank Financing . 14 6 Contraceptive Method by Region 2005. 14 7 Top Ten Recipient Countries 2005 . 15 8 Total Donor Supply of Male Condoms 2000 – 2005 . 17 9 Donor Supply of Male Condoms by region 2005 . 18 10 Distribution of Female Condoms by Region 2000 - 2005 . 19 GRAPHS 1 Support by Major Donors 2005 . 7 2 Patterns in Donor Support 2000 – 2005 . 8 3 Estimated Numbers of Contraceptive Users 2000 – 2015. 9 4. The Cost of Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention, and Trend of Reported Donor Support 2000 – 2010 . 10 5 Donor Support 2005, by Region (in percentages) . 12 6 Expenditure by Contraceptive Method 2000 – 2005. 13 7 Top Ten Recipients Share of Total Donor Support 1989 – 2005. 15 8 Support for Condoms vs. Support for Other Contraceptive Commodities . 16 9 Distribution of Female Condoms by Region. 19 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 4 – LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome BMZ/KfW Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung/Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CPR Contraceptive Prevalence Rate DFID Department for International Development DKT DKT International EU European Union GFATM Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ICPD International Conference on Population and Development IPPF International Planned Parenthood Federation IUD Intra-Uterine Device MDG Millennium Development Goal MSI Marie Stopes International NGO Non-Governmental Organization ODA Official Development Assistance PSI Population Services International PoA Programme of Action RHCS Reproductive Health Commodity Security RTI Reproductive Tract Infection SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency STI Sexually Transmitted Infection UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session USAID United States Agency for International Development Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 5 – HIGHLIGHTS OF THE REPORT Since 1990, UNFPA has been monitoring and tracking donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI/HIV prevention. Based on data collected by UNFPA’s Commodity Management Branch, this annual report highlights country-specific information provided by donors on the type, quantity and total cost of contraceptives they supplied to developing countries during 2005. In addition to presenting a detailed analysis of the information by donor, region and method, the report also analyzes trends in donor funding over the last five years, while comparing the available supply with the estimated needs. This annually published report is intended for use in tracking contraceptive supply, advocacy and resource mobilization purposes. ƒ Total donor support in 2005 was recorded at $213 million, a 5 per cent increase from 2004. ƒ The Africa region received the largest share of donor support (55 per cent). The Asia/Pacific region received 32 per cent, the Latin America and Caribbean region 10 per cent, while the Arab States, Europe and Central Asia region received 4 per cent of total donor support. ƒ Bilateral donor support accounted for 39 per cent of the total support, multilateral for 43 per cent, and support provided through Social Marketing Organizations and non- governmental organizations (NGOs) made up 18 per cent of the total share. ƒ About 632 million women, or their partners, are believed to have been using contraceptives in 2005. The cost of these contraceptive commodities, at standard prices1, would have been $841 million. ƒ By 2015, the number of contraceptive users in developing countries is estimated to increase by 11 million or 18 per cent to 731 million.2 ƒ Overall, donor support for contraceptives and condoms has increased over the past five years. UNFPA alone increased its donor support significantly from $16.7 million in 2000 to $92 million in 2005 – a near $75 million more in support.3 1 These prices are generally based on what UNFPA pays for these commodities. 2 UNFPA (2006) “Achieving the ICPD Goals: RH Commodity Requirements 2000-2015”, New York. 3 UNFPA (2001) Donor Support Report 2000, UNFPA (2006) Thematic Trust Fund Progress Report January – December 2005. Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 6 – I. INTRODUCTION At the 2005 World Summit, leaders from around the world reaffirmed their commitment to universal access to reproductive health by 2015 - a critical step towards the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many developing countries to this day rely on donated and subsidized commodities. And while the ultimate goal is to achieve national self-reliance in terms of contraceptive supply, donor support for RH commodities is and will remain in the foreseeable future a critical factor in meeting the demand in those countries. Better reproductive health depends crucially on the ability of individuals to exercise the right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. Contraceptive commodities, along with demand creation programming, are essential in making this right a reality for women and couples in developing countries. II. DONOR SUPPORT IN 2005 Recorded donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI/HIV prevention to developing countries in 2005 was nearly $213 million, $10 million or 5 per cent more than support in the previous year. TABLE 1 Contraceptive Commodity Support by Donor/Agency, 2000 – 2005 (in $000)4 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Grand Total % of Total 2005 Bilateral BMZ/KfW $35,482 $16,387 $20,115 $26,912 $8,688 $13,142 $120,726 6.2% CIDA $4,808 $208 $262 $1,692 $0 $0 $6,970 0.0% DFID $7,317 $6,130 $16,403 $22,289 $6,706 $3,631 $62,476 1.7% Japan $1,657 $340 $184 $245 $149 -- $2,575 -- USAID $58,093 $67,908 $49,628 $69,400 $71,226 $65,950 $382,205 31.0% TOTAL $107,357 $90,973 $86,592 $120,538 $86,769 $82,723 $574,951 38.9% Multilateral UNDP -- -- -- -- -- $177 $177 0.1% UNFPA $16,721 $89,205 $41,209 $57,455 $65,034 $92,032 $361,656 43.2% TOTAL $16,721 $89,205 $41,209 $57,455 $65,034 $92,208 $361,832 43.3% Social Marketing Organizations/NGO DKT $4,868 $7,849 $9,643 -- -- $4,671 $27,031 2.2% IPPF $3,814 $3,667 $4,226 $1,855 $2,606 $3,981 $20,150 1.9% MSI -- $3,718 $3,835 $1,033 $511 $425 $9,522 0.2% PSI $456 $22,359 $30,943 $28,152 $47,831 $28,816 $158,557 13.5% TOTAL $9,138 $37,593 $48,647 $31,040 $50,949 $37,894 $215,261 17.8% Others $48 $309 -- -- -- -- 357 0.0% GRAND TOTAL $133,264 $218,080 $176,448 $209,032 $202,752 $212,825 $1,152,401 100.0% Note: blank space (--) = information not available. Source: UNFPA 2006 4 Cida used UNFPA procurement services hence their contributions are included in UNFPA’s total. Information about Japan’s contribution was not available for 2005. The category ‘Others’ includes contributions by the EU, WHO and other organizations that were not channeled through UNFPA’s procurement services. The World Bank’s contributions are grants or loans and are therefore shown separately in Table 2. Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 7 – DFID 2% Other SM/NGO 4% BMZ/ KfW 6% UNFPA 43%PSI 14% USAID 31% GRAPH 1 Support by Major Donors 2005 (in percentages) The following table shows contributions from the World Bank. As these contributions are loans and grants, they were not included in the above table. TABLE 2 Loans/Grants provided by the World Bank spent on Contraceptive Commodities, 2000 – 2005 (in $000) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Grand Total World Bank Funds $14,128 $48,163 $25,271 $14,549 $20,225 $7,140 $129,476 Source: The World Bank 2007 Support by Major Donors Of the total donor support in 2005, 39 per cent was provided through bilateral funding, 43 per cent was channeled through multilaterals, including UNFPA, and 18 per cent through Social Marketing Organizations and NGOs. Graph 1 shows the contributions by the major donors in 2005. UNFPA was the largest individual donor, with a contribution of 43 per cent, increasing its support from approximately $65 million in 2004 to $92 million in 2005. USAID was the next largest donor with 31 per cent of the share of total donor support in 2005. Social Marketing Organizations and NGOs, namely Population Services International (PSI), provided 18 per cent of the support in this category. Increasingly countries also use loans and grants from the World Bank to procure contraceptives. Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 8 – III. PATTERNS OF DONOR SUPPORT Graph 2 displays donor support from major donors and agencies between the years 2000 to 2005. During this time period bilateral donors, on average, accounted for approximately 50 per cent of total donor support; multilateral donors for approximately 31 per cent, and Social Marketing Organizations and NGOs accounted for 18 per cent. Multilateral donor support peaked in 2005 as UNFPA’s contribution reached $92 million - the highest contribution by UNFPA yet. The Social Marketing Organization PSI, which emerged as one of the key donors in 2001, has grown to become one of the top three sources of donor support for contraceptives and condoms for HIV prevention. GRAPH 2 Patterns in Donor Support; 2000 - 2005 $15 $16 $3 $9 $7 $22 $35 $16 $20 $27 $9 $13 $0 $48 $29 $18 $5 $16$6 $4$7 $22 $31 $28 $65 $92 $57$41$89 $17 $66 $71$69 $50 $68 $58 $0 $50 $100 $150 $200 $250 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 USAID UNFPA PSI BMZ/KfW DFID Others Million US$ Source: UNFPA 2006 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 9 – IV. PROJECTED REQUIREMENTS AND COSTS Contraceptive prevalence in developing countries has increased dramatically in the last four decades, rising from approximately 10 per cent in the mid-1960s to almost 60 per cent today. The United Nations Population Division projects that the number of women of reproductive age in developing countries will increase some 23 per cent from 2000 to 2015. The number of contraceptive users is expected to increase by 28 per cent due both to the growth in population and growth in demand for modern contraception. Regional Distribution In 2005, the estimated number of users was highest in China, at 219 million. With 112 million, India had half as many users, and the other Asian and Pacific countries accounted for 101 million users. Latin America and the Caribbean had an estimated 72 million users, while Eastern Europe and countries in the Arab region totaled 43 and 48 million, respectively. In sub-Saharan Africa only 36 million were using contraceptives. Projected Trends Most regions are expected to see an increase in the number of contraceptive users, except for Eastern Europe, where population is projected to fall by 7 per cent and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) by 14 per cent. Contraceptive use will barely rise in China, which already has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 83 per cent, one of the highest in the world. But contraceptive use is projected to increase by 118 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa from 2000 to 2015. Nevertheless, the greatest absolute number of additional contraceptive users will be added in India, where the number of users is expected to rise by 51 million between 2000 and 2015. GRAPH 3 Estimated Numbers of contraceptive users, 2000 – 2015 in Millions 687 632 571 731 400 500 600 700 800 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: UNFPA (2006) “Achieving the ICPD Goals: RH Commodity Requirements 2000-2015”, New York. Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 10 – V. COMPARISON OF NEEDS AND SUPPORT Graph 4 displays the levels of total donor support since 2000, while contrasting with the much higher estimated requirements.5 GRAPH 4 Cost of Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention and Trend of Reported Donor Support 2000- 20106 $176$218$133 $203 $209 $213 $919$904$888$873$857 $841$824$807$791$773$754 $1,176 $1,203 $1,229 $1,268 $1,300 $1,333 $1,362 $1,391 $1,472$1,446$1,419 $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Actual Donor Support Total Est. Contraceptive Cost Total Est. Contraceptive Cost (incl. Condoms needed for ideal coverage) Million US$ Source: UNFPA 2006 About 632 million women, or their partners, are believed to have been using contraceptives in 2005. The cost of these contraceptive commodities, at standard prices, would have been $841 million. When condoms for HIV prevention are included total requirements came to $1.3 billion. As was illustrated in Table 1, donors provided $213 million towards the total costs of these contraceptive commodities and condoms for STI/HIV prevention. DISCUSSION Several factors need to be kept in mind when comparing resource requirements with available funding. While unmet need for family planning, the use of standard costs and the exclusion of programming costs increase the requirements shown above, other factors actually reduce them. The following provides a quick overview over the main factors that influence the requirement projections. Unmet Need The above projections of family planning users do not take into account the large number of women with so-called “unmet need” for family planning. According to UNFPA estimates there are currently about 200 million women worldwide who would like to limit or space the number of children they are 5 UNFPA (2006) “Achieving the ICPD Goals: RH Commodity Requirements 2000-2015”, New York. 6 Definition ‘Ideal Coverage’: In order to have a significant impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and STI transmission, UNFPA believes it will be necessary that condoms be used in 80% of all non-marital sex acts and 30% of marital sex acts (in unions were one partner also has non-marital sexual contacts). Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 11 – having but are not using contraceptives.7 The cost of these contraceptives alone, at standard UNFPA prices, would cost an additional $263 million.8 Standard Costs The above projections of commodity requirements were made using standard UNFPA prices. These prices are at the very low end of the cost spectrum which means that the actual costs might be substantially higher. Programming Costs In this context it is also important to remember that supplying contraceptives by themselves is not sufficient. Ensuring that women and couples actually have access and can use the contraceptives entails substantial programming costs. These directly related “system” costs, which are essential for quality service delivery in developing countries, are estimated to amount to a minimum additional cost of four times the cost of the commodities themselves. Varying Degrees of Donor Dependency There are also factors that effectively reduce the presented “needs”. The numbers shown in the graph were calculated for all developing countries regardless of their actual dependency on donor assistance. When countries such as India and China, that are essentially not dependent on donors for their contraceptive and condom supplies, are taken out - the need estimates are dramatically reduced. When taking China and India out of the total contraceptive need equation for 2005, the total cost decreases by approximately US $300 million. When HIV condoms are excluded for these two countries total cost decreases by nearly US$ 370 million. Sterilization Another factor that needs to be taken into account is the fact that a large proportion of contraceptive users in developing countries rely on sterilization as their contraceptive method. As this report does not track commodities used for sterilization, current donor support should be compared only to commodity needs for the other methods. Other Providers of Contraceptives Finally it has to be kept in mind that the public sector is not the only sector responsible for providing contraceptive supplies. According to a study on contraceptive projections and distributions, the public sector was responsible for slightly less than half of all oral pill supplies and only about one third of condoms in approximately 90 countries that depend on donor support. The remainder was provided by the private sector, including commercial enterprises as well as NGOs. 7 As defined by Demographic Health Surveys (DHS), ‘Unmet need’, is the measure of the discrepancy between the number of women in surveys who respond that they would like to limit or space childbirth but are not currently using contraception. 8 UNFPA estimates (2005) Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 12 – GRAPH 5 Donor Support, 2005, by region (in percentages) Source: UNFPA 2006 VI. DONOR SUPPORT BY REGION Graph 5 shows how the funds from donor support in 2005 were distributed regionally. Africa’s share of the total support was 55 per cent, Asia/Pacific’s 32 per cent, Latin America’s 10 per cent, while Arab/European State received 4 per cent. Africa remained the main recipient of donor support both in absolute terms and per capita.9 In 2005 it received $116 million or $0.16 per capita, whereas the support received by other regions ranged from $0.01 to $0.04 per capita (see Table 2). World Bank loans went to seven countries in Africa (accounting for 56% of the total $7 million provided) and to Argentina and Bangladesh. TABLE 3 Donor Support by Region, 2005 Region Population (000s) % of Total Population Donor Support (US$milion) % of Total Support Support per Capita Africa 705,149 16% $116,226,013 55% $0.16 Asia Pacific 2,409,421 54% $67,691,691 32% $0.03 Latin America/Caribbean 556,028 12% $20,956,401 10% $0.04 Arab/European States 796,086 18% $7,950,696 4% $0.01 Total 4,466,684 100% $212,824,801 100% $0.24 Source: UNFPA 2006 9 Total population for each region only considers countries that received donor support. Arab/ European States 4% Africa 54% Latin America/C aribbean 10% Asia Pacific 32% Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 13 – VII. DONOR SUPPORT BY CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD The provision of an appropriate method mix is an integral component of a comprehensive reproductive health care programme. When individuals’ specific needs are being met, family planning efforts are likely to be more consistent and effective. Contraceptive commodities for family planning include oral contraceptive pills, IUDs, implants, injectables, diaphragms, spermicidal products, vaginal foaming tablets, both male and female condoms, and emergency contraception. Three methods - pills, injectables and male condoms – accounted for approximately 95 per cent of total support in 2005. As Table 3, Graph 6 and Table 4 illustrate10, there has been a fairly stable trend in the allocation of donor support between the different methods globally. TABLE 4 Expenditure by Contraceptive Method, 2000- 2005 (in million US$ and per cent of total) Million USD % of Total Million USD % of Total Million USD % of Total Million USD % of Total Million USD % of Total Million USD % of Total Oral Pills $71 47% $58 26% $46 26% $60 29% $50 25% $56 26% Male / Female Condoms $46 30% $93 42% $79 45% $67 32% $78 38% $80 37% Injectable $30 19% $58 26% $37 21% $70 34% $64 31% $66 31% All other $6 4% $15 7% $15 8% $12 6% $10 5% $11 5% TOTAL $153 $224 $176 $209 $202 $213 2004 2005 Method 2000 2001 2002 2003 Source: UNFPA 2006 GRAPH 6 Expenditure by Contraceptive Method*, 2000 - 2005 $71 $58 $50 $56 $46 $67 $30 $58 $37 $70 $64 $66 $6 $10 $11 $60$46 $78 $80 $93 $79 $12 $15 $15 $0 $50 $100 $150 $200 $250 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Oral Pills Male/Female Condoms Injectable All other Million US$ 10 Unit costs and information from donors are sometimes incomplete. The unit cost by method has either been calculated based on the unit cost given or by dividing the total cost, or expenditure, of the method(s) provided by the total quantity. The quantity of each method listed in Table 3, is on a per unit basis, thus meaning that they are counted per piece, cycle, vial, tablet or set as appropriate. Source: UNFPA 2006 * The ‘All other’ category includes: IUD, implant, diaphragm, emergency contraception, vaginal foaming tablets, foam, and jelly. Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 14 – TABLE 5 Expenditure by Contraceptive Method, 2000-2005 using World Bank financing (in million US$ and per cent of total) Mio Mio Mio Mio Mio Mio USD USD USD USD USD USD Oral Pills $4.8 34% $2.9 6% $1.0 4% $3.7 26% $1.5 7% - 0% Male/Fem ale Condom $3.2 23% $14.8 31% $23.8 94% $2.9 20% $13.1 65% $4.6 64% Injectable $3.9 28% $23.1 48% - 0% $0.5 4% $1.3 7% $1.2 17% All other $2.2 16% $7.3 15% $0.4 2% $7.3 51% $4.4 22% $1.4 19% TOTAL $14.1 $48.1 $25.2 $14.4 $20.3 $7.2 % of Total % of Total % of Total 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 % of Total % of Total % of Total Source: The World Bank, 2007 As illustrated in Table 5 the majority (64%) of World Bank funding was used to procure condoms . in the context of the multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS project to expand and scale-up on the HIV prevention programmes in countries. In most cases, due to the availability of many suppliers, international competitive bidding was used to procure these condoms. Table 6 displays the total cost of contraceptive methods according to their regional distribution in 2005. The Africa region received most of the condoms, injectables, and implants. Oral pills and IUDs were most widely distributed throughout the Asia Pacific region. TABLE 6 Contraceptive Methods by Region, 2005 Region Male and Female Condoms Oral Pills Injectable IUD Implant ECP/ VFT/ Foam/ Jelly/ Other Diaphragm Africa $51,751,722 $17,899,356 $40,769,307 $532,275 $4,616,302 $654,818 $2,234 Asia Pacific $17,743,123 $29,414,100 $16,548,389 $2,631,344 $804,770 $549,966 - Latin America/Caribbean $8,482,834 $4,093,632 $7,654,320 $335,210 $127,860 $258,351 $4,193 Arab/European States $1,827,987 $4,777,300 $738,827 $366,030 - $240,552 - Grand Total $79,805,666 $56,184,389 $65,710,844 $3,864,859 $5,548,931 $1,703,686 $6,428 Source: UNFPA 2006 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 15 – VIII. COUNTRIES RECEIVING THE MOST CONTRACEPTIVE COMMODITY SUPPORT TABLE 7 Top ten recipient countries 2000-2005 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Total 2005 % of Total 2005 1 Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Ethiopia $18,507,349 8.7% 2 Ethiopia Ethiopia Nigeria Zimbabwe Pakistan Nigeria $16,303,986 7.7% 3 Philippines Nigeria Kenya Pakistan Nigeria Bangladesh $12,482,518 5.9% 4 Pakistan Philippines Philippines Nigeria Nepal Kenya $10,825,661 5.1% 5 Indonesia Pakistan Ethiopia Egypt Uganda Egypt $8,381,656 3.9% 6 Ghana Zimbabwe Brazil Ethiopia DRC Pakistan $7,990,207 3.8% 7 Uganda Egypt Pakistan Malawi Zimbabwe Zimbabwe $7,597,287 3.6% 8 Nepal Ghana Ghana Philippines Ghana Tanzania $7,417,823 3.5% 9 Peru Peru Egypt Nepal Ethiopia Vietnam $7,246,514 3.4% 10 India Uganda Sri Lanka Viet Nam Bolivia Uganda $6,884,581 3.2% Total for top ten countries 2005 $103,637,581 48.7% Grand Total for Donor Support 2005 $212,824,802 100.0% Source: UNFPA 2006 As illustrated above in Table 7, the top ten recipients of donor support in 2005, collectively received $103.6 million of total donor support for contraceptives and condoms in 2005 – amounting to nearly 49 per cent of total support. Ethiopia received the most donor support, while Bangladesh was third, coming in after Nigeria which stood at $16 million. Both Kenya and Tanzania newly joined the top ten recipient list in 2005. GRAPH 7 Top Ten Recipients share of Total Donor Support, 1989 – 2005 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 Source: UNFPA 2006 Graph 7 shows the share of total donor support received by the top ten recipients during the period 1989 – 2005. In 1989, 75 per cent of all support went to the top ten countries, while in 2005 the top ten countries received less than 50 per cent of total support provided, indicating a larger diversification of the allocations of donor support. In 1989 a total of 70 countries received donor support for contraceptive commodities or condoms for STI/HIV prevention. In 2005, the total number of countries who received donor support has grown to 146. Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 16 – IX. DONOR SUPPORT FOR MALE AND FEMALE CONDOMS An estimated 4.1 million new HIV infections occurred in 2005.11 Many more persons were infected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which can lead to serious illness, infertility, neonatal problems and cancer. Male and female condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are the only currently known technology to prevent STIs including HIV. Most STIs, and their high toll of death and disability, could be prevented with the use of condoms. Indeed, male and female condoms are central to efforts to halt the spread of HIV as recognized at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 1994 and the UNGASS Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS, adopted unanimously by UN Member States on 2 June 2006. Male and female condoms are the only methods that provide couples simultaneous protection against unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. In addition, the female condom is currently the only technology that gives women and girls an option that they “control” to protect themselves from HIV, other STIs and unintended pregnancy men actively oppose the use of male condoms. Graph 8 shows that the share of donor support devoted to condoms has remained relatively stable over the last years. GRAPH 8 Support for Condoms vs. Support for Other Contraceptive Commodities 30% 42% 50% 32% 38% 37% 70% 58% 50% 68% 62% 63% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Male and Female Condoms Other Contraceptive Commodities Source: UNFPA 2006 Information whether the condoms provided were used as a method of family planning or for STI/HIV prevention is difficult to ascertain. However, the proportion of people using condoms as their primary method of contraception is relatively small and in most countries lies in the single digits. It can be assumed that a large number of the condoms provided by donors are being used for HIV/STI prevention. Usually condoms for family planning make up only between 1% and 5% of the total contraceptive method mix. Notable exceptions are countries like Japan, where condoms are the method of choice for 62% of family planning users, Sweden (41%), Spain (30%) and several countries in Latin America. Another notable exception is the group of young and unmarried people in certain 11 2006 Report on the Global AIDS epidemic UNAIDS Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 17 – countries. DHS data shows that among this group, condoms account for a far larger share of the total contraceptive method mix. For instance, in Cameroon, 60% of all unmarried, sexually active women between the ages of 15 and 24 choose condoms as their preferred method to avoid unwanted pregnancies and in many countries, this percentage lies around 20%. DONOR SUPPORT FOR MALE CONDOMS According to UNFPA the estimated number of condoms used for family planning in 2005, provided for from all sources including public, private sector and social marketing, was 4.4 billion. An estimated 6.0 billion condoms were used for HIV prevention, bringing the total to 10.4 billion. UNFPA estimates that in order to have a significant impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic, 13.1 billion condoms would have been needed for HIV prevention alone. The gap between the estimated number, the condoms that were used and would have been needed for the prevention of HIV in 2005 was 7.1 billion condoms, which translates into $249 million in terms of cost.12 In addition, UNFPA estimates that: • Of the 17.5 billion condoms needed in 2005 (13.1 billion for HIV prevention and 4.4 billion for family planning) the donor community provided 1.8 billion condoms. This represents 10% of the need. • The combined support for male condoms for family planning and STI/HIV prevention was nearly $80 million in 2005, an increase of $6 million to 2004, but almost $13 million below what the funding was in 2001. • Between 2000-2005, donors have been providing on average around 2 billion condoms annually (ranging from an all-time high of 2.5 billion in 2001 to around 1.8 billion in 2005). • As Table 8 illustrates, between 2000 and 2005 condoms accounted on average for approximately 40% of total donor support for contraceptives and condoms. TABLE 8 Total Donor Supply of Male Condoms, 2000-2005 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Total Expenditure (000 US$) $46,000 $91,200 $76,713 $64,850 $71,659 $73,731 Total Number of Condoms provided (000) 950,862 2,730,551 2,559,713 1,784,904 2,104,211 1,848,380 Male Condom % of total Donor Support 35% 42% 43% 31% 35% 35% Source: UNFPA 2006 Donor support for male condoms is often provided in two-year cycles, which makes it difficult to compare individual years. Overall, one would expect an increase in donor support for condoms especially in view of the increasing attention that condoms are receiving in the context of HIV prevention. However, as Table 9 indicates, the number of public-sector supported condoms per man still remains low in all regions of the world. 12 UNFPA (2006) “Achieving the ICPD Goals: RH Commodity Requirements 2000-2015”, New York. Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 18 – TABLE 9 Donor Supply of Male Condoms by Region 2005 Region Men 15-49 No. of Condoms supplied Condoms per Man 2005 Africa 163,892,838 906,064,907 5.5 Asia Pacific 1,487,304,855 545,890,217 0.6 Arab/European States 112,729,280 72,854,844 0.4 Latin America/Caribbean 133,397,359 316,632,363 2.2 Total 1,897,324,332 1,841,442,331 1.2 Source: UNFPA 2006 Note: Number of men 15-49 includes only countries that received donor support for condoms in 2005. DONOR SUPPORT FOR FEMALE CONDOMS The female condom is increasingly being recognized as an important method for family planning and, probably even more importantly, for HIV/AIDS prevention. The feminization of HIV/AIDS means that today’s women, and in particular young married women, are at the greatest risk of being infected. The female condom is currently the only method available that women can initiate, and in some ways control, that provides protection from both unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Although proven to be effective in serving the dual purpose of prevention, the product has not achieved its full potential yet due to inadequate promotional activities, insufficient supply, and, probably first and foremost, its high cost compared with male condoms (£0.40 i.e. US$0.80 for a polyurethane female condom versus $0.03 for a male latex condom). The Female Health Company recently developed a new version of the female condom which is nearly identical to its predecessor, but is made of synthetic latex in a considerably less expensive (25.6% less than FC1 price for volumes lower than 10 million) manufacturing process. After technical consultation at WHO in January 2006 to review the new female condoms dossier, the experts concluded that FC2 was compatible with the FC1 and recommended that UNFPA consider procuring it for public sector programmes. Distribution in 2005 In 2005, the Female Health Company sold approximately 13.5 million condoms, bringing the total number of female condoms distributed globally since 1997 to 76 million. The number of female condoms distributed has risen steadily each year, from just above 1.3 million to over 13 million in the last few years and there is a growing interest from donors to support this method in the developing world. Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 19 – TABLE 10 Number of female condoms in public and private sectors by region, 2000-2005 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Total Africa 992,000 3,725,910 4,452,140 6,678,400 6,852,517 8,627,000 31,327,967 Asia 51,000 99,700 91,600 259,000 231,000 133,360 865,660 Australasia 500 1,000 20,000 120,000 300,000 320,000 761,500 Europe 478,500 579,000 558,000 987,000 1,731,104 1,336,400 5,670,004 North America 1,716,000 2,361,000 2,380,000 2,458,000 2,307,220 2,232,050 13,454,270 Central America 7,300 57,600 207,600 144,000 232,000 230,000 878,500 South America 2,390,000 1,384,640 3,992,000 2,000,000 152,000 627,530 10,546,170 Total 5,635,300 8,208,850 11,701,340 12,646,400 11,805,841 13,506,340 63,504,071 Source: Female Health Company 2005 Regional Distribution Support for female condoms has grown particularly in Africa, which is the region by far the most affected by the HIV epidemic. In 2005, the region received 8.6 million female condoms – an increase of nearly 1.8 million female condoms since 2004. In Asia, on the other hand, female condoms still remain virtually unknown. For a region of over 800 million women of reproductive age, the number of female condoms dropped from 231,000 in 2004 to 133,360 in 2005. And much like previous years, the developed regions – Australasia, Europe and North America – accounted for nearly a third of the distributed female condoms. Female condoms still make up a very small share of the total condom market. Compared to an estimated 10-12 billion male condoms that are produced every year, female condoms still account for only about 0.1% of the total condom supply in the world. GRAPH 9 Distribution of Female Condoms by Region (2000 - 2005) 992 3,726 4,452 6,678 6,853 2,195 2,941 2,958 3,565 4,338 3,888 1,442 4,200 2,144 384 858 8,627 2,397 259 133 231 100 92 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 in 000s Africa N. Am erica/Europe/Aus tralia Latin Am erica As ia Source: UNFPA 2006 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 20 – ANNEX 1 Male Condoms Provided by Donors by Country, 2000 – 2005 Country 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Men 15-59 2005 Condoms per Man in 2005 Avg. No of Condoms per Man (2000-05) Africa Angola 3,448,850 8,935,581 14,243,725 56,327,803 34,241,400 400,000 3,883,783 0.1 5.4 Benin 10,188,000 27,063,922 44,380,661 14,114,125 35,593,666 15,314,400 2,199,936 7.0 12.3 Botswana -- 659,500 -- 3,569,494 132,827 5,367,000 495,602 10.8 3.3 Burkina Faso 13,609,005 31,912,400 20,959,535 22,649,080 31,262,527 46,163,232 3,222,276 14.3 9.4 Burundi 1,617,792 4,243,581 4,472,269 8,559,980 -- 4,440,000 1,859,876 2.4 2.4 Cam eroon 19,677,500 41,189,425 66,693,342 38,022,860 46,047,890 27,121,584 4,313,002 6.3 9.8 Cape Verde -- 7,488,000 -- -- 4,986,145 2,777,800 132,927 20.9 21.1 Central African Republic 742,800 15,736,366 4,065,852 57,600 9,100,267 13,493,664 1,000,915 13.5 7.4 Chad 2,117,306 -- 3,875,830 5,930,890 5,006,064 4,070,328 2,312,483 1.8 1.6 Com oros 118,800 1,107,120 455,760 504,000 1,009,884 1,075,104 214,920 5.0 3.5 Congo 6,402,760 61,803,590 5,733,792 9,803,808 5,423,508 72,591,189 958,117 75.8 29.9 Côte d'Ivoire 10,684,800 30,878,089 117,867,336 43,938,960 28,410,992 94,174,788 4,930,720 19.1 11.4 Congo, Dem . Republic 13,015,000 -- 74,757,190 40,320 149,647,092 909,970 13,840,072 0.1 3.0 Equatorial Guinea 28,800 34,560 51,840 40,320 34,560 537,552 123,460 4.4 1.0 Eritrea 2,521,200 17,801,160 7,250,998 4,866,000 7,366,320 2,481,720 1,097,798 2.3 7.3 Ethiopia 99,686,000 218,760,159 201,150,489 92,516,328 50,619,000 148,050,041 19,520,466 7.6 7.5 Gabon 60,904 59,904 100,800 97,920 277,920 144,000 369,730 0.4 0.3 Gam bia 2,940,000 66,240 2,940,656 100,800 889,378 7,200 403,659 0.0 3.2 Ghana 16,070,300 37,146,000 70,754,000 -- 90,348,560 43,886,160 6,177,669 7.1 7.4 Guinea 12,000 17,802,067 7,017,521 3,991,908 28,558,676 31,719,000 2,448,858 13.0 6.3 Guinea-Bissau 172,800 1,474,240 9,673,837 130,680 405,444 702,288 372,273 1.9 6.1 Kenya -- 59,188,950 345,428,213 23,352,000 101,172,374 24,404,033 9,119,546 2.7 10.9 Lesotho 126,000 3,372,856 6,325,050 16,854,682 10,220,400 21,997 430,231 0.1 14.6 Liberia 1,392,000 2,280,000 5,000,400 15,574,480 5,002,080 808,157 6.2 6.1 Madagascar 7,628,952 10,501,039 17,556,089 32,893,725 18,419,705 24,909,648 4,736,256 5.3 4.2 Malawi 10,440,000 14,220,533 50,186,888 88,018,148 21,968,588 6,860,352 3,044,263 2.3 11.0 Mali -- 9,764,884 8,975,358 14,939,436 11,478,468 9,481,800 3,168,613 3.0 3.1 Mauritania -- 2,849,904 1,732,200 -- 1,512,000 780,860 1.9 1.4 Mauritius 144,864 216,000 -- 113,040 -- 532,800 411,535 1.3 0.4 Mozam bique 7,420,000 22,870,111 20,823,803 44,942,160 40,567,289 17,562,272 4,769,849 3.7 5.7 Nam ibia 1,690,335 22,413,298 2,565,471 16,843,000 18,278,960 2,502,400 533,463 4.7 21.2 Niger 1,384,752 11,764,720 40,320 6,978,383 -- 1,238,400 3,415,452 0.4 1.2 Nigeria 68,832 208,167,301 521,679,850 159,154,001 205,701,780 23,207,640 33,810,929 0.7 5.9 Rwanda 3,775,666 12,585,633 18,033,224 28,855,651 2,931,000 11,210,808 2,272,028 4.9 6.1 Sao Tom e and Principe 267,840 314,496 544,896 161,280 82,944 417,600 42,235 9.9 7.7 Senegal 6,960,000 8,624,200 7,152,000 5,058,000 10,761,000 14,259,000 2,976,861 4.8 3.2 Seychelles 204,000 360,000 247,680 396,000 342,432 145,152 n/a -- -- Sierra Leone 40,320 4,320 7,133,616 12,690,744 523,728 4,502,448 1,406,945 3.2 3.2 South Africa 41,520,000 34,150,750 13,433,864 22,493,942 16,809,612 420,022 14,165,774 0.0 1.6 Swaziland 978,300 12,072,000 244,800 265,816 8,260,000 763,200 260,352 2.9 15.0 Togo 5,054,000 12,817,948 12,932,660 37,200,272 11,857,250 9,183,240 1,565,369 5.9 10.2 Uganda 77,882,269 71,645,367 46,517,093 61,159,728 77,858,000 94,217,000 6,584,251 14.3 11.8 Tanzania, United Republ 1,680,000 67,617,385 63,830,042 42,200,064 28,041,691 80,012,400 10,002,274 8.0 5.0 Zam bia 40,098,400 50,488,042 66,822,505 28,645,948 63,015,582 11,795,736 2,911,262 4.1 15.8 Zim babwe 12,000 140,026,884 27,337,099 105,053,521 147,937,750 46,475,860 3,522,330 13.2 22.9 TOTAL 411,883,147 1,302,478,525 1,900,988,554 1,053,532,417 1,341,165,153 906,064,907 180,617,377 5.0 6.8 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 21 – Country 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Men 15-59 2005 Condoms per Man in 2005 Avg. No of Condoms per Man (2000-05) Asia & Pacific Australian Indigenous Peoples -- -- -- 17,280 -- n/a -- -- Afghanis tan -- -- 962,400 2,448,000 3,981,412 175,000 7,594,232 0.0 0.2 Bangladesh 120,721,259 328,730,393 173,995,960 44,545,008 41,279,880 38,004,000 42,834,554 0.9 3.2 Bhutan 3,024,000 -- 2,160,000 1,152,000 2,416,350 2,160,000 599,652 3.6 3.3 Cam bodia 18,072,108 15,850,300 48,125,410 38,963,300 61,200,884 31,140,000 3,861,806 8.1 9.8 China 31,427,176 -- -- -- -- -- 458,520,024 0.0 0.0 Cook Is lands -- 5,760 288 -- 7,200 432 n/a -- -- Korea, Dem . People's Re -- -- 144,000 216,000 622,000 590,480 7,265,035 0.1 0.0 Fiji 30,000 2,408,880 2,452,896 746,784 144,000 2,130,080 267,762 8.0 5.1 China, Hong Kong SAR -- -- 56,160 -- -- 338,201 2,283,646 0.1 0.0 India 58,137,523 96,787,192 54,272,857 -- 43,030,858 114,040,801 342,265,849 0.3 0.2 Indones ia 39,227,169 43,847,150 52,153,026 44,243,594 -- -- 70,759,371 0.0 0.4 Iran, Is lam ic Republic -- 3,459,000 28,800,000 15,120,000 -- -- 22,813,030 0.0 0.4 Kiribati 86,640 34,800 11,520 -- 31,680 10,368 n/a -- -- Lao People's Dem ocratic 1,530,912 5,134,933 9,861,510 12,133,002 9,000,000 9,019,375 1,588,336 5.7 5.2 Malays ia 10,797,696 -- -- -- -- -- 7,805,299 0.0 0.3 Maldives -- 201,600 -- 108,000 94,500 -- 91,244 0.0 0.8 Marshall Is lands -- -- -- -- -- -- n/a -- -- Micrones ia, Fed. States -- -- -- -- -- -- 31,039 0.0 0.0 Mongolia 3,875,040 4,711,698 4,181,760 3,574,944 2,075,675 5,184,000 844,827 6.1 5.0 Myanm ar 2,811,904 28,849,800 18,179,502 46,304,236 50,462,025 14,176,033 15,775,161 0.9 1.8 Nepal 17,236,080 17,500,000 54,854,094 47,107,921 118,553,448 28,282,447 7,321,595 3.9 6.8 New Zealand -- 144,000 -- -- -- -- 1,227,341 0.0 0.0 Pakis tan 51,680,562 285,115,011 278,162,541 232,899,804 251,736,530 86,959,728 45,689,453 1.9 4.7 Papua New Guinea 12,000 -- 12,096 1,440 -- 28,800 1,688,532 0.0 0.0 Philippines 14,014,176 107,874,645 50,488,886 31,857,919 207,360 770,400 24,580,386 0.0 1.5 Korea, Republic -- 15,867,120 14,400,000 14,400,000 -- 70,007,000 16,466,574 4.3 1.2 Solom on Is lands 73,000 57,620 43,776 28,800 17,568 28,800 135,178 0.2 0.3 Sri Lanka 4,644,000 5,627,000 12,834,000 1,440,000 3,656,016 3,581,280 6,974,492 0.5 0.8 Thailand -- -- -- -- 1,640,120 14,632,000 20,757,416 0.7 0.1 Tim or-Les te -- 432,000 -- -- -- 281,232 269,954 1.0 0.5 Tokelau -- -- -- -- -- -- n/a -- -- Tonga 82,320 -- 11,088 -- -- -- 28,721 0.0 0.6 Tuvalu 4,320 6,000 26,352 -- 15,408 5,760 n/a -- -- Vanuatu -- 129,600 1,491,840 5,760 -- -- 58,464 0.0 5.0 Vietnam 36,224,632 107,052,098 16,557,600 37,745,000 -- 124,344,000 26,453,765 4.7 2.2 Sam oa 30,000 576,000 29,952 -- 8,928 -- 51,556 0.0 2.2 TOTAL 413,742,517 1,070,402,600 824,269,514 575,041,512 590,199,122 545,890,217 1,136,904,294 0.5 0.6 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 22 – Country 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Men 15-59 2005 Condoms per Man in 2005 Avg. No of Condoms per Man (2000-05) Arab States, Europe and Central Asia Albania 1,508,326 -- 2,557,542 3,214,704 438,900 -- 942,755 0.0 1.4 Algeria -- 2,592,000 5,760,000 -- -- 500,000 10,626,278 0.0 0.2 Arm enia -- -- 504,000 293,760 1,968,682 718,020 897,047 0.8 0.7 Azerbaijan -- 273,600 2,188,800 42,000 -- -- 2,634,592 0.0 0.2 Belarus 18,000 3,000,000 -- -- -- -- 3,166,377 0.0 0.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina -- 583,500 1,195,200 -- -- -- 1,245,774 0.0 0.2 Bulgaria -- -- 4,996,800 -- -- 5,040,000 2,458,017 2.1 0.7 Cyprus -- -- -- -- -- -- 257,234 0.0 0.0 Czech Republic -- -- -- -- 10,675 -- 3,363,338 0.0 0.0 Djibouti 86,400 408,960 115,200 100,800 324,858 686,016 213,511 3.2 1.4 Egypt 6,150,000 8,310,000 -- -- -- -- 22,023,089 0.0 0.1 Es tonia 999,216 407,241 2.5 0.4 Georgia -- 3,171,127 -- 580,896 2,960,000 622,080 1,352,870 0.5 0.9 Hungary -- -- -- -- -- -- 3,191,209 0.0 0.0 Iraq -- 1,010,730 288,000 -- -- -- 7,960,168 0.0 0.0 Jordan 942,000 2,220,000 1,104,000 7,398,000 7,458,250 4,806,000 1,729,732 2.8 2.4 Kazakhs tan 936,000 907,225 15,879,033 21,969 10,896,081 511,720 4,729,074 0.1 1.1 Kosovo -- 10,747,403 1,872,570 106,848 -- 1,000,800 n/a -- -- Kyrgyzs tan -- 4,651,200 1,656,000 1,740,000 1,227,000 9,747,880 1,586,158 6.1 2.1 Latvia -- -- -- -- -- 2,052,576 705,205 2.9 0.5 Lebanon 90,000 102,000 -- 576,000 508,788 -- 1,061,240 0.0 0.2 Lithuania -- -- -- 952,000 1,268,848 1,048,969 1.2 0.4 Macedonia, TFYR -- -- -- -- -- -- 668,072 0.0 0.0 Moldova, Republic -- -- 86,400 -- -- 1,439,392 1,393,509 1.0 0.2 Morocco 1,896,000 748,800 3,645,600 4,002,000 -- -- 9,737,734 0.0 0.2 Om an -- 195,552 -- -- 382,725 -- 933,529 0.0 0.1 Occupied Pales tinian Te 60,000 166,800 218,304 -- -- -- 951,371 0.0 0.1 Poland -- -- -- -- -- -- 12,890,163 0.0 0.0 Rom ania 84,672 99,330 20,344,026 19,710,000 8,969,818 2,135,600 7,091,923 0.3 1.2 Russ ian Federation 93,200 296,069 7,524,685 -- 3,506,544 15,200 46,944,991 0.0 0.0 Slovakia -- -- -- 2,304 -- 1,814,681 0.0 0.0 Som alia 48,000 150,000 748,800 -- -- -- 2,101,460 0.0 0.1 Sudan 314,920 3,519,200 648,000 129,600 2,175,000 11,016,000 10,036,367 1.1 0.3 Syrian Arab Republic 1,440,000 2,473,000 3,024,000 2,448,000 1,810,000 4,636,000 5,588,710 0.8 0.5 Tajikis tan 3,000 432,000 1,296,000 1,683,000 2,482,250 9,444,904 1,785,930 5.3 1.5 Tunis ia -- 237,600 1,166,400 -- -- 33,120 3,332,333 0.0 0.1 Turkey 4,872,960 2,808,144 -- 144,000 -- -- 23,347,407 0.0 0.1 Turkm enis tan -- 1,896,050 3,009,600 -- -- 2,238,280 1,479,811 1.5 0.9 Ukraine 896,968 720,000 -- 1,771,200 -- 4,968,000 14,300,142 0.3 0.1 Uzbekis tan 792,000 29,435,900 8,016,000 1,421,895 423,000 6,487,720 8,022,921 0.8 1.1 Yem en 28,800 2,767,719 712,000 648,000 7,216,440 2,487,472 5,307,750 0.5 0.5 TOTAL 20,261,246 83,923,909 88,556,960 46,032,672 53,713,315 72,854,844 229,328,682 0.3 0.3 Donor Support For Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2005 – 23 – Source: UNFPA 2006 * 6,923,000 condoms were sent to various countries throughout Central America as part of a PSI and KfW collaboration called America Regional *14,400 condoms were sent to the Netherlands to be incorporated into RH kits, and distributed to locations in developing countries Country 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Men 15-59 2005 Condoms per Man in 2005 Avg. No of Condoms per Man (2000-05) Latin America/Caribbean Anguilla -- -- -- -- -- -- n/a -- -- Antigua and Barbuda -- -- 5,760 5,760 504,000 -- n/a -- -- Argentina -- -- 4,039,200 -- 293,190 -- 11,476,266 0.0 0.1 Aruba 48,960 74,880 -- 21,600 -- 86,400 n/a -- -- Baham as 5,760 339,696 -- 135,360 200,016 68,256 97,401 0.7 1.3 Barbados 16,992 40,320 28,800 11,520 -- -- 90,732 0.0 0.2 Belize -- 8,600 331,200 129,272 162,384 183,600 77,887 2.4 1.8 Bolivia 1,842,000 7,856,444 11,688,177 9,903,000 7,002,000 5,001,000 2,512,289 2.0 3.1 British Virgin Is lands -- -- -- -- -- -- n/a -- -- Brazil 56,320,561 42,586,594 622,034,250 -- -- 150,000,048 58,057,572 2.6 2.6 Curaçao -- 11,520 -- -- -- 7,200 n/a -- -- Chile 1,000 28,800 424,800 -- 201,456 232,560 5,171,242 0.0 0.0 Colombia -- 504,000 496,800 151,200 3,812,500 9,780,032 13,779,126 0.7 0.2 Costa Rica -- 11,633 -- 585,940 1,250,316 230,400 1,399,373 0.2 0.3 Cuba 432,000 1,873,700 4,779,429 8,870,400 9,806,112 19,762,560 3,722,844 5.3 2.0 Dom inica 66,240 80,640 80,640 101,808 115,344 69,120 n/a -- -- Dom inican Republic -- 1,695,792 626,400 6,973,056 24,170,998 13,352,616 2,734,000 4.9 2.9 Ecuador -- 4,584,000 3,546,000 2,100,000 -- -- 3,932,275 0.0 0.5 El Salvador 1,524,000 5,670,920 2,856,000 1,656,000 6,459,000 8,709,648 1,957,911 4.4 2.4 Grenada -- 23,040 -- -- 11,952 3,000 n/a -- -- Guatem ala 7,074,000 10,257,145 18,561,267 8,997,053 7,652,804 21,432,000 3,015,777 7.1 4.3 Guyana -- -- 504,000 2,001,300 84,528 -- 229,345 0.0 1.9 Haiti 10,800,000 75,532,936 22,839,252 59,857,200 5,712,000 25,497,000 2,350,189 10.8 15.3 Honduras 4,794,000 17,880,179 4,879,238 3,023,300 1,846,800 11,721,600 2,004,565 5.8 4.0 Jamaica 29,100 4,536,000 11,520 1,723,200 2,008,571 195,000 758,163 0.3 1.9 Mexico 6,440 1,036,800 37,274,112 -- 2,739,600 17,740,643 31,647,537 0.6 0.3 Montserrat -- -- -- -- -- -- n/a -- -- Nicaragua 2,070,000 5,217,911 7,602,720 3,578,432 2,454,347 4,962,024 1,532,709 3.2 3.0 Panam a 478,080 504,000 351,360 479,940 132,480 205,920 991,292 0.2 0.4 Paraguay 1,830,000 908,065 3,889,223 3,389,109 7,957,220 2,162,000 1,766,554 1.2 2.0 Peru 14,010,000 18,821,800 13,840,704 1,191,000 34,127,958 20,823,912 8,454,210 2.5 2.1 St. Kitts and Nevis -- 17,280 1,008 696,000 30,720 -- n/a -- -- Saint Lucia 23,040 11,520 28,800 -- 12,096 12,960 48,684 0.3 0.3 St.Vincent and the Grena 1,440 864 4,320 -- 98,496 22,752 n/a -- -- Surinam e -- -- 100,800 2,090,160 -- 47,088 136,179 0.3 2.8 Trinidad and Tobago 63,360 -- 504,000 153,000 6,624 810,000 437,356 1.9 0.6 Turks and Caicos Is land -- -- -- -- -- -- n/a -- -- Uruguay 109,440 447,840 69,120 2,687,040 201,888 2,916,144 1,002,604 2.9 1.1 Venezuela -- 443,520 112,320 107,712 77,904 596,880 8,224,418 0.1 0.0 TOTAL 101,546,413 201,006,439 761,511,220 120,619,362 119,133,304 316,632,363 167,608,500 1.9 1.7 *Others 6,923,000 14,400 GRAND TOTAL 947,433,323 2,657,811,473 3,575,326,248 1,795,225,963 2,104,210,894 1,848,379,731 1,714,458,853 1.1 1.3

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