Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation: evidence from 60 demographic and health surveys

Publication date: 2012

Ca us es a nd c on se qu en ce s of c on tr ac ep tiv e di sc on tin ua tio n Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation: evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys For more information, please contact: Department of Reproductive Health and Research World Health Organization Avenue Appia 20, CH-1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland Fax: +41 22 791 4171 E-mail: reproductivehealth@who.int www.who.int/reproductivehealth ISBN 978 92 4 150405 8 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation: evidence from 60 demographic and health surveys Mohamed M. Ali, WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt John Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom Iqbal H. Shah, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation: evidence from 60 demographic and health surveys / Mohamed Ali …[et al]. 1.Contraception – utilization. 2.Contraception behavior - ethnology. 3.Medication adherence. 4.Family planning services. 5.Pregnancy outcome. 6.Pregnancy, Unplanned. 7.Risk factors. 8.Data collection. I.Ali, Mohamed M. II.Cleland, John G. III.Shah, Iqbal H. IV.World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 150405 8 (NLM classification: WP 630) Acknowledgements Rachel Saddler assisted with the analysis of data, and Nicky Sabatini-Fox and Amira Nassef provided administrative support. The authors gratefully acknowledge comments and helpful suggestions from Sarah Harbison and Thomas Pullum. This report was developed under a grant from USAID to the Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization. © World Health Organization 2012 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site (www.who.int) or can be purchased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site (http://www.who.int/about/ licensing/copyright_form/en/index.html). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. The named authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication. Designed by Punto Grafico Printed in Egypt Contents Executive summary 5 1. Introduction 6 2. Data and methods 7 2.1 Data 7 2.2 Methods 8 3. Results 10 3.1 Discontinuation 11 3.2 Switching after discontinuation for method-related reasons 18 3.3 Reproductive consequences of discontinuation 19 4. Implications 23 References 24 List of Tables Table 1. Background information for 19 countries with a survey during 2002–09 9 Table 2. Cause-specific discontinuation probabilities at months 12, 24 and 36 per 100 episodes, by method: median values for 19 countries 12 Table 3. Median duration of method–specific use (months) for 19 countries 14 Table 4. Status at three months after discontinuing any method for method-related reasons for 17 countries 20 List of Figures Figure 1: All reasons discontinuation probabilities at 12 months per 100 episodes, by method, 19 countries 13 Figure 2: Probabilities of reported failure at 12 months per 100 episodes, by method, 19 countries 15 Figure 3: Probabilities of method-related discontinuation at 12 months per 100 episodes, by method, 19 countries 16 Figure 4: Probabilities of discontinuation due to side-effects or health concerns at 12 months per 100 episodes, by method, 19 countries 16 Figure 5: Probabilities of method-related discontinuation at 12 months of injectables per 100 episodes, for 15 countries 17 Figure 6: Probabilities of method-related discontinuation at 12 months of oral contraceptives per 100 episodes, for 18 countries. 18 Figure 7: Percent who switched to a modern and to a traditional method within three months of method-related discontinuation, for 17 countries. 21 Figure 8: Reproductive outcomes of accidental pregnancy, per 100 episodes, for 19 countries 22 Figure 9: Reproductive outcomes within 12 months of method-related discontinuation, for 19 countries 23 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 5 Executive summary Dynamics of contraceptive use continuation, switching and failure are important markers of how well programmes are meeting the family planning needs of women and couples. Studying the dynamics of contraceptive use can reveal problems in the use of contraceptive technologies and the gaps in the provision of services and, therefore, provide guidance essential for improving services. This compendium provides detailed information on the dynamics of contraceptive use from 60 surveys, conducted from 1990 to 2009, in 25 countries participating in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Programme. A more in- depth analysis is based on most recent surveys during 2002–09 in 19 countries. The compendium makes available by far the largest amount of information and tabulations, covering 422 478 episodes of contraceptive use in countries of Africa, Asia, eastern Europe and Latin America, reported by women who were either married or in cohabiting unions at the time of use. The report provides information on key indicators of the dynamics of contraceptive use, including the probability of discontinuing use for any reason and by specific reasons; and resumption of use within three months of discontinuing the method because of method-related reasons. Perhaps more important, it provides indicators on reproductive consequences of contraceptive failure and discontinuation as assessed by the percentage of unwanted or mistimed births and abortions following the cessation of use. The compendium includes a detailed set of tables and highlights the key findings. A wide range in the dynamics of contraceptive use is observed. On average, 38% of women discontinue using reversible methods by the 12th month and 64% by the 36th month in the 19 countries. The lowest 12-month discontinuation was noted for the intrauterine device (IUD; 13%) and the highest was for the condom (50%), while the pill, injectable, periodic abstinence and withdrawal were discontinued by about 40% of users within the first 12 months of use. Method-related reasons are the dominant cause of discontinuation for any method. The median duration of use of any method in the 19 countries was 20 months, ranging from a low of 12 months in Bangladesh to a high of 47 months in Ukraine . A sizeable number of women become exposed to the risk of conception after discontinuation. At three months after discontinuation, 40% or more women were at risk of conception in Egypt (40%), Ethiopia (42%), Kenya (51%), Malawi (73%), United Republic of Tanzania (56%) and Zimbabwe (47%). Reproductive consequences of discontinuation because of reported method failure and method-related reasons can be serious. In most countries the percentage of accidental pregnancies that end in miscarriage, stillbirth or abortion lies in the range of 5% to 20%. Major implications emerge from the results presented in the compendium. The high rates of discontinuation stress the need to improve service quality, particularly counselling, so that women can make an informed choice and are forewarned about side-effects and reassured about health concerns. Timely and informed method-switching needs to be better recognized by the programmes in order to avoid unintended pregnancies, abortion and unwanted or mistimed births. Improving contraceptive technologies also remains a job unfinished. 6 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation 1. Introduction With about two in three married (or in-union) couples using a method of family planning in 2009 (1), contraception, a novelty in most developing countries in the 1970s, has become a norm in much of the world. Yet, one in 10 women globally continues to report an unmet need for family planning. Also, less is known about the dynamics of contraceptive use following the initiation of use than for contraceptive prevalence and differentials. How long do couples, mostly women, continue to use a method, especially when faced with side-effects or other problems related to the method or its use; how many women switch to another method or abandon contraception altogether; and how many women experience a failure and suffer the consequences of unplanned pregnancy, abortion or unwanted birth and related negative outcomes (2). These are issues of critical importance both for couples and women and for the programmes and policies that aim to improve sexual and reproductive health. Globally, 33 million accidental pregnancies are estimated to occur among women reportedly using a contraceptive method, either traditional or modern (3). Strong family planning programmes, a wide range of available methods, adequate counselling, informed choice of method, easy access and good follow- up services are found to be associated with continued and satisfied use of a method (4–8). Thus, quality of family planning services has a strong bearing on contraceptive continuation, failure and switching. Studying contraceptive use dynamics provides guidance for improving services. High failure rates, for instance, suggest that efforts to improve information on correct use of methods are required. Discontinuation of use that is not followed by prompt recourse to an alternative method carries the possible implication that the range of readily accessible methods may need to be widened. High discontinuation due to perceived or real side-effects require that counselling services and informed choice are strengthened and method mix is expanded. This compendium has been developed primarily to provide detailed information on the dynamics of contraceptive use from 60 surveys, conducted from 1990 to 2009, in 25 countries participating in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Programme. It complements several previous comparative analyses (9–18), which were based on the selected sets of countries. The compendium makes available by far the largest amount of information and tabulations, covering 422 478 episodes of contraceptive use in countries of Africa, Asia, eastern Europe and Latin America contributed by women who were either married or in cohabiting unions at the time of use. We present key indicators of the dynamics of contraceptive use, including the probability of: discontinuing use for any reason; discontinuation because of accidental pregnancy while using a method (i.e. failure); discontinuation for reasons that imply dissatisfaction or problems with the method (method-related reasons including side-effects and health concerns); and discontinuation due to desire for pregnancy or because of no further need. Method-switching is examined in terms of the probability of resumption of use within three months of discontinuing an earlier method because of dissatisfaction evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 7 or problems. The reproductive consequences of contraceptive failure and discontinuation are assessed by measuring the occurrence of unwanted or mistimed births and abortions following the cessation of use. The next section describes in detail the data and methods, followed by a summary of findings. While text and summary tables are restricted to 19 countries with recent surveys (during 2002–09), the main body of annex tables contains a far greater number. By including detailed tables in the annex , the compendium aims to provide information to readers interested in examining further the patterns of contraceptive use dynamics by methods or countries or to pursue further analysis by linking the information to additional characteristics. The last section discusses the implications of the results. 2. Data and methods 2.1 Data The data for this compendium come from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys with a contraceptive calendar conducted between 1990 and 2009 in 25 countries. As of 1990, the DHS programme has included a contraceptive calendar for countries where contraceptive prevalence is considered to be relatively high. The contraceptive calendar takes the form of a grid in which contraceptive status is recorded for each calendar month over a five- year period preceding the survey. Specifically, interviewers are trained to enter on the monthly grid all live births (and current pregnancies if any), ascertained earlier in the interview. These reproductive events are used as anchor-points in the determination of dates of starting and stopping the use of specific contraceptive methods over the five-year retrospective period. Any abortions detected at this stage of detailed questioning are entered into the calendar but no attempt is made to distinguish induced from spontaneous abortions. Reasons for stopping method-use are entered into the calendar. In some surveys, the calendar is also used to record residential mobility and changes in marital or cohabitation status. Information on the intention status of recent live births (and current pregnancy, if any) is also used in the analysis. Respondents were asked the following question about each birth: “At the time you became pregnant with (NAME OF CHILD) did you want to become pregnant then, did you want to wait until later or did you want no more children at all?”. Respondents giving the response “later” are subsequently asked how long they would have preferred to wait before having another child. The responses permit a three-way classification of births and current pregnancies into those wanted at that time, those that were unwanted at any future time and those that occurred earlier than desired (mistimed). This information on intention status was linked to the calendar data in order to investigate the reproductive consequences of contraceptive failure and discontinuation. Table 1 presents the contraceptive prevalence, method mix, total fertility (TFR) and the percentage unmet need as shown by the most recent survey in 19 countries 8 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation conducted after 2002 (more detailed information: sample size, percentage ever-married, number of episodes, TFR and unmet need for all surveys are presented in Table A1 ). These 19 countries display contrasting contraceptive and fertility patterns. The TFRs range from 1.2 in Ukraine to six children per woman in Malawi, and contraceptive prevalence varies from 10.3% in Ethiopia to 79.8% in Viet Nam. The unmet need for family planning was the lowest in Viet Nam (4.8%) and the highest in Ethiopia (33.8%). The most commonly used contraceptive method also differed by country: 67.1% used the pill in Zimbabwe, 59.8% the IUD in Egypt; 65.6% injectables in Ethiopia; 41.7% the condom in Ukraine; 65.1% were sterilized in the Dominican Republic while one in two users (51.8%) in Armenia relied on withdrawal (Table 1) for contraception. The unit of analysis in this study is an episode of contraceptive use and the time to first event following discontinuation due to method- related reasons. An episode is defined as a period of uninterrupted use (in months) that may or may not have ended. Table A2 presents the number of episodes by contraceptive method and survey. One drawback of the calendar method is that it does not measure regularity of use of a particular method within the month, which has greater importance for the condom and other coitus-related methods (e.g. withdrawal) which can vary vastly in frequency during a one-month period. A switch to a new method (or a break between methods) indicates the start of a new episode. Calendars were cut off three months prior to the interview data to avoid the problem of underreporting of first-trimester pregnancies as including these would underestimate the reported failure rate. The reasons given for discontinuation were grouped into the following four categories: reported failure (i.e. the respondent became pregnant while using the method); a desire to become pregnant; no further need (i.e. sexual abstinence due to illness or marital dissolution ); and method-related reasons. This final category includes reasons which imply some degree of dissatisfaction with the method such as side-effects, health concerns, medical advice, problems of access and availability, desire to switch to a permanent method, inconvenience of use and cost. 2.2 Methods Cumulative probabilities of discontinuation for all reasons and for specific causes at 12, 24 and 36 months of use were estimated using both the single- and multiple- decrement life-table methods. The single-decrement life-table approach yields hypothetical cause- specific probabilities in the absence of competing reasons for stopping. In the literature these are sometimes called “gross” rates, in contrast to “net” rates which are obtained from multiple-decrement life-table analysis and measure the “real life” or observed probabilities of cause- specific discontinuation in the presence of competing reasons. Life-table methods were also used to calculate the median duration of use. In addition, the conditional probabilities of discontinuing a method for any reason or for a specific reason from one year to the next were computed in order to evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 9 Ta bl e 1: B ac kg ro un d in fo rm at io n fo r 19 c ou nt ri es w it h a su rv ey d ur in g 2 00 2- 20 09 Co un tr y M et ho d- m ix (p er ce nt ag e di st ri bu ti on o f c on tr ac ep ti ve u se rs b y ty pe o f t he m et ho d) Co nt ra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce Pi ll IU D In je ct ab le s Co nd om St er ili za ti on Pe ri od ic ab st in en ce W it hd ra w al O th er TF R (1 5- 49 ) U nm et ne ed (% ) A rm en ia ( 20 05 ) 33 .1 1. 6 17 .8 0. 0 15 .5 1. 1 7. 2 51 .8 5. 0 1. 7 13 .3 Ba ng la de sh ( 20 04 ) 54 .1 44 .8 1. 0 16 .5 7. 1 10 .8 11 .2 6. 2 2. 4 3. 0 11 .1 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 52 .5 12 .6 14 .3 8. 8 12 .1 38 .3 4. 6 7. 1 2. 2 2. 4 5. 8 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 51 .2 18 .1 3. 4 2. 9 3. 3 65 .1 2. 1 2. 5 2. 5 3. 0 10 .9 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 56 .2 19 .7 59 .8 12 .3 1. 2 1. 8 0. 8 0. 4 4. 1 3. 0 9. 2 Et hi op ia ( 20 05 ) 10 .3 20 .1 1. 4 65 .6 2. 7 1. 5 4. 7 1. 6 2. 4 5. 4 33 .8 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 57 .9 21 .5 8. 1 51 .7 2. 1 5. 5 2. 4 3. 4 5. 2 2. 6 9. 1 Jo rd an ( 20 09 ) 56 .8 13 .7 37 .9 1. 2 10 .6 4. 9 6. 6 21 .6 3. 5 3. 8 11 .2 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 28 .4 17 .3 5. 5 36 .9 5. 9 10 .3 16 .4 1. 5 6. 1 4. 9 24 .5 M al aw i (2 00 4) 25 .7 5. 9 0. 4 54 .1 6. 8 18 .7 1. 6 6. 0 6. 7 6. 0 27 .6 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 33 .3 63 .6 8. 5 3. 4 2. 4 4. 6 5. 9 6. 9 4. 8 1. 7 6. 7 M or oc co ( 20 03 /4 ) 49 .8 5. 6 35 .6 0. 1 13 .5 6. 9 5. 1 27 .8 5. 3 2. 5 10 .0 Pe ru ( 20 04 /6 ) 44 .9 10 .1 8. 7 17 .0 15 .0 15 .2 24 .1 6. 3 3. 8 2. 8 10 .2 Ph ili pp in es ( 20 03 ) 31 .6 26 .7 8. 4 6. 2 3. 9 22 .3 13 .6 16 .6 2. 3 3. 5 17 .3 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 22 .5 20 .6 0. 6 30 .9 13 .6 9. 3 8. 1 9. 3 7. 7 5. 7 21 .8 Tu rk ey ( 20 03 ) 67 .6 6. 6 28 .4 0. 5 15 .1 8. 3 1. 6 37 .1 2. 3 2. 2 6. 0 U kr ai ne ( 20 07 ) 50 .9 7. 4 23 .8 0. 0 41 .7 1. 0 9. 4 13 .3 3. 3 1. 2 10 .3 V ie t N am ( 20 02 ) 79 .8 7. 5 44 .6 0. 5 6. 9 7. 6 8. 8 16 .9 7. 3 1. 9 4. 8 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 40 .1 67 .1 0. 5 17 .9 5. 0 3. 7 0. 3 1. 7 3. 9 3. 8 12 .8 TF R: to ta l f er til ity ra te IU D : i nt ra ut er in e de vi ce 10 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation measure the likelihood of continuing with the use of a method after having used it for a certain period of time. The analysis investigated the probability of discontinuing at 24 months among those women who had continued to use a method for 12 months, and then the probability of discontinuing at 36 months among those who had continued to use it through the 24 months. Discontinuation probabilities are summarized in the text by box-and- whisker plots. The width of the box indicates the interquartile range, namely the values within which half the estimates for different surveys fall. The median value is shown by the vertical line within the box. The horizontal lines on either side of the box indicate the predicted range within which 90% of estimates fall while the dots outside the whiskers show estimates that fall beyond this predicted range. Multiple-decrement life-table methods were also employed to estimate the reproductive status of women three months after having discontinued due to method-related reasons. These women were assumed to still require contraception as they had not stopped use due to a desire to become pregnant but because of dissatisfaction with the method. A three-month cut-off was used because a large majority of couples who switch to an alternative method do so within three months. The reproductive consequences of reported failure (i.e. pregnancy) were established by simple tabulation of the four possible outcomes: a live- birth/current pregnancy declared as: wanted; mistimed; unwanted; or a pregnancy which ended either spontaneously or by induced abortion. In order to investigate the reproductive outcomes of method- related discontinuation or because of desire for another child, two further outcomes need to be added to the above four: switching to another method and no conception despite non-use. To establish these consequences, 12-month cumulative probabilities following discontinuation were calculated using the multiple decrement life- table method. All analyses were done using Stata 11.2 software and appropriate adjustments for the survey weights were made. Probabilities of discontinuation, switching and consequences that are based on fewer than 100 episodes were suppressed in the tables. 3. Results Key findings on contraceptive discontinuation, by reason, switching after discontinuation and reproductive consequences of discontinuation are summarized below. Details for all 60 surveys can be found in the annex tables. 3.1 Discontinuation (a) All reasons combined Table 2 (the column for “all reasons”) shows the percentage of couples who discontinued for all reasons combined for all methods, and specific methods, at 12, 24 and 36 months after starting. The estimates are medians for the most recent survey in each of the 19 countries that conducted a survey since 2002. Figure 1 provides a visual summary of results at 12 months. For all methods and all countries evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 11 combined, 38% discontinued by the 12th month, 55% by the 24th month and 64% by the 36th month. Figure 1 indicates remarkable similarity by method, with the clear exception of the IUD with much lower discontinuation probabilities. Whereas only 13% of IUD users stopped within 12 months, estimates for the other methods range from 40% to 50%. This similarity for pills, condoms, injectables, periodic abstinence and withdrawal is maintained at 24 and 36 months and the distinctive behaviour of IUD users is also maintained; at 36 months users of IUDs are twice as likely to be persisting with their method than users of other methods. Annex Tables B1.1–B1.7 show the conditional probabilities of stopping between month 12 and 24 and between month 24 and 36, in addition to the cumulative probabilities for all 60 surveys for all reasons. With very few exceptions, the percentage discontinuing a method in the first 12 months is higher than the percentage who persist with use for 12 months but stop before month 24 and the conditional probability of stopping between month 24 and 36 tends to be slightly lower still. For instance in the 2005 Armenian survey, the probabilities of discontinuing any method were 31%, 24% and 18% in the first, second and third year of use, respectively. This pattern holds for specific methods, apart from IUDs where conditional probabilities in several countries are similar or even higher in the later years of use than in the first year. The annex tables also permit comparison of countries. The percentage discontinuing any method within 24 months ranges widely from less than 40% in most recent surveys of Indonesia, Ukraine, Viet Nam and Zimbabwe to over 65% in Bangladesh, Paraguay, Peru and United Republic of Tanzania. An alternative way of representing all- cause discontinuation is to calculate median length of use, the number of months by which exactly half of users have stopped. These estimates are shown in Table 3 by method for the 19 most recent surveys. For all methods combined, the shortest median durations of 12–14 months are found in Bangladesh, Dominican Republic, Jordan, and Peru and the longest of over 30 months in Indonesia, Ukraine, Viet Nam and Zimbabwe. The medians for specific methods range widely from 5.9 months in Peru to 41.5 months in Ukraine for pills, from 23.6 months in Dominican Republic to over 60 months in seven countries for IUDs; from 3.8 months in Turkey to 37.5 months in Indonesia for condoms; from 3.6 months in Bangladesh to 42.4 months in Ukraine for injectables; from 10.3 months in Dominican Republic to 34.8 months in Indonesia for periodic abstinence; and from 7.8 months in Bangladesh to 27.2 months in Indonesia for withdrawal. Annex Table B7 shows medians for all 60 surveys, thus making possible an examination of trends for countries with multiple surveys. Restricting attention to the 10 countries with at least three surveys, the overall impression is one of little change. The clearest exceptions are increased durations of pill use in Dominican Republic, increased durations of IUD use in Colombia and Jordan and increased durations of condom and injectable use in Egypt. 12 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e 2: C au se -s p ec ifi c d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es a t m on th s 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 p er 1 00 e p is od es , b y m et ho d : m ed ia n va lu es f or 1 9 co un tr ie s M et ho d M on th A ll re as on s Re po rt ed fa ilu re M et ho d- re la te d (S id e- ef fe ct s or he al th c on ce rn s) D es ir e fo r pr eg na nc y N o fu rt he r ne ed Al l m et ho ds 12 37 .7 7. 2 19 .9 10 .4 6. 1 7. 8 24 54 .6 13 .9 28 .4 16 .8 16 .7 12 .5 36 64 .3 18 .9 34 .5 21 .7 22 .9 15 .3 Pi ll 12 43 .5 5. 6 25 .4 20 .1 10 .4 8. 5 24 65 .0 11 .7 37 .9 30 .3 20 .8 12 .1 36 76 .3 15 .6 45 .7 37 .4 30 .5 14 .9 IU D 12 13 .1 1. 1 8. 8 7. 7 1. 3 0. 8 24 26 .3 2. 2 13 .8 13 .0 4. 0 1. 7 36 36 .7 3. 8 20 .2 19 .3 7. 2 2. 9 In je ct ab le 12 40 .6 1. 5 34 .8 26 .9 6. 6 5. 7 24 62 .8 2. 9 50 .6 39 .8 15 .4 10 .0 36 77 .1 4. 3 58 .0 50 .6 24 .5 13 .9 Co nd om 12 50 .4 7. 6 23 .1 2. 6 11 .1 12 .7 24 64 .5 16 .3 28 .8 4. 7 19 .2 17 .8 36 73 .9 22 .2 33 .6 5. 0 26 .1 23 .8 Pe rio di c ab st in en ce 12 40 .3 17 .4 12 .7 1. 0 7. 3 6. 6 24 61 .2 28 .7 19 .7 1. 2 17 .5 10 .4 36 70 .9 36 .3 23 .9 1. 2 22 .9 14 .1 W ith dr aw al 12 40 .0 15 .3 11 .7 1. 1 7. 8 9. 2 24 61 .5 31 .3 17 .7 1. 1 21 .6 15 .2 36 73 .8 40 .8 22 .3 1. 2 30 .0 18 .9 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 13 (b) Reported failure Reported failure rates are summarized for the 19 recent surveys in Table 2 and Figure 2. IUD and injectable users report very low failure rates, as expected. In the first three years of use, the probability of experiencing an accidental pregnancy while using either of these two methods is less than 5%. Pill and condom users report higher failure rates: 5.6% and 7.6% in the first 12 months for the pill and the condom, respectively, rising to 15.6% and 22.2% by month 36. Annex Tables B2.1–B2.7 show considerable intercountry variability. For both methods 12-month failure rates range from about 2% to 19%. Failure probabilities are very much higher for periodic abstinence and withdrawal; for periodic abstinence, the probability rises from 17% at 12 months to 36% at 36 months, while the corresponding estimates for withdrawal are 15% and 41%. The width of the boxes in Figure 2 indicates considerable differences between countries. (c) Method-related reasons and side-effects or health concerns As explained above, side-effects and health concerns are a subset of method-related reasons but the latter also includes desire to switch to a more effective method, problems of cost or access and husband’s objections. The merit of showing discontinuation for side-effects or health concerns separately is clear from Table 2 and Figures 3 and 4. For periodic abstinence and withdrawal, and to a lesser extent condoms, few women discontinue for this Figure 1: All reasons discontinuation probabilities at 12 months per 100 episodes, by method, 19 countries 14 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e 3. M ed ia n d ur at io n of m et ho d -s p ec ifi c us e (m on th s) f or 1 9 co un tr ie s Co un tr y A ll M od er n m et ho ds Tr ad it io na l m et ho ds m et ho ds Pi ll IU D In je ct ab le Co nd om Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e W it hd ra w al A rm en ia ( 20 05 ) 25 .9 – 60 + 23 .1 15 .1 23 .4 Ba ng la de sh ( 20 04 ) 12 .1 14 .0 24 .8 3. 6 14 .3 17 .9 7. 8 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 20 .0 13 .6 50 .3 13 .1 12 .1 15 .7 15 .3 D om in ic an R ep ub lic ( 20 02 ) 14 .8 12 .5 23 .6 3. 9 5. 9 10 .3 8. 4 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 26 .7 16 .6 35 .5 25 .1 20 .7 – – Et hi op ia ( 20 05 ) 16 .7 8. 7 – – 25 .3 16 .5 – In do ne si a (2 00 7) 35 .6 19 .6 61 .0 23 .1 37 .5 34 .8 27 .2 Jo rd an ( 20 09 ) 14 .1 11 .5 39 .5 11 .8 7. 6 13 .4 14 .6 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 19 .1 15 .4 – 9. 8 24 .2 19 .7 – M al aw i (2 00 4) 18 .0 11 .6 – 10 .7 18 .8 – 15 .2 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 20 .3 12 .9 60 + 17 .1 – 23 .6 18 .7 M or oc co ( 20 03 /4 ) 15 .2 18 .4 42 .4 12 .0 11 .9 11 .8 13 .7 Pe ru ( 20 04 /6 ) 12 .3 5. 9 36 .7 10 .5 16 .0 17 .1 14 .9 Ph ili pp in es ( 20 03 ) 19 .9 19 .9 61 .0 8. 1 11 .5 22 .4 15 .1 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic o f (2 00 4/ 5) 16 .3 16 .7 – 11 .5 17 .9 21 .7 13 .9 Tu rk ey ( 20 03 ) 19 .7 8. 6 60 + 14 .4 3. 8 12 .0 16 .6 U kr ai ne ( 20 07 ) 46 .7 41 .5 60 + 42 .4 – 23 .5 23 .9 V ie t N am ( 20 02 ) 34 .9 23 .2 60 + 18 .9 – 23 .1 23 .3 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 30 .7 32 .7 – 11 .1 28 .6 – 20 .6 M ed ia n 19 .7 14 .7 40 .0 + 11 .9 16 .0 17 .5 15 .2 N ot e: e st im at es n ot s ho w n w he n nu m be r of e pi so de s is le ss th an 1 00 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 15 Figure 2: Probabilities of reported failure at 12 months per 100 episodes, by method, 19 countries reason, yet overall method-related discontinuation is relatively high. Dissatisfaction with these methods stems not from medical concerns but primarily from their low effectiveness and husband’s dislike. Conversely, for the other methods, side-effects/ health concerns dominate and other forms of method-related dissatisfaction are rarely stated as a reason to stop use. Method-related dissatisfaction is the most common reason for discontinuation for all methods except periodic abstinence and withdrawal, for which failure is more common. Injectable users report the highest likelihood of stopping for this group of reasons; 35% by the end of the first year, rising to 51% by the end of the second year. Figure 5 shows 12 month method-related discontinuation for the 15 countries with a recent survey and sufficient numbers of injectable users to permit estimation. The probabilities of stopping range from over 50% in Dominican Republic, Jordan and Turkey to less than 20% in Indonesia, Zimbabwe, Malawi and Ethiopia. The conditional probabilities in annex Table B3.4 indicate that discontinuation because of dissatisfaction with injectables is nearly always lower in the second and third years of use than in the first year. After injectable users, pill users are the next most susceptible group to method-related discontinuation with probabilities of 25%, 38% and 46% by the end of the first, second and third year, respectively. Figure 6 shows variability in 12 month discontinuation for 18 countries with a recent survey. Zimbabwe is an outlier with very low discontinuation, and rates are also low in Morocco 16 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Figure 3: Probabilities of method-related discontinuation at 12 months per 100 episodes, by method, 19 countries Figure 4: Probabilities of discontinuation due to side-effects or health concerns at 12 months per 100 episodes, by method, 19 countries evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 17 and Ukraine. The highest percentage discontinuing are found in Ethiopia and Peru. Condom discontinuation for method-related reasons is nearly as high as for the pill by month 12 (23% versus 25%) but is much lower in the second and third years of use. By the end of the third year, about one-third of condom users have stopped compared with nearly half of pill users. Country-specific results are shown in annex Table B3.5. Discontinuation because of dissatisfaction is particularly low in Armenia, Ukraine and Turkey and particularly high in the Dominican Republic and Philippines. Among “modern” methods included in this report, the IUD has by far the lowest discontinuation for method-related reasons, and intercountry variability is also modest. Users of periodic abstinence and withdrawal also have similarly low levels of method-related discontinuation. (d) Desire for pregnancy As shown in Table 2, on average in the 19 countries with a recent survey only 6% of couples stop use of any contraceptive method in the first year because they desire another child. This figure rises to 17% by the end of the second year and further to 23% by the end of year three. Differences by method are modest, with the exception of IUD users who are much less likely to stop for this reason. Country differences, however, are pronounced (annex Table B5.1). In Egypt, Ethiopia, Jordan, Malawi, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe, the probability of stopping a method by the end of the third year to have another child is over one-third. Conversely, it is below 15% in Armenia, Colombia, Moldova, Figure 5: Probabilities of method-related discontinuation at 12 months of injectables per 100 episodes, for 15 countries 18 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Peru and Ukraine. These contrasts no doubt reflect differences in contraceptive use for spacing rather than for limiting childbearing. (e) No further need No further need includes marital separation, cessation of sex and perceived inability to conceive. This category is the least common reason for stopping use; the 36-month cumulative probability of discontinuation because of no further need is 15%. Condom users are most likely to cite this reason and IUD users least likely (Table 2). Additional details are shown in annex Tables B6.1–B6.7. 3.2 Switching after discontinuation for method-related reasons As explained in Section 2, method-switching is analysed here in terms of status three months after discontinuation because most couples who switch to another method do so within this period of time. Attention is confined to those who discontinued for reasons that imply dissatisfaction with their method because this reason suggests a continuing need for contraceptive protection. Table 4 shows the detailed results for 17 countries with a recent survey and a sufficient number of discontinued episodes to justify analysis. Figure 7 provides a summary. Very wide intercountry variation in switching probabilities is apparent. In Morocco, Moldova, Turkey and Viet Nam about 80% of couples switched within three months; at the other extreme, less than half switched in Dominican Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Low probabilities of switching appear to characterise the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The Figure 6: Probabilities of method-related discontinuation at 12 months of oral contraceptives per 100 episodes, for 18 countries. evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 19 result obtained in the 2004 Malawi survey is striking; only 14% switched. In all countries, the most common destination method was a modern reversible method. However, over 20% switched to a traditional method in Armenia, Jordan, Moldova Turkey and Viet Nam. Sterilization within three months of discontinuation was rare except in Colombia. Annex Table C1 permits examination of trends in switching. Confining attention to countries with at least three surveys, monotonic increases in switching to a modern reversible method or to sterilization are recorded in three countries. In Bangladesh, the percentage who switched increased from 56% to 72% between 1993–94 and 2004. In the Dominican Republic, the figures rose from 24% to 39% between 1991 and 2002, and in Turkey, over a similar time period, the rise was from 73% to 82%. In Colombia and Egypt, a trend towards increased switching was reversed in the most recent survey. Couples who did not switch within three months are classified into two groups, those already pregnant and those who are not pregnant but at risk of becoming so. The percentage already pregnant exceeds 10% in Armenia, Colombia, Dominican Republic Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Philippines and Zimbabwe. Those still at risk are likely to experience an unintended pregnancy in the near future. Annex Tables C2–C7 present switching information following discontinuation of specific methods. Such information should be useful for family planning providers in specific countries. Very few women report switching between different brands of the same method though such behaviour may be underreported. Because the popularity and prevalence of specific methods differ between countries, method-specific switching also varies. It may be noted that switching between the two hormonal methods, pills and injectables, is common in several countries. Thus it appears that side-effects or health concerns with the pill do not deter women from trying injectables, and vice versa. IUD discontinuers mostly switch to hormonal methods, or, in a minority of countries, to sterilization. Switching from one traditional method to another is uncommon. 3.3 Reproductive consequences of discontinuation a) Because of reported failure Following accidental pregnancy while using a method, four main possible outcomes are analysed: the pregnancy ended in miscarriage, stillbirth or abortion; the pregnancy is continuing or has ended in a live- birth, which is reported as unwanted, mistimed or wanted. It will be recalled that DHS interviews usually make no attempt to distinguish between spontaneous and induced abortion. Detailed results are shown in annex Tables D 1.1–D 1.3 and are summarized in Figure 8. In the majority of countries the percentage of accidental pregnancies that end in miscarriage, stillbirth or abortion lies in the range of 5% to 20%. The striking exceptions are Armenia, Ukraine and Viet Nam where well over half of pregnancies terminate in non-live births. In these countries, induced abortion is readily and legally available and this no doubt accounts for the high probability of termination. Turkey, where induced abortion is readily 20 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e 4. S ta tu s at t hr ee m on th s af te r d is co nt in ui ng a ny m et ho d f or m et ho d -r el at ed r ea so ns f or 1 7 co un tr ie s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Sw it ch ed t o: A t ri sk Be ca m e pr eg na nt IU D Pi ll In je ct ab le Ba rr ie r A ny m od er n re ve rs ib le m et ho d St er ili za ti on Tr ad it io na l m et ho d Ba ng la de sh ( 20 04 ) 21 .6 5. 9 0. 9 25 .7 18 .5 11 .7 56 .8 0. 4 15 .3 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 18 .9 12 .7 10 .5 16 .5 13 .0 8. 3 48 .3 9. 4 10 .7 D om in ic an R ep ub lic ( 20 02 ) 38 .2 19 .5 3. 8 15 .0 6. 0 4. 3 29 .1 3. 6 9. 6 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 40 .1 11 .4 17 .2 20 .0 9. 2 1. 2 47 .6 0. 1 0. 9 Et hi op ia ( 20 05 ) 42 .1 13 .6 0. 5 13 .4 26 .6 0. 4 41 .1 0. 0 3. 2 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 27 .1 6. 1 2. 9 35 .7 21 .5 2. 1 62 .2 0. 2 4. 4 Jo rd an ( 20 09 ) 22 .8 8. 0 17 .5 15 .1 2. 6 9. 1 44 .3 0. 1 24 .7 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 50 .7 14 .0 2. 8 11 .2 15 .1 1. 2 30 .3 0. 2 4. 8 M al aw i (2 00 4) 73 .4 12 .8 0. 0 3. 6 4. 1 1. 8 9. 6 0. 9 3. 3 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 17 .0 3. 3 29 .8 9. 8 0. 1 11 .7 51 .4 1. 1 27 .3 M or oc co ( 20 03 /4 ) 16 .5 4. 2 9. 3 40 .5 8. 1 3. 2 61 .2 0. 6 17 .4 Pe ru ( 20 04 /6 ) 22 .8 3. 4 5. 9 18 .5 19 .0 12 .2 55 .5 0. 4 17 .7 Ph ili pp in es ( 20 03 ) 34 .0 11 .7 2. 5 19 .4 8. 5 5. 5 35 .9 0. 4 18 .0 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic o f (2 00 4/ 5) 55 .8 9. 2 0. 3 12 .1 13 .1 2. 9 28 .4 0. 5 6. 1 Tu rk ey ( 20 03 ) 13 .5 4. 2 29 .0 14 .5 2. 5 15 .4 61 .3 0. 4 20 .6 V ie t N am ( 20 02 ) 12 .2 9. 8 25 .2 12 .3 0. 9 13 .7 52 .0 2. 8 23 .2 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 46 .9 12 .7 0. 0 13 .4 22 .6 2. 1 38 .2 0. 1 2. 1 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 21 and legally available, also records a high level of terminations at 33%. As expected, the majority of pregnancies/births resulting from contraceptive failure are reported by women as unwanted or mistimed. Mistimed births tend to be more common than unwanted ones. However, in Egypt, Indonesia, Philippines and Zimbabwe, over 20% are reported as wanted. (b) Because of method-related reasons The reproductive consequences of method-related discontinuation are assessed in terms of reproductive/ contraceptive outcomes in the 12 months after discontinuation. Six main outcomes are possible: no new method has been adopted but no pregnancy has occurred and the women is classified as “at risk”; switched to another method; a current pregnancy or live birth occurred and is reported as unwanted, mistimed or wanted; a pregnancy occurred but ended in miscarriage, stillbirth or abortion. The results in annex Tables D 2.1–D 2.3 show that the percentage classified as still at risk varies widely from less than 10% in Ukraine and Viet Nam to over 30% in Ethiopia, Malawi, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. In the majority of countries with a recent survey, the percentage at risk is higher than the percentage who became pregnant. Bearing in mind that, on average, about 85% of healthy, sexually active, non-contracepting couples will conceive within 12 months, the proportions at risk are surprisingly high in relation to the proportions who became pregnant. Sexual abstinence or underreporting of contraceptive-use episodes or of abortion may be responsible. Figure 7: Percent who switched to a modern and to a traditional method within three months of method-related discontinuation, for 17 countries. 22 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation The percentage becoming pregnant in the 12 months following method-related discontinuation is heavily conditioned by the proportion who switch to another method. The incidence of any pregnancy or live-birth is over 30% in Dominican Republic, Kenya and Malawi and between 20% and 29% in Egypt, Ethiopia, Philippines, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. The occurrence of reported pregnancy termination is very low except in Armenia (14%) and Moldova (10%). In Egypt, Indonesia, Moldova and Ukraine, over half of continuing pregnancies and live-births are described by women as wanted. In all other countries, the majority are classified as unwanted or mistimed. The probability of experiencing an unwanted or mistimed pregnancy in the 12 months following discontinuation are summarized in Figure 9. The incidence of unintended pregnancies/births is particularly high, at over 15%, in Dominican Republic, Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe and particularly low, at under 5%, in Armenia, Moldova, Turkey, Ukraine and Viet Nam. (c) Because of desire for another child In the 12 months following discontinuation in order to have another child, method-switching, as expected, is uncommon and reported pregnancy loss is also below 10% in all countries except Jordan at 13%. As shown in annex Tables D 3.1–D 3.3, the majority of couples experience a pregnancy or live-birth, and the vast majority are classified by mothers as wanted. In a few countries, the percentage who did not conceive within 12 months is higher than biological expectations. These countries are Bangladesh, Indonesia and Ukraine where about 28% did not conceive. 4. Implications This compendium is not an analytic report but even the descriptive results, summarized above, have Figure 8: Reproductive outcomes of accidental pregnancy, per 100 episodes, for 19 countries evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 23 some obvious implications. First, discontinuation of each of the six contraceptive methods is high, with the striking exception of IUDs. In 17 of the 19 countries with a recent survey, less than 20% of women stopped using IUDs for any reason within 12 months. For the other methods discontinuation was much higher, typically between 30 and 50%. For hormonal methods side-effects and health concerns were the dominant reason for ceasing use. For condoms, periodic abstinence and withdrawal, accidental pregnancy and desire to switch to a more effective method were more important reasons than side-effects and health worries. One obvious reaction to high rates of discontinuation is to stress the need to improve service quality, particularly counselling, so that women are forewarned about side- effects and reassured about health concerns. Such improvements are highly desirable and might have some beneficial effect but it is nevertheless prudent to assume that many will stop use for reasons that imply dissatisfaction with the method, regardless of service quality. This consideration underscores the key importance of method-switching. In most countries, at least 40% do switch promptly to an alternative but that leaves a large fraction who do not and are therefore at risk of an unintended pregnancy. To meet the needs of couples, an effective family planning service must ensure easy access to a range of methods and should facilitate switching when the need arises. On all dimensions of contraceptive use dynamics documented in this compendium huge intercountry differences are apparent. To give but two examples, the 12-month probability of stopping pills or injectables for method-related Figure 9: Reproductive outcomes within 12 months of method-related discontinuation, for 19 countries 24 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation reasons ranges from about 15% to 50% and the probability of prompt switching ranges form 30% to 80%. The reasons for this variability in behaviour lie beyond the scope of this report but the results clearly identify countries where severe problems exist, whether they stem from inadequacies of services or from the beliefs and perceptions of clients. Despite the huge body of research on contraceptive behaviour, our understanding of its dynamics is still limited. References 1. World contraceptive use 2010. POP/DB/CP/Rev2010. New York, United Nations Population Division, 2011. 2. Marston C, Cleland J. Do unintended pregnancies carried to term lead to adverse outcomes for mother and child? An assessment in five developing countries. Population studies, 2003, 57(1):77–93. 3. Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems. Geneva, World Health Organization, forthcoming. 4. Blanc AK, Curtis SL, Croft TN. Monitoring contraceptive continuation: links to fertility outcomes and quality of care. Studies in family planning, 2002, 33(2):127– 40. 5. Huezo C et al. Acceptability and continuation of use of contraceptive methods. In: Teoh ES, Ratnam SS, Macnaughton M, eds. General Gynaecology: Proceedings of the XIIIth World Congress of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 1993: 1:111–135, Carnforth: Parthenon Publishing Group. 6. Koenig MA, Hossain MB, Whittaker M. The influence of quality of care upon contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Studies in family planning, 1997, 28(4):278– 89. 7. Cotten N et al. Early discontinuation of contraceptive use in Niger and the Gambia. International family planning perspectives, 1992, 18:145–9. 8. Ali MM. Quality of care and contraceptive pill discontinuation in rural Egypt. Journal of biosocial science, 2001, 33(2):161–72. 9. Ali M, Cleland J. Contraceptive discontinuation in six developing countries: a cause-specific analysis. International family planning perspectives, 1995, 21:92–7. 10. Ali M, Cleland J. Determinants of contraceptive discontinuation in six developing countries. Journal of biosocial science, 1999, 31:343–360. 11. Curtis S, Blanc A. Determinants of contraceptive failure, switching, and discontinuation: an analysis of DHS contraceptive histories. DHS Analytical Reports, no. 6. Calverton, Maryland, Macro International Inc., 1997. 12. Blanc AK, Curtis SL, Croft TN. Monitoring contraceptive continuation: links to fertility outcomes and quality of care. Studies in family planning, 2002, 33(2):127– 40. 13. Ali MM, Cleland J. Oral contraceptive discontinuation and its aftermath in 19 developing countries. Contraception, 2010, 81(1):22–29. 14. Ali MM, Cleland J. Contraceptive switching after method-related discontinuation: levels and differentials. Studies in family planning, 2010, 41(2):129–133. evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 25 15. Cleland J, Ali MM. Reproductive consequences of contraceptive failure in 19 developing countries. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2004, 104(2):314–20. 16. Curtis S, Evens E, Sambisa W. Contraceptive discontinuation and unintended pregnancy: an imperfect relationship. International perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 2011, 37(2):58–66. 17. Bradley SEK, Schwandt HM, Khan S. Levels, trends, and reasons for contraceptive discontinuation. DHS Analytical Studies 20. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc., 2009 18. Bradley SEK, Croft TN, Rutstein SO. The impact of contraceptive failure on unintended births and induced abortions: estimates and strategies for reduction. DHS Analytical Studies 22. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc., 2011. 26 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Annexes Table A1: Background information by country and survey Country Date of fieldwork No. of women Percentage ever-married No. of episodes Contraceptive prevalence (%) TFR Unmet need (%) Armenia 2005 6 566 61.6 2 205 33.1 1.7 13.3 2000 6 430 64.1 3 507 39.0 1.7 11.8 Bangladesh 2004 11 440 92.5 10 186 54.1 3.0 11.1 1999/2000 10 544 92.2 8 248 50.0 3.3 15.0 1996/97 9 127 92.6 6 331 46.1 3.3 15.7 1993/94 9 640 93.2 6 728 42.0 3.4 17.9 Bolivia 1994 8 603 62.0 3 860 30.1 4.8 23.2 Brazil 1996 12 612 60.1 5 901 55.4 2.5 7.3 1991 6 223 56.9 2 801 39.1 3.7 18.3 Colombia 2005 41 344 47.9 17 096 52.5 2.4 5.8 2000 11 585 51.2 6 046 52.8 2.6 6.1 1995 11 140 54.7 6 361 48.1 3.0 7.7 1990 9 133 53.2 4 107 40.2 2.8 11.1 Dominican Republic 2002 23 384 59.9 11 046 51.2 3.0 10.9 1996 8 422 59.2 4 146 44.6 2.7 11.9 1991 7 318 55.8 3 084 36.8 3.2 12.5 Egypt 2008 16 527 93.2 9 921 56.2 3.0 9.2 2005 19 474 93.4 15 239 55.4 3.1 10.3 2000 15 573 92.4 10 475 51.9 3.5 10.7 1995 14 779 92.8 9 239 44.4 3.6 16.0 1992 9 864 92.8 6 413 43.7 3.9 19.8 Ethiopia 2005 14 070 64.4 2 146 10.3 5.4 33.8 Guatemala 1998/99 6 021 65.8 1 859 26.6 5.0 23.1 1995 12 403 64.4 2 688 21.4 5.1 24.3 Indonesia 2007 32 895 94.0 20 018 57.9 2.6 9.1 2002/3 29 483 94.5 16 216 57.3 2.6 8.6 1997 28 810 93.3 16 008 53.7 2.8 9.2 1994 28 168 93.0 15 709 51.0 2.9 10.6 1991 22 909 92.1 12 422 45.9 3.0 14.1 Jordan 2009 10 109 95.5 10 715 56.8 3.8 11.2 2007 10 876 95.2 10 193 54.5 3.6 11.9 2002 6 006 95.0 6 221 53.1 3.7 11.0 1997 5 548 96.2 6 304 50.7 4.4 14.2 1990 6 461 95.5 5 660 38.3 5.6 22.2 Kazakhstan 1999 4 800 62.9 2 619 48.0 2.0 8.7 Kenya 2003 7 881 61.3 2 738 28.4 4.9 24.5 1998 8 195 60.0 2 358 29.9 4.7 23.9 Malawi 2004 11 698 71.1 4 590 25.7 6.0 27.6 Morocco 2003/4 16 798 52.3 9 944 22.9 2.5 10.0 1992 9 256 55.3 3 946 33.3 4.0 19.7 Moldova, Republic of 2005 7 440 66.4 3 678 49.8 1.7 6.7 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 27 Country Date of fieldwork No. of women Percentage ever-married No. of episodes Contraceptive prevalence (%) TFR Unmet need (%) Nicaragua 1998 13 634 59.0 6 596 40.8 Paraguay 1990 5 827 61.3 3 683 32.7 3.6 14.7 Peru 2004/6 11 717 54.0 3 729 44.9 2000 27 843 56.1 15 268 44.0 2.8 10.2 1996 28 951 58.3 17 074 40.9 3.5 12.1 1991/2 15 882 55.0 8 342 35.7 3.5 15.5 Philippines 2003 13 633 63.6 5 585 31.6 3.3 22.3 1998 13 983 59.6 5 887 28.9 3.5 17.3 1993 15 029 59.6 4 592 24.2 3.7 18.8 Tanzania, United Republic of 2004/5 10 329 67.3 3 618 22.5 5.7 21.8 Turkey 2003 8 075 95.0 7 039 67.6 1998 8 576 69.0 4 848 44.2 2.6 10.1 1993 6 519 96.2 5 365 60.3 2.5 11.2 Ukraine 2007 6 841 60.2 2 595 50.9 1.2 10.3 Viet Nam 2002 5 665 94.2 3 550 79.8 1.9 4.8 1997 5 664 94.3 3 497 76.7 2.3 6.9 Zimbabwe 2005/6 8 907 57.7 4 271 40.1 3.8 12.8 1999 5 907 61.1 2 812 37.7 4.0 12.9 1994 6 128 61.8 2 928 35.1 4.3 14.9 Table A1: Background information by country and survey (continued) 28 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e A 2: N um b er o f ep is od es b y m et ho d s an d s ur ve y Co un tr y/ su rv ey Pi ll IU D In je ct ab le Co nd om St er ili za ti on Pe ri od ic ab st in en ce W it hd ra w al O th er m od er n O th er tr ad it io na l To ta l A rm en ia (2 00 0) 88 29 4 6 42 5 52 27 1 1 89 9 14 45 8 3 50 7 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 78 27 0 1 38 0 5 16 3 1 10 6 26 17 6 2 20 5 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 3 24 9 36 7 79 9 78 4 20 9 78 0 38 1 0 15 9 6 72 8 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 3 18 6 26 3 1 01 9 75 3 12 0 60 3 31 2 10 65 6 33 1 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 4 06 4 17 3 1 29 5 1 08 5 10 6 75 8 61 1 49 10 6 8 24 8 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 5 11 5 10 6 1 73 3 1 31 6 97 94 0 67 8 88 11 2 10 1 85 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 47 7 46 7 14 7 15 9 10 4 1 81 0 19 6 44 45 6 3 86 0 Br az il (1 99 1) 1 19 6 14 15 0 18 2 64 3 25 3 33 1 13 18 2 80 1 Br az il (1 99 6) 2 74 7 96 24 9 65 3 1 11 1 46 3 49 9 14 69 5 90 1 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 1 35 8 72 3 32 2 20 3 45 1 47 6 33 0 22 2 22 4 10 7 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 1 76 2 74 3 44 2 58 0 62 4 70 2 70 8 33 5 46 3 6 36 1 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 1 41 6 68 2 63 3 69 9 55 4 65 0 74 8 14 6 51 7 6 04 6 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 3 71 0 1 96 3 2 55 9 2 17 8 2 46 2 1 18 4 1 78 3 22 3 1 03 3 17 0 95 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 1 33 6 16 9 11 23 5 64 8 30 8 28 5 46 48 3 08 4 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 1 83 0 21 0 85 31 5 72 9 33 8 34 9 98 19 2 4 14 6 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 4 95 2 52 2 85 4 50 2 1 99 8 58 6 62 9 14 0 86 3 11 0 46 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 2 45 9 2 88 8 11 5 31 6 47 12 5 91 91 28 0 6 41 3 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 2 98 7 4 58 0 47 5 39 1 72 13 3 10 7 48 44 7 9 23 9 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 2 46 5 5 41 3 1 43 8 19 0 88 89 59 27 70 7 10 4 75 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 3 82 8 6 93 0 2 41 6 21 8 96 14 2 68 20 4 1 33 6 15 2 39 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 2 90 7 4 95 9 1 63 0 12 6 65 64 40 12 6 2 9 92 1 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 63 1 12 1 30 6 28 1 89 33 16 29 2 14 6 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 68 9 22 7 34 3 33 2 49 6 43 9 12 3 27 12 2 68 8 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 40 3 10 3 39 7 19 5 30 0 32 8 10 2 23 8 1 85 9 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 4 12 8 2 14 2 3 99 9 39 6 27 4 33 2 25 9 67 5 21 6 12 4 22 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 5 24 9 1 82 6 5 73 8 32 0 39 9 37 1 29 1 1 26 6 25 0 15 7 09 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 5 09 3 1 16 1 7 12 9 20 9 28 1 31 6 26 0 1 36 7 19 2 16 0 08 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 4 45 1 82 9 8 40 0 24 5 29 9 37 5 35 3 1 05 1 21 3 16 2 16 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 5 44 8 66 7 11 1 24 49 0 29 1 44 8 70 5 68 7 15 9 20 0 18 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 1 15 2 1 54 3 10 14 2 18 3 68 9 59 9 16 8 1 17 5 5 66 0 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 29 Co un tr y/ su rv ey Pi ll IU D In je ct ab le Co nd om St er ili za ti on Pe ri od ic ab st in en ce W it hd ra w al O th er m od er n O th er tr ad it io na l To ta l Jo rd an (1 99 7) 1 30 4 1 74 2 66 39 1 11 3 84 6 1 08 9 12 9 62 4 6 30 4 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 1 17 6 1 73 9 10 8 48 1 74 63 6 1 21 3 5 79 0 6 22 1 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 2 10 5 2 60 6 18 4 1 00 4 13 9 74 9 2 02 5 19 1 36 1 10 1 93 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 2 11 6 2 53 3 25 3 1 29 2 11 6 79 0 2 32 4 9 1 28 1 10 7 15 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 26 2 99 7 49 33 2 30 24 2 22 6 25 45 7 2 61 9 Ke ny a (1 99 8) 70 1 10 7 67 4 15 0 11 0 47 6 48 34 58 2 35 8 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 75 5 89 98 6 11 5 74 51 3 67 72 68 2 73 8 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 41 0 8 2 72 1 30 9 28 3 73 47 2 43 27 2 4 59 0 M or oc co (1 99 2) 33 9 86 1 6 54 2 93 16 6 1 11 0 3 55 8 3 67 8 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 2 79 2 24 6 31 10 8 71 36 0 26 6 43 29 3 94 6 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 6 06 7 50 2 39 8 25 2 64 63 1 63 0 2 1 39 8 9 94 4 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 2 52 5 1 05 9 85 9 51 8 1 10 7 23 6 15 6 15 12 1 6 59 6 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 1 23 1 23 1 60 8 24 9 14 9 43 0 13 9 63 58 3 3 68 3 Pe ru (1 99 6) 1 30 7 1 30 6 56 5 54 8 27 1 3 14 3 64 3 27 6 28 3 8 34 2 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 2 62 2 2 52 6 2 22 5 1 26 4 79 4 5 12 3 1 05 9 55 9 90 2 17 0 74 Pe ru (2 00 0) 2 40 9 1 43 4 4 07 4 1 50 3 1 08 4 3 07 9 67 5 31 2 69 8 15 2 68 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 59 9 23 2 90 6 49 0 88 72 6 22 7 43 41 7 3 72 9 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 1 47 5 28 6 20 19 7 36 2 95 6 1 22 5 7 65 4 59 2 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 1 54 7 32 1 41 5 33 2 22 0 1 02 7 1 36 5 0 66 1 5 88 7 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 1 87 5 29 4 63 2 33 7 26 5 80 2 1 21 1 87 81 5 58 5 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 96 2 19 1 14 5 30 1 84 24 7 53 4 31 29 5 3 61 8 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 75 0 1 21 0 23 72 7 93 12 6 2 23 2 16 4 39 5 36 5 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 67 5 1 03 3 41 71 4 13 0 88 2 03 8 98 31 4 84 8 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 85 4 1 22 5 15 4 1 22 2 20 2 12 7 2 79 7 72 38 6 7 03 9 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 24 7 46 7 1 93 6 13 31 9 51 9 32 59 2 59 5 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 32 4 1 50 7 15 38 1 24 7 35 3 65 7 0 12 3 49 7 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 49 2 1 24 1 23 40 8 10 2 42 5 85 7 1 2 3 55 0 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 2 07 5 47 11 0 15 7 58 19 32 7 8 12 7 2 92 8 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 1 86 7 17 49 2 99 45 18 14 9 19 10 4 2 81 2 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 3 05 7 15 70 5 13 6 40 15 12 3 68 11 2 4 27 1 Ta bl e A 2: N um b er o f ep is od es b y m et ho d s an d s ur ve y (c on tin ue d) 30 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .1 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 40 .0 59 .3 69 .7 30 .1 22 .9 40 .0 59 .3 69 .7 30 .1 22 .9 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 30 .7 48 .3 58 .4 23 .6 17 .8 30 .7 48 .3 58 .4 23 .6 17 .8 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 47 .9 62 .9 72 .3 28 .6 25 .8 47 .9 62 .9 72 .3 28 .6 25 .8 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 47 .2 61 .4 71 .2 27 .8 25 .6 47 .2 61 .4 71 .2 27 .8 25 .6 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 49 .2 65 .3 74 .8 31 .8 27 .5 49 .2 65 .3 74 .8 31 .8 27 .5 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 49 .9 65 .4 74 .2 31 .0 25 .4 49 .9 65 .4 74 .2 31 .0 25 .4 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 37 .9 61 .3 70 .3 39 .8 21 .6 37 .9 61 .3 70 .3 39 .8 21 .6 Br az il (1 99 1) 44 .4 58 .0 67 .9 19 .8 20 .4 44 .4 58 .0 67 .9 19 .8 20 .4 Br az il (1 99 6) 41 .1 53 .8 61 .8 21 .2 15 .0 41 .1 53 .8 61 .8 21 .2 15 .0 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 36 .8 52 .2 63 .5 23 .8 22 .0 36 .8 52 .2 63 .5 23 .8 22 .0 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 46 .5 61 .7 70 .0 28 .0 16 .8 46 .5 61 .7 70 .0 28 .0 16 .8 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 46 .3 61 .7 69 .4 25 .8 17 .2 46 .3 61 .7 69 .4 25 .8 17 .2 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 37 .1 54 .6 63 .2 27 .8 19 .0 37 .1 54 .6 63 .2 27 .8 19 .0 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 48 .3 60 .9 69 .6 19 .1 15 .2 48 .3 60 .9 69 .6 19 .1 15 .2 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 50 .5 62 .5 69 .2 18 .8 14 .8 50 .5 62 .5 69 .2 18 .8 14 .8 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 44 .5 60 .6 68 .2 28 .3 17 .1 44 .5 60 .6 68 .2 28 .3 17 .1 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 28 .1 48 .8 62 .7 28 .5 25 .6 28 .1 48 .8 62 .7 28 .5 25 .6 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 30 .1 50 .3 63 .3 28 .9 25 .8 30 .1 50 .3 63 .3 28 .9 25 .8 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 29 .4 50 .7 63 .8 30 .3 26 .0 29 .4 50 .7 63 .8 30 .3 26 .0 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 32 .5 53 .6 66 .2 31 .5 26 .7 32 .5 53 .6 66 .2 31 .5 26 .7 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 24 .5 45 .8 60 .8 28 .3 27 .9 24 .5 45 .8 60 .8 28 .3 27 .9 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 42 .2 58 .9 70 .9 28 .4 26 .1 42 .2 58 .9 70 .9 28 .4 26 .1 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 33 .6 47 .4 56 .2 20 .2 15 .3 33 .6 47 .4 56 .2 20 .2 15 .3 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 38 .4 51 .2 60 .5 18 .7 – 38 .4 51 .2 60 .5 18 .7 – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 31 Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 27 .3 42 .4 56 .2 20 .7 23 .9 27 .3 42 .4 56 .2 20 .7 23 .9 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 26 .7 40 .9 52 .0 19 .2 18 .3 26 .7 40 .9 52 .0 19 .2 18 .3 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 23 .6 37 .5 48 .7 18 .2 17 .8 23 .6 37 .5 48 .7 18 .2 17 .8 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 20 .4 33 .5 43 .7 16 .4 15 .2 20 .4 33 .5 43 .7 16 .4 15 .2 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 25 .9 39 .3 50 .5 18 .1 18 .2 25 .9 39 .3 50 .5 18 .1 18 .2 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 43 .8 70 .7 81 .4 47 .5 33 .5 43 .8 70 .7 81 .4 47 .5 33 .5 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 47 .6 69 .8 79 .0 43 .5 30 .2 47 .2 68 .9 77 .8 43 .3 30 .0 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 42 .4 65 .3 76 .5 39 .7 32 .3 42 .4 65 .3 76 .5 39 .7 32 .3 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 38 .1 57 .8 70 .5 31 .4 30 .8 37 .8 57 .0 69 .4 31 .4 30 .8 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 45 .1 63 .0 73 .9 32 .7 30 .0 45 .1 63 .0 73 .8 32 .7 30 .0 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 41 .3 55 .4 62 .9 16 .8 10 .3 41 .3 55 .4 62 .9 16 .8 10 .3 Ke ny a (1 99 8) 29 .7 50 .0 63 .7 30 .8 29 .5 29 .7 50 .0 63 .7 30 .8 29 .5 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 36 .0 57 .6 69 .8 33 .4 25 .6 36 .0 57 .6 69 .8 33 .4 25 .6 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 34 .1 63 .4 79 .1 43 .4 39 .1 34 .1 63 .4 79 .1 43 .4 39 .1 M or oc co (1 99 2) 37 .7 59 .5 73 .3 35 .1 34 .8 37 .7 59 .5 73 .3 35 .1 34 .8 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 43 .1 62 .7 73 .4 34 .6 27 .4 43 .1 62 .7 73 .4 34 .6 27 .4 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 38 .1 54 .1 63 .5 24 .5 19 .6 38 .1 54 .1 63 .5 24 .5 19 .6 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 38 .3 53 .9 63 .6 24 .7 19 .6 38 .3 53 .9 63 .6 24 .7 19 .6 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 54 .4 67 .8 75 .5 30 .2 31 .0 54 .4 67 .8 75 .5 30 .2 31 .0 Pe ru (1 99 6) 43 .9 59 .7 69 .2 27 .9 21 .9 43 .9 59 .7 69 .2 27 .9 21 .9 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 42 .4 59 .1 69 .0 28 .7 23 .5 42 .4 59 .1 69 .0 28 .7 23 .5 Pe ru (2 00 0) 37 .5 54 .8 64 .1 27 .5 20 .2 37 .5 54 .8 64 .1 27 .5 20 .2 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 48 .8 66 .8 76 .2 35 .6 29 .7 48 .8 66 .8 76 .2 35 .6 29 .7 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 34 .7 52 .7 63 .2 27 .1 22 .5 34 .7 52 .7 63 .2 27 .1 22 .5 Ta bl e B .1 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) A ll m et ho ds 32 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 42 .2 61 .3 70 .7 32 .8 22 .4 42 .2 61 .3 70 .7 32 .8 22 .4 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 37 .7 54 .6 64 .3 27 .1 21 .3 37 .7 54 .6 64 .3 27 .1 21 .3 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 37 .7 68 .2 83 .4 48 .3 44 .9 37 .7 68 .2 83 .4 48 .3 44 .9 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 37 .1 52 .5 62 .3 23 .9 20 .7 37 .1 52 .5 62 .3 23 .9 20 .7 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 34 .2 49 .0 60 .9 23 .3 24 .3 34 .2 49 .0 60 .9 23 .3 24 .3 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 39 .6 54 .6 63 .2 23 .4 18 .4 39 .6 54 .6 63 .2 23 .4 18 .4 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 20 .1 35 .7 44 .5 19 .5 14 .3 20 .0 35 .6 44 .5 19 .5 14 .3 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 17 .6 30 .0 38 .5 15 .0 11 .9 17 .6 30 .0 38 .5 15 .0 11 .9 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 25 .3 39 .3 50 .7 19 .4 19 .8 25 .3 39 .3 50 .7 19 .4 19 .8 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 18 .0 47 .3 67 .9 34 .9 37 .9 18 .0 47 .3 67 .9 34 .9 37 .9 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 16 .8 40 .8 61 .9 27 .5 35 .2 16 .8 40 .8 61 .9 27 .5 35 .2 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 16 .7 39 .4 57 .7 26 .5 29 .6 16 .7 39 .4 57 .7 26 .5 29 .6 Ta bl e B .1 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) A ll m et ho ds evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 33 Ta bl e B .1 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s O ra l p ill s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – A rm en ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 44 .8 61 .1 72 .4 29 .5 29 .0 44 .8 61 .1 72 .4 29 .5 29 .0 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 44 .5 60 .2 70 .4 28 .4 25 .6 44 .5 60 .2 70 .4 28 .4 25 .6 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 46 .2 61 .7 72 .9 28 .8 29 .1 46 .2 61 .7 72 .9 28 .8 29 .1 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 46 .1 62 .6 72 .1 30 .6 25 .3 46 .1 62 .6 72 .1 30 .6 25 .3 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 57 .6 73 .8 82 .4 38 .1 – 57 .6 73 .8 82 .4 38 .1 – Br az il (1 99 1) 49 .3 69 .5 85 .6 39 .8 52 .7 49 .3 69 .5 85 .6 39 .8 52 .7 Br az il (1 99 6) 44 .3 61 .2 72 .9 30 .4 30 .0 44 .3 61 .2 72 .9 30 .4 30 .0 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 41 .7 61 .6 73 .2 34 .0 30 .2 41 .7 61 .6 73 .2 34 .0 30 .2 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 50 .1 68 .0 77 .2 35 .8 29 .0 50 .1 68 .0 77 .2 35 .8 29 .0 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 45 .6 65 .8 75 .8 37 .1 29 .3 45 .6 65 .8 75 .8 37 .1 29 .3 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 44 .4 66 .4 77 .5 39 .6 33 .0 44 .4 66 .4 77 .5 39 .6 33 .0 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 60 .4 77 .9 90 .4 44 .1 56 .4 60 .4 77 .9 90 .4 44 .1 56 .4 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 57 .5 73 .7 84 .4 38 .1 40 .6 57 .5 73 .7 84 .4 38 .1 40 .6 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 48 .2 69 .3 80 .0 40 .6 35 .0 48 .2 69 .3 80 .0 40 .6 35 .0 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 41 .9 62 .7 75 .1 35 .9 33 .1 41 .9 62 .7 75 .1 35 .9 33 .1 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 46 .8 65 .5 76 .3 35 .1 31 .2 46 .8 65 .5 76 .3 35 .1 31 .2 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 48 .2 67 .1 76 .3 36 .5 27 .8 48 .2 67 .1 76 .3 36 .5 27 .8 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 50 .2 68 .9 78 .3 37 .6 30 .3 50 .2 68 .9 78 .3 37 .6 30 .3 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 39 .9 63 .5 75 .2 39 .2 32 .0 39 .9 63 .5 75 .2 39 .2 32 .0 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 61 .5 78 .5 86 .9 44 .3 – 61 .5 78 .5 86 .9 44 .3 – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 44 .5 64 .6 77 .4 36 .2 36 .2 44 .5 64 .6 77 .4 36 .2 36 .2 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 46 .4 63 .1 73 .3 31 .2 – 46 .4 63 .1 73 .3 31 .2 – 34 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 29 .6 43 .7 57 .1 20 .0 23 .7 29 .6 43 .7 57 .1 20 .0 23 .7 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 33 .2 46 .7 57 .0 20 .2 19 .3 33 .2 46 .7 57 .0 20 .2 19 .3 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 33 .5 47 .2 59 .2 20 .7 22 .7 33 .5 47 .2 59 .2 20 .7 22 .7 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 31 .8 48 .3 58 .7 24 .1 20 .1 31 .8 48 .3 58 .7 24 .1 20 .1 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 38 .7 53 .9 63 .7 24 .8 21 .2 38 .7 53 .9 63 .7 24 .8 21 .2 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 63 .6 82 .9 89 .6 53 .0 39 .6 63 .6 82 .9 89 .6 53 .0 39 .6 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 66 .1 82 .5 91 .0 48 .4 48 .6 65 .0 80 .8 88 .6 48 .3 47 .6 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 55 .9 78 .1 88 .0 50 .3 45 .1 55 .9 78 .1 88 .0 50 .3 45 .1 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 46 .4 69 .7 80 .5 43 .5 35 .6 46 .4 69 .7 80 .4 43 .5 35 .6 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 51 .9 73 .0 83 .6 43 .9 39 .1 51 .9 73 .0 83 .6 43 .9 39 .1 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 67 .4 83 .5 87 .4 – – 67 .4 83 .5 87 .4 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 33 .6 56 .3 71 .1 34 .2 33 .8 33 .6 56 .3 71 .1 34 .2 33 .8 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 42 .6 63 .0 74 .5 35 .5 31 .0 42 .6 63 .0 74 .5 35 .5 31 .0 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 51 .5 76 .0 88 .1 50 .6 – 51 .5 76 .0 88 .1 50 .6 – M or oc co (1 99 2) 36 .2 59 .5 73 .6 36 .5 34 .8 36 .2 59 .5 73 .6 36 .5 34 .8 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 40 .7 57 .2 69 .1 27 .9 27 .7 40 .7 57 .2 69 .1 27 .9 27 .7 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 46 .6 69 .2 78 .1 42 .3 – 46 .6 69 .2 78 .1 42 .3 – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 47 .2 65 .7 78 .5 35 .0 37 .4 47 .2 65 .7 78 .5 35 .0 37 .4 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 56 .8 70 .9 79 .9 32 .5 31 .0 56 .8 70 .9 79 .9 32 .5 31 .0 Pe ru (1 99 6) 54 .0 70 .5 80 .5 35 .8 33 .9 54 .0 70 .5 80 .5 35 .8 33 .9 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 52 .1 69 .1 80 .0 35 .5 35 .4 52 .1 69 .1 80 .0 35 .5 35 .4 Pe ru (2 00 0) 55 .0 72 .9 82 .6 39 .9 35 .7 55 .0 72 .9 82 .6 39 .9 35 .7 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 63 .4 79 .8 86 .8 44 .9 – 63 .4 79 .8 86 .8 44 .9 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 40 .2 58 .2 70 .7 30 .0 30 .0 40 .2 58 .2 70 .7 30 .0 30 .0 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 43 .3 58 .7 68 .4 27 .2 23 .5 43 .3 58 .7 68 .4 27 .2 23 .5 Ta bl e B .1 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) O ra l p ill s evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 35 Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 38 .6 55 .2 65 .9 27 .0 23 .9 38 .6 55 .2 65 .9 27 .0 23 .9 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 37 .6 66 .6 79 .8 46 .5 39 .4 37 .6 66 .6 79 .8 46 .5 39 .4 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 55 .6 71 .5 81 .7 35 .8 36 .0 55 .6 71 .5 81 .7 35 .8 36 .0 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 56 .8 72 .0 82 .1 35 .2 35 .8 56 .8 72 .0 82 .1 35 .2 35 .8 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 55 .0 72 .7 80 .3 39 .4 27 .9 55 .0 72 .7 80 .3 39 .4 27 .9 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 19 .0 36 .2 40 .7 21 .2 – 19 .0 35 .9 40 .3 21 .0 – V ie t N am (1 99 7) 33 .2 53 .8 61 .1 30 .8 – 33 .2 53 .8 61 .1 30 .8 – V ie t N am (2 00 2) 36 .4 51 .4 67 .7 23 .6 33 .4 36 .4 51 .4 67 .7 23 .6 33 .4 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 14 .4 42 .3 64 .2 32 .6 37 .9 14 .4 42 .3 64 .2 32 .6 37 .9 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 14 .3 37 .6 60 .0 27 .1 35 .9 14 .3 37 .6 60 .0 27 .1 35 .9 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 13 .1 36 .3 55 .4 26 .6 30 .0 13 .1 36 .3 55 .4 26 .6 30 .0 Ta bl e B .1 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) O ra l p ill s 36 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .1 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s IU D Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 6. 6 16 .2 24 .1 10 .3 9. 4 6. 6 16 .2 24 .1 10 .3 9. 4 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 7. 6 10 .2 17 .3 2. 9 7. 8 7. 6 10 .2 17 .3 2. 9 7. 8 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 37 .3 54 .1 65 .6 26 .7 – 37 .3 54 .1 65 .6 26 .7 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 40 .9 51 .7 66 .0 18 .4 – 40 .9 51 .7 66 .0 18 .4 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 33 .7 52 .1 65 .2 – – 33 .7 52 .1 65 .2 – – Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 32 .9 48 .9 68 .8 – – 32 .9 48 .9 68 .8 – – Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 11 .8 25 .2 37 .8 15 .2 16 .8 11 .8 25 .2 37 .8 15 .2 16 .8 Br az il (1 99 1) – – – – – – – – – – Br az il (1 99 6) – – – – – – – – – – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 20 .1 34 .4 57 .1 17 .9 34 .6 20 .1 34 .4 57 .1 17 .9 34 .6 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 18 .2 31 .0 43 .0 15 .6 17 .4 18 .2 31 .0 43 .0 15 .6 17 .4 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 17 .4 29 .1 38 .7 14 .1 13 .6 17 .4 29 .1 38 .7 14 .1 13 .6 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 17 .1 29 .4 39 .7 14 .9 14 .5 17 .1 29 .4 39 .7 14 .9 14 .5 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 35 .9 60 .9 84 .5 – – 35 .9 60 .9 84 .5 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 33 .1 45 .9 56 .1 – – 33 .1 45 .9 56 .1 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 30 .1 51 .5 68 .1 30 .6 34 .3 30 .1 51 .5 68 .1 30 .6 34 .3 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 12 .4 29 .6 44 .8 19 .6 21 .6 12 .4 29 .6 44 .8 19 .6 21 .6 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 14 .2 33 .1 49 .1 22 .1 23 .8 14 .2 33 .1 49 .1 22 .1 23 .8 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 13 .9 34 .7 51 .3 24 .2 25 .4 13 .9 34 .7 51 .3 24 .2 25 .4 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 15 .2 35 .5 52 .2 23 .9 25 .8 15 .2 35 .5 52 .2 23 .9 25 .8 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 11 .6 33 .1 50 .6 24 .4 26 .1 11 .6 33 .1 50 .6 24 .4 26 .1 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 17 .6 32 .7 42 .5 – – 17 .6 32 .7 42 .5 – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) – – – – – – – – – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 37 Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 15 .5 25 .3 36 .5 11 .6 14 .9 15 .5 25 .3 36 .5 11 .6 14 .9 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 15 .4 25 .7 36 .0 12 .1 13 .8 15 .4 25 .7 36 .0 12 .1 13 .8 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 12 .3 22 .0 34 .0 11 .0 15 .4 12 .3 22 .0 34 .0 11 .0 15 .4 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 9. 1 17 .8 25 .4 9. 6 9. 2 9. 1 17 .8 25 .4 9. 6 9. 2 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 9. 1 13 .9 23 .2 5. 3 10 .9 9. 1 13 .9 23 .2 5. 3 10 .9 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 20 .5 43 .3 65 .7 28 .8 39 .5 20 .5 43 .3 65 .7 28 .8 39 .5 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 17 .5 40 .0 54 .9 27 .3 24 .9 17 .5 39 .9 54 .8 27 .2 24 .8 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 12 .8 31 .7 50 .2 21 .7 27 .1 12 .8 31 .7 50 .2 21 .7 27 .1 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 11 .9 27 .4 48 .1 17 .5 28 .5 11 .9 27 .4 48 .1 17 .5 28 .5 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 14 .6 31 .5 45 .8 19 .8 20 .9 14 .6 31 .5 45 .8 19 .8 20 .8 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 11 .2 21 .5 29 .6 11 .7 10 .3 11 .2 21 .5 29 .6 11 .7 10 .3 Ke ny a (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) – – – – – – – – – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 17 .1 39 .4 55 .9 26 .8 17 .1 39 .4 55 .9 26 .8 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 15 .2 29 .6 42 .9 17 .0 18 .9 15 .2 29 .6 42 .9 17 .0 18 .9 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 7. 0 14 .0 23 .3 7. 6 10 .8 7. 0 14 .0 23 .3 7. 6 10 .8 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 24 .5 44 .1 57 .6 25 .9 24 .1 24 .5 44 .1 57 .6 25 .9 24 .1 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 14 .3 22 .6 38 .9 9. 8 – 14 .3 22 .6 38 .9 9. 8 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 12 .1 21 .5 34 .3 10 .6 16 .4 12 .1 21 .5 34 .3 10 .6 16 .4 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 17 .8 29 .2 42 .2 13 .9 18 .3 17 .8 29 .2 42 .2 13 .9 18 .3 Pe ru (2 00 0) 16 .8 28 .5 38 .8 14 .1 14 .4 16 .8 28 .5 38 .8 14 .1 14 .4 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 19 .1 32 .6 46 .8 16 .7 – 19 .1 32 .6 46 .8 16 .7 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 21 .6 33 .5 44 .3 15 .2 – 21 .6 33 .5 44 .3 15 .2 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 14 .3 25 .2 34 .7 12 .7 12 .7 14 .3 25 .2 34 .7 12 .7 12 .7 Ta bl e B .1 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) IU D 38 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 13 .8 23 .1 33 .7 10 .8 13 .8 13 .8 23 .1 33 .7 10 .8 13 .8 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 9. 7 19 .8 30 .7 11 .1 13 .6 9. 7 19 .8 30 .7 11 .1 13 .6 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 9. 0 17 .0 29 .7 8. 7 15 .3 9. 0 17 .0 29 .7 8. 7 15 .3 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 10 .1 17 .5 27 .2 8. 2 11 .7 10 .1 17 .5 27 .2 8. 2 11 .7 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 1. 3 5. 5 11 .1 4. 3 5. 9 1. 3 5. 5 11 .0 4. 3 5. 9 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 10 .5 19 .0 26 .7 9. 5 9. 4 10 .5 19 .0 26 .7 9. 5 9. 4 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 12 .5 20 .4 30 .6 9. 1 12 .8 12 .5 20 .4 30 .6 9. 1 12 .8 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) – – – – – – – – – – Ta bl e B .1 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) IU D evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 39 Ta bl e B .1 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s In je ct ab le s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – A rm en ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 56 .8 69 .9 79 .2 30 .4 – 56 .8 69 .9 79 .2 30 .4 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 50 .4 62 .9 73 .7 25 .2 29 .1 50 .4 62 .9 73 .7 25 .2 29 .1 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 49 .4 65 .2 72 .2 31 .2 20 .0 49 .4 65 .2 72 .2 31 .2 20 .0 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 47 .8 61 .5 70 .5 26 .2 23 .5 47 .8 61 .5 70 .5 26 .2 23 .5 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 76 .6 89 .0 94 .1 – – 76 .6 89 .0 94 .1 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 74 .1 91 .5 96 .0 – – 74 .1 91 .5 96 .0 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 61 .8 73 .8 84 .3 – – 61 .8 73 .8 84 .3 – – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 61 .6 72 .1 82 .3 27 .5 – 61 .6 72 .1 82 .3 27 .5 – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 63 .4 76 .9 85 .6 36 .8 – 63 .4 76 .9 85 .6 36 .8 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 59 .7 74 .4 85 .2 36 .5 – 59 .7 74 .4 85 .2 36 .5 – C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 49 .8 71 .4 82 .5 43 .1 38 .9 49 .8 71 .4 82 .5 43 .1 38 .9 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) – – – – – – – – – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) – – – – – – – – – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 66 .9 81 .3 87 .7 43 .7 – 66 .9 81 .3 87 .7 43 .7 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 55 .4 76 .6 88 .3 – – 55 .4 76 .6 88 .3 – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 51 .9 69 .1 76 .3 35 .8 – 51 .9 69 .1 76 .3 35 .8 – Eg yp t (2 00 0) 48 .2 62 .0 72 .3 26 .5 27 .2 48 .2 62 .0 72 .3 26 .5 27 .2 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 45 .1 61 .5 71 .6 29 .8 26 .4 45 .1 61 .5 71 .6 29 .8 26 .4 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 36 .6 54 .5 68 .5 28 .2 30 .9 36 .6 54 .5 68 .5 28 .2 30 .9 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 32 .4 47 .8 61 .4 22 .8 26 .1 32 .4 47 .8 61 .4 22 .8 26 .1 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 53 .5 70 .6 79 .0 – – 53 .5 70 .6 79 .0 – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 55 .4 69 .3 79 .0 31 .1 – 55 .4 69 .3 79 .0 31 .1 – 40 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 32 .4 53 .2 71 .6 30 .8 39 .2 32 .4 53 .2 71 .6 30 .8 39 .2 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 28 .5 47 .2 61 .4 26 .2 26 .9 28 .5 47 .2 61 .4 26 .2 26 .9 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 22 .5 39 .5 52 .1 21 .9 20 .9 22 .5 39 .5 52 .1 21 .9 20 .9 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 18 .2 31 .2 43 .0 16 .0 17 .2 18 .2 31 .2 43 .0 16 .0 17 .2 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 22 .4 35 .9 47 .8 17 .3 18 .6 22 .4 35 .9 47 .8 17 .3 18 .6 Jo rd an (1 99 0) – – – – – – – – – – Jo rd an (1 99 7) – – – – – – – – – – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 56 .4 73 .8 76 .6 – – 56 .4 73 .8 76 .6 – – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 42 .5 69 .1 81 .3 46 .3 – 42 .5 69 .1 81 .2 46 .3 – Jo rd an (2 00 9) 64 .5 85 .0 94 .4 – – 64 .5 84 .9 94 .1 – – Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 22 .1 39 .1 54 .8 21 .9 25 .8 22 .1 39 .1 54 .8 21 .9 25 .8 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 31 .7 49 .7 60 .9 26 .4 22 .1 31 .7 49 .7 60 .9 26 .4 22 .1 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 31 .6 61 .8 80 .5 44 .1 48 .9 31 .6 61 .8 80 .5 44 .1 48 .9 M or oc co (1 99 2) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 50 .4 64 .0 75 .0 27 .5 – 50 .4 64 .0 75 .0 27 .5 – M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 58 .0 74 .7 83 .9 39 .7 – 58 .0 74 .7 83 .9 39 .7 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 71 .1 82 .3 86 .7 38 .5 – 71 .1 82 .3 86 .7 38 .5 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 65 .5 77 .7 86 .2 35 .3 – 65 .5 77 .7 86 .2 35 .3 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 49 .6 67 .3 79 .3 35 .1 36 .6 49 .6 67 .3 79 .3 35 .1 36 .6 Pe ru (2 00 0) 37 .7 57 .8 70 .0 32 .3 28 .9 37 .7 57 .8 70 .0 32 .3 28 .9 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 40 .6 62 .8 77 .1 37 .3 38 .6 40 .6 62 .8 77 .1 37 .3 38 .6 Ta bl e B .1 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 1 2, 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) In je ct ab le s evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 41 Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) – – – – – – – – – – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 50 .7 75 .9 90 .4 51 .2 – 50 .7 75 .9 90 .4 51 .2 – Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 52 .7 68 .9 83 .3 34 .2 46 .3 52 .7 68 .9 83 .3 34 .2 46 .3 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 36 .8 62 .9 81 .4 41 .4 49 .9 36 .8 62 .9 81 .4 41 .4 49 .9 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 79 .3 90 .6 96 .0 – – 79 .3 90 .6 96 .0 – – U kr ai ne (2 00 7) – – – – – – – – – – V ie t N am (1 99 7) – – – – – – – – – – V ie t N am (2 00 2) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 16 .5 36 .7 44 .7 – – 16 .5 36 .7 44 .7 – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 24 .9 46 .6 63 .8 28 .9 32 .2 24 .9 46 .6 63 .8 28 .9 32 .2 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 24 .2 43 .9 59 .3 26 .0 27 .6 24 .2 43 .9 59 .3 26 .0 27 .6 Ta bl e B .1 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 1 2, 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) In je ct ab le s 42 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .1 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 38 .1 56 .2 71 .3 29 .2 – 38 .1 56 .2 71 .3 29 .2 – A rm en ia (2 00 5) 29 .8 51 .4 58 .9 30 .7 – 29 .8 51 .4 58 .9 30 .7 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 71 .9 82 .3 86 .2 36 .8 – 71 .9 82 .3 86 .2 36 .8 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 64 .4 75 .2 85 .5 30 .3 – 64 .4 75 .2 85 .5 30 .3 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 66 .7 81 .2 86 .9 43 .5 30 .6 66 .7 81 .2 86 .9 43 .5 30 .6 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 71 .0 82 .1 88 .3 38 .2 34 .4 71 .0 82 .1 88 .3 38 .2 34 .4 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 67 .1 73 .2 77 .2 – – 67 .1 73 .2 77 .2 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 83 .5 88 .6 93 .6 – – 83 .5 88 .6 93 .6 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 59 .8 70 .5 79 .5 26 .5 – 59 .8 70 .5 79 .5 26 .5 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 55 .9 68 .2 71 .1 – – 55 .9 68 .2 71 .1 – – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 61 .5 73 .9 82 .9 32 .2 – 61 .5 73 .9 82 .9 32 .2 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 56 .7 72 .0 79 .3 35 .3 – 56 .7 72 .0 79 .3 35 .3 – C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 47 .8 65 .6 73 .3 34 .0 22 .5 47 .8 65 .6 73 .3 34 .0 22 .5 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 77 .6 88 .5 89 .0 – – 77 .6 88 .5 89 .0 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 81 .4 92 .0 95 .8 – – 81 .4 92 .0 95 .8 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 73 .6 82 .8 88 .4 – – 73 .6 82 .8 88 .4 – – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 48 .7 68 .2 73 .9 37 .9 – 48 .7 68 .2 73 .9 37 .9 – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 55 .8 68 .1 77 .4 27 .9 – 55 .8 68 .1 77 .4 27 .9 – Eg yp t (2 00 0) 52 .7 64 .4 71 .0 – – 52 .7 64 .4 71 .0 – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) 38 .2 58 .9 63 .7 33 .4 – 38 .2 58 .9 63 .7 33 .4 – Eg yp t (2 00 8) 32 .4 43 .8 51 .6 – – 32 .4 43 .8 51 .6 – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 46 .1 56 .2 66 .3 – – 46 .1 56 .2 66 .3 – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 61 .6 79 .9 81 .0 – – 61 .6 79 .9 81 .0 – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 43 Ta bl e B .1 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 1 2, 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 50 .9 69 .1 76 .1 37 .1 – 50 .9 69 .1 76 .1 37 .1 – In do ne si a (1 99 4) 50 .5 61 .9 72 .1 23 .1 – 50 .5 61 .9 72 .1 23 .1 – In do ne si a (1 99 7) 35 .6 52 .4 68 .3 26 .1 – 35 .6 52 .4 68 .3 26 .1 – In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 37 .7 54 .2 58 .6 26 .4 – 37 .7 54 .2 58 .6 26 .4 – In do ne si a (2 00 7) 38 .0 51 .5 54 .9 21 .7 7. 2 38 .0 51 .5 54 .9 21 .7 7. 2 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 65 .6 81 .2 92 .2 – – 65 .6 81 .2 92 .2 – – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 67 .2 82 .7 88 .5 – – 67 .2 82 .7 88 .3 – – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 55 .9 79 .6 83 .9 53 .6 – 55 .9 79 .6 83 .9 53 .6 – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 43 .0 63 .3 77 .6 35 .7 39 .0 43 .0 63 .3 77 .6 35 .7 39 .0 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 50 .8 69 .2 80 .4 37 .4 36 .3 50 .8 69 .2 80 .4 37 .4 36 .3 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 58 .3 79 .5 87 .7 50 .7 – 58 .3 79 .5 87 .7 50 .7 – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 60 .6 77 .9 83 .5 – – 60 .6 77 .9 83 .5 – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) 54 .9 73 .0 83 .8 – – 54 .9 73 .0 83 .8 – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 56 .5 88 .2 96 .0 – – 56 .5 88 .2 96 .0 – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 58 .9 71 .4 84 .7 – – 58 .9 71 .4 84 .7 – – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 50 .0 63 .3 71 .0 – – 50 .0 63 .3 71 .0 – – M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 39 .4 59 .5 74 .5 33 .1 37 .1 39 .4 59 .5 74 .5 33 .1 37 .1 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 60 .7 78 .1 84 .6 44 .4 – 60 .7 78 .1 84 .6 44 .4 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 73 .1 78 .7 83 .9 – – 73 .1 78 .7 83 .9 – – Pe ru (1 99 6) 62 .9 79 .4 86 .0 44 .4 – 62 .9 79 .4 86 .0 44 .4 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 55 .5 70 .2 76 .7 33 .0 21 .7 55 .5 70 .2 76 .7 33 .0 21 .7 Pe ru (2 00 0) 48 .7 66 .4 75 .3 34 .5 26 .6 48 .7 66 .4 75 .3 34 .5 26 .6 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 53 .5 69 .6 72 .4 34 .5 – 53 .5 69 .6 72 .4 34 .5 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 59 .7 78 .9 86 .4 – – 59 .7 78 .9 86 .4 – – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 59 .5 74 .6 83 .3 – – 59 .5 74 .6 83 .3 – – 44 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .1 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 1 2, 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 55 .9 67 .8 74 .6 27 .0 – 55 .9 67 .8 74 .6 27 .0 – Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 52 .4 81 .5 95 .1 – – 52 .4 81 .5 95 .1 – – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 48 .7 66 .2 75 .1 34 .1 26 .3 48 .7 66 .2 75 .1 34 .1 26 .3 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 43 .3 57 .5 67 .6 25 .1 23 .8 43 .3 57 .5 67 .6 25 .1 23 .8 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 45 .5 61 .1 68 .6 28 .6 19 .4 45 .5 61 .1 68 .6 28 .6 19 .4 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 21 .0 38 .9 46 .6 22 .6 12 .6 21 .0 38 .9 46 .6 22 .6 12 .6 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 32 .3 46 .6 54 .5 21 .1 14 .8 32 .3 46 .6 54 .5 21 .1 14 .8 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 38 .5 53 .9 63 .6 24 .9 21 .2 38 .5 53 .9 63 .6 24 .9 21 .2 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 43 .5 63 .9 72 .5 – – 43 .5 63 .9 72 .5 – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 51 .2 63 .4 78 .4 – – 51 .2 63 .4 78 .4 – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 45 Ta bl e B .1 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 39 .0 58 .2 71 .1 31 .6 – 39 .0 58 .2 71 .1 31 .6 – A rm en ia (2 00 5) 42 .4 61 .8 70 .8 – – 42 .4 61 .8 70 .8 – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 44 .6 64 .1 76 .8 35 .2 35 .4 44 .6 64 .1 76 .8 35 .2 35 .4 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 42 .0 60 .3 68 .1 31 .5 19 .7 42 .0 60 .3 68 .1 31 .5 19 .7 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 41 .6 62 .6 73 .7 35 .9 29 .8 41 .6 62 .6 73 .7 35 .9 29 .8 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 41 .1 61 .7 70 .9 35 .0 24 .1 41 .1 61 .7 70 .9 35 .0 24 .1 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 36 .7 60 .2 69 .6 37 .2 23 .6 36 .7 60 .2 69 .6 37 .2 23 .6 Br az il (1 99 1) 62 .7 75 .7 86 .0 – – 62 .7 75 .7 86 .0 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 55 .0 70 .0 77 .6 33 .3 – 55 .0 70 .0 77 .6 33 .3 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 46 .3 64 .4 69 .6 33 .7 14 .6 46 .3 64 .4 69 .6 33 .7 14 .6 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 52 .7 69 .9 78 .2 36 .3 27 .8 52 .7 69 .9 78 .2 36 .3 27 .8 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 54 .2 69 .4 78 .4 33 .2 29 .3 54 .2 69 .4 78 .4 33 .2 29 .3 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 42 .2 64 .0 72 .4 37 .7 23 .3 42 .2 64 .0 72 .4 37 .7 23 .3 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 63 .1 79 .4 90 .9 – – 63 .1 79 .4 90 .9 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 70 .1 86 .0 92 .8 – – 70 .1 86 .0 92 .8 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 55 .8 79 .4 86 .4 53 .5 – 55 .8 79 .4 86 .4 53 .5 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 39 .3 59 .8 76 .2 – – 39 .3 59 .8 76 .2 – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 45 .7 60 .4 65 .1 – – 45 .7 60 .4 65 .1 – – Eg yp t (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) 30 .9 38 .6 59 .2 – – 30 .9 38 .6 59 .2 – – Eg yp t (2 00 8) – – – – – – – – – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 44 .1 65 .2 75 .0 – – 44 .1 65 .2 75 .0 – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 34 .2 53 .8 64 .2 29 .9 22 .4 34 .2 53 .8 64 .2 29 .9 22 .4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 30 .0 45 .4 65 .0 22 .0 – 30 .0 45 .4 65 .0 22 .0 – 46 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .1 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 38 .3 52 .9 65 .9 23 .6 27 .7 38 .3 52 .9 65 .9 23 .6 27 .7 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 33 .3 53 .4 66 .7 30 .1 28 .6 33 .3 53 .4 66 .7 30 .1 28 .6 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 28 .0 49 .1 55 .8 29 .3 13 .3 28 .0 49 .1 55 .8 29 .3 13 .3 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 16 .9 30 .8 38 .4 16 .7 11 .0 16 .9 30 .8 38 .4 16 .7 11 .0 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 24 .6 41 .1 50 .9 21 .9 16 .6 24 .6 41 .1 50 .9 21 .9 16 .6 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 55 .1 79 .2 85 .6 53 .7 – 55 .1 79 .2 85 .6 53 .7 – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 61 .8 80 .3 86 .2 48 .5 – 61 .3 79 .6 85 .4 48 .4 – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 53 .1 70 .7 81 .7 37 .6 – 53 .1 70 .7 81 .7 37 .6 – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 37 .8 59 .3 72 .9 34 .5 33 .4 37 .8 59 .3 72 .9 34 .5 33 .4 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 46 .3 67 .9 80 .4 40 .2 38 .9 46 .3 67 .9 80 .4 40 .2 38 .9 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 49 .0 74 .2 78 .6 – – 49 .0 74 .2 78 .6 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 32 .0 58 .6 74 .8 39 .1 – 32 .0 58 .6 74 .8 39 .1 – Ke ny a (2 00 3) 30 .5 60 .7 76 .1 43 .5 – 30 .5 60 .7 76 .1 43 .5 – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 50 .7 68 .7 80 .4 36 .6 – 50 .7 68 .7 80 .4 36 .6 – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 50 .5 67 .2 77 .7 33 .8 32 .0 50 .5 67 .2 77 .7 33 .8 32 .0 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 31 .5 52 .0 62 .7 30 .0 – 31 .5 52 .0 62 .7 30 .0 – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 45 .0 66 .3 73 .2 38 .7 – 45 .0 66 .3 73 .2 38 .7 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 50 .9 70 .3 76 .3 39 .6 – 50 .9 70 .3 76 .3 39 .6 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 45 .1 64 .7 74 .5 35 .7 27 .6 45 .1 64 .7 74 .5 35 .7 27 .6 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 42 .8 62 .4 72 .9 34 .2 28 .0 42 .8 62 .4 72 .9 34 .2 28 .0 Pe ru (2 00 0) 34 .2 54 .7 67 .1 31 .2 27 .3 34 .2 54 .7 67 .1 31 .2 27 .3 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 39 .5 56 .5 64 .1 28 .2 17 .5 39 .5 56 .5 64 .1 28 .2 17 .5 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 31 .1 52 .7 62 .9 31 .4 21 .5 31 .1 52 .7 62 .9 31 .4 21 .5 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 35 .0 55 .6 66 .4 31 .7 24 .4 35 .0 55 .6 66 .4 31 .7 24 .4 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 47 Ta bl e B .1 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 31 .2 52 .8 62 .7 31 .4 21 .0 31 .2 52 .8 62 .7 31 .4 21 .0 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 26 .1 56 .2 73 .4 40 .8 – 26 .1 56 .2 73 .4 40 .8 – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 62 .5 77 .2 81 .0 – – 62 .5 77 .2 81 .0 – – Tu rk ey (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 49 .9 62 .4 70 .5 – – 49 .9 62 .4 70 .5 – – U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 29 .6 50 .4 60 .2 29 .5 19 .8 29 .6 50 .4 60 .2 29 .5 19 .8 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 29 .4 42 .2 52 .1 18 .1 17 .1 29 .4 42 .2 52 .1 18 .1 17 .1 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 33 .2 51 .6 62 .1 27 .6 21 .6 33 .2 51 .6 62 .1 27 .6 21 .6 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) – – – – – – – – – – 48 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .1 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 39 .1 60 .4 71 .5 35 .0 28 .0 39 .1 60 .4 71 .5 35 .0 28 .0 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 33 .0 51 .5 62 .0 27 .6 21 .7 33 .0 51 .5 62 .0 27 .6 21 .7 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 54 .9 69 .8 75 .8 33 .1 – 54 .9 69 .8 75 .8 33 .1 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 60 .5 72 .7 81 .9 – – 60 .5 72 .7 81 .9 – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 51 .7 69 .1 76 .2 35 .9 23 .0 51 .7 69 .1 76 .2 35 .9 23 .0 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 58 .9 72 .1 79 .0 32 .1 – 58 .9 72 .1 79 .0 32 .1 – Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 51 .5 68 .3 79 .8 – – 51 .5 68 .3 79 .8 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 62 .3 79 .0 86 .6 – – 62 .3 79 .0 86 .6 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 60 .1 76 .0 81 .1 39 .9 – 60 .1 76 .0 81 .1 39 .9 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 36 .8 60 .4 74 .2 37 .4 – 36 .8 60 .4 74 .2 37 .4 – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 55 .5 74 .1 85 .2 41 .7 – 55 .5 74 .1 85 .2 41 .7 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 56 .5 73 .5 81 .3 39 .1 29 .4 56 .5 73 .5 81 .3 39 .1 29 .4 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 42 .0 63 .2 73 .9 36 .6 29 .0 42 .0 63 .2 73 .9 36 .6 29 .0 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 70 .7 78 .8 92 .7 – – 70 .7 78 .8 92 .7 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 66 .9 84 .1 91 .8 – – 66 .9 84 .1 91 .8 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 59 .8 79 .2 87 .1 48 .3 – 59 .8 79 .2 87 .1 48 .3 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 46 .4 60 .8 63 .5 – – 46 .4 60 .8 63 .5 – – Eg yp t (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 8) – – – – – – – – – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) – – – – – – – – – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 49 Ta bl e B .1 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 47 .9 66 .8 77 .2 36 .3 – 47 .9 66 .8 77 .2 36 .3 – In do ne si a (1 99 4) 36 .4 53 .7 70 .1 27 .1 – 36 .4 53 .7 70 .1 27 .1 – In do ne si a (1 99 7) 31 .4 44 .1 52 .0 18 .4 – 31 .4 44 .1 52 .0 18 .4 – In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 20 .8 40 .7 50 .1 25 .1 15 .9 20 .8 40 .7 50 .1 25 .1 15 .9 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 23 .3 42 .6 58 .8 25 .1 28 .3 23 .3 42 .6 58 .8 25 .1 28 .3 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 54 .0 73 .2 82 .5 41 .8 – 54 .0 73 .2 82 .5 41 .8 – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 56 .4 80 .6 87 .7 55 .5 36 .4 56 .2 80 .1 87 .0 55 .4 36 .4 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 49 .0 72 .2 84 .1 45 .4 42 .7 49 .0 72 .2 84 .1 45 .4 42 .7 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 34 .6 61 .4 72 .2 41 .0 28 .1 34 .6 61 .4 72 .2 41 .0 28 .1 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 40 .5 64 .9 78 .2 41 .0 38 .0 40 .5 64 .9 78 .2 41 .0 38 .0 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 58 .8 72 .2 81 .2 – – 58 .8 72 .2 81 .2 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) – – – – – – – – – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 37 .8 80 .3 93 .0 68 .4 – 37 .8 80 .3 93 .0 68 .4 – M or oc co (1 99 2) 46 .6 62 .5 73 .8 29 .7 – 46 .6 62 .5 73 .8 29 .7 – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 46 .3 59 .8 74 .2 25 .1 35 .8 46 .3 59 .8 74 .2 25 .1 35 .8 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 35 .8 58 .3 70 .3 35 .1 28 .6 35 .8 58 .3 70 .3 35 .1 28 .6 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 59 .9 72 .1 80 .8 – – 59 .9 72 .1 80 .8 – – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 35 .0 49 .9 63 .1 – – 35 .0 49 .9 63 .1 – – Pe ru (1 99 6) 53 .0 69 .6 76 .9 35 .4 – 53 .0 69 .6 76 .9 35 .4 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 49 .9 68 .9 77 .7 37 .8 28 .3 49 .9 68 .9 77 .7 37 .8 28 .3 Pe ru (2 00 0) 37 .6 59 .3 67 .1 34 .7 19 .3 37 .6 59 .3 67 .1 34 .7 19 .3 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 43 .8 57 .7 73 .6 – – 43 .8 57 .7 73 .6 – – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 40 .1 62 .5 74 .8 37 .4 32 .7 40 .1 62 .5 74 .8 37 .4 32 .7 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 45 .2 67 .0 79 .0 39 .8 36 .4 45 .2 67 .0 79 .0 39 .8 36 .4 50 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .1 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: A ll re as on s (c on tin ue d) W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 42 .0 63 .8 72 .9 37 .6 25 .2 42 .0 63 .8 72 .9 37 .6 25 .2 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 39 .6 83 .0 93 .4 71 .9 – 39 .6 83 .0 93 .4 71 .9 – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 38 .8 56 .4 66 .7 28 .8 23 .5 38 .8 56 .4 66 .7 28 .8 23 .5 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 38 .4 57 .5 70 .6 30 .9 30 .8 38 .4 57 .5 70 .6 30 .9 30 .8 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 41 .0 59 .5 69 .8 31 .3 25 .4 41 .0 59 .5 69 .8 31 .3 25 .4 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 30 .4 50 .2 65 .5 28 .5 30 .6 30 .4 50 .2 65 .5 28 .5 30 .6 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 18 .1 38 .8 52 .1 25 .4 21 .7 18 .1 38 .8 52 .1 25 .4 21 .7 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 30 .5 51 .1 64 .8 29 .7 27 .9 30 .5 51 .1 64 .8 29 .7 27 .9 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 26 .7 65 .4 85 .8 52 .8 – 26 .7 65 .4 85 .8 52 .8 – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 20 .1 60 .8 79 .2 – – 20 .1 60 .8 79 .2 – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 26 .7 64 .9 84 .8 – – 26 .7 64 .9 84 .8 – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 51 Ta bl e B .2 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 25 .5 41 .6 49 .9 21 .0 13 .5 23 .1 35 .5 41 .0 20 .2 12 .9 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 17 .2 28 .8 36 .6 12 .5 9. 4 15 .7 24 .7 30 .2 11 .8 9. 0 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 4. 6 8. 0 9. 6 3. 2 1. 5 3. 5 5. 1 5. 7 2. 8 1. 3 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 4. 9 8. 1 10 .8 3. 1 2. 4 3. 6 5. 2 6. 3 2. 8 2. 1 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 5. 7 10 .9 14 .6 5. 6 4. 4 4. 1 6. 6 7. 9 5. 0 3. 9 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 6. 3 11 .6 15 .8 5. 7 4. 6 4. 5 7. 0 8. 5 5. 1 4. 1 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 14 .2 28 .9 34 .7 18 .3 8. 3 12 .0 21 .4 24 .3 16 .2 7. 8 Br az il (1 99 1) 10 .7 18 .0 23 .1 3. 8 2. 3 8. 1 12 .3 14 .7 3. 5 2. 1 Br az il (1 99 6) 7. 6 13 .3 16 .5 6. 3 1. 8 5. 7 9. 1 10 .7 5. 8 1. 7 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 10 .0 16 .1 20 .1 6. 7 3. 0 8. 4 12 .3 14 .3 6. 1 2. 7 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 12 .5 20 .6 24 .7 9. 0 3. 2 9. 6 14 .0 15 .9 8. 1 3. 0 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 12 .3 19 .6 24 .3 7. 3 5. 1 9. 5 13 .5 15 .6 6. 6 4. 8 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 8. 7 15 .9 19 .9 7. 9 4. 6 7. 3 11 .7 13 .8 7. 1 4. 3 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 10 .4 16 .1 18 .9 3. 5 0. 7 7. 8 10 .7 11 .9 3. 2 0. 6 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 11 .0 15 .1 18 .2 2. 7 2. 6 8. 2 10 .3 11 .6 2. 5 2. 4 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 8. 0 13 .9 16 .5 6. 3 2. 1 6. 2 9. 4 10 .5 5. 6 1. 9 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 6. 2 12 .6 17 .2 6. 7 4. 4 5. 4 9. 9 12 .3 6. 1 4. 0 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 4. 6 9. 0 12 .0 4. 5 3. 0 3. 9 6. 7 8. 2 4. 0 2. 6 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 3. 2 6. 1 7. 8 2. 9 1. 7 2. 7 4. 6 5. 4 2. 6 1. 4 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 3. 8 7. 4 9. 4 3. 8 1. 7 3. 2 5. 4 6. 3 3. 4 1. 5 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 2. 9 5. 6 7. 2 2. 7 1. 8 2. 6 4. 4 5. 2 2. 4 1. 5 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 1. 6 4. 2 6. 5 2. 1 0. 7 1. 2 2. 6 3. 5 1. 9 0. 7 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 6. 8 10 .2 13 .2 4. 8 3. 2 5. 6 7. 8 9. 5 4. 4 3. 1 52 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 6. 6 11 .0 14 .5 4. 1 – 5. 5 8. 1 9. 9 3. 7 – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 2. 9 6. 2 9. 0 3. 3 2. 5 2. 6 4. 9 6. 3 3. 0 2. 2 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 3. 3 6. 7 9. 0 3. 4 2. 1 2. 9 5. 3 6. 7 3. 2 1. 9 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 3. 0 5. 7 8. 2 2. 8 2. 5 2. 7 4. 7 6. 3 2. 7 2. 4 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 2. 3 4. 5 6. 1 2. 2 1. 7 2. 1 3. 8 4. 8 2. 1 1. 5 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 1. 9 3. 9 6. 0 2. 0 2. 2 1. 6 3. 0 4. 2 1. 8 2. 0 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 16 .2 30 .1 36 .4 16 .3 4. 4 13 .4 21 .3 23 .6 13 .9 3. 8 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 18 .3 30 .9 36 .2 15 .4 6. 2 14 .5 21 .4 23 .4 13 .5 5. 4 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 12 .5 21 .9 25 .5 10 .8 4. 2 10 .5 15 .7 17 .2 9. 2 3. 8 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 8. 8 16 .3 21 .6 8. 3 6. 6 7. 0 11 .5 13 .8 7. 5 5. 9 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 10 .3 19 .0 22 .9 9. 9 4. 9 8. 3 13 .0 14 .6 8. 8 4. 3 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 12 .9 19 .5 22 .2 3. 3 0. 3 10 .7 14 .8 16 .2 3. 1 0. 3 Ke ny a (1 99 8) 5. 9 11 .8 17 .3 6. 8 4. 5 5. 1 9. 1 11 .9 6. 1 3. 9 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 7. 2 15 .6 21 .3 8. 8 3. 5 5. 8 10 .7 13 .3 7. 6 3. 0 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 4. 5 11 .6 17 .5 7. 1 2. 8 3. 7 7. 6 9. 6 5. 7 2. 4 M or oc co (1 99 2) 9. 5 19 .1 24 .6 10 .5 6. 1 7. 9 13 .7 16 .1 9. 2 5. 3 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 6. 8 13 .6 18 .9 7. 3 6. 1 5. 2 8. 8 10 .8 6. 3 5. 5 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 8. 8 18 .1 24 .1 9. 9 7. 3 7. 2 12 .9 16 .1 9. 2 6. 9 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 5. 2 9. 4 12 .0 4. 1 2. 0 4. 2 6. 7 7. 9 3. 7 1. 7 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 13 .2 22 .3 27 .0 10 .8 5. 0 8. 9 13 .2 14 .9 9. 7 3. 8 Pe ru (1 99 6) 17 .8 27 .1 32 .4 11 .2 7. 2 14 .7 20 .5 23 .3 10 .4 6. 8 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 14 .1 23 .5 28 .6 11 .0 6. 3 11 .5 17 .2 19 .7 10 .0 5. 8 Pe ru (2 00 0) 8. 0 14 .3 18 .0 6. 8 4. 1 6. 6 10 .5 12 .2 6. 1 3. 8 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 8. 4 15 .6 19 .0 7. 5 3. 7 6. 2 9. 6 10 .8 6. 5 3. 2 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 53 Ta bl e B .2 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 13 .5 24 .9 31 .1 12 .9 8. 9 11 .6 19 .5 23 .1 11 .9 8. 3 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 14 .3 26 .8 32 .7 14 .7 7. 6 11 .6 19 .1 22 .0 13 .1 7. 0 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 9. 3 18 .1 23 .1 9. 6 5. 8 7. 6 13 .0 15 .6 8. 8 5. 3 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 5. 4 13 .4 18 .5 8. 3 2. 3 4. 4 8. 7 10 .1 6. 8 1. 7 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 11 .8 19 .3 24 .5 8. 2 6. 5 9. 9 14 .8 17 .7 7. 6 6. 0 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 8. 9 15 .4 20 .8 7. 4 6. 8 7. 4 11 .7 14 .8 6. 8 6. 2 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 10 .8 18 .5 22 .5 8. 2 4. 9 8. 6 13 .5 15 .5 7. 6 4. 6 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 4. 4 7. 1 9. 1 2. 8 2. 3 4. 1 6. 2 7. 5 2. 6 2. 2 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 5. 7 10 .7 13 .4 5. 4 3. 0 5. 3 9. 5 11 .5 5. 1 2. 9 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 8. 4 14 .9 19 .5 7. 4 5. 7 7. 6 12 .6 15 .7 6. 9 5. 3 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 3. 4 10 .9 17 .2 7. 2 4. 9 3. 1 8. 6 11 .8 6. 3 4. 0 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 1. 9 7. 6 13 .2 5. 5 6. 2 1. 7 6. 1 9. 2 5. 0 5. 5 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 2. 3 7. 8 12 .4 5. 0 4. 4 2. 1 6. 3 9. 0 4. 5 3. 9 54 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re O ra l p ill s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – A rm en ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 2. 2 4. 5 5. 0 2. 3 0. 6 1. 7 2. 8 3. 0 2. 1 0. 5 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 3. 9 6. 1 8. 7 2. 3 2. 7 2. 8 4. 0 4. 9 2. 1 2. 4 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 4. 1 8. 1 12 .5 4. 2 4. 8 2. 9 4. 9 6. 6 3. 7 4. 3 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 5. 4 10 .6 14 .4 5. 5 4. 2 3. 9 6. 5 7. 9 4. 8 3. 8 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 7. 0 14 .9 21 .5 8. 5 – 4. 9 8. 0 9. 7 7. 4 – Br az il (1 99 1) 9. 7 17 .5 24 .0 8. 6 7. 8 7. 2 10 .8 12 .4 7. 1 5. 5 Br az il (1 99 6) 6. 4 12 .6 16 .0 6. 6 3. 8 4. 6 7. 8 9. 1 5. 8 3. 4 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 5. 8 12 .0 16 .1 6. 6 4. 7 4. 8 8. 2 9. 7 5. 8 3. 8 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 9. 1 15 .4 18 .9 7. 0 4. 1 6. 6 9. 5 10 .7 5. 9 3. 8 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 9. 6 15 .8 21 .7 6. 9 7. 0 7. 2 10 .4 12 .5 5. 8 6. 2 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 7. 2 15 .2 20 .7 8. 6 6. 5 5. 7 9. 8 11 .7 7. 4 5. 7 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 8. 3 16 .8 19 .0 9. 3 2. 7 5. 8 8. 7 9. 2 7. 4 2. 3 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 10 .3 15 .9 22 .6 6. 2 7. 9 7. 1 9. 3 11 .0 5. 1 6. 7 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 8. 4 17 .5 22 .1 9. 9 5. 5 6. 4 10 .7 12 .2 8. 3 4. 7 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 10 .9 20 .8 28 .1 11 .1 9. 2 8. 8 14 .5 17 .5 9. 9 8. 1 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 8. 8 16 .0 23 .0 7. 8 8. 3 6. 6 10 .1 12 .7 6. 7 7. 3 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 8. 0 13 .8 18 .1 6. 3 5. 0 6. 0 8. 7 10 .1 5. 4 4. 2 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 9. 4 16 .2 21 .8 7. 5 6. 7 6. 7 10 .0 11 .8 6. 5 5. 9 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 7. 9 15 .1 19 .3 7. 8 4. 9 6. 2 10 .2 11 .7 6. 6 4. 2 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 3. 5 8. 8 15 .4 5. 5 – 2. 3 3. 9 5. 3 4. 3 – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 5. 8 12 .0 15 .0 6. 6 3. 4 4. 3 7. 5 8. 6 5. 6 3. 1 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 3. 4 4. 5 8. 0 1. 1 – 2. 8 3. 3 4. 4 1. 0 – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 55 Ta bl e B .2 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) O ra l p ill s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 3. 1 6. 5 10 .1 3. 5 3. 8 2. 7 4. 9 6. 8 3. 2 3. 4 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 4. 9 9. 6 12 .7 5. 0 3. 4 4. 1 7. 2 8. 9 4. 6 3. 1 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 4. 9 8. 9 13 .4 4. 3 4. 9 4. 1 6. 7 9. 1 4. 0 4. 5 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 5. 0 9. 5 14 .1 4. 8 5. 0 4. 2 7. 1 9. 5 4. 4 4. 5 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 4. 0 8. 8 13 .0 5. 0 4. 6 3. 2 5. 9 7. 8 4. 4 4. 1 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 13 .6 20 .6 24 .7 8. 0 5. 3 8. 6 11 .0 11 .8 6. 6 4. 6 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 16 .1 26 .8 33 .8 12 .7 9. 6 9. 6 12 .9 14 .1 10 .2 7. 3 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 13 .5 21 .3 28 .5 9. 0 9. 1 9. 5 12 .7 14 .3 7. 3 7. 4 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 8. 0 15 .4 18 .4 8. 0 3. 5 5. 9 9. 6 10 .5 6. 9 3. 0 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 10 .9 16 .8 20 .9 6. 7 4. 8 8. 2 10 .8 11 .9 5. 3 4. 0 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 19 .3 28 .1 31 .7 – 12 .0 14 .6 15 .3 – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 2. 7 6. 5 14 .1 3. 9 8. 1 2. 2 4. 4 7. 5 3. 3 7. 1 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 5. 8 11 .6 15 .9 6. 2 4. 8 4. 2 7. 3 8. 9 5. 4 4. 2 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 9. 8 13 .4 15 .4 4. 0 – 7. 2 8. 6 9. 1 2. 7 – M or oc co (1 99 2) 7. 1 16 .6 21 .7 10 .2 6. 1 5. 8 11 .5 13 .6 8. 8 5. 3 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 5. 0 11 .1 16 .0 6. 4 5. 5 3. 8 7. 1 9. 2 5. 7 4. 9 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 7. 3 16 .5 21 .2 9. 9 – 5. 4 9. 9 11 .3 8. 5 – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 7. 9 14 .6 18 .7 7. 3 4. 8 6. 0 9. 3 10 .6 6. 2 3. 7 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 4. 5 7. 5 12 .1 3. 2 5. 0 2. 8 4. 0 5. 1 2. 8 3. 8 Pe ru (1 99 6) 5. 7 9. 3 10 .6 3. 8 1. 4 4. 1 5. 7 6. 0 3. 4 1. 1 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 7. 5 12 .6 15 .4 5. 5 3. 2 5. 5 7. 7 8. 6 4. 7 2. 6 Pe ru (2 00 0) 6. 0 9. 5 14 .6 3. 8 5. 6 4. 2 5. 6 6. 8 3. 1 4. 6 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 3. 9 13 .8 14 .1 10 .3 – 2. 9 5. 8 5. 9 8. 0 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 6. 7 13 .3 15 .8 7. 0 2. 9 5. 3 9. 0 10 .0 6. 2 2. 6 56 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 6. 8 11 .5 14 .8 5. 0 3. 7 5. 2 7. 7 9. 0 4. 4 3. 2 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 4. 6 8. 7 11 .7 4. 2 3. 3 3. 5 5. 8 7. 2 3. 8 3. 0 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 4. 6 10 .0 14 .1 5. 6 4. 6 3. 7 6. 5 7. 7 4. 5 3. 6 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 9. 5 16 .9 19 .1 8. 2 2. 7 6. 6 9. 6 10 .4 6. 9 2. 5 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 9. 9 15 .8 22 .0 6. 6 7. 4 6. 8 9. 2 11 .0 5. 5 6. 4 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 8. 0 12 .9 16 .3 5. 3 3. 9 5. 6 7. 6 8. 6 4. 4 3. 4 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 1. 8 2. 3 3. 4 0. 5 – 1. 7 2. 1 2. 8 0. 5 – V ie t N am (1 99 7) 9. 5 16 .2 18 .6 7. 4 – 7. 8 12 .1 13 .4 6. 5 – V ie t N am (2 00 2) 7. 0 11 .7 15 .8 5. 0 4. 7 5. 9 8. 8 10 .6 4. 6 3. 8 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 2. 2 7. 8 12 .3 5. 7 4. 9 2. 0 6. 4 8. 7 5. 1 4. 0 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 2. 0 7. 8 14 .0 5. 9 6. 8 1. 9 6. 4 10 .2 5. 3 6. 0 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 2. 0 7. 5 12 .1 5. 6 5. 0 1. 9 6. 3 9. 1 5. 1 4. 4 Ta bl e B .2 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) O ra l p ill s evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 57 Ta bl e B .2 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re IU D Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 1. 5 2. 5 3. 6 1. 0 1. 1 1. 5 2. 4 3. 3 1. 0 1. 1 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 0. 4 0. 4 1. 7 – 1. 4 0. 4 0. 4 1. 6 – 1. 3 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 0. 4 1. 2 1. 2 0. 8 – 0. 3 0. 8 0. 8 0. 8 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 1. 3 1. 3 1. 3 – 1. 0 1. 0 1. 0 – – Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 1. 8 2. 0 2. 0 0. 2 – 1. 7 1. 9 1. 9 0. 2 – Br az il (1 99 1) – – – – – – – – – – Br az il (1 99 6) – – – – – – – – – – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 5. 6 8. 0 11 .4 2. 5 34 .6 5. 1 6. 9 9. 1 2. 3 3. 4 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 4. 1 6. 1 7. 2 2. 1 1. 2 3. 8 5. 4 6. 1 2. 0 1. 1 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 4. 6 8. 5 11 .2 4. 1 3. 0 4. 3 7. 5 9. 5 3. 9 2. 8 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 2. 8 5. 5 6. 7 2. 8 1. 2 2. 6 4. 7 5. 5 2. 6 1. 2 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 1. 4 5. 2 5. 2 – – 1. 2 2. 9 2. 9 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 3. 4 3. 4 4. 3 – – 2. 8 2. 8 3. 3 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 3. 0 5. 1 5. 1 2. 1 – 2. 6 4. 1 4. 1 2. 1 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 1. 6 3. 2 5. 0 1. 6 1. 9 1. 5 2. 8 4. 1 1. 5 1. 8 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 1. 4 3. 1 4. 1 1. 6 1. 1 1. 3 2. 6 3. 3 1. 5 0. 9 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 1. 0 2. 1 3. 1 1. 1 0. 9 1. 0 1. 8 2. 4 1. 0 0. 8 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 1. 4 2. 8 3. 4 1. 4 0. 7 1. 3 2. 4 2. 7 1. 3 0. 6 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 1. 0 2. 4 3. 5 1. 4 1. 1 0. 9 2. 1 2. 7 1. 3 1. 0 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) – 0. 9 1. 6 – – – 0. 7 1. 1 – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) – – – – – – – – – – 58 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) IU D Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 1. 3 4. 7 5. 9 3. 5 1. 2 1. 2 4. 0 4. 9 3. 4 1. 2 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 2. 0 4. 7 6. 6 2. 7 2. 0 1. 9 4. 1 5. 5 2. 6 1. 9 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 1. 5 4. 7 6. 7 3. 2 2. 2 1. 5 4. 2 5. 8 3. 1 2. 1 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 0. 7 2. 8 3. 0 2. 1 0. 2 0. 7 2. 5 2. 7 2. 0 0. 2 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 0. 7 2. 0 4. 9 1. 3 3. 0 0. 6 1. 8 4. 4 1. 3 3. 0 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 2. 6 7. 6 12 .5 5. 0 5. 4 2. 4 6. 0 8. 6 4. 5 4. 5 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 2. 5 6. 0 9. 6 3. 7 3. 7 2. 3 5. 0 7. 0 3. 3 3. 3 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 1. 4 3. 4 5. 1 2. 0 1. 7 1. 4 3. 0 4. 1 1. 8 1. 7 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 0. 8 2. 4 5. 5 1. 6 3. 1 0. 8 2. 1 4. 1 1. 5 2. 8 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 1. 0 3. 6 4. 5 2. 6 1. 0 0. 9 3. 0 3. 6 2. 5 0. 8 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 3. 2 5. 1 5. 4 1. 9 0. 3 3. 1 4. 7 5. 0 1. 8 0. 3 Ke ny a (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) – – – – – – – – – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 2. 4 4. 0 4. 0 1. 7 – 2. 2 3. 4 3. 4 1. 4 – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 1. 3 1. 7 1. 7 0. 4 – 1. 2 1. 5 1. 5 0. 4 – M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 1. 5 2. 9 4. 4 1. 5 1. 6 1. 4 2. 8 4. 1 1. 4 1. 5 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 1. 4 4. 7 6. 4 3. 3 1. 8 1. 3 3. 5 4. 4 2. 9 1. 6 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 1. 4 2. 6 4. 5 1. 1 – 1. 3 2. 2 3. 5 1. 0 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 1. 2 1. 4 2. 5 0. 2 1. 1 1. 1 1. 3 2. 1 0. 2 1. 1 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 0. 7 1. 0 1. 6 0. 3 0. 7 0. 6 0. 9 1. 3 0. 3 0. 6 Pe ru (2 00 0) 0. 7 1. 6 2. 1 1. 0 0. 5 0. 6 1. 4 1. 7 0. 9 0. 5 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 0. 8 1. 3 4. 1 0. 5 – 0. 7 1. 1 2. 9 0. 5 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 3. 0 4. 9 4. 9 2. 0 – 2. 7 4. 2 4. 2 1. 8 – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 59 Ta bl e B .2 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) IU D Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 1. 2 1. 2 1. 7 – 0. 5 1. 1 1. 1 1. 5 – 0. 5 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 0. 6 0. 6 0. 6 – – 0. 6 0. 6 0. 6 – – Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 1. 0 2. 0 2. 7 1. 0 0. 8 1. 0 1. 8 2. 3 0. 9 0. 7 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 1. 2 1. 1 1. 0 2. 1 2. 9 1. 1 1. 0 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 1. 8 2. 5 2. 6 0. 7 0. 1 1. 6 2. 3 2. 4 0. 7 0. 1 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 0. 7 1. 1 1. 1 0. 5 0. 7 1. 1 1. 1 0. 5 – V ie t N am (1 99 7) 1. 6 3. 6 4. 5 2. 1 1. 0 1. 5 3. 3 4. 0 2. 0 0. 9 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 1. 8 3. 6 4. 9 1. 8 1. 4 1. 7 3. 2 4. 3 1. 8 1. 3 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) – – – – – – – – – – 60 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re In je ct ab le s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – A rm en ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 1. 5 3. 2 3. 2 1. 8 – 1. 1 1. 7 1. 7 1. 4 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 1. 5 2. 2 2. 2 0. 7 – 1. 2 1. 6 1. 6 0. 7 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 1. 9 3. 1 4. 4 1. 2 1. 4 1. 4 1. 9 2. 4 1. 1 1. 3 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 0. 5 1. 4 1. 4 0. 9 – 0. 4 0. 9 0. 9 0. 9 – Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 8. 8 16 .7 16 .7 – – 4. 8 6. 3 6. 3 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 9. 2 29 .6 29 .6 – – 3. 1 6. 9 6. 9 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 8. 8 11 .6 22 .7 – – 4. 9 6. 1 8. 9 – – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 15 .0 22 .5 31 .5 8. 8 – 10 .5 13 .8 16 .5 8. 4 – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 10 .8 16 .0 17 .8 5. 8 – 6. 9 8. 7 9. 1 4. 9 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 7. 4 10 .6 25 .3 3. 5 – 5. 3 6. 4 9. 6 2. 7 – C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 8. 0 14 .4 21 .1 7. 0 7. 9 6. 2 9. 0 11 .1 5. 7 7. 1 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) – – – – – – – – – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) – – – – – – – – – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 8. 8 11 .8 11 .8 3. 3 – 4. 7 5. 5 5. 5 2. 3 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 5. 5 9. 3 9. 3 – – 4. 2 5. 9 5. 9 – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 0. 7 0. 7 0. 7 – – 0. 6 0. 6 0. 6 – – Eg yp t (2 00 0) 1. 0 1. 0 2. 1 – 1. 1 0. 8 0. 8 1. 1 – 0. 9 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 1. 3 2. 5 3. 2 1. 3 0. 7 1. 1 1. 8 2. 0 1. 2 0. 7 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 1. 1 1. 8 2. 5 0. 7 0. 6 0. 9 1. 3 1. 6 0. 6 0. 6 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 0. 4 1. 5 2. 2 1. 1 0. 7 0. 3 1. 0 1. 4 1. 1 0. 7 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 3. 3 4. 2 16 .7 – – 2. 8 3. 1 6. 9 – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 61 Ta bl e B .2 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) In je ct ab le s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 5. 3 5. 3 8. 7 – – 4. 2 4. 2 5. 1 – – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 1. 8 4. 4 6. 6 2. 7 2. 3 1. 6 3. 1 4. 1 2. 3 2. 0 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 1. 8 4. 3 6. 0 2. 6 1. 7 1. 6 3. 2 4. 0 2. 3 1. 5 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 1. 7 3. 2 4. 8 1. 5 1. 7 1. 5 2. 6 3. 6 1. 4 1. 6 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 1. 2 2. 2 3. 1 1. 0 0. 9 1. 1 1. 9 2. 5 1. 0 0. 8 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 0. 8 1. 6 2. 7 0. 8 1. 1 0. 7 1. 3 1. 9 0. 7 1. 0 Jo rd an (1 99 0) – – – – – – – – – – Jo rd an (1 99 7) – – – – – – – – – – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 6. 0 6. 0 – – – 2. 3 2. 3 – – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 2. 0 3. 6 3. 6 1. 6 – 1. 4 2. 2 2. 2 1. 3 – Jo rd an (2 00 9) 2. 4 7. 9 14 .7 – – 1. 6 3. 0 3. 6 – – Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 0. 8 2. 7 4. 3 1. 9 1. 6 0. 8 2. 1 2. 8 1. 6 1. 2 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 0. 9 2. 9 5. 5 2. 0 2. 7 0. 8 2. 0 3. 1 1. 7 2. 2 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 1. 7 5. 3 8. 8 3. 6 3. 7 1. 4 3. 3 4. 5 2. 8 3. 1 M or oc co (1 99 2) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 1. 6 2. 5 2. 5 0. 9 – 1. 2 1. 7 1. 7 0. 9 – M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 7. 1 8. 9 19 .2 1. 9 – 4. 5 5. 3 7. 5 1. 7 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 16 .1 20 .8 23 .7 5. 6 – 9. 1 10 .3 10 .8 4. 2 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 5. 9 11 .8 14 .6 6. 2 – 4. 3 6. 3 6. 9 5. 7 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 3. 0 5. 3 6. 7 2. 4 1. 6 2. 3 3. 3 3. 7 2. 0 1. 2 Pe ru (2 00 0) 1. 3 2. 4 2. 6 1. 2 0. 1 1. 0 1. 7 1. 7 1. 0 0. 1 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 0. 9 1. 2 2. 0 0. 3 0. 8 0. 7 0. 8 1. 0 0. 2 0. 6 62 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) In je ct ab le s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) – – – – – – – – – – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 2. 9 2. 9 2. 9 – – 2. 0 2. 0 2. 0 – – Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 1. 5 4. 0 5. 3 2. 5 1. 3 1. 0 1. 9 2. 3 1. 9 1. 1 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 1. 3 2. 3 2. 3 0. 9 – 1. 1 1. 7 1. 7 0. 9 – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 4. 8 7. 6 7. 6 – – 2. 5 3. 0 3. 0 – – U kr ai ne (2 00 7) – – – – – – – – – – V ie t N am (1 99 7) – – – – – – – – – – V ie t N am (2 00 2) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 1. 7 7. 2 7. 2 – – 1. 6 6. 0 6. 0 – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 1. 2 5. 2 8. 8 4. 1 3. 8 1. 0 3. 7 5. 3 3. 6 3. 0 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 1. 9 3. 3 4. 3 1. 5 1. 0 1. 6 2. 6 3. 2 1. 4 0. 9 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 63 Ta bl e B .2 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 14 .0 25 .6 34 .1 13 .5 – 12 .0 19 .9 24 .6 12 .8 – A rm en ia (2 00 5) 8. 9 19 .2 24 .1 11 .3 – 7. 6 14 .5 17 .3 9. 9 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 9. 8 16 .0 16 .0 6. 9 – 5. 5 7. 1 7. 1 5. 5 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 9. 9 15 .2 24 .1 5. 9 – 6. 3 8. 1 10 .4 5. 0 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 10 .6 15 .1 19 .4 5. 0 5. 2 6. 6 8. 1 9. 0 4. 4 4. 8 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 12 .0 20 .8 26 .3 10 .0 6. 9 6. 3 8. 8 9. 9 8. 7 6. 1 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 9. 8 9. 8 16 .8 – – 5. 9 5. 9 7. 8 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 15 .3 32 .0 52 .1 – – 6. 4 9. 4 12 .1 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 8. 2 17 .8 25 .1 10 .4 – 5. 1 8. 8 11 .3 9. 4 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 5. 7 9. 8 9. 8 – – 3. 9 5. 4 5. 4 – – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 9. 8 19 .5 22 .6 10 .7 – 6. 1 9. 7 10 .6 9. 4 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 7. 8 14 .7 22 .0 7. 5 – 5. 1 7. 8 9. 8 6. 1 – C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 7. 6 13 .2 19 .8 6. 1 7. 5 5. 8 8. 5 10 .8 5. 1 6. 8 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 21 .3 46 .8 48 .9 – – 9. 7 15 .5 16 .0 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 21 .2 27 .7 31 .2 – – 8. 3 9. 4 9. 7 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 4. 5 10 .5 10 .5 – – 3. 0 4. 4 4. 4 – – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 5. 3 22 .7 28 .9 18 .4 – 3. 9 12 .4 14 .9 16 .5 – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 15 .7 28 .0 38 .7 14 .7 – 10 .2 16 .1 20 .3 13 .2 – Eg yp t (2 00 0) 17 .6 24 .0 24 .8 – – 13 .2 16 .5 16 .9 – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) 9. 3 21 .8 26 .9 13 .9 – 7. 3 14 .6 17 .2 11 .9 – Eg yp t (2 00 8) 9. 7 16 .5 16 .5 – – 8. 3 13 .0 13 .0 – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 12 .1 12 .7 16 .3 – – 9. 0 9. 4 11 .1 – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 4. 5 17 .2 17 .8 – – 2. 8 7. 2 7. 4 – – 64 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 12 .3 22 .5 30 .5 11 .6 – 8. 9 13 .9 16 .7 10 .3 – In do ne si a (1 99 4) 6. 8 13 .7 23 .3 7. 4 – 4. 8 8. 2 12 .2 6. 8 – In do ne si a (1 99 7) 6. 5 15 .1 20 .0 9. 2 – 5. 3 10 .8 13 .0 8. 5 – In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 3. 6 6. 9 8. 4 3. 4 – 2. 7 4. 7 5. 4 3. 2 – In do ne si a (2 00 7) 6. 4 7. 3 7. 8 0. 9 0. 6 5. 0 5. 5 5. 8 0. 8 0. 6 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 18 .1 37 .8 71 .6 – – 12 .2 19 .1 29 .4 – – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 31 .8 48 .9 58 .3 – – 20 .9 28 .0 31 .0 – – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 18 .2 34 .4 35 .3 19 .8 – 13 .5 20 .2 20 .5 15 .2 – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 11 .4 23 .0 28 .1 13 .1 6. 7 8. 9 15 .4 17 .4 11 .4 5. 2 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 14 .5 25 .7 31 .5 13 .1 7. 9 10 .0 15 .4 17 .4 10 .9 6. 4 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 18 .6 30 .5 44 .5 14 .6 – 13 .5 18 .5 22 .4 11 .8 – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 6. 9 17 .2 17 .2 – – 5. 5 8. 8 8. 8 – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) 14 .0 27 .6 45 .2 – – 9. 0 14 .7 20 .4 – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 5. 7 24 .4 37 .8 – – 3. 1 8. 1 9. 5 – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 12 .8 21 .5 36 .0 – – 9. 7 13 .2 17 .2 – – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 3. 7 12 .0 13 .8 – – 2. 6 6. 2 6. 9 – – M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 7. 6 17 .5 27 .7 10 .7 12 .3 5. 9 11 .6 16 .0 9. 3 11 .1 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 8. 5 18 .2 21 .4 10 .5 – 6. 0 9. 4 10 .2 8. 6 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 8. 9 12 .6 20 .5 – – 4. 2 5. 2 7. 0 – – Pe ru (1 99 6) 13 .1 24 .2 33 .6 12 .8 – 8. 2 12 .1 14 .2 10 .6 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 9. 2 15 .8 21 .0 7. 3 6. 2 6. 5 9. 3 11 .0 6. 4 5. 9 Pe ru (2 00 0) 9. 3 19 .6 24 .9 11 .3 6. 6 6. 9 12 .1 14 .2 10 .0 6. 2 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 6. 6 13 .9 13 .9 7. 8 – 4. 6 7. 6 7. 6 6. 4 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 23 .2 44 .3 49 .3 – – 15 .2 24 .3 25 .7 – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 65 Ta bl e B .2 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 13 .2 23 .2 31 .9 – – 8. 9 12 .8 15 .5 – – Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 10 .9 17 .6 27 .9 7. 5 – 7. 8 10 .7 14 .4 6. 7 – Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 3. 6 11 .9 32 .2 – – 2. 4 5. 6 8. 4 – – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 11 .0 18 .6 24 .3 8. 5 7. 0 8. 2 12 .1 14 .1 7. 5 6. 0 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 7. 9 13 .7 19 .9 6. 3 7. 2 5. 9 9. 2 12 .2 5. 8 6. 9 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 7. 9 16 .1 20 .3 8. 9 5. 0 5. 9 10 .2 12 .0 8. 0 4. 7 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 2. 9 5. 0 6. 2 2. 2 1. 3 2. 7 4. 3 5. 0 2. 0 1. 2 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 12 .5 17 .6 20 .6 5. 8 3. 7 11 .2 14 .7 16 .5 5. 2 3. 4 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 9. 8 17 .1 19 .9 8. 1 3. 4 8. 2 12 .6 14 .1 7. 2 3. 2 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 3. 8 4. 6 11 .3 – – 2. 8 3. 2 5. 6 – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 6. 1 11 .9 25 .4 – – 4. 0 6. 7 11 .3 – – 66 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 24 .5 40 .5 54 .5 21 .2 – 22 .3 34 .3 43 .7 19 .8 – A rm en ia (2 00 5) 31 .8 46 .5 53 .2 – – 30 .5 41 .5 46 .2 – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 10 .6 16 .5 22 .5 6. 7 7. 2 8. 5 11 .7 13 .9 5. 7 6. 1 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 12 .9 21 .9 24 .9 10 .3 3. 9 10 .4 15 .9 17 .4 9. 5 3. 6 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 10 .8 24 .0 27 .3 14 .9 4. 3 8. 4 16 .1 17 .6 13 .1 4. 1 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 13 .4 22 .3 32 .8 10 .3 13 .6 10 .3 15 .7 20 .5 9. 2 12 .4 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 21 .6 41 .1 48 .2 24 .9 12 .1 19 .5 34 .2 38 .7 23 .3 11 .3 Br az il (1 99 1) 35 .2 50 .6 66 .4 – – 26 .5 35 .0 42 .6 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 22 .6 33 .9 42 .5 14 .6 – 15 .8 21 .6 25 .4 12 .9 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 23 .6 39 .4 41 .9 20 .7 4. 0 19 .3 29 .5 30 .9 18 .9 3. 8 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 26 .0 41 .4 49 .3 20 .9 13 .4 20 .6 29 .6 33 .3 18 .9 12 .4 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 27 .1 42 .6 49 .0 21 .2 11 .2 21 .6 30 .6 33 .9 19 .6 10 .6 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 22 .8 39 .5 45 .5 21 .7 9. 9 20 .2 31 .4 34 .7 19 .3 9. 4 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 31 .7 50 .5 70 .2 – – 23 .9 32 .6 39 .5 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 35 .6 51 .6 61 .9 – – 26 .3 32 .6 35 .1 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 26 .1 38 .0 49 .1 16 .1 – 21 .2 27 .0 30 .1 13 .1 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 21 .7 34 .3 54 .3 – – 19 .2 27 .6 38 .6 – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 19 .0 26 .5 34 .8 – – 16 .1 20 .6 25 .1 – – Eg yp t (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) 19 .1 21 .2 39 .3 – – 17 .7 19 .3 32 .1 – – Eg yp t (2 00 8) – – – – – – – – – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 7. 0 19 .7 24 .1 – – 6. 1 12 .4 14 .1 – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 16 .2 25 .4 33 .3 11 .0 10 .6 14 .5 21 .0 25 .7 9. 9 10 .1 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 18 .5 29 .8 37 .6 13 .9 – 17 .1 26 .3 32 .0 13 .2 – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 67 Ta bl e B .2 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 17 .2 21 .5 25 .9 5. 2 5. 6 14 .8 17 .8 20 .2 4. 8 5. 0 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 14 .0 25 .0 31 .6 12 .8 8. 8 12 .3 20 .2 23 .9 11 .7 8. 1 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 12 .3 26 .4 33 .6 16 .0 9. 9 11 .3 22 .3 27 .3 15 .3 9. 8 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 4. 1 11 .4 14 .0 7. 6 2. 9 3. 9 9. 9 11 .8 7. 2 2. 8 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 6. 0 14 .6 20 .5 9. 1 6. 9 5. 4 12 .0 15 .9 8. 8 6. 5 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 34 .3 56 .2 64 .6 33 .3 – 29 .0 41 .7 45 .5 28 .3 – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 38 .2 57 .5 63 .6 31 .2 – 30 .8 41 .7 44 .3 29 .0 – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 32 .2 45 .5 51 .6 19 .5 – 28 .4 36 .7 39 .4 17 .6 – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 22 .4 33 .8 44 .6 14 .6 16 .3 20 .3 28 .8 35 .0 13 .6 15 .3 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 22 .8 43 .8 51 .2 27 .2 13 .2 20 .0 33 .5 37 .2 25 .1 11 .4 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 26 .9 44 .7 50 .7 – – 23 .8 34 .4 37 .0 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 17 .2 32 .2 44 .7 18 .1 – 16 .0 27 .3 34 .3 16 .6 – Ke ny a (2 00 3) 18 .0 38 .1 48 .6 24 .5 – 16 .5 31 .3 37 .1 21 .3 – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 28 .5 43 .2 51 .4 20 .5 – 24 .8 34 .0 38 .0 18 .7 – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 23 .4 36 .0 44 .5 16 .5 13 .2 19 .1 26 .7 30 .8 15 .5 12 .3 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 13 .9 25 .1 33 .4 13 .0 – 12 .2 20 .2 25 .3 11 .8 – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 12 .1 20 .3 30 .7 9. 3 – 9. 8 14 .6 18 .9 8. 8 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 25 .0 46 .6 51 .1 28 .8 – 19 .3 32 .1 34 .6 26 .1 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 30 .1 45 .1 54 .2 21 .4 16 .7 27 .0 37 .9 43 .5 19 .8 16 .0 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 27 .2 43 .4 51 .3 22 .2 14 .0 24 .5 36 .4 41 .3 20 .8 13 .0 Pe ru (2 00 0) 19 .9 33 .4 42 .1 16 .8 13 .1 18 .2 28 .5 34 .1 15 .6 12 .4 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 19 .1 31 .7 36 .5 15 .6 7. 1 16 .1 24 .9 27 .8 14 .6 6. 7 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 17 .2 32 .8 42 .5 18 .9 14 .4 15 .8 27 .9 34 .4 17 .6 13 .6 68 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 19 .7 35 .0 43 .6 19 .0 13 .2 17 .8 29 .1 34 .8 17 .4 12 .7 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 14 .9 29 .7 36 .2 17 .4 9. 2 13 .3 24 .2 28 .3 15 .9 8. 7 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 5. 4 25 .2 33 .4 21 .0 – 5. 0 19 .2 23 .5 19 .2 – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 29 .7 42 .3 46 .6 – – 24 .6 30 .3 32 .0 – – Tu rk ey (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 19 .1 25 .2 28 .7 – – 16 .5 20 .1 21 .7 – – U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 9. 2 15 .7 20 .9 7. 1 6. 1 8. 4 12 .7 15 .6 6. 1 5. 7 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 13 .9 25 .2 27 .7 13 .2 3. 4 12 .6 21 .7 23 .6 12 .9 3. 3 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 16 .8 27 .7 36 .9 13 .1 12 .8 15 .3 23 .5 29 .4 12 .2 12 .2 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) – – – – – – – – – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 69 Ta bl e B .2 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 30 .2 49 .4 58 .6 27 .6 18 .2 28 .5 44 .7 51 .6 26 .5 17 .4 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 21 .3 34 .6 42 .9 17 .0 12 .6 19 .4 30 .2 36 .0 16 .0 12 .1 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 12 .7 21 .8 27 .2 10 .4 – 8. 8 13 .1 14 .9 9. 3 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 8. 3 21 .1 31 .7 – – 5. 0 9. 9 13 .2 – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 13 .9 25 .6 30 .2 13 .6 6. 2 10 .0 15 .8 17 .6 12 .1 5. 9 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 12 .6 21 .2 29 .3 9. 8 – 8. 6 12 .1 14 .8 8. 7 – Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 19 .9 37 .2 49 .1 – – 15 .1 24 .7 29 .9 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 25 .0 48 .1 63 .3 – – 15 .7 26 .2 32 .3 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 24 .1 43 .1 50 .3 25 .1 – 15 .5 24 .5 27 .4 22 .7 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 21 .1 34 .9 50 .3 17 .6 – 18 .8 28 .3 36 .7 15 .0 – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 21 .5 39 .1 54 .3 22 .4 – 15 .8 24 .6 30 .7 19 .8 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 23 .8 37 .4 47 .3 17 .8 15 .8 17 .7 24 .5 28 .3 15 .7 14 .3 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 18 .5 33 .9 43 .1 19 .0 13 .9 15 .8 25 .6 30 .4 17 .0 12 .9 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 31 .9 35 .0 44 .5 – – 20 .2 21 .3 23 .5 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 27 .6 41 .3 56 .4 – – 18 .9 23 .6 27 .2 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 22 .1 37 .8 48 .5 20 .2 – 15 .2 21 .7 24 .7 16 .2 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 10 .3 19 .3 22 .9 – – 7. 8 13 .1 14 .8 – – Eg yp t (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 8) – – – – – – – – – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) – – – – – – – – – – 70 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .2 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 10 .3 23 .3 31 .4 14 .5 – 8. 2 14 .9 18 .0 12 .8 – In do ne si a (1 99 4) 13 .1 24 .2 40 .2 12 .8 – 11 .3 19 .0 28 .5 12 .3 – In do ne si a (1 99 7) 12 .9 22 .8 27 .8 11 .4 – 11 .3 18 .9 22 .4 11 .0 – In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 6. 7 13 .3 15 .6 7. 1 2. 6 6. 2 11 .6 13 .0 6. 7 2. 5 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 3. 6 8. 7 16 .6 5. 3 8. 7 3. 1 6. 7 11 .3 4. 7 8. 0 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 25 .0 38 .7 44 .8 18 .2 – 19 .5 26 .9 29 .4 16 .0 – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 29 .4 49 .5 57 .1 28 .5 15 .1 23 .1 33 .6 36 .3 24 .4 13 .9 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 19 .6 37 .6 44 .1 22 .3 10 .4 16 .2 26 .0 28 .5 19 .1 9. 1 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 14 .3 29 .5 39 .0 17 .7 13 .5 12 .3 22 .5 27 .3 15 .5 12 .5 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 15 .8 30 .9 38 .3 18 .0 10 .7 13 .1 22 .6 25 .7 15 .9 9. 0 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 26 .9 43 .5 43 .5 – – 20 .3 29 .1 29 .1 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) – – – – – – – – – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 12 .3 41 .4 54 .4 33 .2 – 10 .2 25 .1 28 .3 24 .0 – M or oc co (1 99 2) 14 .4 27 .5 36 .4 15 .2 – 11 .4 19 .3 23 .4 14 .7 – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 10 .5 18 .1 31 .6 8. 5 16 .4 7. 8 12 .1 18 .2 7. 9 15 .1 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 15 .1 31 .7 42 .0 19 .5 15 .1 13 .4 24 .9 30 .9 17 .8 14 .4 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 11 .8 21 .3 28 .7 – – 7. 6 11 .7 14 .3 – – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 11 .4 19 .5 31 .9 – – 9. 8 15 .5 22 .2 – – Pe ru (1 99 6) 26 .2 43 .5 48 .1 23 .4 – 20 .9 31 .2 33 .5 21 .9 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 22 .7 40 .0 51 .3 22 .3 19 .0 17 .9 27 .9 33 .5 20 .0 18 .0 Pe ru (2 00 0) 14 .7 29 .0 33 .0 16 .8 5. 5 12 .3 21 .9 24 .0 15 .3 5. 1 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 19 .3 29 .4 39 .4 – – 16 .0 22 .5 28 .3 – – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 23 .6 42 .5 53 .9 24 .7 19 .8 20 .7 34 .3 41 .2 22 .6 18 .5 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 71 Ta bl e B .2 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: R ep or te d f ai lu re (c on tin ue d) W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 25 .6 47 .1 55 .5 28 .8 15 .9 21 .8 36 .5 41 .2 26 .7 14 .2 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 19 .6 38 .2 47 .3 23 .2 14 .7 16 .7 29 .1 34 .2 21 .4 13 .9 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 13 .3 34 .4 48 .4 24 .4 – 11 .2 21 .7 23 .9 17 .5 – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 17 .8 29 .7 38 .8 14 .5 13 .0 15 .2 23 .5 28 .9 13 .5 12 .4 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 14 .3 25 .3 34 .4 12 .9 12 .1 11 .8 19 .2 23 .8 11 .9 11 .0 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 16 .1 28 .7 36 .1 15 .1 10 .4 13 .1 21 .2 25 .2 13 .8 9. 7 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 8. 8 14 .6 20 .3 6. 4 6. 7 8. 0 12 .1 15 .1 5. 8 6. 0 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 7. 9 19 .0 27 .5 12 .0 10 .5 7. 5 16 .5 22 .6 11 .0 9. 9 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 15 .5 29 .3 39 .6 16 .3 14 .6 14 .1 24 .6 31 .1 15 .0 13 .3 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 9. 9 27 .3 48 .7 19 .3 – 8. 8 20 .5 29 .5 16 .0 – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 1. 9 14 .3 14 .3 – – 1. 8 9. 4 9. 4 – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 7. 7 33 .9 56 .4 – – 6. 7 24 .7 34 .8 – – 72 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 9. 4 14 .4 17 .7 4. 7 3. 5 8. 0 10 .7 12 .1 3. 9 3. 2 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 5. 0 6. 9 9. 0 2. 0 2. 3 4. 4 5. 6 6. 6 1. 8 2. 1 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 28 .6 39 .4 47 .3 15 .2 13 .3 25 .2 32 .5 36 .9 14 .1 12 .2 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 29 .6 38 .7 46 .7 13 .9 13 .7 26 .5 32 .8 37 .5 12 .8 12 .7 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 29 .6 39 .8 46 .4 14 .1 10 .5 26 .0 32 .7 36 .1 12 .7 9. 5 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 29 .8 40 .2 46 .8 14 .7 10 .9 25 .6 32 .3 35 .8 13 .2 10 .1 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 15 .8 22 .5 27 .9 8. 1 5. 7 14 .3 18 .4 20 .9 6. 8 5. 2 Br az il (1 99 1) 22 .7 31 .1 38 .0 11 .0 10 .1 20 .2 25 .7 29 .6 10 .3 9. 6 Br az il (1 99 6) 18 .5 25 .3 29 .5 8. 2 5. 5 16 .2 20 .8 23 .2 7. 7 5. 3 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 17 .2 25 .3 32 .4 9. 6 9. 3 15 .6 21 .3 25 .6 9. 0 8. 7 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 27 .2 36 .4 42 .5 12 .4 8. 0 24 .6 30 .8 34 .2 11 .5 7. 7 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 27 .9 37 .5 42 .4 12 .7 6. 5 25 .3 31 .9 34 .8 11 .9 6. 1 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 23 .6 34 .7 41 .6 14 .5 10 .8 22 .0 30 .5 35 .0 13 .5 10 .3 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 21 .9 28 .4 35 .4 7. 7 8. 1 18 .9 22 .8 26 .3 7. 3 7. 7 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 23 .5 30 .8 34 .6 8. 2 4. 9 20 .0 24 .4 26 .4 7. 8 4. 7 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 23 .8 31 .4 36 .5 9. 9 7. 1 21 .2 26 .3 29 .0 9. 1 6. 7 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 16 .0 27 .1 37 .0 13 .1 13 .3 15 .0 23 .6 30 .0 11 .9 12 .3 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 16 .7 26 .5 34 .9 11 .9 11 .3 15 .6 23 .1 28 .3 10 .9 10 .4 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 18 .7 29 .2 37 .2 12 .9 11 .1 17 .6 25 .9 31 .1 11 .7 10 .2 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 20 .1 31 .9 38 .9 14 .9 9. 7 18 .6 27 .6 32 .0 13 .5 8. 8 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 12 .8 20 .6 27 .5 8. 9 8. 6 12 .2 18 .4 22 .6 8. 2 7. 7 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 24 .5 32 .9 39 .8 11 .1 7. 3 22 .2 27 .9 31 .8 9. 9 6. 6 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 16 .3 21 .8 25 .4 5. 2 4. 7 15 .1 19 .2 21 .5 4. 8 4. 5 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 73 Ta bl e B .3 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 23 .1 30 .4 36 .8 9. 0 21 .0 26 .6 31 .0 8. 7 In do ne si a (1 99 1) 15 .1 21 .6 29 .0 7. 7 9. 8 14 .1 19 .3 24 .4 7. 2 9. 0 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 14 .8 22 .3 28 .5 8. 7 8. 2 14 .0 20 .0 24 .5 8. 2 7. 7 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 13 .8 21 .3 27 .6 8. 7 8. 1 13 .2 19 .5 24 .2 8. 2 7. 7 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 11 .0 17 .5 22 .8 7. 4 6. 4 10 .5 16 .1 20 .1 7. 0 6. 1 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 14 .9 22 .0 28 .3 8. 3 8. 2 14 .0 19 .9 24 .7 8. 0 7. 8 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 17 .2 28 .8 36 .0 14 .0 12 .2 15 .0 21 .4 23 .9 11 .4 10 .7 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 21 .0 31 .3 38 .9 13 .8 12 .4 18 .2 23 .7 26 .6 11 .3 11 .2 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 21 .7 34 .1 41 .0 15 .6 11 .3 19 .2 27 .1 30 .4 13 .7 10 .0 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 16 .7 23 .7 29 .3 8. 0 7. 2 15 .0 19 .5 22 .2 7. 1 6. 3 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 22 .0 28 .7 34 .5 8. 1 8. 0 19 .5 23 .7 26 .3 7. 1 6. 9 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 23 .1 31 .7 36 .2 8. 4 4. 1 20 .9 27 .1 29 .9 8. 1 4. 0 Ke ny a (1 99 8) 14 .6 22 .4 29 .4 10 .0 13 .3 13 .6 19 .4 23 .5 9. 1 12 .0 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 21 .0 30 .6 36 .8 12 .4 9. 8 19 .7 26 .6 30 .1 11 .1 9. 1 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 16 .1 28 .4 39 .5 14 .8 17 .0 14 .8 23 .0 27 .9 12 .7 15 .1 M or oc co (1 99 2) 12 .7 22 .5 32 .0 11 .3 12 .5 11 .1 17 .1 21 .4 9. 8 10 .8 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 20 .3 31 .5 37 .2 14 .4 7. 2 16 .8 24 .1 26 .9 13 .0 6. 5 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 16 .7 24 .2 29 .3 8. 4 6. 2 14 .8 20 .0 22 .8 7. 8 5. 7 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 21 .8 30 .7 38 .1 11 .4 10 .7 19 .7 26 .3 30 .9 10 .6 10 .3 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 29 .1 36 .9 42 .5 11 .4 15 .5 25 .5 30 .1 32 .7 10 .4 14 .5 Pe ru (1 99 6) 19 .8 27 .7 34 .0 9. 7 7. 7 17 .6 22 .6 25 .9 8. 8 7. 2 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 22 .2 31 .8 39 .5 12 .1 11 .4 20 .0 26 .4 30 .8 11 .1 10 .7 Pe ru (2 00 0) 25 .2 36 .9 44 .2 15 .7 11 .3 23 .6 32 .8 37 .7 14 .7 10 .8 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 34 .3 48 .7 57 .0 22 .4 17 .7 31 .5 41 .8 46 .8 20 .5 16 .8 74 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 11 .1 15 .0 19 .8 4. 5 5. 1 10 .0 12 .6 15 .1 4. 1 4. 7 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 18 .5 26 .4 31 .9 9. 4 6. 7 16 .3 21 .4 24 .0 8. 5 6. 2 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 19 .9 28 .2 34 .5 10 .4 8. 9 18 .1 24 .2 27 .9 9. 7 8. 4 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 20 .9 34 .4 42 .3 18 .0 13 .7 19 .3 28 .2 31 .3 15 .2 11 .8 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 13 .9 20 .2 25 .7 7. 2 7. 0 12 .4 16 .6 19 .6 6. 6 6. 6 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 11 .7 16 .2 21 .5 5. 3 6. 6 10 .4 13 .5 16 .4 4. 8 6. 0 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 17 .1 22 .4 26 .6 6. 0 5. 3 15 .4 18 .9 21 .2 5. 5 5. 0 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 6. 4 13 .9 17 .2 7. 9 4. 1 6. 0 11 .9 14 .3 7. 4 3. 9 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 8. 6 13 .1 17 .3 4. 9 4. 4 8. 3 12 .2 15 .4 4. 7 4. 2 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 12 .1 17 .5 22 .8 6. 5 6. 7 11 .4 15 .7 19 .4 6. 1 6. 3 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 6. 7 15 .1 24 .9 8. 9 12 .5 6. 4 12 .8 18 .0 7. 8 10 .6 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 8. 8 17 .5 26 .7 10 .1 11 .5 8. 5 15 .7 21 .5 9. 3 10 .0 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 7. 6 14 .4 20 .0 7. 5 6. 8 7. 3 12 .9 16 .5 6. 9 6. 0 Ta bl e B .3 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) A ll m et ho ds evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 75 Ta bl e B .3 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s O ra l p ill s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – A rm en ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 30 .6 42 .9 52 .9 17 .8 17 .5 28 .0 37 .1 43 .4 16 .5 16 .2 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 28 .9 39 .7 47 .3 15 .3 12 .5 26 .5 34 .4 39 .0 14 .2 11 .5 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 29 .3 39 .4 46 .7 14 .3 12 .1 26 .6 33 .6 37 .8 13 .1 11 .0 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 27 .5 38 .8 45 .4 15 .6 10 .8 24 .3 31 .9 35 .6 14 .2 10 .0 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 46 .9 61 .4 67 .7 27 .4 42 .9 53 .6 57 .8 25 .4 – Br az il (1 99 1) 28 .1 45 .3 61 .6 23 .9 29 .7 24 .7 35 .4 43 .1 21 .0 25 .5 Br az il (1 99 6) 18 .9 30 .0 38 .0 13 .6 11 .4 15 .9 22 .8 26 .9 12 .4 10 .6 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 20 .8 33 .0 42 .5 15 .4 14 .2 18 .2 26 .4 31 .4 14 .1 12 .9 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 32 .3 45 .7 54 .8 19 .8 16 .8 29 .6 38 .7 43 .6 18 .2 15 .4 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 28 .7 43 .7 51 .3 21 .0 13 .5 26 .3 36 .7 41 .0 19 .2 12 .4 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 31 .7 48 .0 58 .9 23 .9 21 .0 29 .4 41 .3 47 .8 21 .5 19 .2 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 33 .0 46 .0 65 .1 19 .4 35 .3 26 .6 33 .3 39 .6 16 .9 28 .5 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 32 .1 44 .0 52 .3 17 .6 14 .8 27 .0 33 .7 37 .1 15 .8 12 .8 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 27 .1 37 .8 46 .2 14 .7 13 .5 23 .9 30 .6 34 .3 12 .9 12 .1 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 23 .6 36 .7 47 .8 17 .2 17 .6 21 .2 29 .9 35 .9 15 .1 15 .9 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 25 .7 36 .6 44 .9 14 .6 13 .2 22 .8 29 .8 33 .8 13 .2 11 .8 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 28 .0 40 .3 46 .8 17 .0 10 .9 24 .7 32 .4 35 .6 14 .8 10 .0 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 28 .1 38 .7 44 .2 14 .7 9. 0 24 .8 31 .2 33 .6 12 .8 7. 9 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 18 .2 27 .1 32 .1 10 .8 6. 9 16 .4 22 .0 24 .3 9. 2 6. 2 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 41 .2 53 .7 63 .3 21 .3 – 35 .9 42 .9 47 .0 18 .1 – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 27 .4 36 .0 46 .8 11 .9 16 .9 25 .1 30 .8 36 .3 10 .3 15 .4 76 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) O ra l p ill s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 31 .2 43 .8 56 .1 18 .2 – 28 .2 37 .3 45 .4 17 .0 – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 13 .9 18 .7 24 .1 5. 6 6. 6 13 .0 16 .6 20 .0 5. 2 6. 0 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 15 .2 19 .6 24 .5 5. 2 6. 1 14 .2 17 .4 20 .4 4. 8 5. 6 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 17 .1 23 .8 28 .9 8. 1 6. 6 16 .0 21 .0 24 .2 7. 5 6. 1 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 15 .2 21 .4 26 .1 7. 3 5. 9 14 .2 18 .8 21 .6 6. 7 5. 5 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 22 .7 29 .4 34 .5 8. 6 7. 3 20 .9 25 .8 29 .0 8. 1 6. 9 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 38 .9 54 .6 60 .9 25 .7 13 .8 33 .5 41 .4 43 .3 21 .7 11 .3 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 44 .3 56 .9 68 .6 22 .6 27 .3 37 .6 43 .8 47 .6 19 .0 23 .0 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 35 .4 52 .2 62 .2 26 .0 20 .9 31 .3 41 .1 45 .0 22 .2 17 .9 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 23 .0 35 .1 43 .1 15 .7 12 .4 20 .0 27 .1 30 .4 13 .2 10 .9 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 30 .0 42 .2 48 .9 17 .5 11 .5 27 .0 34 .4 37 .0 15 .4 9. 7 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 47 .9 65 .9 72 .5 – – 42 .9 53 .1 56 .2 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 22 .8 32 .3 40 .1 12 .3 11 .5 21 .4 29 .1 33 .4 11 .5 9. 9 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 30 .0 42 .6 50 .6 17 .9 14 .0 28 .5 37 .6 42 .5 15 .9 13 .0 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 30 .4 45 .6 57 .3 21 .9 – 27 .5 36 .9 41 .0 19 .5 – M or oc co (1 99 2) 13 .1 23 .0 32 .6 11 .3 12 .5 11 .6 17 .8 22 .1 9. 7 10 .8 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 11 .9 18 .6 24 .2 7. 6 6. 9 9. 5 13 .6 16 .2 6. 8 6. 2 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 22 .6 38 .1 46 .1 20 .0 – 20 .1 29 .8 33 .4 18 .0 – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 26 .8 38 .5 49 .8 15 .9 18 .4 23 .5 31 .1 36 .8 14 .4 16 .6 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 36 .3 47 .2 55 .4 17 .1 15 .5 32 .4 39 .2 43 .4 15 .8 14 .5 Pe ru (1 99 6) 37 .8 52 .0 61 .7 22 .8 20 .3 34 .2 43 .8 49 .3 20 .8 18 .7 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 37 .1 51 .9 62 .8 23 .6 22 .5 33 .9 44 .4 51 .0 22 .0 21 .1 Pe ru (2 00 0) 44 .4 60 .6 69 .6 29 .2 22 .7 41 .5 53 .9 59 .6 27 .4 21 .1 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 53 .8 68 .3 77 .5 31 .4 – 49 .9 60 .6 66 .1 29 .1 – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 77 Ta bl e B .3 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) O ra l p ill s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 18 .5 26 .3 36 .4 9. 6 13 .7 16 .5 21 .7 27 .0 8. 7 12 .6 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 23 .6 32 .9 41 .1 12 .1 12 .3 20 .7 27 .2 31 .9 11 .4 11 .6 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 23 .8 34 .5 43 .1 14 .0 13 .1 21 .8 29 .9 35 .5 13 .3 12 .4 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 23 .4 37 .2 42 .6 18 .1 8. 6 21 .9 31 .5 33 .9 15 .3 7. 2 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 30 .9 44 .3 55 .0 19 .4 19 .1 26 .2 33 .9 38 .9 17 .4 17 .5 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 30 .3 43 .7 51 .7 19 .2 14 .3 24 .7 32 .2 35 .7 17 .4 12 .4 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 35 .8 48 .7 56 .5 20 .1 15 .2 32 .1 40 .3 44 .2 18 .1 14 .5 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 14 .5 26 .0 27 .1 13 .4 – 14 .1 24 .3 25 .3 12 .7 – V ie t N am (1 99 7) 16 .7 31 .1 38 .3 17 .2 – 15 .4 26 .0 30 .8 15 .9 – V ie t N am (2 00 2) 20 .3 29 .5 42 .4 11 .6 18 .3 18 .8 25 .8 34 .1 11 .0 17 .0 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 6. 2 15 .0 25 .6 9. 4 12 .5 6. 0 13 .2 19 .3 8. 4 10 .6 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 6. 9 15 .0 23 .3 8. 7 9. 7 6. 7 13 .6 18 .8 8. 0 8. 3 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 5. 1 11 .4 16 .7 6. 7 6. 0 4. 9 10 .2 13 .6 6. 1 5. 3 78 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s IU D Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 4. 5 13 .3 18 .6 9. 2 6. 1 4. 5 13 .0 18 .0 9. 1 6. 0 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 5. 9 7. 5 12 .7 1. 7 5. 6 5. 8 7. 4 12 .3 1. 7 5. 5 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 32 .4 46 .7 53 .9 21 .2 – 31 .4 44 .3 50 .1 20 .5 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 36 .6 45 .8 58 .7 14 .6 – 35 .7 44 .2 55 .0 14 .3 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 29 .5 47 .7 58 .8 – – 29 .2 46 .0 55 .7 – – Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 26 .9 41 .8 64 .0 – – 26 .5 40 .1 59 .5 – – Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 8. 2 15 .4 25 .2 7. 9 11 .6 8. 0 14 .7 23 .1 7. 6 11 .3 Br az il (1 99 1) – – – – – – – – – – Br az il (1 99 6) – – – – – – – – – – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 11 .2 19 .4 31 .4 9. 2 34 .6 10 .9 18 .0 26 .9 8. 8 13 .7 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 12 .0 20 .5 27 .5 9. 6 8. 7 11 .7 19 .4 25 .2 9. 4 8. 4 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 10 .6 17 .3 22 .5 7. 5 6. 3 10 .2 16 .3 20 .6 7. 3 6. 1 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 12 .8 20 .9 29 .6 9. 2 11 .0 12 .6 20 .1 27 .7 9. 0 10 .8 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 27 .2 42 .4 63 .4 – – 26 .1 38 .4 49 .8 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 25 .6 33 .1 35 .6 – – 25 .1 31 .7 33 .6 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 21 .1 33 .4 49 .1 15 .5 23 .6 20 .0 30 .1 40 .8 14 .4 22 .2 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 8. 0 16 .9 26 .0 9. 6 11 .0 7. 9 15 .8 23 .1 9. 1 10 .3 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 8. 8 17 .5 26 .3 9. 5 10 .7 8. 6 16 .3 22 .9 9. 0 9. 9 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 9. 0 17 .0 25 .6 8. 8 10 .3 8. 8 15 .9 22 .1 8. 3 9. 5 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 9. 3 16 .5 23 .6 7. 9 8. 5 9. 1 15 .3 20 .3 7. 3 7. 8 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 6. 4 12 .8 18 .5 6. 8 6. 5 6. 3 11 .8 15 .7 6. 3 5. 9 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 79 Ta bl e B .3 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) IU D Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 9. 1 18 .5 19 .5 – – 8. 7 17 .1 17 .8 – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) – – – – – – – – – – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 8. 5 11 .8 16 .1 3. 6 4. 8 8. 2 11 .1 14 .5 3. 5 4. 5 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 9. 5 12 .7 16 .9 3. 5 4. 8 9. 3 12 .2 15 .6 3. 4 4. 6 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 8. 5 12 .6 19 .1 4. 5 7. 5 8. 3 12 .1 17 .8 4. 3 7. 2 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 7. 3 11 .0 15 .0 4. 0 4. 4 7. 3 10 .9 14 .4 3. 9 4. 3 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 6. 1 7. 6 10 .1 1. 7 2. 6 6. 0 7. 5 9. 7 1. 6 2. 6 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 12 .3 23 .7 35 .1 12 .9 15 .0 11 .9 21 .4 28 .8 12 .0 13 .0 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 11 .4 21 .6 30 .0 11 .6 10 .6 11 .1 19 .8 25 .7 10 .6 9. 9 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 8. 6 18 .5 27 .8 10 .9 11 .3 8. 4 17 .5 24 .6 10 .4 10 .4 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 7. 5 14 .0 20 .3 7. 1 7. 3 7. 3 13 .3 18 .0 6. 8 6. 5 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 8. 6 14 .9 22 .0 6. 9 8. 4 8. 4 13 .9 19 .2 6. 4 7. 8 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 5. 8 11 .2 14 .8 5. 7 4. 1 5. 7 10 .7 13 .8 5. 6 4. 0 Ke ny a (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) – – – – – – – – – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 12 .1 29 .9 43 .7 20 .2 11 .8 28 .1 39 .8 19 .7 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 11 .3 20 .2 27 .1 10 .0 8. 6 11 .1 19 .4 25 .3 9. 8 8. 3 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 4. 2 8. 5 14 .8 4. 5 6. 9 4. 1 8. 3 14 .1 4. 5 6. 7 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 18 .9 30 .9 42 .6 14 .8 17 .0 18 .4 29 .1 38 .2 14 .1 16 .3 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 11 .3 15 .3 22 .4 4. 6 – 11 .2 15 .1 21 .3 4. 6 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 8. 8 15 .0 23 .1 6. 8 9. 5 8. 7 14 .6 21 .9 6. 7 9. 2 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 14 .9 23 .4 33 .2 10 .1 12 .7 14 .6 22 .8 31 .6 9. 9 12 .4 Pe ru (2 00 0) 14 .2 23 .5 32 .0 10 .9 11 .1 14 .0 23 .0 30 .8 10 .8 11 .0 80 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 16 .4 27 .7 33 .2 13 .5 – 16 .3 27 .1 32 .0 13 .3 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 12 .0 18 .5 27 .2 7. 4 – 11 .5 17 .1 24 .1 7. 2 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 11 .9 19 .8 25 .8 9. 0 7. 4 11 .8 19 .4 24 .8 8. 9 7. 3 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 9. 0 18 .0 28 .1 9. 9 12 .3 8. 8 17 .2 26 .6 9. 8 12 .2 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 6. 4 12 .0 18 .9 6. 0 7. 8 6. 3 11 .6 17 .7 5. 8 7. 6 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 6. 5 10 .2 16 .3 3. 9 6. 8 6. 4 9. 9 15 .3 3. 8 6. 5 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 6. 5 10 .9 15 .5 4. 7 5. 2 6. 4 10 .6 14 .7 4. 6 5. 0 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 0. 5 3. 8 6. 7 3. 4 3. 0 0. 5 3. 8 6. 6 3. 4 3. 0 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 7. 5 11 .0 14 .3 3. 8 3. 6 7. 5 10 .7 13 .6 3. 7 3. 6 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 8. 9 12 .6 16 .4 4. 0 4. 4 8. 8 12 .3 15 .6 3. 9 4. 2 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) – – – – – – – – – – Ta bl e B .3 .3 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) IU D evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 81 Ta bl e B .3 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s In je ct ab le s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – A rm en ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 48 .3 60 .7 70 .0 23 .9 45 .3 55 .2 62 .1 23 .1 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 40 .8 50 .4 62 .0 16 .2 23 .4 38 .2 45 .9 54 .3 15 .4 22 .8 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 41 .8 54 .5 59 .9 21 .8 11 .8 39 .7 50 .2 54 .1 20 .7 11 .0 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 39 .4 50 .6 58 .0 18 .5 14 .9 37 .4 46 .6 52 .1 17 .7 14 .2 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 61 .4 77 .6 88 .0 – – 50 .8 59 .6 64 .8 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 62 .4 78 .1 81 .5 – – 58 .0 67 .0 68 .1 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 37 .3 46 .8 47 .8 – – 29 .5 34 .6 35 .0 – – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 42 .0 49 .3 60 .0 12 .6 – 36 .5 41 .0 46 .5 11 .5 – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 50 .3 62 .8 70 .9 25 .2 – 45 .5 54 .2 58 .7 23 .7 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 48 .1 61 .5 70 .5 25 .8 – 44 .1 54 .0 59 .7 24 .5 – C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 37 .6 56 .2 67 .5 29 .8 25 .9 35 .1 49 .0 55 .7 27 .8 23 .4 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) – – – – – – – – – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) – – – – – – – – – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 51 .0 67 .6 76 .0 33 .9 – 45 .7 56 .2 60 .7 31 .6 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 43 .2 64 .4 76 .9 – – 38 .8 53 .6 61 .8 – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 39 .4 53 .1 59 .6 22 .6 – 36 .8 46 .9 51 .0 21 .0 – Eg yp t (2 00 0) 38 .5 50 .0 58 .9 18 .8 17 .7 36 .5 45 .8 52 .1 17 .9 16 .6 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 32 .5 46 .5 55 .1 20 .8 16 .0 29 .9 40 .6 46 .5 19 .6 15 .1 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 24 .0 35 .7 48 .4 15 .4 19 .7 22 .6 31 .8 39 .9 14 .5 17 .9 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 17 .6 24 .1 29 .6 7. 8 7. 3 16 .2 21 .0 24 .4 7. 1 6. 6 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 31 .0 45 .8 48 .4 – – 27 .8 36 .4 37 .7 – – 82 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) In je ct ab le s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 44 .9 55 .7 67 .5 19 .7 – 41 .7 50 .3 58 .2 19 .3 – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 22 .5 34 .4 49 .1 15 .4 22 .4 21 .4 31 .1 40 .6 14 .3 20 .4 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 19 .6 33 .2 43 .4 16 .9 15 .3 18 .7 30 .2 37 .7 16 .0 14 .3 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 15 .6 26 .3 35 .2 12 .6 12 .1 15 .1 24 .4 31 .4 12 .0 11 .6 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 11 .0 19 .1 25 .8 9. 1 8. 2 10 .6 17 .8 23 .2 8. 8 7. 9 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 13 .6 21 .9 29 .4 9. 7 9. 6 12 .9 20 .2 26 .0 9. 3 9. 2 Jo rd an (1 99 0) – – – – – – – – – – Jo rd an (1 99 7) – – – – – – – – – – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 46 .7 60 .9 65 .2 – – 44 .0 54 .8 57 .6 – – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 32 .0 54 .6 67 .4 33 .2 – 30 .5 47 .3 55 .5 29 .2 – Jo rd an (2 00 9) 57 .1 76 .6 88 .3 – – 54 .2 68 .9 75 .4 – – Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 14 .0 24 .7 35 .6 12 .4 14 .6 13 .5 22 .6 31 .0 11 .7 13 .7 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 23 .3 33 .5 38 .2 13 .4 7. 0 22 .2 30 .9 34 .2 12 .7 6. 6 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 16 .6 31 .8 46 .9 18 .2 22 .1 15 .4 26 .3 33 .5 15 .8 18 .9 M or oc co (1 99 2) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 42 .2 55 .1 64 .9 22 .4 – 40 .7 51 .4 58 .7 21 .6 – M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 41 .1 55 .7 60 .4 24 .8 – 36 .8 46 .1 48 .4 22 .2 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 49 .3 59 .3 63 .9 19 .7 – 43 .4 48 .6 50 .4 18 .0 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 53 .3 64 .8 76 .9 24 .6 – 48 .1 56 .1 63 .6 23 .0 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 39 .2 54 .9 66 .6 25 .9 25 .9 36 .5 48 .8 56 .9 24 .3 24 .9 Pe ru (2 00 0) 31 .6 49 .8 61 .3 26 .7 22 .9 30 .6 46 .6 55 .9 25 .8 22 .0 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 34 .8 54 .3 66 .7 29 .9 27 .2 33 .8 50 .4 60 .1 28 .0 26 .1 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 83 Ta bl e B .3 .4 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) In je ct ab le s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) – – – – – – – – – – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 38 .9 60 .6 76 .1 35 .6 – 36 .0 52 .7 60 .9 33 .9 – Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 41 .3 56 .0 70 .8 25 .1 33 .5 38 .5 49 .9 59 .4 24 .1 30 .4 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 27 .5 42 .0 52 .4 20 .0 18 .0 26 .3 37 .6 43 .5 18 .0 15 .7 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 71 .8 83 .1 90 .5 – – 67 .2 74 .5 78 .4 – – U kr ai ne (2 00 7) – – – – – – – – – – V ie t N am (1 99 7) – – – – – – – – – – V ie t N am (2 00 2) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 8. 1 17 .4 27 .9 – – 8. 0 15 .3 23 .4 – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 17 .5 30 .9 43 .9 16 .2 18 .8 16 .8 28 .0 37 .4 14 .9 17 .5 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 15 .5 25 .8 33 .9 12 .2 10 .9 15 .1 24 .0 29 .5 11 .7 9. 9 84 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 14 .5 19 .3 24 .4 5. 7 – 12 .6 15 .6 18 .1 4. 9 – A rm en ia (2 00 5) 11 .0 15 .7 17 .9 5. 3 – 9. 6 12 .8 14 .0 4. 5 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 32 .0 39 .8 43 .0 11 .4 – 22 .6 25 .5 26 .4 10 .1 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 32 .7 39 .0 48 .3 9. 4 – 26 .0 29 .1 32 .2 8. 6 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 29 .9 37 .9 42 .4 11 .4 7. 3 23 .0 26 .2 27 .4 9. 6 6. 8 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 35 .1 41 .6 46 .0 10 .1 7. 4 26 .0 28 .5 29 .6 8. 5 6. 4 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 40 .1 40 .1 44 .7 – – 31 .2 31 .2 33 .3 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 49 .6 50 .3 50 .3 – – 39 .4 39 .6 39 .6 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 36 .0 41 .2 47 .0 8. 2 – 30 .3 33 .2 35 .8 7. 3 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 25 .2 32 .1 37 .1 – – 20 .6 24 .3 26 .7 – – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 40 .6 49 .8 57 .6 15 .5 – 34 .1 39 .6 43 .4 14 .3 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 40 .6 50 .4 54 .3 16 .5 – 36 .7 43 .0 45 .1 14 .4 – C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 31 .5 43 .9 50 .1 18 .1 11 .0 28 .3 37 .0 40 .5 16 .7 10 .4 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 40 .5 44 .0 44 .0 – – 31 .9 33 .2 33 .2 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 48 .0 56 .1 71 .1 – – 33 .9 36 .2 38 .6 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 42 .2 45 .5 52 .9 – – 32 .1 33 .4 35 .4 – – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 31 .6 38 .7 42 .4 10 .4 – 28 .9 33 .2 35 .0 8. 5 – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 24 .8 26 .3 31 .1 2. 0 – 21 .4 22 .3 24 .1 2. 0 – Eg yp t (2 00 0) 25 .7 35 .2 43 .7 – – 22 .6 28 .2 32 .8 – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) 20 .6 26 .1 26 .1 7. 0 – 18 .8 22 .8 22 .8 6. 5 – Eg yp t (2 00 8) 10 .7 12 .6 12 .6 – – 9. 5 11 .0 11 .0 – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 24 .5 28 .4 33 .7 – – 21 .5 24 .2 27 .4 – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 85 Ta bl e B .3 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 33 .8 42 .7 45 .7 – – 26 .6 31 .6 32 .6 – – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 27 .0 37 .6 38 .6 14 .4 – 24 .7 30 .9 31 .4 12 .6 – In do ne si a (1 99 4) 27 .0 33 .2 34 .3 8. 4 – 24 .5 28 .4 29 .1 8. 0 – In do ne si a (1 99 7) 17 .8 26 .6 40 .0 10 .7 – 16 .6 22 .7 30 .8 9. 3 – In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 20 .8 29 .2 32 .1 10 .6 – 19 .7 25 .8 27 .6 9. 8 – In do ne si a (2 00 7) 15 .1 18 .4 22 .1 3. 9 4. 5 13 .3 15 .5 17 .7 3. 6 4. 5 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 32 .4 36 .8 36 .8 – – 26 .4 27 .8 27 .8 – – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 21 .7 28 .6 32 .8 – – 17 .0 19 .0 19 .9 – – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 25 .8 31 .6 34 .4 7. 9 – 21 .4 24 .0 24 .8 6. 0 – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 13 .3 18 .6 28 .9 6. 1 12 .7 11 .8 14 .8 18 .7 5. 2 10 .5 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 19 .6 22 .7 25 .2 3. 9 3. 2 16 .4 18 .2 19 .0 3. 5 2. 7 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 36 .4 55 .3 60 .7 29 .7 – 31 .3 41 .7 43 .7 24 .9 – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 25 .9 33 .5 33 .5 – – 19 .9 23 .4 23 .4 – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) 20 .5 24 .6 34 .0 – – 18 .5 20 .6 23 .6 – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 25 .7 36 .8 36 .8 – – 22 .6 26 .3 26 .3 – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 16 .1 18 .5 28 .7 – – 10 .9 12 .0 15 .6 – – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 34 .6 36 .3 37 .4 – – 31 .3 32 .5 33 .0 – – M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 16 .7 27 .5 33 .3 13 .0 7. 9 15 .0 21 .9 24 .7 11 .4 6. 7 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 31 .9 37 .8 44 .1 8. 6 – 25 .1 28 .0 30 .1 7. 5 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 35 .8 41 .4 48 .4 – – 23 .6 25 .8 28 .1 – – Pe ru (1 99 6) 37 .8 52 .0 54 .2 22 .7 – 32 .4 39 .9 40 .9 20 .2 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 31 .9 42 .6 46 .8 15 .7 7. 3 26 .8 32 .9 34 .9 13 .7 6. 8 Pe ru (2 00 0) 29 .1 37 .7 43 .7 12 .2 9. 5 25 .8 31 .3 34 .2 10 .7 8. 6 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 34 .9 46 .4 50 .3 17 .6 – 31 .5 38 .8 41 .0 15 .7 – 86 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .5 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) Co nd om Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 27 .8 30 .5 38 .7 – – 24 .9 26 .5 28 .9 – – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 34 .3 45 .9 49 .8 – – 29 .8 36 .3 37 .8 – – Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 40 .1 46 .1 47 .9 10 .0 – 36 .8 41 .0 41 .9 9. 5 – Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 26 .6 35 .3 35 .3 – – 22 .1 27 .0 27 .0 – – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 17 .3 24 .9 30 .2 9. 2 7. 0 14 .2 18 .3 20 .5 7. 9 6. 6 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 12 .7 17 .9 20 .5 6. 0 3. 1 10 .6 13 .5 14 .7 5. 2 2. 8 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 17 .0 22 .4 26 .7 6. 5 5. 6 14 .3 17 .4 19 .5 5. 8 5. 3 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 5. 3 12 .0 14 .1 7. 1 2. 3 4. 8 9. 9 11 .2 6. 4 2. 2 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 13 .1 20 .1 25 .1 8. 0 6. 3 11 .9 17 .2 20 .4 7. 9 5. 9 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 16 .9 23 .5 28 .8 7. 9 6. 9 15 .1 19 .7 22 .7 7. 5 6. 3 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 14 .2 23 .3 23 .3 – – 12 .6 17 .9 17 .9 – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 25 .8 30 .1 30 .1 – – 21 .7 24 .5 24 .5 – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 87 Ta bl e B .3 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 11 .1 13 .3 15 .2 2. 6 – 9. 5 10 .9 11 .7 2. 4 – A rm en ia (2 00 5) 3. 4 4. 4 4. 7 – – 2. 8 3. 2 3. 3 – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 11 .5 18 .4 23 .8 7. 8 6. 6 9. 4 13 .2 15 .1 6. 8 5. 4 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 10 .5 14 .4 18 .4 4. 4 4. 7 8. 8 11 .1 12 .7 3. 9 4. 1 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 15 .1 21 .5 24 .5 7. 6 3. 8 13 .4 17 .3 18 .5 6. 6 3. 4 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 14 .3 22 .4 26 .5 9. 4 5. 4 12 .4 17 .0 19 .0 7. 8 5. 3 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 8. 2 12 .1 14 .4 4. 3 2. 5 7. 1 9. 4 10 .3 3. 7 2. 4 Br az il (1 99 1) 17 .3 18 .3 29 .4 – – 12 .8 13 .2 15 .5 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 24 .3 32 .8 35 .6 11 .3 – 20 .0 24 .3 25 .3 9. 6 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 15 .4 19 .0 21 .4 4. 2 2. 9 13 .5 15 .3 16 .4 3. 4 2. 9 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 25 .5 33 .5 37 .9 10 .7 6. 6 22 .3 26 .6 28 .5 9. 1 6. 1 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 25 .7 32 .3 37 .6 8. 8 7. 9 21 .9 25 .4 27 .5 7. 8 6. 8 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 16 .4 26 .5 30 .3 12 .1 5. 2 14 .4 20 .5 22 .1 10 .6 4. 5 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 15 .0 15 .4 15 .4 – – 12 .4 12 .6 12 .6 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 20 .0 36 .3 39 .3 – – 13 .7 17 .9 18 .5 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 18 .0 25 .0 25 .0 8. 5 – 14 .4 17 .5 17 .5 7. 1 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) 12 .9 14 .6 19 .3 – – 11 .4 12 .4 14 .5 – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 14 .0 14 .6 14 .6 – – 12 .0 12 .3 12 .3 – – Eg yp t (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) 7. 5 7. 5 11 .7 – – 6. 7 6. 7 9. 1 – – Eg yp t (2 00 8) – – – – – – – – – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 12 .8 21 .5 25 .0 – – 11 .5 16 .3 17 .5 – – G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 4. 5 9. 4 9. 4 5. 1 – 3. 9 6. 8 6. 8 4. 5 – 88 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 4. 1 9. 1 13 .8 5. 2 – 3. 8 7. 2 10 .0 4. 9 – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 10 .7 11 .7 16 .9 1. 1 5. 9 9. 4 9. 9 12 .2 1. 0 4. 9 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 7. 8 9. 3 10 .1 1. 7 0. 8 7. 2 8. 0 8. 4 1. 3 0. 7 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 7. 6 10 .2 10 .6 2. 9 0. 4 6. 7 8. 5 8. 7 2. 4 0. 4 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 6. 4 9. 2 9. 2 3. 0 – 6. 1 8. 4 8. 4 2. 8 – In do ne si a (2 00 7) 8. 1 12 .9 15 .3 5. 2 2. 7 7. 4 11 .0 12 .5 4. 8 2. 5 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 8. 6 14 .7 16 .1 6. 7 – 6. 9 9. 2 9. 5 5. 2 – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 15 .2 21 .2 22 .2 7. 1 – 12 .6 14 .5 14 .7 5. 0 – Jo rd an (2 00 2) 9. 0 9. 7 12 .6 0. 8 – 6. 7 7. 0 7. 9 0. 6 – Jo rd an (2 00 7) 6. 0 9. 1 10 .1 3. 3 1. 1 5. 3 7. 0 7. 3 2. 7 0. 8 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 14 .3 16 .5 26 .9 2. 6 12 .4 12 .1 13 .1 16 .1 1. 8 9. 5 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 25 .3 42 .3 45 .4 – – 20 .8 30 .4 31 .7 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 3. 9 6. 3 6. 3 2. 5 – 3. 7 5. 0 5. 0 2. 0 – Ke ny a (2 00 3) 2. 5 4. 9 9. 0 2. 4 – 2. 3 3. 7 5. 2 1. 9 – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) – – – – – – – – – – M or oc co (1 99 2) 12 .1 18 .0 23 .4 6. 7 – 9. 5 12 .3 14 .2 5. 7 – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 17 .7 20 .6 26 .4 3. 4 7. 4 14 .7 16 .2 18 .2 3. 0 6. 1 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 10 .6 15 .0 22 .3 5. 0 – 9. 8 13 .1 16 .8 4. 8 – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 14 .2 27 .3 28 .3 15 .2 – 12 .2 19 .1 19 .6 12 .6 – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 17 .3 18 .5 20 .0 1. 4 – 14 .5 15 .2 15 .7 1. 4 – Pe ru (1 99 6) 8. 8 13 .3 15 .7 5. 0 2. 7 7. 3 9. 6 10 .5 4. 2 2. 4 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 10 .3 16 .3 22 .7 6. 6 7. 7 8. 8 12 .0 14 .6 5. 6 6. 9 Pe ru (2 00 0) 10 .9 17 .8 24 .5 7. 8 8. 1 9. 7 14 .2 17 .5 6. 8 7. 3 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 13 .9 19 .1 22 .9 6. 1 4. 7 12 .2 15 .5 17 .4 5. 5 4. 3 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 89 Ta bl e B .3 .6 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) Pe ri od ic a bs ti ne nc e Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 4. 4 6. 8 6. 8 2. 6 – 3. 8 5. 3 5. 3 2. 3 – Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 7. 3 11 .2 13 .0 4. 2 1. 9 6. 5 8. 9 9. 7 3. 7 1. 7 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 7. 8 12 .6 14 .1 5. 3 1. 7 6. 9 10 .2 10 .9 4. 7 1. 5 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 10 .3 16 .0 22 .2 6. 3 – 9. 7 13 .6 15 .9 5. 3 – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 15 .0 21 .2 21 .2 – – 11 .3 13 .6 13 .6 – – Tu rk ey (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 19 .8 22 .6 22 .6 – – 14 .7 16 .2 16 .2 – – U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 11 .4 22 .9 25 .9 13 .1 3. 8 10 .5 19 .0 20 .8 12 .1 3. 6 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 8. 9 11 .1 21 .2 2. 4 11 .4 8. 1 9. 7 15 .9 2. 2 10 .8 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 12 .6 20 .2 25 .3 8. 8 6. 4 11 .0 16 .4 19 .2 8. 0 5. 9 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) – – – – – – – – – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) – – – – – – – – – – 90 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 4. 3 7. 3 9. 5 3. 2 2. 4 3. 5 5. 1 5. 9 2. 6 2. 1 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 2. 0 2. 9 3. 7 1. 0 0. 8 1. 8 2. 4 2. 7 0. 9 0. 7 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 14 .4 21 .0 22 .8 7. 7 – 12 .0 15 .0 15 .7 6. 7 – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 30 .2 33 .8 35 .7 – – 27 .1 28 .8 29 .6 – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 16 .5 20 .7 23 .0 5. 1 2. 9 13 .2 15 .2 16 .0 4. 1 2. 6 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 27 .6 31 .6 33 .6 5. 5 – 22 .7 24 .8 25 .6 4. 9 – Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 17 .5 21 .6 26 .8 – – 14 .6 16 .5 18 .3 – – Br az il (1 99 1) 26 .7 32 .9 36 .6 – – 20 .2 23 .0 23 .8 – – Br az il (1 99 6) 26 .5 34 .1 37 .4 10 .4 – 22 .3 26 .1 27 .2 9. 4 – C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 9. 8 23 .8 25 .9 15 .5 – 8. 9 18 .1 19 .2 14 .6 – C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 25 .9 35 .1 44 .2 12 .5 – 21 .3 25 .9 28 .8 10 .4 – C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 28 .6 40 .4 44 .1 16 .5 6. 2 24 .5 30 .9 32 .3 14 .8 5. 0 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 20 .6 31 .3 39 .3 13 .5 11 .6 18 .0 24 .8 28 .7 11 .7 10 .6 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 22 .7 28 .1 51 .2 – – 18 .4 20 .3 24 .7 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 18 .2 30 .2 41 .4 – – 14 .8 18 .7 20 .6 – – D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 27 .8 34 .3 35 .3 8. 9 – 23 .7 27 .0 27 .2 8. 1 – Eg yp t (1 99 2) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (1 99 5) 12 .3 12 .3 12 .3 – – 11 .0 11 .0 11 .0 – – Eg yp t (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Eg yp t (2 00 8) – – – – – – – – – – Et hi op ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 91 Ta bl e B .3 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) – – – – – – – – – – G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) – – – – – – – – – – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 16 .5 18 .3 24 .1 2. 2 – 13 .2 14 .2 16 .2 2. 0 – In do ne si a (1 99 4) 11 .9 14 .8 15 .5 3. 4 – 10 .5 12 .3 12 .6 2. 9 – In do ne si a (1 99 7) 13 .2 14 .5 15 .6 1. 6 – 11 .7 12 .7 13 .4 1. 4 – In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 4. 5 11 .7 14 .1 7. 6 2. 7 4. 2 9. 5 11 .0 6. 7 2. 7 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 8. 1 13 .8 19 .0 6. 2 6. 0 7. 5 11 .9 14 .9 5. 7 5. 2 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 13 .1 21 .6 24 .0 9. 8 – 10 .7 14 .4 15 .1 8. 1 – Jo rd an (1 99 7) 13 .6 22 .2 26 .3 9. 9 5. 2 11 .2 14 .0 14 .8 6. 6 4. 0 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 14 .5 20 .0 22 .4 6. 4 2. 9 12 .4 15 .1 15 .8 5. 2 2. 4 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 9. 1 11 .5 13 .9 2. 7 2. 7 8. 2 9. 7 10 .7 2. 3 2. 5 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 12 .3 17 .4 20 .7 5. 7 4. 0 10 .9 14 .0 15 .1 5. 1 3. 1 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 28 .5 34 .4 43 .9 – – 23 .6 26 .7 30 .7 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) – – – – – – – – – – Ke ny a (2 00 3) – – – – – – – – – – M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 9. 8 16 .1 16 .1 7. 0 – 8. 6 11 .8 11 .8 5. 0 – M or oc co (1 99 2) 9. 5 10 .6 13 .5 1. 2 – 7. 2 7. 8 8. 7 1. 0 – M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 20 .9 24 .1 30 .4 4. 0 8. 3 18 .1 20 .2 23 .0 3. 8 7. 0 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 10 .6 18 .9 22 .6 9. 3 4. 6 9. 1 14 .3 15 .9 8. 0 3. 9 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 13 .4 24 .4 31 .6 – – 10 .6 15 .3 17 .9 – – Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 15 .4 20 .8 23 .4 – – 14 .5 18 .1 19 .8 – – Pe ru (1 99 6) 19 .6 24 .8 29 .2 6. 5 – 16 .6 19 .4 21 .0 5. 9 – Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 20 .5 28 .4 31 .4 9. 9 4. 3 17 .7 22 .0 23 .2 8. 6 3. 7 Pe ru (2 00 0) 16 .2 29 .1 33 .8 15 .4 6. 6 14 .9 23 .5 26 .1 13 .8 6. 4 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 20 .6 28 .0 34 .6 – – 18 .4 23 .3 26 .1 – – 92 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .3 .7 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l (s in g le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 24 a nd 3 6 m on th s: M et ho d -r el at ed re as on s (c on tin ue d) W it hd ra w al Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 8. 3 9. 9 12 .4 1. 7 2. 8 7. 2 8. 0 8. 9 1. 4 2. 3 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 12 .7 16 .7 22 .4 4. 6 6. 8 11 .1 13 .3 15 .2 4. 1 5. 7 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 12 .2 17 .5 20 .4 6. 1 3. 6 10 .5 13 .6 14 .7 5. 4 3. 0 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 10 .3 28 .3 39 .8 20 .1 – 9. 1 17 .8 19 .5 14 .5 – Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 10 .8 14 .8 17 .6 4. 5 3. 3 9. 6 12 .0 13 .3 3. 9 2. 9 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 9. 6 11 .9 16 .9 2. 6 5. 6 8. 3 9. 7 11 .8 2. 3 5. 0 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 14 .0 17 .8 21 .4 4. 5 4. 3 12 .3 14 .7 16 .2 4. 0 3. 8 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 7. 8 17 .5 25 .9 10 .5 10 .2 6. 7 13 .3 17 .8 9. 5 9. 1 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 8. 2 13 .4 17 .5 5. 7 4. 7 7. 9 12 .1 14 .8 5. 1 4. 4 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 11 .2 17 .1 22 .1 6. 6 6. 1 10 .4 14 .4 17 .2 5. 8 5. 8 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 7. 1 11 .6 20 .1 4. 9 – 6. 3 8. 8 10 .9 3. 4 – Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 3. 1 3. 1 5. 1 – – 3. 0 3. 0 3. 7 – – Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 7. 3 11 .0 11 .0 – – 6. 3 8. 6 8. 6 – – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 93 Ta bl e B .4 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: S id e- ef fe ct s or h ea lt h co nc er ns A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) 1. 7 4. 4 6. 1 2. 8 2. 3 1. 3 2. 6 3. 3 2. 3 2. 1 A rm en ia (2 00 5) 1. 1 1. 6 2. 9 0. 5 1. 7 1. 0 1. 2 1. 8 0. 4 1. 5 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 24 .3 33 .4 40 .2 12 .1 10 .8 20 .9 26 .7 30 .1 11 .0 9. 8 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 25 .0 33 .1 40 .7 11 .6 12 .0 21 .9 27 .0 31 .1 10 .6 11 .1 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 23 .4 32 .1 38 .4 10 .9 9. 0 19 .7 24 .8 27 .7 9. 6 8. 0 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 22 .1 30 .5 36 .6 10 .6 8. 6 17 .9 22 .6 25 .4 9. 4 7. 8 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 8. 9 12 .7 17 .1 4. 3 4. 5 7. 8 10 .1 11 .8 3. 6 4. 1 Br az il (1 99 1) 13 .7 21 .8 26 .4 10 .1 6. 5 11 .6 16 .3 18 .5 9. 5 6. 1 Br az il (1 99 6) 9. 3 14 .3 17 .8 5. 4 4. 7 7. 5 10 .5 12 .3 5. 0 4. 5 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 11 .6 17 .4 23 .5 7. 0 7. 5 10 .1 14 .0 17 .2 6. 5 7. 0 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 13 .2 19 .7 24 .3 7. 6 6. 0 11 .1 14 .7 16 .7 6. 9 5. 7 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 11 .0 16 .7 20 .5 6. 5 4. 0 9. 1 12 .2 13 .9 5. 9 3. 8 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 10 .4 16 .8 21 .7 7. 2 6. 1 9. 1 13 .2 15 .7 6. 5 5. 7 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 14 .8 20 .6 26 .7 6. 9 7. 2 12 .0 15 .2 17 .9 6. 5 6. 9 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 16 .3 21 .8 25 .1 7. 0 4. 5 13 .2 16 .2 17 .7 6. 6 4. 3 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 15 .6 21 .4 25 .8 6. 9 5. 4 13 .3 16 .8 18 .8 6. 3 5. 1 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 13 .7 23 .2 32 .4 11 .1 12 .1 12 .6 19 .8 25 .3 10 .0 11 .2 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 13 .6 22 .6 30 .8 10 .6 11 .1 12 .5 19 .2 23 .9 9. 7 10 .2 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 15 .5 24 .3 32 .3 10 .5 10 .6 14 .5 21 .1 25 .8 9. 5 9. 7 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 14 .9 23 .4 30 .3 10 .1 9. 2 13 .5 19 .5 23 .3 9. 0 8. 4 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 11 .2 18 .6 25 .2 8. 4 8. 0 10 .5 16 .3 20 .2 7. 6 7. 2 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 18 .8 25 .7 32 .3 8. 8 6. 8 16 .5 20 .8 24 .0 7. 7 6. 1 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 10 .9 14 .1 17 .3 2. 3 4. 3 9. 8 11 .9 13 .8 2. 1 4. 1 94 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .4 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: S id e- ef fe ct s or h ea lt h co nc er ns (c on tin ue d) A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 16 .7 21 .6 26 .0 6. 2 – 14 .6 18 .1 20 .6 6. 0 – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 11 .8 16 .3 21 .9 5. 2 6. 9 10 .8 14 .3 17 .8 4. 8 6. 3 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 11 .5 17 .1 22 .4 6. 3 6. 6 10 .6 14 .9 18 .4 5. 9 6. 1 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 10 .3 15 .7 20 .9 6. 0 6. 3 9. 6 14 .0 17 .6 5. 7 5. 9 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 7. 7 12 .3 16 .3 5. 1 4. 7 7. 2 11 .0 13 .9 4. 8 4. 4 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 10 .3 15 .9 20 .9 6. 2 6. 0 9. 4 13 .8 17 .2 5. 8 5. 7 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 12 .5 21 .9 29 .2 10 .7 11 .7 10 .7 15 .5 17 .8 8. 5 10 .2 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 12 .7 21 .3 28 .8 10 .5 11 .5 10 .5 14 .5 17 .0 8. 3 10 .3 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 9. 5 18 .0 26 .0 9. 1 10 .8 8. 2 12 .7 15 .6 7. 6 9. 6 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 7. 5 13 .1 18 .3 6. 2 6. 1 6. 4 9. 6 11 .7 5. 4 5. 3 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 9. 8 15 .7 21 .1 6. 2 6. 3 8. 3 11 .4 13 .4 5. 3 5. 4 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 5. 7 10 .2 13 .2 4. 6 3. 9 4. 8 7. 4 8. 7 4. 4 3. 8 Ke ny a (1 99 8) 9. 9 16 .4 23 .0 8. 1 11 .6 9. 0 13 .6 17 .1 7. 3 10 .5 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 16 .5 24 .6 29 .8 9. 9 8. 5 15 .0 20 .5 23 .1 8. 9 7. 9 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 11 .6 21 .5 31 .0 11 .6 13 .6 10 .2 16 .4 20 .2 9. 7 11 .8 M or oc co (1 99 2) 10 .3 19 .1 28 .0 10 .0 12 .2 8. 9 14 .0 17 .9 8. 5 10 .5 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 9. 0 14 .8 19 .9 6. 5 5. 7 7. 2 10 .3 12 .3 5. 6 5. 1 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 2. 8 5. 4 9. 4 2. 7 4. 0 2. 3 3. 7 5. 5 2. 4 3. 7 N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 15 .7 22 .7 28 .7 8. 5 8. 4 13 .7 18 .4 21 .8 7. 9 7. 9 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 21 .1 27 .0 31 .9 8. 0 13 .7 17 .9 20 .9 22 .9 7. 2 12 .7 Pe ru (1 99 6) 11 .0 15 .9 21 .3 5. 6 6. 1 9. 3 12 .1 14 .5 5. 0 5. 6 Pe ru (1 99 1/ 2) 12 .5 19 .0 25 .3 7. 4 7. 9 10 .8 14 .5 17 .4 6. 5 7. 3 Pe ru (2 00 0) 15 .2 24 .1 30 .2 10 .5 8. 1 13 .5 19 .5 22 .9 9. 7 7. 7 Pe ru (2 00 4/ 6) 16 .4 24 .8 31 .9 10 .8 11 .3 13 .6 18 .0 20 .9 9. 3 10 .6 evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 95 Ta bl e B .4 .1 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: S id e- ef fe ct s or h ea lt h co nc er ns (c on tin ue d) A ll m et ho ds Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 3) 7. 2 10 .2 13 .9 3. 3 4. 0 6. 4 8. 3 10 .1 2. 9 3. 6 Ph ili pp in es (1 99 8) 10 .8 16 .2 19 .7 6. 1 3. 8 9. 2 12 .3 13 .8 5. 5 3. 5 Ph ili pp in es (2 00 3) 12 .9 18 .9 24 .6 6. 8 7. 3 11 .4 15 .3 18 .3 6. 2 6. 8 Ta nz an ia , U ni te d Re pu bl ic of ( 20 04 /5 ) 13 .9 22 .8 27 .8 11 .3 8. 8 12 .5 17 .7 19 .4 9. 3 7. 5 Tu rk ey (1 99 3) 5. 7 9. 5 13 .6 4. 0 4. 7 4. 9 7. 1 9. 2 3. 6 4. 4 Tu rk ey (1 99 8) 5. 6 8. 5 11 .9 3. 3 3. 8 4. 8 6. 7 8. 4 2. 9 3. 4 Tu rk ey (2 00 3) 6. 8 9. 7 12 .7 2. 9 3. 2 6. 0 7. 6 9. 1 2. 6 3. 0 U kr ai ne (2 00 7) 1. 6 4. 2 5. 4 2. 6 1. 3 1. 5 3. 4 4. 1 2. 4 1. 2 V ie t N am (1 99 7) 4. 5 7. 5 9. 6 3. 1 2. 0 4. 3 6. 7 8. 3 2. 9 1. 9 V ie t N am (2 00 2) 5. 9 8. 3 11 .5 2. 6 3. 7 5. 4 7. 1 9. 1 2. 4 3. 4 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 4) 3. 8 8. 8 14 .7 5. 6 7. 4 3. 6 7. 3 10 .1 4. 9 6. 1 Zi m ba bw e (1 99 9) 5. 5 10 .9 16 .7 6. 0 6. 8 5. 3 9. 5 12 .8 5. 4 5. 7 Zi m ba bw e (2 00 5/ 6) 4. 0 7. 7 10 .8 4. 0 3. 5 3. 8 6. 7 8. 4 3. 6 3. 0 96 Causes and consequences of contraceptive discontinuation Ta bl e B .4 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: S id e- ef fe ct s or h ea lt h co nc er ns O ra l p ill s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 A rm en ia (2 00 0) – – – – – – – – – – A rm en ia (2 00 5) – – – – – – – – – – Ba ng la de sh (1 99 3/ 94 ) 28 .1 39 .0 48 .2 15 .2 15 .0 25 .6 33 .3 38 .7 14 .0 13 .8 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 6/ 97 ) 26 .7 36 .5 43 .8 13 .3 11 .6 24 .4 31 .2 35 .4 12 .2 10 .6 Ba ng la de sh (1 99 9/ 20 00 ) 25 .0 33 .5 40 .8 11 .3 11 .0 22 .1 27 .7 31 .5 10 .3 10 .0 Ba ng la de sh (2 00 4) 24 .0 33 .3 39 .2 12 .3 8. 9 20 .7 26 .7 29 .7 11 .0 8. 1 Bo liv ia (1 99 4) 41 .7 54 .3 60 .4 21 .6 – 37 .0 45 .3 48 .6 19 .6 – Br az il (1 99 1) 23 .3 40 .3 52 .0 22 .2 19 .5 20 .1 30 .0 34 .9 19 .4 16 .1 Br az il (1 99 6) 14 .2 24 .1 31 .5 11 .6 9. 8 11 .5 17 .3 20 .8 10 .4 9. 0 C ol om bi a (1 99 0) 18 .7 29 .2 37 .6 12 .9 11 .8 16 .2 23 .1 27 .2 11 .9 10 .6 C ol om bi a (1 99 5) 27 .4 39 .2 46 .5 16 .3 11 .9 24 .6 31 .9 35 .3 14 .7 10 .7 C ol om bi a (2 00 0) 19 .9 30 .9 37 .0 13 .8 8. 8 17 .5 24 .2 26 .9 12 .3 8. 0 C ol om bi a (2 00 5) 20 .8 33 .8 42 .2 16 .5 12 .7 18 .2 26 .1 29 .9 14 .3 11 .1 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 1) 29 .4 41 .7 60 .1 17 .4 31 .5 23 .3 29 .2 34 .8 14 .9 25 .4 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (1 99 6) 29 .4 40 .0 48 .2 15 .0 13 .5 24 .5 30 .2 33 .3 13 .4 11 .8 D om in ic an R ep ub lic (2 00 2) 23 .4 32 .1 38 .9 11 .3 10 .1 20 .4 25 .4 28 .2 9. 8 9. 0 Eg yp t (1 99 2) 22 .2 34 .7 45 .2 16 .2 16 .1 19 .6 27 .8 33 .2 14 .1 14 .4 Eg yp t (1 99 5) 23 .6 34 .4 42 .7 14 .2 12 .6 20 .5 27 .3 31 .1 12 .8 11 .3 Eg yp t (2 00 0) 24 .6 35 .5 41 .5 14 .4 9. 3 21 .1 27 .5 30 .3 12 .4 8. 4 Eg yp t (2 00 5) 21 .8 31 .6 36 .7 12 .6 7. 4 18 .4 23 .8 25 .8 10 .8 6. 4 Eg yp t (2 00 8) 14 .1 21 .9 26 .3 9. 0 5. 6 12 .4 17 .0 18 .8 7. 7 5. 0 Et hi op ia (2 00 5) 32 .7 43 .7 53 .3 16 .3 – 27 .2 32 .4 35 .7 13 .5 – evidence from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys 97 Ta bl e B .4 .2 : C um ul at iv e an d c on d it io na l ( si ng le a nd m ul ti p le ) d ec re m en t d is co nt in ua ti on p ro ba b ili ti es p er 1 00 e p is od es a t 12 , 2 4 an d 3 6 m on th s: S id e- ef fe ct s or h ea lt h co nc er ns (c on tin ue d) O ra l p ill s Co un tr y/ su rv ey Si ng le d ec re m en t M ul ti pl e de cr em en t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t Cu m ul at iv e ra te s at Co nd it io na l r at es a t 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 12 24 36 24 |1 2 36 |2 4 G ua te m al a ( 1 99 5) 23 .8 29 .1 40 .1 6. 9 15 .6 21 .4 24 .7 29 .7 6. 0 14 .2 G ua te m al a (1 99 8/ 99 ) 27 .8 35 .6 44 .4 10 .7 – 24 .7 29 .9 34 .6 9. 8 – In do ne si a (1 99 1) 11 .7 15 .0 18 .0 3. 7 3. 6 10 .9 13 .3 15 .1 3. 4 3. 2 In do ne si a (1 99 4) 12 .0 15 .6 20 .0 4. 0 5. 3 11 .0 13 .5 16 .0 3. 7 4. 8 In do ne si a (1 99 7) 12 .4 16 .2 20 .1 4. 3 4. 6 11 .3 14 .0 16 .2 4. 0 4. 2 In do ne si a (2 00 2/ 3) 9. 7 13 .7 16 .4 4. 4 3. 1 8. 9 11 .7 13 .1 4. 0 2. 8 In do ne si a (2 00 7) 13 .7 19 .0 22 .5 6. 1 4. 3 12 .0 15 .5 17 .3 5. 6 4. 0 Jo rd an (1 99 0) 35 .8 51 .6 57 .8 24 .6 12 .8 30 .2 37 .7 39 .5 20 .6 10 .2 Jo rd an (1 99 7) 39 .0 51 .9 63 .9 21 .2 24 .8 31 .8 37 .4 40 .8 17 .4 20 .2 Jo rd an (2 00 2) 28 .0 43 .9 55 .5 22 .1 20 .7 23 .3 31 .2 35 .1 18 .0 17 .6 Jo rd an (2 00 7) 19 .5 29 .1 37 .5 11 .9 11 .9 16 .8 22 .2 25 .4 10 .1 10 .5 Jo rd an (2 00 9) 24 .8 36 .1 42 .8 15 .0 10 .4 21 .5 27 .7 30 .0 12 .8 8. 6 Ka za kh st an (1 99 9) 29 .7 44 .9 48 .8 – – 23 .3 28 .9 30 .1 – – Ke ny a (1 99 8) 17 .4 25 .2 31 .7 9. 4 8. 6 15 .9 21 .7 24 .9 8. 7 7. 5 Ke ny a (2 00 3) 23 .5 33 .6 40 .8 13 .2 10 .9 21 .6 28 .2 31 .9 11 .6 9. 9 M al aw i ( 20 04 ) 24 .3 35 .9 46 .5 15 .3 – 21 .1 27 .6 30 .6 13 .3 – M or oc co (1 99 2) 12 .5 21 .6 31 .1 10 .4 12 .2 11 .0 16 .6 20 .8 8. 8 10 .5 M or oc co (2 00 3/ 4) 10 .1 16 .1 21 .2 6. 7 6. 1 7. 9 11 .5 13 .9 6. 0 5. 5 M ol do va , R ep ub lic o f (2 00 5) 12 .4 23 .4 32 .1 12 .5 – 10 .4 16 .0 19 .1 10 .5 – N ic ar ag ua (1 99 8) 21 .3 31 .2 40 .6 12 .7 13 .6 18 .3 24 .2 28 .3 11 .2 11 .9 Pa ra gu ay (1 99 0) 33 .4 42 .9 50 .7 14 .3 13 .7 29 .0 34 .6 38 .3 13 .0 12 .7 Pe ru (1 99 6) 33 .0

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