Botswana - Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2000

Publication date: 2000

Republic of Botswana End of Decade Review on the World Summit f Children goals set for 2000 unicef(~) ---'?~ United Nations Children's Fund Cover Picture: Batswana children during the parade of nations at the 2000 UN Day celebrations. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Republic of Botswana unicef Botswana Multiple Indicator Survey (2000) Preface The Multiple Indicators Survey (MIS) was conducted under the auspices of the Central Statistics Office's Program of Household Surveys. The MIS was a national sample survey whose fieldwork was conducted between 23rd May and 31st July 2000. The study was designed to provide information required for assessment of the End-Decade Goals set in 1990 at the New York World Summit for Children. At this summit, Heads of States and Governments, Botswana included, pledged themselves to the Declaration and Plan of Action for children. The plan called for establishment of mechanisms for monitoring progress toward the goals and objectives set for the year 2000. In pursuance of these, Botswana like other countries developed a National Program of Action for Children. Thus, the MIS was a threshold exercise for regular and timely collection and analysis of data needed to provide social indicators for monitoring the well being of children. In this household survey, a randomly selected group of women aged 15 - 49 years were interviewed. There were also questions designed to capture information regarding well- being, survivorship, and orphan hood of children under the age of five. This report contains three major sections. That is, background information (introduction and survey objectives); survey methodology and sample design; and social indicators such as availability of safe water and sanitation, nutritional status of children under five years • BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 old, breastfeeding, immunisation coverage, salt iodisation, knowledge of HIV I AIDS, etc. The results are published in two reports, the preliminary (or summary report) and the full report. We hope that this report will provide useful information for the study of demographic trends, infants and child mortality and other social and economic indicators. G. M. Charumbira GOVERNMENT STATISTICIAN June 2001 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Acknowledgements The undertaking of a survey demands coordinated performance of several activities. Outputs of some activities are inputs for others. Thus, different people were involved with different Survey activities, either simultaneously or at different times of the duration of the exercise. Therefore, for effective supervision and co- ordination of activities, concerted and coordinated efforts among individuals involved, is of vital importance for a successful outcome. Considerable success has been realized in the execution of various survey activities, indicating achievement m coordination and cooperation at all levels. I will therefore like to take this opportunity to express appreciation to all those who participated in this Multiple Indicator Survey (MIS). I am particularly grateful to the following: - • UNICEF (Botswana Office): for their valuable and continuous participation in the reference committee meetings and fieldwork, sponsorship of CSO officers to participate in MIS workshops held in Nairobi - Kenya and providing funds for some field work activities, consultancy fees and the dissemination of results. • Members of the MIS reference committee (as listed in the list of participants in this report): for their commitment to the successful completion of the Survey from planning stage to dissemination of the results. • The Survey Consultants • Dr. W. Adegboyega: for his participation in training MIS Enumerators and fieldwork activities. · • Dr. G. Letamo, Mr R.G. Majelantle and Mr. K. Bainame, all from the Department of Demography, University ofBotswana: for their participation in data analysis, report writing and facilitating at the dissemination workshop. • All the Enumerators, Supervisors, Drivers and Data Entry Operators who worked tirelessly collecting and processing the information I[equired; for without their honest efforts ~e could not boast of a successful survey. • ·Members of the public: for their assistance and patience in providing the information required without which the survey undertaking would have been inadequate. • CTO for providing transport and drivers, Nutrition Unit from MCH/FP in the FHD and Food Control Unit in the Community Health Servi<ees for assisting in the training of field enumerators. • And, la~ but not least, all staff of the CSO; the typists, the personal secretaries, the administrators, supply officers and the professionals for the dedication and thoroughness in their application to the entire exercise; from its planning stages to its conclusion. A. N. Majelantle CHIEF STATISTICIAN BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Contents Preface . 2 Acknowledgements . 3 Contents . 4 List Of Statistical Tables . 6 List Of Figures . 8 Botswana Map . 9 Executive Summary . 10 Infant and Under Five Mortality oo . . o . o o OO o O OO OOOOOO O o 000 . 000 0 0 000 0 0 0 0 0000000 000 0 0 00000 Oo . 000 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 10 Education 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . . . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . . . . 0 . . . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . . 0 . 0 . . 0 . . 0 1 0 Water and Sanitation 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Child Malnutrition . . . o . 0 . o . o . . o . o . . o . . o . o . o . o . 0 . 0 . o . o . . o . o . 0 . o . o . o . o . o . o . . o . . o 10 Breastfeeding 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 0 0 0 00 0 000 00 00 000 00000 00 0 0 000 000 00 0 000 0 0 0 0 oOoo 000 00 00 0 00 O oooo 0 00 0 000 O o 00 000 0000 0 OO o oOo oo o o o o 0 00 Oo ooo 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 Oo o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 10 Salt lodization 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Low Birth Weight 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Immunization Coverage O OOO O O oo o o o oO O O O O O O o oo o o oo o O OO O Oooooo o o o oo o o Oo o o o o ooooo oo O o oooo oo o o o o oo o o oo ooo o oooo o o o oo o oooo o o o o o oo o o o o oo o o oooo o o o o o ooo 11 Diarrhea . . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . . . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . . 11 Acute Respiratory Infection . 0 . . o . o . . o . 0 . . o 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . o . . . o . . o . o . 0 . o . 0 . . o . . . 0 . o . . o . . 11 IMCI Initiative 0 00000 0 0 000 0 00 0 000 O o o 00 o o o o o OO o O O o o 0 0 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 00 000 0 0 0 00 0 00 0 0 11 HIV/AIDS o o o ooo ooo o oo o oo ooooo ooooooooo oooooo oooooo o oo o o oo o o o o ooooooo o o o oo o ooo o oo oooooooooo ooooooo ooo o oooo o o ooooooo oooo oo 00000 0 0 0 000 00 000 0 00000000 0000 000 0 11 Contraception 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Prenatal Care . o . . . . o . . . o . . . o . . o . o . o . . . o . . o . o . . o . . o . o . o . o ~ . o . o . o . . . o . o . . 12 Assistance at Delivery 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 12 Birth Registration 0 . . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . . . . . 0 0 . . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 12 Orphanhood and Living Arrangements of Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 12 Summary Indicators . 13 I. Introduction . 14 Background of the Survey 0 . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . . 0 . . . 0 . . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 0 . . 0 . . 0 . . . 0 000 . . 0 . . 0 . 0 . 14 Botswana's Background 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 Survey Objectives . . . . 0 . 0 . o . o . . o . o . 0 . . o . o . o . o . o . . . o . o . 0 00 . . o . o . 0 . o . . . 0 . o . o . . 18 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 II. Survey Methodology . . 19 Sample Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Fieldwork and Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Ill. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality . 21 Response Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Age Distribution and Missing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Characteristics of the Household Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 IV. Results . 23 A. Infant and Under-Five Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 B. Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 C. Water and Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 D. Child Malnutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 E. Child Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 F. HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 G. Reproductive Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 H. Child Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix A: Statistical Tables . 38 Appendix B: Sampling Errors . 66 Appendix C: Sample Design . 68 Sampling Methodology For Botswana Multiple Indicator Survey (Mis) 2000 . . . . . . . . . 68 Annex I . . . 71 Annex II . . 72 Appendix D: List Of Personnel Involved In The Botswana MIS-2000 . 73 Members Of The Reference Group . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Appendix E: Questionnaires . . . . . 74 • BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 List Of Statistical Tables Table 1: Number Of Households And Women, And Response Rates, Botswana, 2000 . . . . 38 Table 2: Single Year Age Distribution Of Household Population By Sex, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . 39 Table 3: Percentage Of Cases With Missing Information, Botswana, 2000 . 40 Table 4: Percent Distribution Of Households By Background Characteristics, Botswana, 2000 . 40 Table 5: Percent Distribution Of Women 15-49 By Background Characteristics, Botswana, 2000 . . 41 Table 6: Percent Distribution Of Children Under 5 By Background Characteristics, Botswana, 2000 . . 42 Table 7: Mean Number Of Children Ever Born (Ceb) And Proportion Dead By Mother's Age, Botswana, 2000 . . . 42 Table 9: Percentage Of Children Aged 36-59 Months Who Are Attending Some Form Of Organized Early Childhood Education Programme, Botswana, 2000 . 43 Table 8: Infant, Childhood And Under-five Mortality Rates, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . 43 Table 10: Percentage Of Children Of Primary School-Age Attending Primary School, Botswana, 2000 . 44 Table 11: Percentage Of The Population Using Improved Drinking Water Sources, Botswana, 2000 . . 45 Table 12: Percentage Of The Population Using Sanitary Means Of Excreta Disposal, Botswana, 2000 . 46 Table 13: Percentage Of Under-five Children Who Are Severely Or Moderately Undernourished, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Table 14: Percent Of Living Children By Breastfeeding Status, Botswana, 2000 . . . . 48 Table 15: Percentage Of Households Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt, Botswana, 2000 . . 48 Table 16: Percentage Of Live Births In The Last 12 Months That Weighed Below 2500 Grams At Birth, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Table 17: Percentage Of Children Age 12-23 Months Immunized Against Childhood Diseases At Any Time Before The Survey And Before The First Birthday, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . 49 Table 18: Percentage Of Children Age 12-23 Months Currently Vaccinated Against Childhood Diseases, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 19: Percentage Of Under-five Children With Diarrhoea In The Last Two Weeks And Treatment With ORS Or ORT, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . , . . . . . . . 51 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table 20: Percentage Of Under-five Children With Acute Respiratory Infection (ARt) In The Last Two Weeks And Treatment By Health Providers, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Table 21 : Percentage Of Under-five Children With Illness In The Last Two Weeks Who Took Increased Fluids And Continued To Feed During Illness, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 22: Percentage Of Women Aged ' fr4J Who Know The Main Ways Of Preventing HIV Transmission, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Table 23: Percentage Of Women Aged 1 fr49 Who Correctly Identify Misconceptions About HIV/AIDS, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Table 24: Percentage Of Women Aged 1 fr49 Who Correctly Identify Means Of HIV Transmission From Mother To Child, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Table 25: Percentage Of Women Aged 1 fr49 Who Expresses A Discriminatory Attitude Towards People With HIV/AIDS, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Table 26: Percentage Of Women Aged 1 fr49 Who Have Sufficient Knowledge Of HIV/A/DS Transmission, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 27: Percentage Of Women Aged 1 fr49 Who Know Where To Get An Aids Test And Who Have Been Tested, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Table 28: Percentage Of Women Aged 1 fr49 Who Are Using (Or Whose Partner Is Using) A Contraceptive Method, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . 60 Table 29: Percentage Of Mothers With A Birth In The Last 12 Months Protected Against Neonatal Tetanus, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Table 30: Percent Distribution Of Women Aged 1 fr49 With A Birth In The Last Year By Type Of Personnel Delivering Antenatal Care, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 31: Percent Distribution Of Women Aged 1 fr49 With A Birth In The Last Year By Type Of Personnel Assisting At Delivery, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Table 32: Percent Distribution Of Children Aged 0-59 Months By Whether Birth Is Registered And Reasons For Non-registration, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 r Table 33: Percentage Of Children 0-14 Years Of Age In Households Not Living With A Biological Parent, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Table: Sampling errors for all women aged 15-49 years, Botswana, 2000 . . . . 67 Sample Size Calculations For Measuring Mid Decade Goals (Mdgs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Distribution Of Blocks In Frame, Blocks In Sample, Households Listed, Households Finally Selected . . 72 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 List Of Figures Figure 1: Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . 21 Figure 2: Estimates of infant and under-five mortality based on indirect estimation, Botswana, 2000 . 24 Figure 3: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, Botswana, 2000 . . . 25 Figure 4: Percent distribution of living children by breastfeeding status, Botswana, 2000 . . . 28 Figure 5: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Figure 6: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIOS transmission by level of education, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Figure 7: Percent distribution of women with a birth in the last year by type of personnel delivering antenatal care, Botswana, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Botswana Map . . . · . "" . Angola ! --~--,., . 24° Executive Summary The 2000 Botswana Multiple Indicator Survey (MIS) is a nationally representative survey of households, women, and children. The main objectives of the survey are to provide up-to- date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Botswana at the end of the decade and to furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and as a basis for future action. INFANT AND UNDER FIVE MORTALITY • Distortions in the MIS data on deaths among children preclude obtaining estimates of very recent mortality rates . The data suggest that around 1996 the infant mortality rate was 57 per 1000, childhood mortality rate was 20 and the under five mortality rate was 75 per 1000. EDUCATION • Ninety two percent of children of primary school age (7- 13) in Botswana are attending primary school. School attendance in the Ghanzi district is significantly lower than in the rest of the country at 76 percent. At the national level, there is a slight difference between male and female primary school attendance, 84 percent and 86 percent, respectively. WATER AND SANITATION • Ninety seven percent of the population has access to safe drinking water - 1 00 percent in urban areas and 94 percent in rural areas. The situation in Kgatleng is slightly worse BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 than in other districts ; 95 percent of the population in this district gets its drinking water from a safe source. • Eighty-four percent of the population of Botswana is using sanitary means of excreta disposal. CHILD MALNUTRITION • Thirteen percent of children under age five in Botswana are underweight or too thin for their age. Twenty three percent of children are stunted or too short for their age and five percent are wasted or too thin for their height. • Children who are aged under 12 months are the least likely to be underweight compared to children who are aged 12 months and above. BREASTFEEDING • Approximately 29 percent of children aged under four months are exclusively breastfed, a level considerably lower than recommended . At age 6- 9 months, 57 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By age 20- 23 months , only 11 percent are continuing to breastfed. SALT IODIZATION • Sixty six percent of households in Botswana have adequately ( 15+ PPM) iodized salt. The percentage ofhouseholds with adequately iodized salt ranges from 43 percent in the Selbi Phikwe to 87 percent in the Kgatleng district. " BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 LOW BIRTH WEIGHT • Approximately 8 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth. Seventy six percent of births were weighed at birth. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE • Ninety nine percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose ofDPT was given to 98 percent. The percentage remains at 98 percent for second dose of DPT but declines to 94 percent for the third dose. • Similarly, 98 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 94 percent by the third dose. • The coverage for measles vaccine is lower than for the other vaccines at 83 percent. • Seventy four percent of children had all the vaccinations in the first 12 months of life. • Male and female children are vaccinated at roughly the same rate. DIARRHEA • Approximately ninety six percent of children with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). • Only 4 percent of children with illness received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended. ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION • Thirty nine percent of the under five children had an acute respiratory infection in the two weeks prior to the survey. Approximately 14 percent of these children were taken to an appropriate health provider. IMCI INITIATIVE • Among the under five children who were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the MIS, about 26 percent received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMCI programme. HIV/AIDS • Sixty nine percent of women aged 15-49 know all two of the main ways to prevent HIV transmission - having only one uninfected sex partner and using a condom every time. • Thirty one percent of women correctly identified three misconceptions about HIV transmission - that HIV can be transmitted through supernatural means, that it can be transmitted through mosquito bites, and that a healthy looking person cannot be infected. • Forty eight percent of women of reproductive age in Botswana know a place to get tested for AIDS and about 19 percent have been tested. • Current use of contraception was reported by 44 percent of all women aged 15-49. The most popular method is the condom which is used by 16 percent of married women followed by the pill, which accounts for 15 percent of married women. PRENATAL CARE • Virtually all women in Botswana receive some type of prenatal care and 97 percent receive antenatal care from skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife). ASSISTANCE AT DELIVERY • A doctor, nurse, or midwife delivered about 98 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MIS survey. This percentage is highest in Selebi-Phikwe, Lobatse, Small Towns, South East, Kweneng, Kgatleng, Ghanzi and Kgalagadi districts at 100 percent and lowest in the North East at 94 percent. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 BIRTH REGISTRATION • The births of 59 percent of children under five years in Botswana have been registered. There are variations in birth registration across districts and rural-urban categories. ORPHANHOOD AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN • Overall, 28 percent of children aged 0-14 are living with both parents. Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise 24 percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to 12 percent of all children aged 0-14. • The situation of children in urban areas differs from that of other children. In the urban areas, about 34 percent of children live with both parents compared with only twenty one percent in rural areas. ' Summary Indicators Under-five mortality rate Childhood mortality rate Infant mortality rate Underweight prevalence Stunting prevalence Wasting prevalence Use of safe drinking water Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal Antenatal care Contraceptive prevalence Childbirth care Birth weight below 2.5 kg. Iodized salt consumption Exclusive breastfeeding rate Timely complementary feeding rate Continued breastfeeding rate OPT immunization coverage Measles immunization coverage Polio immunization coverage Tuberculosis immunization coverage Children protected against neonatal tetanus ORT use Home management of illness Care seeking for acute respiratory infections Preschool development Indicators for Monitoring Children's Rights Birth registration Children:s living arrangements Orphans in household Indicators for Monitoring IMCI Home management of illness Indicators for Monitoring HIV/AIDS Knowledge of preventing HIV/AIDS Knowledge of misconceptions of HIV/AIDS Knowledge of mother to child transmission Attitude to people with HIV//AIDS Women who know where to be tested for HIV Women who have been tested for HIV Probability of dying before reaching age five Probability of dying between one and five Probability of dying before reaching age one Proportion of under-fives who are too thin for their age Proportion of under-fives who are too short for their age Proportion of under fives who are too thin for their height Proportion of population who use a safe drinking water source Proportion of population who use a sanitary means of excreta disposal Proportion of women aged 15-49 attended at least Or]Ce during pregnancy by skilled personnel Proportion of women currently married In Union aged 15-49 who are using a contraceptive method All Women Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel Proportion of live births that weigh below 2500 grams Proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt Proportion of infants aged less than 4 months who are exclusively breastfed Proportion of infants aged 6-9 months who are receiving breast milk and complementary food Proportion of children aged 12-15 12-15 months and 20-23 20-23 months who are breastfeeding Proportion of children immunized against diptheria, pertussis and tetanus by age one Proportion of children immunized against measles by age one Proportion of children immunized against polio by age one Proportion of children immunized against tuberculosis by age one Proportion of one year old children protected against neonatal tetanus through immunization of their mother Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks who were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution Proportion of under-five children who had illness in the last 2 weeks and received increased fluids and continued feeding during the illness Proportion of under-five children who had ARI in the last 2 weeks and were taken to an appropriate health provider Proportion of children aged 36-59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education program Proportion of under-five children whose births are reported registered Proportion of children aged 0-14 years in households not living with a biological parent Proportion of children Both aged 0-14 years who One parent are orphans living in households One or both Proportion of under-five children reported ill during the last 2 weeks who received increased fluids and continued feeding Proportion of women who correctly state the 2 main ways of avoiding HIV infection Proportion of women who correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV/AIDS Proportion of women who correctly identify means of transmission of HIV from mother to child Proportion of women expressing a discriminatory attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS Proportion of women who know where to get a HIV test Prooortion of women who have been tested for HIV 1 These figures were obtained from the 199 1 population and Housing Census. 2 Percentage of children with diarrhea treated by ORS packet and/or home solution. 3 Percentage of children with a cough or difficult breathing during the past 4 weeks treated with tablets, injection, and syrups. 53 45 75 161 20 Cll 0 37 37 57 _, 17% 13% (f) ~ 29% 23% z 11% 5% )> 77%1 97% s: 55%1 84% c ~ 92% 94% 97% =o 33% 48% 48% r m 30% 42% 44% z 78% 87% 95% 0 8% 0 66% ~ 0 29% ::0 57% (f) c 53% ::0 11% < m -< 98% I N 94% 95% 0 0 93% 74% 83% 0 92% 94% 98% 99% 99% 99% 72% 72%~ 96% 4% 29%" 14% 17% 59% 24% 1.4% 10.8% 12.2% 4% 69% 31% 81% 68% 45% 19% I. Introduction BACKGROUND OF THE SURVEY At the World Summit for Children held in New York in 1990, the Government of Botswana pledged itself to a Declaration and Plan of Action for Children. Subsequently, a National Programmed of Action for Children was developed and implemented. The National Programme of Action (NPA) charts a specific agenda that responds to the rights and needs of children and women. It aims to reduce social disparities and promote equity and protection of vulnerable groups. The NPAand the National Development Plans are complimentary with one enhancing and strengthening the other. The major goals of the NPA are to: • Reduce non-HIV related infant and under 5 mortality rates by one third to 30 per 1000 and 38 per 1000 respectively; • Reduce maternal mortality by half from 300 to 150 per 1000 live births; • Reduce malnutrition among children under five to half of the 1990 levels (for moderate malnutrition from 15 percent to 7 percent for severe malnutrition virtual elimination); • Increase access to safe water supply from 68 percent of rural households to 95 percent; • Increase access to facilities for sanitary means of excreta disposal from 41 percent to 70 percent of rural households; • Secure universal access to and improvement of the quality and relevance of basic education; BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 • Significantly reduce adult illiteracy; • Promote early childhood development with emphasis on family and community involvement; • Improve protection of children in especially difficult circumstances and tackle the root causes leading to such situations; and • Promote widespread understanding and observance of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Plan of Action also called for the establishment of mechanisms for monitoring progress toward the goals and objectives set for the year 2000. Toward this end, UNICEF has developed a core set of 7 5 indicators of specific aspects of the situation of children in coordination with other international organizations. The Botswana Family Health Survey III was conducted in 1996 to measure progress at mid-decade. The 2000 Botswana MIS survey has been implemented to provide end-decade information on many of the indicators. The Botswana MIS was conducted by the Central Statistics Office. Funding was provided by the Botswana Government with Botswana UNICEF office assisting with 45% of the total fieldwork costs. This report presents results on the principal topics covered in the survey and on the World Summit indicators. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 BOTSWANA'S BACKGROUND Demographic Situation Botswana's total de facto population has grown from about 596,944 in 1971, to 941,027 in 1981 , and finally to 1,326,796 in 1991. These figures imply an annual growth rate of 4.7% between 1971 and 1981 and 3.5% between 1981 and 1991. This rapid population growth in population is mainly a result of a fairly low mortality rate and a high but declining fertility. Infant mortality rate has declined from 97.1 deaths in 1971 to 48.0 deaths in 1991. Life expectancy at birth increased from 55.5 years in 1971 to 65.3 years in 1991. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 children per woman in 1971 to about 4.3 children in 1996. Given the relatively high level of fertility and relatively low level of mortality, the population of Botswana is young and has a disproportionately large number of females. The predominance of the female population could be explained by the low sex ratio at birth and high mortality among males. The proportion of the population under age 15 years went down from 47.5% in 1971 to 43.2% in 1991. The sex ratio also improved from 84.0 males per 100 females in 1971 to 92.0 males per 100 females in 1991. The percentage of the population residing in urban areas increased from 9% in 1971 to 45.7% in 1991. The increase in the urban population may be explained by the high rate of rural to urban migration and the reclassification of some major villages into urban areas. The population density has also increased from 1.0 person per square kilometre in 1971 to 2.3 persons per square kilometre in 199 1. Population density varies by district with the urban districts having the largest densities. Health Situation Health care services in Botswana were hospital- based until1973. Since 1973, the Government of Botswana accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the most appropriate strategy for the attainment of Health for All. This strategy has been followed in the past national development plans and is still being followed in the current National Development Plan 8 (NDP 8) 1997/ 98- 2002/03. In the NDP 7 1991-1997, Botswana committed itself to the goal ofHealth for All by the Year 2000 where every inhabitant of the country is to enjoy a level ofhealth that allows him/her to lead an economically and socially productive life and having access to essential health services (Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, 1991 ). The National Health Policy was developed and approved by government in 1995. The objectives of the health policy were based on the principles of Primary Health Care as contained in the Alma-Ata Declaration of 1978. The Botswana's health policy states that the government shall put health promotion and care and disease prevention among its priorities. The aim is to ensure access by all citizens of Botswana to essential health care whatever their financial resources or place of residence and to ensure equitable distribution of health resources and utilisation of health services. Another objective is to ensure that health services are operated and structured in such a way as to ensure linkage with each other as well as with social services and managed in such a way as to ensure maximum social benefit with minimum waste . Furthermore, private health sector shall be supported and co- operation between such sector and public sector shall be encouraged. Finally, in pursuing these above objectives, special attention shall be focused on high-risk groups, such as children, adolescents , pregnant women, the elderly, disabled, and workers whose occupations or professions justify such measures (Ministry of Finance & Development Planning, 1997). The whole concept of primary health care is based on promotive, preventive , curative and rehabilitative health care services. The public health system in Botswana consists of all health facilities owned or supported by Government as well as facilities open to the public such as mine hospitals. The Ministry of Health is administering directly two Referral Hospitals, six District Hospitals, one Mental Hospital and thirteen Primary Hospitals. The Ministry also provides running costs for three Mission Hospitals. Orapa and Jwaneng Mine Hospitals are providing services to the general public although the Government does not contribute directly to their funding. The Bamangwato Concessions Limited (BCL) Mine Hospital in Selebi-Phikwe is the only one that provides services to its employees and their relatives (Ministry of Finance & Development Planning, 1997). In addition to these health facilities, there is a private hospital based in Gaborone and many private medical practitioners commonly found in urban centres. Thus almost all health care services are provided through public health system. According the National Development Plan 8, there are 16 general hospitals, 14 primary, 85 clinics with beds, 137 clinics without beds, 330 health post and 740 mobile stops in Botswana. The distribution ofbeds is such that out of the 3,583 beds, 72 per cent are in general hospitals, 13.8 per cent are in primary hospitals and 13.4 per cent are in clinics. In terms of health personnel, Botswana has 408 medical doctors, 37 dentists, 3961 nurses and 727 family welfare educators. The ratios of health care personnel of different professions to population served is BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 200!J rather low, indicating shortage of medical personnel in the country. For instance, in 1983, for every 10,000 population there were 1.4 medical doctors and this ratio improved to 2. 7 in 1998. The number of nurses has increased from 2,413 in 1990 to 3,678 in 1996 whereas that of family welfare educators was 666 in 1990 and 714 in 1996. These numbers show that the training of health personnel has improved over the years. Since there is a critical shortage of trained health personnel in the country, the Government of Botswana has deliberately given first priority to training of health personnel. The Government has categorized its Grant/Loan Scheme where category I reflects areas of critical human resource shortage and this category includes medicine and dentistry. In this category, students who apply for training in programmes contained in this category will be given 1 00 per cent grant on both tuition and maintenance costs and on completion ofthe programme will be employed directly in Botswana. According to the 1991 '· population census, 46 per cent of the Botswana's population was urban. These discrepancies can also be observed with accessibility to health care services. Although 77 per cent of the entire population has access to piped water, only 53 per cent of the rural population has access to piped water. The whole urban population has access to piped water. With regard to sanitary toilet facilities, 55 per cent of the Botswana's population has access to toilet facilities, both pit and flush toilets. Whereas 82 per cent of the urban population has access to toilet facilities, only 26 per cent of the rural population has access to toilet facilities. Accessibility of health care services varies according to place of residence. Health care services tend to be easily accessible in urban BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 areas than in rural areas. In 1995, 83 per cent of the rural population were within 15 kilometres from a health facility compared to 98 per cent of the urban population. 94 per cent of the urban population was within 8 kilometres from a health facility compared to 81 per cent of the rural population. The accessibility to health care services tends to be exaggerated when intra and inter districts variations are investigated. For instance, remote rural districts such as Gumare, Ghanzi and Kgalagadi have low accessibility to health care facilities whereas almost all urban districts populations are within 15 kilometre radius from a health facility. The primary health care approach is implemented through the establishment of mobile health stops, health posts, clinics, primary hospitals, district hospitals and the more sophisticated referral hospitals. It should be noted that the definition of each health facility depends on the type of services it renders. Mobile health stop provides limited primary health care services and does not have fixed facilities as the name suggests. A health post essentially provides the most basic health services needed and is staffed by one nurse and family welfare educators. The role of family welfare educators is to motivate and educate families and communities on health issues. Health posts are regularly visited by supervisory personnel who are nurses. Clinics basically provide a wide range of services such as maternal and child health, preventive work, diagnosis and treatment of common diseases and simple laboratory tests . Clinics with maternity wards in addition to the above services provide delivery services. Primary hospitals are designed to provide more preventive health services with curative hospital functions similar to those that are provided at district hospitals but on a small scale. District hospitals in addition to duties performed by primary hospitals; carry out special services for serious and complicated health problems. They do preventive, curative and rehabilitative duties and provide in-patient care for more complicated health needs. Much more complicated health problems are usually referred to the two referral hospitals, Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone and Nyangabgwe Hospital in Francistown. These referral hospitals provide specialist services such as ophthalmology, surgery and obstetrics. Because of the improved health care provision services, infant mortality rate has been reduced from 100 infant deaths per 1000 live births in 1971 to 45 in 1991 and the under 5 m011ality rate has declined from 14 7 deaths per 1 000 live births in 1971 to 56 deaths in 1991. The percentage of children fully immunized rose from 36 per cent in 1980 to 57 per cent in 1994. Life expectancy has increased from 65 years in 1991 to 67 years in 1996 (Ministry ofFinance & Development Planning, 1997). Despite these commendable achievements, there are some disappointments in some areas. For instance, immunization coverage dropped from 66 per cent in 1987 to 56.5 per cent in 1994 because of various reasons. Long distances to immunization sites, inadequate information and lack of motivation for mothers are cited as some of the reasons for this drop (Ministry of Finance & Development Planning, 1997). Data on Human Immune Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are derived from national HIV sentinel surveillance surveys which have been conducted in the country since 1992 among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics. In addition to pregnant' mothers, HIV infections are monitored amongst men attending clinics for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Based on these surveys, except for Francistown there are clear indications to suggest that HIV infections are increasing in different parts of Botswana. The hardest hit age group tends to be between 15 and 49 years. In 1998 the highest prevalence rates were observed in Selebi-Phikwe (50%), Francistown (43%) and Gaborone (39%). Combining all sites shows that those aged 20 - 34 had prevalence of at least 38%. The advent of HIV and AIDS has started to reverse the gains previously achieved through an effective health care system. HIV I AIDS has become the main killer disease in the country and Botswana is reported to be one of the most hard-hit countries in the world. In 1996, it was estimated that 12.8% of the general population was HIV positive. Currently, the government has engaged consultants to assess the impact of HIV I AIDS on various sectors of the economy. Up to 60 per cent of medical and paediatric wards are currently occupied by AIDS patients and this calls for the accelerated implementation of the Community Home Based Care programme which should assist in reducing the congestion in health facilities (Republic ofBotswana, 1999). There is evidence to suggest that childhood immunisable diseases are declining whilst there is an increase in non-communicable diseases. Infectious diseases still remain the most important causes of illness and death. Tuberculosis remains the most important health problem, accounting for about 20 per cent of adult inpatient discharges from hospitals and about 25 per cent of institutional deaths. Sexually transmitted diseases are also observed in large numbers. Cardiovascular diseases BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 especially high blood pressure and strokes are quite common. The increase in non- communicable diseases is associated with changes in lifestyle from an agricultural economy to a cash economy, which has resulted in changes in diet, to a more sedentary life and to a longer life expectancy. The Government of Botswana is committed to providing health care services to all its population. The role of Government in health provision through the Ministry of Health includes policy-making, professional guide and supervision of health care in its entirety in Botswana. The Ministry of Health has been committed to Health for All and remains so today. During fiscal year 1991192, the Government ofBotswana spent approximately 3.8 percent of the total budget on the Ministry of Health and this share rose to 5.2 per cent during the 1996197 fiscal year. SURVEY OBJECTIVES The 2000 Botswana Multiple Indicator Survey has as its primary objectives: • To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Botswana at the end of the decade and for looking forward to the next decade; • To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and a basis for future action; • To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Botswana and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 II. Survey Methodology SAMPLE DESIGN The sample for the Botswana Multiple Indicator Survey 2000 was designed to provide estimates of health indicators at the nationa.l level, urban and rural areas, and for the fourteen districts: Gaborone, Francistown, Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe, Small towns (Small Towns) , Southern, South East, Kweneng, Kgatleng, Central, North-East, North West, Ghanzi, and Kgalagadi. A stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which, Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) were Enumeration Areas (EA) or Blocks. Sample Blocks from each stratum were selected using systematic probability proportional to measure of size (MOS); size being the number of households obtained from 1991 Population and Housing Census. In all 215 blocks were selected with probability proportional to size (pps) of stratum. At the second stage of sampling, the households were systematically selected from fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey's fieldwork (i.e. listing of households for the selected blocks). Overall 6988 valid households were drawn systematically. The sample is not self-weighting because it was stratified by districts QUESTIONNAIRES The questionnaires for the Botswana MIS were based on the MICS Model Questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Some of the modifications include lowering the age limit of the eligible women to 12 years, excluding modules on malaria, vitamin A and child labour in order to adapt the questionnaire to Botswana situation. A household questionnaire was administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age, marital status, education, water and sanitation, salt iodization modules and orphanhood status. In addition to the household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women aged 12-49 and children under age five. For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother/caretaker of the child. The questionnaire for women contains the following modules: • Tetanus toxoid • Maternal and newborn health • Contraceptive use • HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire for children under age five includes modules on: • Birth registration and early weaning • Breastfeeding • Immunization • Anthropometry For the full questionnaires, see Appendix B. FIELDWORK AND PROCESSING The field staff was trained from 2nd May to 19th May, 2000. The data were collected by fifteen teams; each comprising of four interviewers, one driver, and a supervisor. There were a total of215 blocks (EAs) and each team was assigned an average of 14-15 blocks. The fieldwork started from the 23rd May to 29th May 2000 in Gaborone and from the 8th June to 31st July 2000 in other areas outside Gaborone. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Before data entry was carried out, the questionnaires were edited to check if all the relevant questions have been responded to and coded according to the codes designed for the study. Data entry was carried out between June- August, 2000 by 7 da.ta entry operators under the supervision of one programmer/supervisor. Consistency checks on the data set as per the Computer Edit Specifications designed by the subject matter specialist were performed. Data editing took one month; it began in September and finished in October 2000. The data tabulation and analysis was completed at the end ofNovember. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Ill. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality RESPONSE RATES Of the 6988 households selected for the Botswana MIS sample, 6697 were found to be occupied (Table 1). Of these, 618 8 were successfully interviewed for a household with response rate of 92 percent. The response rate was roughly the same in both urban and rural areas (92 percent). In the interviewed households, 7789 eligible women aged 15-49 were identified. Of these, 6485 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 94 percent. In addition, 3056 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Of these, questionnaires were completed for 293 5 children for a response rate of 96 percent. AGE DISTRIBUTION AND MISSING DATA ----- As shown in Table 2, the single year age . distribution of household members by sex exhibits some distortions centered around age 11 and 50 for females and none for males. For both sexes, some digit preference is evident for ages ending in 0 and 5, a pattern typical of populations in which ages are not always known. Figure 1: Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, Botswana, 2000. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Age - Male - Female 45 50 55 60 65 As a basic check on the quality of the survey data, the percentage of cases missing information on selected questions is shown in Table 3. Fewer than one percent of household members have missing information on whether they have ever being tested for HIV. Among female respondents, 0.9 percent did not report a complete birth date (i.e., month and year). Three percent of women who had a birth in the 12 months prior to the survey did not report the date of their last tetanus toxoid injection. These low levels of missing data suggest that there were no significant problems with the questions or the fieldwork. The data on weight and height are the most likely among the selected information to be missing. Approximately less than one percent of children are missing on height and zero percent for weight. By international standards, this percentage is relatively low in comparison to other surveys in which anthropometric measurements are taken (Sommerfelt and Boerma, 1994). CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION Information on the characteristics of the household population and the survey respondents is provided to assist in the interpretation of the survey findings and to serve as a basic check on the sample implementation. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table 4 presents the percent distribution of households in the sample by background characteristics. About 64 percent of the households (2219 households) are rural and 36 percent (3969 households) are urban. The Central district comprises the largest of the fourteen districts with 21 percent ofhouseholds while Gaborone is next largest with 18 percent. The remaining districts each contain between 2 and 13 percent of households. Most of the households have between two and five members. Table 5 shows the characteristics of female respondents aged 15-49. Women age 15-24 comprise the greatest percentage of the sample at 45 percent. This percentage declines steadily across age groups until age 45-49 where it is five percent. Approximately 16 percent of women in the sample are · married and 99 percent have ever had a birth. The majority of women (71 percent) have had at least some primary education while twenty nine percent have had no education. Table 6 shows the characteristics of children under age five. The proportion of male and female children is a1most the same (50 percent). The majority of children under age 5 (29 percent) come mainly from Central district. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 IV. Results A. INFANT AND UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY The infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the first birthday. The under five mortality rate is the probability of dying before the fifth birthday. In MIS, infant and under five mortality rates are calculated based on an indirect estimation technique (the Brass method). The data used in the estimation are: the mean number of children ever born for five year age groups of women from age 15 to 49, and the proportion of these children who are dead, also for five year age groups of women. The technique converts these data into probabilities of dying by taking account ofboth the mortality risks to which children are exposed and their length of exposure to the risk of dying. The data used for mortality estimation are shown in Table 7. The mean number of children ever born ( CEB) rises from 0.15 among 15-19 year olds to 5.37 among 45-49 year olds as expected. However, the proportion of children dead has an irregular pattern. In particular, the proportion of children dead among women aged 30-34 is low and the proportions among younger women appear to be too high. This pattern may be affected by the age heaping noted in Table 1 above. If some women in their thirties underreported their ages but reported the births and deaths of their children correctly then the deaths would effectively be moved downward toward age 29. In addition, an examination of sex ratios at birth (not shown) suggests that the births of girls may have been underreported among women age 15 to 19 for whom the sex ratio of births is 1.13. However, other ratios are in the plausible range of 1.03 to 1.08 for the remaining age groups, except for age groups 20 to 24, 40 to 44 and 45 ~o 49 years. Mortality estimates · were obtained using the United Nations QFIVE program. Based on previous estimates of infant and child mortality for Botswana, the West model life table was selected as most appropriate . Estimates of infant and under-five mortality for several reference years are plotted in Figure 2. The estimates based on the reports of women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years do not differ significantly. But because it is not usually recommended to use estimates based on the two youngest age groups, plausible estimates for the most recent years are obtained from age group 25-29 years age group. The estimates for 1996 (precisely 1996.1) appear to be the most recent figures that can be used with some confidence (Table 8). BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Figure 2: Estimates of infant and under-five mortality based on indirect estimation, Botswana, 2000 30+--------------------------------------------- 20+-------~------~------~------~------~----~ 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 Reference year - Infant mortality - Under-five mortality B. EDUCATION Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world's children is one of the most important goals of the World Summit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labor and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and . democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. Early childhood education Nine percent of children aged 36-59 months are attending an organized early childhood education programme, such as kindergarten or community childcare with organized learning activities (Table 9). A slightly higher proportion of female children aged 36-59 months are attending an organized early childhood education programme compared to their male counterparts. District variations are difficult to interpret because of the small number of cases involved. Therefore, any attempt to interpret these results should be done cautiously. In addition, 23 percent of the children in urban areas attend early learning activities compared to only 9 percent of children in rural areas. Relatively few children attend at age three (36- 47 months) while the majority of children attend at age four (48-59 months). Basic education Overall, 92 percent of children of primary school age (7-13) in Botswana are attending primary school (Table 1 0). In urban areas, 88 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 percent of children age 6- 13 years attend school while in rural areas 81 percent of these children attend. School attendance among children aged 6-13 years in Ghanzi is significantly lower than in the rest of the country at 76 percent. At the national level, there is a slightly higher proportion of females (86 percent) attending primary school compared to males (84 percent). C. WATER AND SANITATION Use of drinking water Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition Figure 3: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, Botswana, 2000 Rural ] l I l Urban I I I I Kgalagadi l I l Ghanz i I I l l Ngamiland I l I l North East _) l I l Centra I I _l I I Kgatleng I l I l Kweneng l l l South Eas t I l I j Southern I l I l 3mall Towns I I I I 3libe-Phikwe -• l I l Lobatse I I I I ' Francistown I l I l Gaborone I 0 20 40 60 80 10( to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, particularly in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances. Only 17 percent of the population uses drinking water that is piped into their dwelling and 30 percent used water piped into their yard or plot. Public tap is also an important source of drinking water. The source of drinking water for the population varies slightly by district (Table 11 ). The majority of the population uses drinking water that is piped into their dwelling or into their yard/plot. Notable in this regard are districts such as South East, Gaborone and Kgatleng. In contrast, only about 27 percent of those tesiding in North West ofthe population uses drinking water that is piped into their dwelling or into their yard/plot. It should also be noted that whilst Lobatse and Francistown are urban centres, most people still obtain their drinking water from public taps. The population using safe drinking water sources is those who use any of the following types of supply: piped water, public tap, borehole/tube-well, protected well, protected spring or rainwater. Overall, 98 percent of the population has access to safe drinking water - 1 00 percent in urban areas and 91 percent in rural areas. · Use of s'anitation Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene is associated with a range of diseases including diarrheal diseases and polio. Sanitary means of excreta disposal include: flush toilets connected to sewage systems or septic tanks, other flush toilets, improved pit latrines, and traditional pit latrines. Eighty four BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 percent of the population ofBotswana is using sanitary means of excreta disposal" (Table 12). This percentage is 97 in urban areas and 60 percent in rural areas. Residents ofNorth West district have the lowest access to sanitary means of excreta disposal. Most ofthis population has no facilities or use the bush. In contrast, the most common facilities in other areas of the country are traditional pit latrines. D. CHILD MALNUTRITION Nutritional status Children's nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. In a well-nourished population, there is a standard distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Undernourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to this standard distribution. The standard or reference population used here is the NCHS standard, which is recommended for use by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Each of the three nutritional status indicators are expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of this reference population. Weight for age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Height for age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Finally, children whose weight for height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. In Table 13, children who were not weighed and measured and those whose measurements are outside a plausible range are excluded. In addition, a small number of children whose birth dates are not known are excluded. Thirteen percent of children under age five in Botswana are underweight and two percent are classified as severely underweight (Table 13). Twenty three percent of children are stunted or too short for their age and five percent are wasted or too thin for their height. Because of small number of cases in the district, this information should be interpreted with caution. Underweight is particularly pronounced in North West district. Stunting is highly prevalent in Francistown and lowest in the South East. There is no significant difference in stunting among both boys and girls in the wole country. The age pattern shows that a high percentage of children aged under 12 months and those aged 24 and above months are more likely to be underweight, stunted and wasted in comparison to other children (Figure 2). This pattern is expected and is related to the age at which many children cease to be breastfed and are exposed to contamination in water, food, and environment. Breastfeeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon, and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. The World Summit for Children goal states that children should be exclusively breastfed for four to six months, and that breastfeeding should continue with complementary food, well into the second year of life. Many countries have adopted the recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for about six months. In Table 14, breastfeeding status is based on women's reports of children's consumption in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exch;tsive breastfeeding refers to children -who receive only breast milk and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine. Complementary feeding refers to children who receive breast milk and solid or semi-solid food. The last two columns of the table include children who are continuing to be breastfed at one and at two years of age. Approximately 29 percent of children aged less than four months are exclusively breastfed, a level considerably lower than recommended. At age 6-9 months, 57 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods . By age 12-15 months, 53 percent of children are still being breastfed and by age 20-23 months, 11 percent are still breastfed. Figure 3 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding status by the child's age in months. Even at the earliest ages, the majority of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk. The percentage of children exclusively breastfed diminishes rapidly to close to zero after three months. By the end of one year, the proportion of children who are still breastfed diminishes drastically. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Salt iodization Deficiency of iodine in the diet is the world's single greatest cause of preventable mental retardation and can lower the average intelligence quotient (IQ) of a population by as much as thirteen points. Salt iodization is an effective, low-cost way of preventing iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Adequately iodized salt contains 15 ppm (parts per million) of iodine or more. In MIS, interviewers tested household salt for iodine levels by means of a testing kit. Approximately 93 percent of households had salt which was tested during the MIS (Table 15). Among households in which salt was tested, 66 percent had adequately iodized salt. The percentage of households with adequately iodized salt ranges from 43 percent in Selebi- Figure 4: Percent distribution of living children by breastfeeding status, Botswana, 2000. 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 Age in months • Exclusively breastfed • Breast milk and water only D Breast milk and supplements D Not breastfed BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Phikwe to 87 percent in the Kgatleng district. Sixty six percent of urban households had adequately iodized salt compared to 65 percent of rural households. Low birth weight Infants who weigh less than 2500 grams (2.5 kg.) at birth are categorized as low birth weight babies. Since many infants are not weighed at birth and those who are weighed may be a biased sample of all births, reported birth weight cannot be assumed to estimate the prevalence of low birth weight among all children. Ideally, the percentage of births weighing below 2500 grams should have been estimated from two items which were not covered in the questionnaire: the mother's assessment ofthe child's size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother's recall of the child's weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth. Seventy nine percent of births in the Botswana MIS were weighed at birth. First, the two items are cross-tabulated for those children who were weighed at birth to obtain the proportion of births in each category of size who weighed less than 2500 grams. This proportion is then multiplied by the total number of children falling in the size category to obtain the estimated riumber of children in each size category who were of low birth weight. The numbers for each size category are summed to obtain the total number oflow birth weight children. This number is divided by the total number of live births to obtain the percentage with low birth weight. Based on reported birth weight, approximately 8 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth in Botswana (Table 16). Districtal variations by districts is difficult to estimate because of small number of cases. However, urban-rural differential indicates that low birth weight is high in urban areas than in rural areas. E. CHILD HEALT:.:H:.:.-____ _ Immunization coverage According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses ofDPT to protect against diptheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. In MIS, mothers were asked to provide vaccination cards for children under the age of five. Interviewers copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MIS questionnaire. Mothers were also probed to report any vaccinations the child received that did not appear on the card. Ov~rall, 88 percent of children had health cards. If the child did not have a card, the mother was read a short description of each vaccine and asked to recall whether or not the child had received it and, for DPT and Polio, how many times. · Table 17 shows the percentage of children aged 12 to 23 months who received each of the vaccinations. The denominator for the table is comprised of children aged 12-23 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vacci~ated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination card or the motller's-report. In the bottom panel, only those who were vaccinated before their first birthday are included. For children without vaccination cards, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. Approximately 99 percent of children aged 12- 23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to 99 percent. The percentage remains at 98 percent for second dose of DPT and declines to 94 percent for the third dose. Approximately 98 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 94 percent by the third dose. The coverage for measles vaccine by 12 months is lower than for the other vaccines at 83 percent. The percentage of children who had all the recommended vaccinations by their first birthday is 86 percent. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Male and female children are vaccinated at roughly the same rate. Rural children are more likely to be vaccinated than urban children. Districtal breakdowns are based on small numbers of cases and should be interpreted with caution. Diarrhea Dehydration caused by diarrhea is a major cause of mortality among children in Botswana. Home management of diarrhea- either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) - can prevent many of these Figure 5: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months, Botswana, 2000 120 100 80 -s:::: Q) ~60 Q) a. 40 20 0 BCG OPT Polio Measles • Dose 1 • Dose 2 Dose 3 In Table 18, the percentage of children age 12- 23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases is shown according to background characteristics. Unlike the previous table, the estimates in this table refer to children who received the vaccinations by the time of the survey, even if they did not occur prior to the age of 12 months. deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition bJ.: increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhea. In the MIS questionnaire, mothers were asked to report whether their child had had diarrhea in the two weeks prior to the survey. If so, the BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 mother was asked a series of questions about what the child had to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually ate and drank. Overall, 3 percent of under five children had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table 19). Diarrhea prevalence was nonexistent in South East district and recorded at 9.6 percent in the Small Towns. The peak of diarrhea prevalence occurs in the weaning period, among children age 6-23 months. Care should be taken when interpreting these districtal variations due to small number of cases involved. Table 19 also shows the percentage of children receiving various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhea. Since mothers were able to name more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add to 100. Thirty seven percent of children received breast milk while they had diarrhea. Children under age 12 months are especially likely to have received breast milk. About 22 percent of children received soup and 49 percent received ORS. Approximately 96 percent of children with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). Acute respiratory infection Acute lower respiratory infections, particularly pneumonia, are one of the leading causes of child deaths in Botswana. In the MIS questionnaire, children with acute respiratory infection are defined as those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were due to a problem in the chest, or both a problem in the chest and a blocked nose, or whose mother did not know the source of the problem. A fifth of the under five children had an acute respiratory infection in the two weeks prior to the survey according to these criteria (Table 20). Of these, 10 percent were taken to an MCH clinic for treatment and 4 percent were taken to a hospital. Less than 1 percent of the under five children were taken to other health care providers . Overall, 15 percent of children with ARI were taken to an appropriate health provider (i.e., doctor, MCH clinic, hospital). IMCI initiative The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) is a programme developed by UNICEF and WHO that combines strategies for control and treatment of five major killers of children - acute lower respiratory tract infections, diarrheal dehydration, measles, malaria, and malnutrition. The programme focuses on the improvement of case management skills by health workers , improvement of the health system, and improvement of family and community practices in the prevention and early management of childhood illnesses. Appropriate home management of illness is one component of IMCI. The approach teaches mothers that appropriate home management of diarrhea or any other illness requires giving more fluids and continuing to feed sick children as they are normally fed. Table 21 presents information on the drinking and eating1 behavior of sick children. Two percent of 6hildren were reported to have had some illness in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these, 9 percent drank more liquids during the illness and 86 percent continued eating (i.e ., ate somewhat less, the same, or more) . Overall, 4 percent of ill children received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMCI programme. F. HIV/AIDS AIDS knowledge One of the most important strategies for reducing the rate ofHIVIAIDS infection is the promotion of accurate knowledge of how AIDS is transmitted and how to prevent transmission. Among women aged 15-49 in Botswana, 95 percent have ever heard of AIDS (Table 22). There is no statistically significant difference between urban and rural areas in the knowledge of how AIDS is transmitted. Women in the MIS were read several statements about means of HIV I AIDS transmission and asked to state whether they believed the statements were true. Seventy four percent believe that having only one uninfected sex partner can prevent HIV transmission. Seventy five percent believe that using a condom every time one has sex can prevent HIV transmission and 79 percent agreed that abstaining from sex prevents HIV transmission. Overall, 69 percent knew all two ways and 80 percent were aware of at least one of the means of preventing transmission. Accurate knowledge of the means of HIVI AIDS transmission is slightly less among women in Selebi-Phikwe than among other women. Education appears to be a very important factor in AIDS knowledge. Women with at least some secondary education are more knowledgeable about ways of preventing HIV transmission than those with no or less education. Differences across age groups are not particularly large; the percentage of women who know all two means oftransm!ssion ranges from 59 percent among 40-44 year olds to 73 percent among 20-29 year olds. Sixty four percent of women correctly stated that AIDS cannot be transmitted by BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 supernatural means whereas 41 percent stated that AIDS cannot be spread by mosquito bites (Table 23). 79 percent of women correctly believe that a healthy looking person can be infected. Women in the Central district are more likely to believe misconceptions about AIDS transmission than other women. Only 31 percent of women in Botswana correctly identified three misconceptions about AIDS and there are no huge district disparities. However 51 percent of women in Francistown and North East correctly identify all the three misconceptions. Eighty one percent of women in Botswana know that AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child (Table 24). When asked specifically about the mechanisms through which mother to child transmission can take place, 77 percent said that transmission during pregnancy was possible, 64 percent said that transmission at delivery was possible, and 70 percent agreed that AIDS can be transmitted through breast milk. More than half (56 percent) of women knew all three modes of transmission. Accurate knowledge of correctly identifying means of HIV transmission from mother to child is only 3 points higher among urban women (57 percent) compared to rural women (54 percent). Women aged 30-34 years are much more knowledgeable about HIVIAIDS transmission. The MIS survey also attempted to measure discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV I AIDS. To this end, respondents were asked whether they agreed with two questions. The first asked whether a teacher who has the AIDS virus but is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching in school. The second question asked whether the respondent would buy food from a shopkeeper or food seller who BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 the respondent knew to be infected with AIDS. The results are presented in Table 26. Sixty two percent of the respondents believe that a teacher with HIVIAIDS should not be allowed to work. This percentage is highest in the South East district at 77 percent and lowest in the Small Towns at 51 percent. Urban women are more likely to express this discriminatory attitude than rural women. Forty eight percent of women would not buy food from a person infected with AIDS. Women in Small Towns are the most likely and women in Francistown district are the second most likely to express a discriminatory attitude on this question. Overall, 68 percent of women agree with at least one of the discriminatory statements. Table 26 summarizes information from two previous tables on AIDS knowledge (Tables 22 and 23). The second column shows the percentage of women who know all three means of preventing HIV transmission -having one faithful uninfected partner, using a condom every time, and abstaining from sex. Sixty nine percent of women know all three ways. The third column of the table shows the percentage of women who correctly identified all three misconceptions about HIV transmission - that HIV can be transmitted through supernatural means, that it can be transmitted through mosquito bites, and that a healthy looking person cannot be infected. Thirty one percent of women correctly identified these misconceptions. Finally, the fourth column of the table shows the percentage of women who have 'sufficient knowledge' of HIV I AIDS transmission. These are women who know all three ways of preventing HIV transmission and correctly identified all three misconceptions. Only 24 percent of women aged 15-49 falls into this category. Knowledge ofHIVIAIDS transmission varies dramatically by level of education (Figure 6). Women with secondary education have a much higher probability of knowing all three ways to prevent transmission compared to women with no education . The same applies to correctly identifying all three misconceptions about AIDS and having sufficient knowledge of HIV I AIDS transmission AIDS testing Voluntary testing for AIDS, accompanied by counseling, allows those infected to seek health care and to prevent the infection of others. Testing is particularly important for pregnant women who can then take steps to prevent infecting their babies. The indicators shown in Table 28 are designed to monitor whether women are aware of places to get tested for HIVIAIDS and the extent to which they have been tested. In some places, a relatively large proportion of people who are tested do not return to get their results due to fear of having the disease, fear that their privacy will be violated, or other reasons. It would have been interesting to have the percentage of women who after testing came back for their results. Unfortunately, this question was not asked by the MIS survey. Forty seven percent of women of reproductive age in Botswana know a place to get tested for AIDS. Women living in Kgatleng and South East districts are most likely to know a place to get tested for HIVIAIDS compared to women residing in other places. About 19 percent of women have been tested for AIDS. This percentage is highest in Kgalagadi district at 24 percent and lowest in North West at 13 percent. Women aged 30-34 years are more likely than any age group to have been tested (Table 27). BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Figure 6: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIOS transmission by level of education, Botswana, 2000 Knows 3 ways to prevent transmission Correctly identified 3 misconceptions Has sufficient knowledge None • Primary • Secondary + G. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Contraception Current use of contraception was reported by 44 percent of all women aged 15-49 (Table 28). The most popular method is the pill, which is used by 14 percent of all women aged 15-49 in Botswana. The next most popular methods are as follows: condom (16 percent), injections (8 percent) , IUD ( 1. 7 percent) and female sterilisation (1.2 percent). Fewer than one percent use periodic abstinence, male sterilization, or vaginal methods. Contraceptive prevalence is highest in Gaborone at 50 percent. All districts except Southern, K weneng, Kgatleng and Kgalagadi have contraceptive prevalence exceeding 40 percent. Teenagers are far less likely to use contraception than older women. Only about 24 percent of women aged 15-19 currently use a method of contraception compared to 52 percent of20-24 year olds. Women's education level is strongly associated with contraceptive prevalence. The percentage of women using any method of contraception rises from 30 percent among those with no education to 50 percent among women with form 4-6. The method mix varies by age. 22 percent of contraceptive users aged 20-24 years use condoms. In contrast, 10 percent of contraceptive users aged 15-19 years use condoms. Prenatal care Quality prenatal care can contribute to the prevention of maternal mortality by detecting and managing potential complications and risk factors, including pre-eclampsia, anemia, and sexually transmitted diseases. Antenatal care also provides opportunities for women to learn BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 the danger signs of pregnancy and delivery, to be immunized against tetanus, to learn about infant care, and be treated for existing conditions, such as malaria and anemia. Tetanus toxoid injections are given to women during pregnancy to protect infants from neonatal tetanus, a major cause of infant death that is due primarily to unsanitary conditions during childbirth. Two doses of tetanus toxoid during pregnancy offer full protection. However, if a woman was vaccinated during a previous pregnancy, she may only need a booster to give full protection. Five doses are thought to provide lifetime protection. More than half(Seventy two percent) of women with recent births in Botswana are protected against tetanus (Table 29). The vast majority of these women received two or more doses of tetanus toxoid within the last three years. The interpretation of results by district should be done with caution because of small number of cases. Women with no education are less likely to be protected against tetanus than those women with primary or secondary education. Women living in urban areas are more likely to be protected against tetanus than those living in rural areas. Female respondents who had had a birth in the year prior to the Botswana MIS were asked whether they had received antenatal care for the birth and, if so, what type of person provided the care. If the woman saw more than one type of provider, all were recorded in the questionnaire. Table 30 presents the percent distribution of women with a birth in the year prior to the MIS by the type of personnel who delivered antenatal care. If more than one provider was mentioned by the respondent, she is categorized as having seen the most skilled person she mentioned. Virtually all women in Botswana receive some type of prenatal care and 97 percent receive antenatal care from skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife). Thirty one percent of women with a birth in the year prior to the survey received antenatal care from a doctor and sixty six percent of women from a nurse or a midwife. Although there is very little variation in terms of place of residence and district, twenty two percent of women in North West and twenty four percent in Kgatleng seek antenatal care from doctors compared with sixty four percent in Kgalagadi. Twelve percent of women in North East and two percent in Central seek antenatal care from a relative or friend. Assistance at delivery The provision of delivery assistance by skilled birth attendants can greatly improve outcomes for mothers and children by the use of technically appropriate procedures, and accurate and speedy diagnosis and treatment of complications. Skilled assistance at delivery is defined as assistance provided by a doctor, nurse, or midwife. About 99 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MIS survey were delivered by skilled personnel (Table 31 ). This percentage is highest in Lobatse, Selebi- Phikwe, Small Towns, South East, Kweneng, Kgatleng, Ghanzi and Kgalagadi districts at 100 percent and lowest in the North East at 94 percent. However, these district estimates should be interpreted with caution due to small number of cases. Ninety nine percent of births in urban areas were delivered by skilled personnel compared to ninety eight percent of births that were delivered in rural areas by skilled personnel. About two thirds of the births in the year prior to the MIS survey were delivered with BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Figure 7: Percent distribution of women with a birth in the last year by type of personnel delivering antenatal care, Botswana, 2000 Relative/friend 0% assistance by a nurse/midwife. Doctors assisted with the delivery of 37 percent of births. Overall, relatives/friends delivered less than one percent of births, but these births occurred mainly arnong women in the Francistown. In Francistown about 2 percent of births are delivered by traditional birth attendants. H. CHILD RIGHTS Birth registration The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. The 0% Doctor 37% births of 59 percent of children under five years in Botswana have been registered (Table 32). There are variations in birth registration across district and rural-urban categories. Because of the small number of cases in Southern, K wen eng and Kgatleng districts, interpretation of the results should be done with caution. Children in Ghanzi district are somewhat less likely to have their births registered than other children but this appears to be due primarily to a relatively large proportion of mothers ( 13 percent) who do not know that the birth must be registered and because of the distance to be travelled to register the birth (16 percent). The cost of registration, lack ofknowledge, and the travel distance do appear to be the main reasons for not registering births. • - BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Orphanhood and living arrangements of children Children who are orphaned or living away from their parents may be at increased risk of impoverishment, discrimination, denial of property rights and rights to inheritance, various forms of abuse, neglect, and exploitation of their labour or sexuality. Monitoring the level of orphanhood and the living arrangements of children assists in identifying those who may be at risk and in tracking changes over time. In Botswana, 28 percent of children aged 0-14 are living with both parents (Table 33). A substantial percentage- 33 percent- are living with their mother only although their father is alive. About 18 percent are living with neither parent although both parents are alive. Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise 24 percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to 12 percent of all children aged 0-14. About 45 percent of all children aged 0-14 in urban areas live with both their parents compared with twenty three percent in rural areas. The results of districtal variation should be interpreted with caution because of small number of cases. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Appendix A: Statistical Tables Table 1: Number Of Households And Women, And Response Rates, Botswana, 2000 Interviewed households Household response rate Eligible women 5,266 2,523 7,789 Interviewed women* 4,939 2,383 7,322 omen response rate 93.8 94.5 94 under5 1652 1404 3056 Interviewed children under 5 1587 1348 2935 Child rate 96.1 96 *Includes 834 women under 15 years and 3 women ( 15-49) with incomplete responses. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table 2: Single Year Age Distribution Of Household Population By Sex, Botswana, 2000 0 355 345 37 138 1.1 1 328 280 38 146 1.1 2 280 292 39 110 0.8 3 308 2.4 324 2.3 40 117 0.9 142 1.0 4 270 2.1 275 1.9 41 105 0.8 122 0.9 5 342 2.6 331 2.4 42 117 0.9 128 0.9 6 325 2.5 335 2.4 43 109 0.8 120 0.9 7 320 2.5 343 2.4 44 78 0.6 121 0.9 8 352 2.7 354 2.5 45 92 0.7 98 0.7 9 357 2.8 367 2.6 46 79 0.6 79 0.6 10 .368 2.8 382 2.7 47 89 0.7 74 0.5 11 334 2.6 481 3.4 48 99 0.8 81 0.6 12 360 2.8 288 2 49 63 0.5 41 0.3 13 317 2.4 323 2.3 50 78 0.6 154 1.1 14 321 2.5 293 2.1 51 63 0.5 118 0.8 15 345 2.7 317 2 52 78 0.6 103 0.7 16 317 2.4 321 2 53 62 0.5 94 0.7 17 305 2.3 325 54 60 0.5 87 0.6 18 329 2.5 334 55 69 0.5 76 0.5 19 289 2.2 344 56 47 0.4 45 0.3 20 314 2.4 349 57 34 0.3 43 0.3 21 280 · 2.2 335 58 56 0.4 46 0.3 22 255 2 310 59 41 0.3 59 0.4 23 266 2.1 319 60 65 0.5 66 0.5 24 254 2 327 61 43 0.3 42 0.3 25 271 2.1 298 2.1 62 33 0.3 40 26 238 1.8 248 1. 63 32 0.2 46 27 226 1.7 227 1. 64 31 0.2 31 28 232 1.8 232 1. 65 55 0.4 59 29 182 1.4 183 1. 66 26 0.2 36 30 251 1.9 242 1. 67 38 0.3 39 31 148 1.1 205 . 1. 68 44 0.3 70 32 209 1.6 188 1. 69 27 0.2 30 33 149 1.2 168 1.2 358 2.8 542 34 153 1.2 176 1.3 15 0.1 5 35 162 1.3 135 1 36 153 1.2 171 1.2 100 14063 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table 3: Percentage Of Cases With Missing Information, Botswana, 2000 Level of education Household members Complete birth date Women 15-49 Date of last tetanus toxoid injection Women with a live birth in the last year Ever been tested for HIV Women 15-49 Complete birth date Children under 5 Diarrhoea in last 2 weeks Children under 5 Weight Children under 5 Height Children under 5 Table 4: Percent Distribution Of Households By Background Characteristics, Botswana, 2000 Gaborone 28.2 0 Francistown 11.5 0 Lobatse 4.9 0 Selebi-Phikwe 6.1 0 Small Towns* 3.9 0 Southern 5.5 15.0 South East 3.9 4.5 Kweneng 12.5 12.2 Kgatleng 4.2 3.9 Central 13.2 36.0 North East 0 6.34 North West 5. 10.2 Ghanzi 0.9 4.4 Kgalagadi 0 7.4 Number of household members 1 19.3 16.6 2-3 31.0 26.5 4-5 21.9 22.9 6-7 14.9 16.4 8-9 7.3 8.7 10+ 5.6 8.9 Total 100.0 100.0 At least one child age < 15 55.3 65.0 At least one child age < 5 29.9 39.2 At least one woman age 15-49 73.2 64.3 Number of households 3969 2219 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa 0.0 0.9 3.0 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.1 22560 7729 500 7729 3004 3004 3004 3004 29.4 22.3 15.4 7.8 6.8 100.0 58.8 33.3 70.0 6188 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table 5: Percent Distribution Of Women 15-49 By Background Characteristics, Botswana, 2000 -- -------- -- -- District Gaborone 27.1 0.0 18.5 Francistown 11.3 0.0 7.7 Lobatse 4.6 0.0 3.1 Selebi-Phikwe 6.4 0.0 4.4 Small Towns* 3.5 0.0 2.4 Southern 6.1 14.8 8.9 South East 4.6 5.2 4.8 Kweneng 11.2 11.3 11.3 Kgatleng 3.9 2.9 3.6 Central 14.6 35.2 21.2 North East 0.0 7.2 2.3 North West 6.0 11.9 7.9 Ghanzi 0.8 4.3 1.9 Kgalagadi 0.0 7.2 2.3 Age-group 15-19 22.3 23.2 22.6 20-24 23.8 19.9 22.6 26-29 16.3 16.1 16.3 30-34 13.7 13.6 13.7 35-39 10.6 11.3 10.8 40-44 8.2 10.2 8.9 45-49 5.0 5.7 5.2 Marital Status Currently married 15.8 16.5 16.1 Not currently married 84.2 83.5 83.9 Ever giv~n birth 98.5 99.2 98.7 Never given birth 1.5 0.8 1.3 Number 2,944 1,497 4,441 Education None 6.3 16.1 9.4 Std 1-4 4.0 6.3 4.7 Std 5-7 22.3 28.6 24.2 Form 1-3 43.8 38.1 42.1 Form 4-6 23.0 10.4 19.0 Std unknown 0.2 0.2 0.2 Form unknown 0.2 0.1 Missing 0.1 0.1 Unknown 0.1 0.3 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 4,422 2,066 6,488 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table 6: Percent Distribution Of Children Under 5 By Background Characteristics, Botswana, 2000 50.4 50.1 Female 49.6 49.9 District Gaborone 21.2 0 Francistown 10.2 0 Lobatse 5.34 0 Selebi Phikwe 5.9 0 Small Towns* 3.5 0 Southern 6.5 13.8 South East 3.9 3.9 Kweneng 10.8 12.1 Kgatleng 6.5 2.1 Central 20.8 37.9 North East 0 8.5 North West 7.7 12.9 Ghanzi 0.6 3.5 Kgalagadi 0 4.3 12.5 9.6 10.9 10.0 20.8 21.3 18.5 19.6 20.2 21.1 17.1 18.4 100.0 100.0 11.3 5.4 2.9 3.1 1.9 9.9 3.9 11.4 4.4 28.8 4.0 10.1 2.0 0.9 11 .1 10.5 21.1 19.0 20.6 17.7 100.0 Number of children 1565 1370 2935** 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa **Excludes 3 children aged above 59 months Table 7: Mean Number Of Children Ever Born (Ceb) And Proportion Dead By Mother's Age, Botswana, 2000 1.71 0.07 2.67 0.05 3.75 0.07 4.56 0.07 5.37 0.10 1.96 0.07 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table 8: Infant, Childhood And Under-five Mortality Rates, Botswana, 2000 57 1000 20 r 1000 Reference date is 1996 Table 9: Percentage Of Children Aged 36-59 Months Who Are Attending Some Form Of Organized Early Childhood Education Programme, Botswana, 2000 ---~-- _____ _ _ I I Sex Male 14.5 Female 18.7 District Gaborone 32.0 Francistown 24.5 Lobatse 23.5 Selebi-Phikwe 25.8 Small Towns* 28.0 Southern 7.7 South East 40.0 Kweneng 10.9 Kgatleng 20.0 Central 11.0 North East 18.4 Ngamiland 10.9 Ghanzi 23.5 Kgalagadi 0.0 Residence Urban 23.1 Rural 9.4 Age-group 36-47 months 11.9 48-59 months 21.9 552 573 / 122 53 34 31 25 130 50 128 35 317 49 110 17 24 584 541 605 5~ Total 16.5 1,125 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table 10: Percentage Of Children Of Primary School-Age Attending Primary School, Botswana, 2000 District Gaborone 82.9 321 80.8 365 81.8 Francistown 75.4 179 72.2 169 73.9 Lobatse 76.3 80 73.6 72 75.0 Selebi-Phikwe 80.9 68 81.4 97 81.2 Small Towns* 39 79.4 63 79.4 Southern 368 80.9 325 76.9 South East 104 77.9 113 78.8 Kweneng 358 77.8 365 72.6 Kgatleng 147 76.4 182 76.3 Central 869 78.7 908 77.8 North East 97 80.3 117 81.8 North West 75.5 290 78.9 280 77.2 Ghanzi 63.0 81 72.7 77 67.7 Kgalagadi 70.3 74 74.7 71 72.4 Residence Urban 79.8 1,681 80.4 1,839 80.1 Rural 70.4 1,394 75.8 1,365 73.1 Age 5 4.1 342 5.4 331 4.8 6 35.7 325 37.0 335 36.4 7 81.6 320 85.4 343 83.6 8 89.2 352 92.7 354 90.9 9 93.3 357 92.4 367 92.8 10 94.0 368 95.0 382 94.5 11 94.6 334 95.8 481 95.3 12 93.3 360 96.5 288 94.8 13 90.9 317 95.4 323 93.1 Total (5-13) 75.6 3,075 78.4 3,204 77.0 Total (6-13) 84.5 2,733 86.8 2,873 85.7 Total (7-13) 91.1 2,408 93.4 2,538 92.3 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa 686 348 152 165 102 693 217 723 329 1,777 214 570 158 145 3,520 2,759 673 660 663 706 724 750 815 648 640 6,279 5,606 4,946 . l Table 11: Percentage Of The Population Using Improved Drinking Water Sources, Botswana, 2000 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa ' OJ 0 -I (/) ~ z ~ s: c ~ -u r m z 0 0 ~ 0 :;o (/) c :;o < m -< r-.l 0 0 0 ' Table 12: Percentage Of The Population Using Sanitary Means Of Excreta Disposal, Botswana, 2000 - ,_ . ~ : - - -··---··-- ----- . -· j[ --= -_;;;;,;,.;;;:.;;,__,;;;; ~-- ------ ------ ------- ----- . - - . . . - . 35.4 22.1 16.9 26.1 61.4 8.5 34.6 12.9 11 .1 8.7 14.2 12.2 36.7 22.0 26.0 8.7 19.8 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa 63.1 --73.2 80.6,~ 71.8~----- --1.91 -· 57.2 --57.6 __ . 62.3 --74.2 ---51.6 --60.3 - . 36.6 -·--23.1 48.2 - 65.9 -- 42.2 -_ -_:_ 57.2 0.1 0.1 1.3 -- -0.4 0.2 4.1 - -0.5 0.0 2.0 ;p ~ . 0.0 ~ 2.1 O.Ql __ 28.~[_ = 0.6 ~ 7.7 25.:_4[' = 0.2 - 8.7 3~1 -- 0.0 - 4.7 . --16.8 0.0 --- 8.0 100:2 10.7 ·- 0.0, --- 4.0 100:0 ·F= 0.111 11.~[ tob.o 72.q 28.01 12.1 0.0 13.4f 100.0 -- 871: 44.5 - o.o____=. 6.7 . 100~0 54] - 'r- 100.0 34.~ -- 0.0 __ 5.;8 65.7 ----16:4 -- 0.0 ~.4 100.0 83.5 --- 2.9; . - 0.111 5.5,1 _:1QO.O 97.d ---- . ----40.1 , 0.1 8.9 - :J.oo.o 59.8 16.2 0.1 6.7 100.0 83~7 · - 1641 IJJ 0 -; en 3,9~ ~ 2,21 z }> 5: 6,1881 c ~ 'U r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;;o en c ;;o < m -< 1\) 0 0 0 Table 13: Percentage Of Under-five Children Who Are Severely Or Moderately Undernourished, Botswana, 2000 2.i 24.7,, 2.4 --- 21.4 7.4 . -~ -- . - ---7.0 0.4 18 . 3 6.7 -----. - --- -10.2 1.6 3£.~ 15.0 - 13.3 4.0 --- 221' 9.3 . -- - . - -~1 ---10.6 5.9 2:.1 8.0 - - . - 2.0 ---- ~22~0 --- 14:o ---- 17.6 -----· 2.6 ·- -- 25.7 - 9.1 ----- ----- ---7.2 0.9 15.3 6.3 - 2.7 - . . -- "' -15.4 1.9 32.1 9.9 3.8 :;;; ;;._"";;;;;-;: -·--· 7.1 ' 2.7 21.4 6.31 5.4 . -- 13.31 2~ ---- -· 23.0 - - =rl - 4.2 --· -- - 7.0 --- ---9.5 3.8 18.1 5.7 2.9 - ""' -- ·-· ---11.4 2.1 15.0 5.4 5.7 2.1 ----30.6 ---- 16.3 -- ~.6 12.2 ~ 18.4 --- 8.2 - - ~ -~ ---- ---- ----12.7 1.8 20.0 7.3 5.5 5.5 ====:::::! -- -·--- ---jl ( - --- ·- I - " - -- ;.- == -.:;;; -·-- 11 .5 2,9 23.0 8.3 ---- 5.21 13.6 2] ' --- 23,.,1 7.6 --· 4.8 - --·-- ---=-~=-= --- ---- - ----2.2 0.7 5.4 -.---- 1.8 5.4 1.8 - -- ----7.3 1.5 1Q.6 1.5 5.5 1.8 ---==---= ·-- 36.6 - ·--· 12.811 --- 6.51 - -- . 1.~ 15.3 3.3 -- - -~ -:. -·- -- ~ ---- 0.4 14.6 3.2,_ 22.5 ----- 9.3 4.2 -14.0 1.9- --- 2 3:7 8.4 - 4.2 0.4 ·- --· -· - ~ ----14.0 2.4 24.4 7.4 4.6 1.2 ·---- --- - ---- -· - - - ·- - ---- ----- --12.5 2.4 23.1 7.91 --- 5.0 **Excludes 3 children aged above 59 months Ill 0 -I (/) ~ z )> s:: c ~ =o r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;;o (/) c ~ m -< N 0 0 0 Table 14: Percent Of Living Children By Breastfeeding Status, Botswana, 2000 Table 15: Percentage Of Households Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt, Botswana, 2000 OJ 0 -I (/) ~ z )> s:: c ~ =o r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;o (/) c ~ m -< N 0 0 0 . Ghanzi Kgalagadi Residence Urban Rural Table 16: Percentage Of Live Births In The Last 12 Months That Weighed Below 2500 Grams At Birth, Botswana, 2000 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa .J .6 1"2.0 .§;4 10:8 _8.7 22.2 1.~ z.7 0 .0 10.0 5.1 8.0 79.2 66.7 100.0, 73.4: . 88.0 79.5 78.4 79.2 83.3 47.1 76.9 92.91 81 .0 68.3 75.9 Table 17: Percentage Of Children Age 12-23 Months Immunized Against Childhood Diseases At Any Time Before The Survey And Before The First Birthday, Botswana, 2000 86.9 __ 86.5 86.7 84.9 86.5 86.2 . 84.6 77.6 73~4 ·= 12 .0 - = ""-12.0 12.0--=--12.0 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.0 1?~0 98.9 -=--98.5 98.7 ~ 96.9 ;;; 98.5 1 . 98.3 = 96.6 89.6 85.4 , 1o~L. ~ --2.1 , - ~ 4.~, . '= 6.111 1Q~O.L 3.51- 7.9.: 13.7tl 23~3 - ;;.;;--,=. -- ~ -- ;:;: ---,.-- by age 12 =;r=-= = =':iiii; 97 :s =-94.3 - - 83.4 -73:-4 tl 98.9 97.5 97.9 97.0 93.8 OJ 0 -I (/) ~ z )> $: c ~ '1i r m z 0 fi ~ 0 ;u (/) c ~ m -< N 0 0 0 Table 18: Percentage Of Children Age 12-23 Months Currently Vaccinated Against Childhood Diseases, Botswana, 2000 90.0 90.0 96:4 92.6 91 .4. 92.1 86.2 OJ 0 -I (/) ~ z )> s: c ~ 15 r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;o (/) c ;o < m -< N 0 0 0 Table 19: Percentage Of Under-five Children With Diarrhoea In The Last Two Weeks And Treatment With ORS Or ORT, Botswana, 2000 49:15 . _ -· 97.0: 3.0 48AII- 9~(511 -- 5.5 -- - --85.7 14.3 1QO.O -- 0.0 66.7 -- 33.3 100.0 , ~ o.d 100.0 ~ 0.0 89.3 - 10.7 II ~ - -· 100.0 0.0 ~-. 100.0 0.0 98.2 11 - 1.~ : 100.0 . 0.0 "" 100.0 0.0 ---)00.0 0.0 1oo.o -- 0.0 -- 6.6'1 --=-J ,565JI ---32_.7jl . 23J II _47J II 95.2 -- 4.8. -~ 1,369J' - . _19:-8·1 - - 51 :2 ! 96.5 -- 3.5 6.3 --- 1,36~ 41 .9j' - iiiiii - ---- ~~- ----- ~· -------- - ----- ~5.5 96.6 98.5 92.5 95.8' 87.5 95.8 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa OJ 0 ., (J) ~ z )> s: c ~ "U r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;o (J) c ~ m -< N 0 0 0 Table 20: Percentage Of Under-five .Children With Acute Respiratory Infection (ARt) In The Last Two Weeks And Treatment By Health Providers, Botswana, 2000 OJ 0 -1 (}) ~ z )> s::: c ~ -u r m z 0 n ~ 0 ;;o (}) c ~ m -< N 0 0 0 Table 21: Percentage Of Under-five Children With Illness In The Last Two Weeks Who Took Increased Fluids And Continued To Feed During Illness, Botswana, 2000 aJ 0 -I (f) ~ z ~ s:: c ~ -u r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;:o (f) c ~ m -< 1\.) 0 0 0 Table 22: Percentage Of Women Aged 15-49 Who Know The Main Ways Of Preventing HIV Transmission, Botswana, 2000 80.0 71 .5 -- 82.q· 17.4 78.6 ·-- 725 -- 80.2 - - . 19.8 79.1 65.2 81 .1 18.9 -. 70.2 58.9 70.6 29.4 . 77.9 71.4 76.6 23.4 . - - . 67.4 68.5 74.9 62.0 73.8 26.2 . ·- 78.3 73.2 "'= ··- = 80.3 68.5 83.1 16.9 -- . - 73.5 73.9 79.2 67.3 80.0 20.0 63.2 63.2 63.2 58.4 68.0 32.0 -75.5 79.8 82.4 72.9 82.5 17.5 82.6 82.6 83.2 - 80.5 ~- 84.6 15.4' 67.6 73.tl 77.8 . 63.5 77.3 22.7 - ·- 66.9 66.9~ - - • 70.2 60.3' 73.6. ·-- 26.4 . .;;., ;;;; - -. - . ' 81.1 78.4 82.4 75.0 84.5 15.5 --. . '"'''""m• . - -- . ··-- -- -95.9 74.5 75.0 79.5 68.§ 80.6 19.4 93.6 - 71.7 74.0 76.5 - 68.2 77.4 - - 22.6 . . . - - - -- - -·- -92.0 68.4 69.8 74.0 61.1 77.1 22.9 ··-· - - - ---· - - - -· 93.3 67.4 63.9 72.6 60.4 70.9 29.1 -- -- -- -- -· - --· 94_,9 77.1 76.7 80.5 71.6 82.2 17.8 --94~5 ---- 76.5 --- 77.5 --- 82.4 . 71.6 - 82.4 --- 17.6 ;~~ 94.9 ·- -· 79.9 --- 81 .81 -- 84.3 -- 76.7 -· 85.0 - 15.0 95.9 77.7 78 .6 ~ 82.1 72.7,1 83.5 16.5 1,464 -- --- - -- . -- - -- --96.3 76.5 79.5 82.0 72.5 83.5 16.5 1,054 95.6 -- 74.6 -- 77.f' -- 79.9 --- 70.7 - 81.1 - 18.9 -- 887 -- -- --- --· -- - -- =-=== 95.2 68.0 69.5 73.9 63_,_1 74.4 25.6 --- 704 93.9 -- -- --- - 59~1 ·- - --65.9 64.0 70.6 70.8 29.2 575 -- --- --- -- . -- -· =.:=-.: 94.7 67.7 67.7 70.6 62.3 73.0 27.0 337 ---87.1 51.4 51~9 -- 54.0 47.8 55.6 44.4 613 89_2 ·- 61 .3 --- 63~0 - -- 67.5 - 56.1 - 69.8 - 30.2 -- 305 -- -- -- -- - - --94.01 68.8 71.1 74.3 63.8 76.5 23.5 1,573 96.81 -- 78.4 -- 79.8 -- 83.3 -- 72.0 -- 86.5 -- 13.5 -- 2,727 -- -- -- -- - -- ---98.7 83.4 82.2 . 88.6 74.7 92.0 8.0 1,232 100.0 -- 91 .7 -- 75.0 . -- 91.7 -- 75.0 ;;;: = 91.7 -· 8.3·~ --- 12 100.0 -- 66.7 -- 55.6 --- 66.7 -- 55.6 --- - 66.7., . -- 33.3 -B - o 9 ---75.0 -- 75.0 -- 75.0 - 75.0 - 75.0 - 75.6 --- 25.0 - ·--- 5 -- --·- -- --· = --- ::.-.-.; =-=-75.0 58.3 66.7 66.7 58.3 66.7 33.3 -- -- -- -- - -- . -- - - ·--- - - . --95.2 73.6 74.7 78.5 68.6 79.6 20.4 @ excluding abstaining *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa OJ 0 -1 (f) ~ )> z )> s: c ~ -o r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ::0 (f) c ::0 < m -< N 0 0 0 Table 23: Percentage Of Women Aged 15-49 Who Correctly Identify Misconceptions About HIV/ AIDS, Botswana, 2000 t.O 0 -I (/) ~ z )> ~ c ~ Gaborone ,, -- 97.3 ·- 70.9 - 44.3 79.8 - -·-- 31 .8 ·-- - 92.0 ·- 8.0 1,197 -u .li r Francistown - ii " - 96.6 74.0 60.7 86.6 50.9 92.4 7.6 499 m Lobatse . - = z 93.5 63.7 35.8 76.1 27.4 83.6 16.4 201 0 Selebi-Phikwe '\ 93.6 65.6 38.7 75.9 24.5 89.7 10.3 282 fi Small Towns* 90.9 57.8 39.0 . 66.2 22.1 84.4 15.6 154 ~ ~ 0 Southern . 89.6 60.7 33.3 74.4 27.6 80.2 19.8 577 ;u " . (/) South East li 98.7 66.5 41 .2 87.5 32.9 93.0 7.0 314 c ii . ;u Kweneng 95.8 64.0 30.8 .79.2 23.7 87.7 12.3 731 < - ii ,- . - . . - . - - ~ m Kgatleng 97.0 70.9 38.3 73.5 30.9 86.5 13.5 231 -< ,, N Central li 95.1 62.1 39.8 76.5 29.1 86.5 13.5 1,374 0 0 North East ~~ 98.7 70.3 63.5 88.5 . - - - 50.7 - __ . 92.6 - - -· 7.4· 149 0 -- . North West I! . -- 95.3 52.2 38.2 76.9 26.1 83.1 16.9 510 . lf . - -- - - -- - - -Ghanzi 89.3 42.2 33.9 75.2 25.6 79.3 20.7 121 Kgalagadi ! 93.2 60.1 43.9 85.8 35.1 88.5 11.5 148 ;; .: - . - . Residence ·' Urban I' 95.9 67.9 43.1 80.8 32.6 90.0 10.1 4422 . - . . ~ . -Rural 11 93.7 56.8 36.0 74.0 26.6 82.7 17.3 2066 Age - --- - -· . 15-19 I 94.0 69.2 49.7 76.6 38.4 87.2 12.8 1,468 20-24 95.9 70.0 44.4 80.6 32.4 90.8 9.2 1,464 - - -- . i'. - : ' - -· 25-29 96.3 66.1 42.3 83.2 32.8 90.3 9.7 1,054 30-34 95.6 62.3 38.4 82.0 29.8 88.5 11.5 -·- . - . - --35-39 I 95.2 57.6 34.3 77.1 25.0 85.6 14.4 40-44 i~ 93.9 50.8 27.0 69.4 18.1 80.0 20.0 - --45-49 II 94.7 55.5 26.7 74.5 18.4 82.5 17.5 . ' - Education !. None " 87.1 36.5 16.3 54.2 9.1 64.8 35.2 Std 1-4 i• 89.2 . -- . - - ~ 42.0 23.9 59.0 12.1 72.5 27.5 Std 5-7 94.0 55.7 29.6 74.6 21.9 83.7 16.3 - -- - . - - . --Form 1·3 96.8 72.0 45.0 82.5 34.4 92.4 7.6 Form 4-6 :. 98.7 78.2 62.8 92.1 49.1 97.6 2.4 -· - . --- . - --Std unknown !! 100.0 50.0 33.3 83.3 16.7 91.7 8.3 Form unknown 100.0 55.6 33.3 77.8 33.3 77.8 22.2 - ·- -- - ·-· -- -·--- -- - ·- - --- -- -Missing 75.0 50.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 .l Unknown 75.0 50.0 25.0 66.7 16.7 66.7 33.3 - - : - - - 95.2 64.3 40.9 78.6 30.7 87.6 12.4 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa Table 24: Percentage Of Women Aged 15-49 Who Correctly Identify Means Of HIV Transmission From Mother To Child, Botswana, 2000 70.1 ~ 60.7 47.1 32A 84.1 = 79' .,66.2 -- 71.3 = 55.4 16~2 - -· 76.3 73.6 61 .6 69.6 56.4 23.9 ----81.7 - 80.9 - = 67 -- 71 .7 == 61.3 --- 18.7 83.2 80 65.4 . 73 . 58.6: 17.4 87.8 ~ - 79.111 - 73 i -- ~;:. ::::;;:::::: 12.} - 79.7J, . -~·· 75.~1 72.4 64.3 60 -- 51.4" - 24-:--~ 73.6jl - 65.3 = --s§.2:-= 58.7 - 45.51 28.9 80.4 76.4 - 55.4 - 70.3 i 7.3 ·-- - 20.3 - - -- - 82.8 78.1 -65:9 71.5 - -· 57.1 ·-· - 17.9 76.4 -- 73.5 - 60.6 -- 66.9 -- 54 24 77.4 - 71.4 - 54.1 -- .&_3 _._44.4 ·---- ~-3 - --· -- 73.5 =--= 16.2 -- '·"l 84.4 80.8 - _§8 60 86.2 - 82 - 69.11 -- 74.9_ . 602c --- 14.1J_-- 1,05 81 .6, - - 79,1 ~ - 68.8' 74 . ~1 62.8L - 18.5C 88 78.8 - 74.5 --67.31 -- 70.8~ 59.9 ---·=- ;!:;:-~ ~~ z4.41 71 .1 61 .9 ·.:; 64.7 -n 54.3, 75.4 - 72.1 -- 62.9 == 67.4 - 55.5 24.6 n-- 33 55.4 53.3 45:9 48.6 --40.5 45.4~--; - -----64.3 61.6 - ~.0.:.2 -- 57.4 ---44.9 36.1 7.§;!__ - 73.0 -_ ,.§2~0_- 67.6 55.7 24.7 85.7 81.3 - =- 6 5.3 ----=-- 74.7 - 5 7.9 - - 14.9 .-;;;;;;;;;;;o;;;.:- 9~2 - 86A' --.:77.41_ --- 76~~f =~- ~~~. ~-~--8.f3 - 83.3~ 83.:f 75.Ql -- 75.q~ - -·- 16:7 _____ -----88.9 - 88.~r - 77.8• - 66.ijf _-_ 66.7jl --- -1T~1- . . 7s:o~ ~ _:__ 75.0~ ;; 75.01 7§.,9~ -- 75.q; 25.0 - 75.o· - 66)/1 - 58-:-3' -- 66.7' - 50.0 -25:0 1 80.8 76.6 64.3 70 ~~56.1 ---- 19.8 - ·--· *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa CD 0 -i (/) ~ z l> s: c ~ -u r m z 0 fi ~ 0 ;;o (/) c ;;o < m -< N 0 0 0 Table 25: Percentage Of Women Aged 15-49 Who Expresses A Discriminatory Attitude Towards People With HIV/AIDS, Botswana, 2000 OJ 0 -I (j) ~ z )> ~ c 72.2 55.9 78.9 21.1 1,197 ~ "U 72.7 56.3 75.8 24.2 499 r m - -54.7 39.3 60.2 39.8 201 z 65.6 49.3 70.2 29.8 282 0 - - - 0 50.6 58.4 71.4 28.6 154 ~ 51 .6 30.7 54.8 - 45.2 577 0 ::0 77.3 46.0 79.9 20.1 314 (j) c - I "-YYt111t::IIY ::. 63.0 43.7 68.5 31.5 731 ::0 < 64.8 47.8 65.7 34.3 231 m -< 53.5 45.4 62.4 37.6 1,374 "' 0 68.2 52.7 71.6 28.4 149 0 0 56.1 55.3 65.7 34.3 - - -57.0 47.1 62.8 37.2 60.8 48.6 63.5 36.5 - - - - 67.4 51.8 73.1 26.9 . - -51.0 40.3 58.5 41.5 -60.0 47.7 67.5 32.5 65.6 51.3 72.2 27.8 66.4 51.9 72.6 27.4 64.3 49.7 70.0 30.0 - - -· 60.2 46.8 66.6 33.4 -55.5 39.3 60.5 39.5 53.4 38.3 56.4 43.6 - . - ·- 32.4 24.6 38.9 61.1 613 40.0 33.4 47.9 52.1 305 49.8 35.9 56.3 43.7 1,573 - - -- ~ 0 M • 66.4 52.3 73.8 26.2 2,727 88.8 70.2 92.0 . 8.0 1,232 - - ~ 58.3 33.3 58.3 41.7 12 77.8 55.6 77.8 22.2 9 - - - -- - . -50.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 5 58.3 41 .7 66.7 33.3 62.2 48.1 68.4 31.6 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa . Table 26: Percentage Of Women Aged 1~49 Who Have Sufficient Knowledge Of HIV/AIDS Transmission, Botswana, 2000 97.3 69.6 31 .8 26.2 - ~ .:. . . . 96.6 71.5 50.9 37.1 93.5 63.7 27.4 21 .9 93.6 58.2 • 24.5 18.1 90.9 71.4 22.1 . "" '>- """· 25.3 . . - . - . 89.6 61.5 27.6 22.5 . 98.7 64.5 32.9 24.9 - - . 95.8 65.9 23.7 18.1 I'"~~"'"'''~ II 97.0 57.0 . 30.9 23.9 - 95.0 72.3 29.1 24.2 98.6 79.7 50.7 41.9 - 95.3 63.1 26.1 18.2 89.3 57.9 25.6 18.2 93.2 73.6 35.1 27.0 95.9 67.4 32.6 25.3 - . - -93.7 67.5 26.6 22.3 94.0 67.2 38.4 31 .1 95.9 71 .7 32.4 27.5 96.3 71 .3 32.8 25.7 95.6 69.4 29.8 22.5 95.2 62.0 25.0 18.1 93.9 57.9 18.1 13.4 94.7 60.2 18.4 13.1 87.1 47.8 9.1 7.0 - : . 89.2 56.1 12.1 10.5 -94.0 63.8 21 .9 16.0 96.8 72.0 34.4 28.4 98.7 74.7 49.1 38.1 100.0 75.0 16.7 0 25.0 . 100.0 55.6 33.3 22.2 -75.0 75.0 0.0 0.0 75.0 - . - 58.3 16.7 8.3 95.2 67.4 30.7 24.3 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa 1,197 499 201 282 154 577 314 731 231 1,374 149 510 121 148 4422 2066 1,468 1,464 OJ 1,054 0 -1 887 (f) ~ 703 z 575 }> s 337 c ~ 613 =u r m 305 z 1,573 0 0 2,727 ~ 1,232 0 12 ;:o (f) 9 c ;:o 5 < m 12 -< N 0 0 - ·--· 0 Table 27: Percentage Of Women Aged 1 fr49 Who Know Where To Get An Aids Test And Who Have Been Tested, Botswana, 2000 48.0 ' 23.2 . MOO -- -- -48.3 21 .0 - - . :""- --=-==-·= : 42.3 16.4 ·- : -45.7 18.8 50.0 - - 19.5 46.4 16.1 52.9 19.7 - 41.9 19.3 56.1 16.1 42.0 16.0 36.5 - 15.5 41.4 13.3 48.8 18.2 42.6 23.6 - - . - - --48.7 20.1 - - - -38.1 15.0 --- :. - - --·-- --- - - - ·- ·- -- - -47.8 10.1 "':"-:"" ·- .:. - -.: =-= - 48.4 20.2 - - -- --48.1 21.3 - . 42.6 24.0 41.0 ~ 20.9 38.3 20.3 40.7 15.7 - - - -25.0 11.1 - - -31.5 15.4 - - --40.9 16.1 - . - -= - --49.2 17.9 -- -- - - - . 55.8 27.7 -. - -33.3 16.7 ~ - 55.6 11.1 ":: 5otH -- - - - 25.0 . ---41.7 0.0 =--===.-=-=-·-·::.--=---·= """:"" - ~ --- =- =--,:_"::" - ~ - - ~ -- -- - . . - - --· 47.4 19.3 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa OJ 0 -I (J) ~ z )> ~ c ~ IJ r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ::0 (J) c ~ m -< N 0 0 0 Table 28: Percentage Of Women Aged 15-49 Who Are Using (Or Whose Partner Is Using) A Contraceptive Method, Botswana, 2000 Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Education None Std 1-4 Std 5-7 Form 1-3 Form 4-6 Std unknown Form unknown Missing Unknown 50.0 13.5 2.8 6.3 62.9 10.4 1.8 8.2 55.2 14.4 0.5 14.4 52.1 15.2 1.4 4.3 55.8 14.9 2 .6 9.1 65.2 13.2 0.2 9.5 50.8 17.9 2 .2 5.1 62.3 13.7 1.9 6.4 63.5 14.3 0.4 7.8 57.2 13.0 2 .3 8.4 56.8 8.8 0.7 10.1 53.9 19.0 0.2 11.4 51.2 16.5 0.0 14.0 61 .5 14.9 0.7 10.8 55.7 13.6 1.9 59.6 14.7 1.3 7.4 9.8 75.1 6.5 0.1 3.4 47.6 17.8 0.8 9.1 44.7 21.4 1.5 11.7 45.2 19.4 2.6 10.6 55.6 12.4 4.3 10.1 66.3 8.2 3.5 7.1 74.2 5.3 2.4 4.7 69.8 10.6 1.5 8.3 64.6 11 .1 1.3 10.5 57.3 16.5 2.5 10.8 55.9 14.6 1.5 7.9 50.3 11.8 1.3 4.3 50.0 8.3 0.0 25.0 55.6 11 .1 0.0 11.1 50.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 66.7 0.0 0.0 16.7 55.6 14.3 1.7 8.1 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 21 .9 0.2 14.2 1.5 12.4 0.7 18.4 0.0 7.1 0.0 9.5 0.0 20.1 0.0 13.6 0 .0 12.6 0.4 11 .9 0.7 15.5 0 .6 11 .8 0.8 14.9 0.7 8.8 0.5 16.3 0.3 10.9 0.3 9.4 0.8 21 .1 0.6 18.1 0.3 18.0 0.1 12.1 0.0 8.2 0 .3 4.5 0.0 5.2 0 .0 10.5 0.4 9.6 0.6 15.2 0.4 25.2 0.0 8.3 0.0 22.2 0.0 25.0 0.0 8.3 0.5 15.5 1.5 1.6 1.0 1.1 5.2 1.4 2.6 1.2 0.4 1.2 1.4 1.0 0.8 1.4 1.4 1.3 0 .1 0.1 0.0 1.5 3.4 5.2 6.5 3.3 0.0 1.5 0.9 1.7 8.3 0.0 0.0 8.3 1.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.1 0.4 0 .1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 1.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 .0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.8 0.2 100.0 0.0 0 .2 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 6.0 0.0 100.0 2.6 0.0 100.0 0.3 0 .0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.5 0.1 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 4.4 0.3 100.0 6.1 0.0 100.0 1.4 0.2 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2.2 0.1 100.0 1.3 0.2 100.0 4.8 0.1 100.0 1.7 0.1 100.0 0.9 0.1 100.0 0.6 0.2 100.0 0.9 0.1 100.0 1.0 0.3 100.0 1.2 0.3 100.0 0.7 0.3 100.0 1.0 0.7 100.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 2.3 0.2 100.0 3.4 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0 .0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2.1 0.1 100.0 47.8 36.9 44.8 41 .8 40.9 34.5 48.9 37.0 36.5 37.9 37.2 44.1 48.8 38.5 41.8 38.8 19.9 50.4 54.1 53.9 43.4 32.3 24.0 29.2 33.8 41.8 41.4 45.9 50.0 44.4 50.0 33.3 42.1 2.2 50.0 0 .2 37.1 0.0, 44.8 6.0 47.9 3.2 44.2 0.3 34.8 577 0.3 49.2 314 0.7 37.7 731 0.0 36.5 231 5.0 42.8 1,374 6.1 43.2 149 2.0 46.1 510 0.0 48.8 121 0.0 38.5 148 2.5 44.3 1.6 40.4 5.0 24.9 2.0 52.4 1.2 55.3 0.9 54.8 1.0 44.4 1.4 33.7 1.8 25.8 1.0 30.2 1.6 35.4 1.0 42.7 2.6 44.1 3.7 49.7 0.0 50.0 0.0 44.4 0.0 50.0 0.0 33.3 2.3 44.4 1,468 1,464 1,054 887 703 575 CD 0 -I (f) ~ z )> s:: c ~ -u r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;;o (f) c ~ m -< N 0 0 0 - ""'! Table 29: Percentage Of Mothers With A Birth In The Last 12 Months Protected Against Neonatal Tetanus, Botswana, 2000 District -· - Gaborone 52 - 4 2.7 58.7 -- - . . . - - -Francistown 84.2 0 0 84.2 - . Lobatse 68 4 4 76 Selebi-Phikwe - 60 0 0 60 Small Towns* 66.7 0 0 66.7 . -Southern - 68.3 5 0 73.3 -· - -- - . --. : ·- - -- -South East 85.7 0 0 85.7 . - - ~ - -Kweneng . - - ···- 68.3 - 3.2 1.6 73 - - : - - -Kgatleng - 71.9 0 0 - 71 .9 Central 70.8 1.3 1.3 73.4 - - - -North East 57.1 4.8 0 61.9 NorthWest 66.7 0 4.4 71 .1 - 82.4 11.8 0 94.1 79.2 0 4.2 83.3 - - -Residence Urban 63.5 2.4 1.8 67.6 Rural 70.5 2.3 1.4 74.2 Education None 77.2 0.9 4.4 82.5 . Primary 66.8 2 1 69.8 Secondary 66.7 2.7 0.7 70.1 68.6 2.3 1.5 72.4 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa OJ 0 -1 (/) ~ z ):> s: c ~ "U r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ::u (/) c ~ m -< 1\.) 0 0 0 . Table 30: Percent Distribution Of Women Aged 15-49 With A Birth In The Last Year By Type Of Personnel Delivering Antenatal Care, Botswana, 2000 Gaborone 35.5 59.2 1.3 1.3 2 .7 0.0 100.0 94.7 - - -. . -- . - ' Francistown 28.6 69.0 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.6 - . 1Lobatse 23.8 76.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 . --Selebi-Phikwe 45.8 54.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 . . -- . - . -- -- -Small Towns* 33.3> 66.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 Southern 37.3 61 .0 0.0 - . 1.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 . 98.3 -· - - -South East 42.9 57.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 Kweneng 25.7 73.0 . 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 100.0 - 98.6 - ~ Kgatleng 23.5 76.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 Central 26.5 69.3 0.0 1.2 2.4 0.6 100.0 95.8 - __ . ·--=11 - -- ·- 5.9 ,;;;,·. ·- -::-: -::. ---- - : North East 41 .2 41 .2 0.0 11.7 0.0 100.0 82.4 Ngamiland Ji . 21.5 ·- 73.8 1.5 3.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 - . 95.4 - :" • .:.=.:.: -- - ~ - -·-Ghanzi II 50.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 Kgalagadi _II 64.3 35.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 Residence 11 ·- . - ' - . -- --- I~ Urban .II 30.3 66.8 0.5 1.3 1.1 0.0 100.0 97.1 . - -~~ - . -- ~· . .=-.;.-=: :-·=:: -- ·-·--- - - --Rural 31.8 64.7 0.8 0.4 1.9 0.4 100.0 96.5 Education li.- - - -. .,- . -- ·- - --None I. 25.0 69.3 1.9 0.0 3.8 0.0 100.0 94.2 Primary 32.0 63.9 1.0 1.0 1.6 0.5 100.0 95.9 Secondary+ :I . -. ·- = -- --·-31.3 66.4 0.3 1.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 97.7 30.9 65.9 0.6 0.9 1.5 0.2 100.0 96.8 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa 75 38 25 20 12 60 21 63 32 154 21 ~~ CD 0 -I 170 (f) ~ 438 )> z )> s: 114 c 199 ~ '6 294 r m 6081 z 0 0 ~ 0 AI (f) c AI < m -< N 0 0 0 ,- Table 31: Percent Distribution Of Women Aged 1Er49 With A Birth In The Last Year By Type Of Personnel Assisting At Delivery, Botswana, 2000 44.1 53.6 1.2 1.2 100.0 97.6 75 ---- - . - . - Francistown 37.5 60.4 0.0 2.1 100.0 97.9 38 Lobatse . 33.3 . 66.7 0.0 . . 0.0 100.0 - 100.0 25 .:--=.: -=-==- -- -- -- - .- - -- •. - - -- -Selebi Phikwe 53.6 46.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 20 Small Towns• 40.0 60.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 12 =---""":.=- :.= - -- -- --- - . - - - . - -· --- .:. Southern 43.9 54.6 1.5 0.0 100.0 98.5 60 South East 52.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 21 ---·::. - -.:= . - - -·· . . -- . Kweneng 31.7 68.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 Kgatleng 27.8 72.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 . :- ·== =-·- ·=--.- -- --- -- ---- - - . -----Central 32.4 66.5 1.2 0.0 100.0 98.8 . . . North East 55.6 38.9 5.6 0.0 100.0 94.4 - - -- . . - -· -- . - . - - -North West 23.9 71.6 3.0 1.5 100.0 95.5 Ghanzi 50.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 . -·- ---· - - . -= -- - --- - ·- _, __ Kgalagadi II 64.3 35.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 Residence il - - -- - - - . - - . Urban 37.1 61.2 1.2 0.5 100.0 98.3 Rural i 38.0 61 .0 0.7 0.4 100.0 98.9 - - - -- . - - Education 1None 35.1 63.2 0.0 1.8 100.0 98.3 .• -- - - . ~ Primary 38.2 59.9 1.5 0.5 100.0 98.1 Secondary+ ' 37.4 61.4 1.0 0.2 100.0 98.8 ~~~ . - . -- = =- .·-:-":: - . . . - - -·- 37.4 61.1 1.0 0.4 100.0 98.5 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa oil OJ 0 -I (j) ~ z }> s: c ~ "0 r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;o (j) c ~ m -< N 0 0 0 ' Table 32: Percent Distribution Of Children Aged 0-59 Months By Whether Birth Is Registered And Reasons For Non-registration, Botswana, 2000 59.7 14.4 3.5 14.6 12.9 8.6 7.0 9.6 27.9 1.5 100.0 1477 58.7 15.2 1.8 16.6 12.3 9.3 7.3 7.5 27.8 2.3 100.0 1461 61.6 14.2 1.6 7.1 9.4 1.6 11 .8 2.4 50.4 1.6 100.0 331 81.1 10.0 0.0 6.7 6.7 23.3 6.7 30.0 10.0 6.7 100.0 159 46.4 13.3 6.7 11 .1 15.6 31.1 0.0 13.3 8.9 0.0 100.0 84 47.8 12.5 4.2 8.3 8.3 10.4 8.3 2.1 45.8 0.0 100.0 92 60.0 0.0 0.0 27.3 18.2 13.6 0.0 9.1 31.8 0.0 100.0 55 71.8 29.3 1.2 9.8 19.5 11 .0 4.9 3.7 13.4 7.3 100.0 291 76.5 22.2 0.0 3.7 22.2 18.5 7.4 11 .1 14.8 0.0 100.0 115 54.3 9.8 1.3 17.6 18.3 1.3 7.8 19.6 23.5 0.7 100.0 335 60.5 7.8 3.9 15.7 9.8 11 .8 7.8 0.0 41 .2 2.0 100.0 129 50.4 18.1 2.9 19.3 8.3 9.5 6.7 7.1 25.5 2.6 100.0 846 76.1 25.0 0.0 3.6 17.9 7.1 10.7 17.9 17.9 0.0 100.0 117 58.9 11 .5 6.6 15.6 12.3 9.8 8.2 7.4 27.0 1.6 100.0 2971 41.4 5.9 0.0 26.5 32.4 11 .8 0.0 5.9 17.6 0.0 100.0 58 74.6 13.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 0.0 80.0 0.0 100.0 59 65.1 14.2 2.1 10.9 11 .6 10.9 6.8 6.8 35.2 1.6 100.0 16121 52.4 15.7 3.0 19.6 13.4 7.5 7.2 9.8 21 .1 2.6 100.0 1392 57.1 4.3 3.6 13.6 13.6 9.3 7.9 7.1 38.6 2.1 100.0 326 57.5 7.6 4.6 13.0 16.8 8.4 9.2 6.1 33.6 0.8 100.0 308 61 .8 10.2 2.1 19.1 11.4 8.5 9.3 7.2 30.5 1.7 100.0 618 56.6 19.4 2.1 16.5 11 .2 7.9 5.4 10.3 26.4 0.8 100.0 558 61 .7 19.8 2.6 15.1 12.1 9.1 4.3 10.3 25.0 1.7 100.0 605 58.1 20.6 2.3 14.2 12.8 10.6 8.3 7.8 19.3 4.1 100.0 520 59.2 14.8 2.7 15.6 12.6 8.9 7.2 8.4 27.9 1.9 100.0 29381 *Orapa, Jwaneng, Sowa OJ 0 --1 (J) ::?.: J> z J> s:: c ~ ll r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ::0 (J) c ::0 < m -< 10 0 0 0 CD 0 -i (/) ~ z )> s: c Table 33: Percentage Of Children 0-14 Years Of Age In Households Not Living With A ~ -u r Biological Parent, Botswana, 2000 m z 0 0 ~ 0 ::0 (/) c ::0 < m -< - -Male =::J( . "27.6 . 1.8 2--:-5 - 17.7 1.51 33.E;)11-=- [.a~ 2.4 0.21 =- ~ 6~4 1 gp.o,1 23.4 • "12.2._ 4,9211 N : 2.5;- - 0 Female --r- 28.7 1.41' 18.711 1.3'' 32.4 - [?JI 2.0 0.3': :-::: _ t?.QJp oo.o , 23.8;~ . 12YJi 5,002 0 --- --- 0 District Gabqrone -,r 49.4 1.7 1.7,__§.7 • 0.5.1 25.5 . 5-'-4" 1.5 0.3 ___ 5.3 1100.0 - --- 12.5 Francistown -- . 40.1 1.5 2.0 ·-12.6 1.51 28.8 6-:-6 . _ 2~ ·o.o ~ -4.Q 100.0 - -- 17.5 -- ~ : = 4.7"~ 2:3 -- 651100.0 -Lobatse 41 .5 2.3 . _1.2 9.3 1.211 31.0 0.0 14.0 : -3.3 - -Selebi-Phikwe 40.9 1.1 8.0 1.1 34.1 3.6 4.7 0.7 2.5 100.0 13.4 9.f! Small Towns* - 43.4 = - 9.6 1.8 1.8 - _ 1Q.8 1.2 27.1 3.6 6.6 1.2 2_,§ 10Q.O 15.7 Southern 19.9 0.9 2.6 ~ - 20.1 1.1 36.1 ·6:5 . 2.1 0.1 ·- 10~61 16Q.o - 24.7 1.:! .1 = : = -South East 36.0 1.9 1.7 14.4 0.8 34.1 2:a· 0.6 0.8 6.9 100 .0 18.8 8.0 Kweneng -- 23.2 2.0 2T • __ 20.1 0.9 32.8 6.0 1.6 0.4 -· 10:3 j OO.O - ?5.7 11.4 = -Kgatleng ., 23.0 0.4 (6 _ . 16.0 1.4 43.5 4.1 1.4 0.4 8.2 '100.0 19.5 8~0 Central 21.4 1.2 3.5 - 23.3 f. a 34.4 6~91f 1.8 0.1 11 - 5.6 100.0 - 29.8 1:3:61 I North East " 23.811 2.6 2 .9:l" :ia·.9 1.1 28.9 6.011 . 0.61 0.0 --· 5:2'l 1 oo.o' ·- - 35.5 1_2~6 : North West 24.1 1.8 1.s1r 14.9 1.9 35.2 - 11:.1 5.4 0.2 -- 3.6 11 00.0 -- 20.5 1Ef 9 ·j = - ---· Ghanzi 27.5 3.4 3.4 26.6 2.1 27.9 - 4:3 2.1 0.9 1.8 100.0 35.6 14.2 = " 3.5 'i oo.o ~ -Kgalagadi ; 24.4 4.1 2.3 17.6 2.3 31 .2 f2. 7 0.5 1.4 26.2 22.6: 221 Residence -1.6 ;;:;·, "' 52 ".fa~ 100.0 -Urba_n il 44.9 1.9 9.7 . 0.9 · 28.0 2.7 0.3 14.2 - ~-9 2,332 Rural - i~ 34.5' 6.911 6"7,. 100.0 -- 26.5 - 12 .9 . 7,591 . 23.0 . 1.6 ,l.7 =tPJ . 1.5 £. 1 0.3 . - Age - -n- 0-4 years • r . 28.1 0.5 1.5 14.8 0.3 44.7 ~4.0 . 1.1 0.1 4.9 100.0 17.1 6.3 3,049 "' . ==7.3 ' 6.1 1oo.o . 13.1 " 5-9 years II 28.8 1.8 2.6 ~2 _1 .1 30.3 . 2.4 0.4 24.7 3,416 10-14 years -~1 27.5 2.3 3.2 20.1 "2 .7 25.4 " s.o,. 3.0 0.4 --7.4 1J>O.O, 28.3 16~5 3,458 ]_ II IL ~-- -28.1 1.61 2.5 18:2 1.4 1 33.0' • . 6.511- 2.2 . 0.3 ' - 6.2 100.0 23.6 . 12.2 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Appendix B: Sampling Errors The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: ( 1) nonsampling error, and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the MIS to minimise these type of errors, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically. Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the MIS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same sample design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. A sampling error is usually measured in terms of standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulae for calculating sampling errors. However, the MIS sample is the results of a stratified two stage design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software CLUSTERS developed for the MIS by UNICEF was used to calculate sampling errors. Sampling errors for selected variables for the country as a whole are presented in the following Table. In addition to the value (R) of type of statistic (mean, proportion) and standard error (SE), the tables includes the weighted number (WN) of cases, the relative standard error (the standard error divided by the value of the statistic) and the 95 percent confidence limits (R. ± 2SE). The confidence limits may be interpreted by using the following example: the overall estimate of the proportion of women who have ever been pregnant is 0.691 and its standard error is 0.054. To obtain the 95 percent confidence interval, twice the standard error is added to and subtracted from the estimate of CEB, 0.691 ± 2* 0.054. Thus, there is a 95 percent probability that the true value of CEB lies between 0.583 and 0.800. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Table: Sampling errors for all women aged 15-49 years, Botswana, 2000 . 1111~ II women 1 . Proportion who attended school 0.897 0.057 370,005 0.064 0.783 2. Pro ortion who have ever been pregnant 0.691 0.054 370,005 0.0791 0.583 3. Proportion currently using contraceptives 0.423 0.038 370,005 0.090 0.347 . Mean age at first pregnancy 19.3 0.009 255,830 0.0005 19;282 5. Mean age at first birth 0.009 252,782 0.0005 19.682 6. Mean number of children ever born (CEB) 0.004 370,005 0.002 1.960 Birth during the past twelve months 1. Proportion of mothers who had tetanus injection 0.096 0.011 370,005 0.112 0.075 2. Proportion who attended antenatal care 0.104 0.011 370,005 0.104 0.082 HIVIAIDS knowledge 1. Proportion who heard about HIV/AIDS 0.949 0.031 370,005 0.032 0.887 2. Proportion who would have one partner to avoid 0.733 0.022 370,005 0.030 0.689 HIV/AIDS 3. Proportion who would use condom every time 0.747 0.042 370,005 0.056 0.662 . Proportion who would abstain 0.784 0.063 370,005 0.081 0.657 HIVIAIDS transmission ' 1. Proportion who know mother-to-child transmission 0.801 0.046 370,005 0.058 0.709 2. Proportion who sa during pregnancy 0.762 0.050 370,005 0.066 0.661 3. Proportion who say at delivery 0.638 0.037 370,005 0.058 0.564 . PrOROrtion who say at breast feeding 0.696 0.046 370,005 0.066 0.604 Children 1-59 months 1. Proportion registered 0.575 0.038 185,522 0.067 0.499 2. Proportion breastfed 0.912 0.026 185,522 0.028 0.861 3. PrOJ:>Ortion who had diarrhoea (past 24 hours) 0.062 0.014 185,522 0.226 0.034 . Proportion who had diarrhoea (past 2 weeks 0.065 0.006 185,522 0.100 0.052 5. Proportion who had cough (past 2 weeks) 0.383 0.038 185,522 0.098 0.308 6. Proportion who had other illness past 2 weeks) 0.123 0.009 185,522 0.071 0.106 7. Proportion with health cards 0.851 0.032 185,522 0.038 0.786 Children 12-23 months 1. Proportion immunized - BCG 0.834 0.040 185,522 0.048 0.753 0.914 2. Proportion immunized - DPT1 0.793 0.033 185,522 0.042 0.726 0.859 3. Proportion immunized - Polio1 0.783 0.038 185,522 0.048 0.708 0.859 . Proportion immunized - HB1 0.817 0.041 185,522 0.051 0.734 0.89 5. Proportion immunized - Measles 0.623 0.022 185,522 0.035 0.579 0.666 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Appendix C: Sample Design SAMPLING METHODOLOGY FOR BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY (MIS) 2000 1 The Frame • Stratum 6 (Urban Villages) is a derived stratum ofblocks of Urban Villages of rural I strata/districts (7-15). The frame for the Multiple Indicators Survey (MIS) 2000 consists of2,438 enumeration areas (EAs )/Blocks. This is after removing 10 blocks from the original frame that contains 2,448 blocks, being the total number of enumeration areas delineated during the 1991 Population and Housing Census. The reasons for removing the blocks were empty blocks, Botswana Defense Force (BDF) barracks, Railways tin huts etc. • **Urban Villages: These are villages each with a 1991 population of at least 5000 and at least 75 percent ofthe workforce engaged in non-agricultural economic activities. • There are 19 urban villages viz. 1. Kanye, 2. Moshupa (Southern); 3. Ramotswa, 4. Tlokweng (South-East) ; 5. Molepolole, 6. Thamaga, 7. Gabane, 8. Mogoditshane (Kweneng); 9. Mochudi (Kgatleng); 10. Mahalapye, 11. Palapye, 12. Serowe, 13. Letlhakane, 14. Bobonong, 15. Tonota, 16. Tutume (Central); 17. Maun, 18. Kasane (North-West orNgamiland), and 19. Ghanzi (Ghanzi) belongs to respective rural district as mentioned in brackets. 94 4 Lobatse 43 5 Small Towns* 43 Urban Villages** 6 Urban Villages 523 Rural District 7 Southern 197 8 South East 26 9 Kweneng 185 10 Kgatleng 65 11 Central 571 12 North East 79 13 North West 147 14 Ghanzi 38 15 Kgalagadi 54 Total 2438 *Jwaneng, Orapa, and Sowa BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 2 Sample Size, Number of PSUs (Blocks) and Block Sizes (Households) The sample size calculation for measuring the Mid Decade Goals was determined on the basis of basic assumptions regarding design effect, household size etc. The number of households for this study was determined approximately 7000. The details of the calculation can be seen in ANNEXURE-I. 2.1 Number and Allocation of Blocks While, in general, the more PSUs (Blocks) the better, but the decision on the total number of blocks in the sample was taken on the basis of cost, personnel and vehicle resources available , as well as the previous experience in listing of blocks. It was estimated that one enumerator lists an average of about seven (7) blocks in a month. There were 10 enumerators for the MIS listing exercise. Thus in the three (3) months period of listing of households, 210 (1 Ox7x3) blocks are expected to be completed. This makes about 9% of the total blocks in frame. The allocation of 210 blocks to 14 strata was carried out using proportional allocation according to MOS (size being number of households in 1991 Population and Housing Census) as shown in ANNESURE-II 2.2 Block Size The number of households selected in a block was determined as proportion to the total number oflisted households in that block. (see ANNEX-II) 3 Sample Design A stratified two-stage probability sample design is utilised for the selection of the sample. The first stage is the selection of blocks as Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) selected with probability proportional to measures of size (PPS), where measures of size (MOS) are the number ofhouseholds/dwellings in the block as defined by the 1991 Population and Housing Census. In all 215 blocks were selected with probability proportional to size. At the second stage of sampling, the households were systematically selected from fresh list of occupied households prepared at the beginning of the survey's fieldwork (i.e. listing of households for the selected blocks). Overall 7001 households were drawn systematically. The sample is not self-weighting because it was stratified by districts. 4 Weighting There are three components to the weighting: • From Block/EA to Stratum Level First stage weights account for the varying probability of selection. That is they are proportional to the inverse of the size measure. • From Household Level to Block Level This is a simple weight obtained by dividing the block listed total business households by the number of selected business households in that block. • A Non-Response Adjustment For MIS no substitution was allowed for non-response and household questionnaire had to be returned for all households, responding or non-responding. The response code was entered on the computer records. BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 The results are: 88.3 2 Household present but no respondent at home (Non Contact) 7.0 3 Postponed 4 Refused 5 Partly completed 6 Dwelling Vacant 7 Dwelling out of scope 8 Other Total Only non-contact and refusals are taken as non- response. The other sample loss is effectively taken as zero i .e. no one lived in these households. The non-response rate is made at the block level. The adjustment is equal to the 0.0 0.3 0.2 3.6 0.4 0.2 100.0 presumed total households in the block (codes 1 +2+4+5) divided by the presumed valid response in that block (codes 1 +5). In effect, non-contacts and refusals are given the characteristics of average valid respondents in the block. ,,, . ~ r Annex I Sample Size Calculations For Measuring Mid Decade Goals (Mdgs) DPT3 coverage -Measles coverage . -- 12-23 mo II OPV3 coverage - - -----~ . - . !I 12-23 mo - - ~ ~ • .: . -=:. ·~:. .:. :::;; II . BCG coverage 12-23 mo =--=--=---=~-:. - -=- =--;;--= . '--- - TI2 coverage (pregnancy) 0-11 mo . : =-::: -:-.-:.:!::.::: :.: --= ="'-=-= :"' -.": Vitamin A coverage 0-23 mo , . . - -:: - ,. Iodized salt consumption Households !l Use of ORT (1) in diarrhea Diar <5 yr Use of ORT (2) in diarrhea Diar <5 yr Percent low weight/age All< 5 yr ~ - . -· -12.4 School enrolment - -· 5-9 yr - = -= . ::.:::;:"' ~ .=- ·---=- - 13.1 Safe water . -- . - - - - Population I _ . _ .::.=--:-. ---· -13.2 Sanitation . - - Population -· I Required number of households = 1.1 to 12.4 is taken as 2, while for aoals 13.1 and 13.2 it is 10. 0.32 0.5, 0.8, 0.12·, -- - - --0.3 I - --0.1 0.4 0.5 0.4 -0.63 -·-· 0.6 - 0.16 . Formula for required target sample n = 4*p*(1-p)*deff/e"2 0.05 696 0.05 800 0.05 512 0.05 338 - -0.05 672 -· - . 0.05 288 0.05 768 0.05 800 0.05 768 0.05 746 -0.05 3840 - -. 0.05 2150 -. - - ---- . ~ . - -· -OM " - . - -· ·-- . 6568 (JJ 0 -I (JJ ~ z )> s: c ~ -u r m z 0 0 ~ 0 ;;o (JJ c ;;o < m -< N 0 0 0 Annex II Distribution Of Blocks In Frame, Blocks In Sample, Households Listed, Households Finally Selected 9.7 ___::.L 9.7 2266 2266 489 - 489. 489 ~· -·- 8.5!1 ___::.[ 8.5 1185:1 --= 1185 254 . - : 254 254 4 'Lgbats!:J _ 43JI ---::< 4.$~, 5 ::::f 5 1t_6 ::::::::l 11.6 1045 - -t 1045 212 - : 212 212 5 &nan Towns*** 43 · - _ 43)' 4 ---:t 4;! 9~3 · - 9.3 910 - -_ 910 183 -· 183 183. Sub-Total 553 553"' _ sa : _ -., 58" 10.5 - 10.5 10922 - 10922 2350 2350 2349 6Southern ·- 67 197 264 - 7. - 1.4 2111 10.4 7.1 8.0 1156 2000 3156 249 377 626 624 7 South-East -- 431' 26 691• 5 , · 5 10·• 11.6'1 19.2 14.5 786 614 1400 170 116 286 286 a Kweneng - 120;1 'i ss 3o~5 12 . 13' • 25 tifo z.o' 8.2 2619 1571 4190 566 315 ._s81 877 9 'Kgatleng --- 38. 65 103 , 4 5· 9 ' f0.5 7.7 8.7 927 634 1561 200 115 315 313 10 Central --- 207 571 11 778·• 18 41 59:~ 8.7 7.2 7.6 2724 5013 7737 588 932 1520 1517 11 North-East · - 79 79 . , 6 6 - 7.6 864 864 158 158 158 12 North-West ~JL 46 14711 187•1 4 12 _ 16 10.0, 8.2 8.6 1093 · 1471 2564 237 268 505 505 13 Ghan.zi -.]1 ~8!1 38 1 4611 _111 5 - 6~, 12.5 13.2 13.0 1941L 630 824 41 119 160 159 14 Kgalagadi _- il 54 54 -ll 5: 5 . - 9.3. ~ - 1075 1075 - 200 200 200 Sub-Total** - _ 523:1 13p2 1885 . st ; 106 157 9,.8.1 7.8· _ 8.3 94_99,, 13872 23371 2051 2600 4651 4639 .Total 1076 r1362 2438' 109 106 215 io:t 7.8 - . 8.8 2042-1 13872 34293 4401 2600 7001 6988 OJ 0 -I (}) ~ z )> s::: c ~ -""0 r m z 0 () ~ 0 ::0 (}) c :g m -< N 0 0 0 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Appendix D: List Of Personnel Involved In The Botswana MIS-2000 MEMBERS OF THE REFERENCE GROUP 1. G. M. Charumbira Government Statistician (Chairman), CSO 2. A. Majelantle Chief Statistician, CSO 3. M. P. Kerekang Principal Statistician, CSO 4. Dr. V. K. Dwivedi Head, Research Unit, CSO 5. E. P. T. Bulayani Head, Computing Services Unit, CSO 6. K. K. Mogotsinyane Head, Surveys Unit, CSO 7. T. Botana Head, Demography Unit, CSO 8. L. Mosele Computing Services Unit, CSO 9. T. Mosiakgabo Surveys Unit, CSO 10. M. Bapindi Demography Unit, CSO 11. M. Segotso UNICEF 12. T. Bishaw UNICEF 13. L. Maribe MCH/FP, FHD 14. G. Mooketsa MCH/FP, FHD 15: T. J. Bandeke Nutrition Unit, FHD 16. K. Tautona Nutrition Unit, FHD 17. Dr. B. Mduma Nutrition Unit, FHD 18. B. S. Tlhomelang Demography Unit, CSO 19. T. Kegontse Demography Unit, CSO " BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Appendix E: Questionnaires BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 Appendix E: Questionnaires CONFIDENTIAL MIS-I If found please se11d ro: REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA Central Statistics Office BOTSWANA M IS SURVEY CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE HOUSEHOLD SURVEYSPROGRA~E Private Bag 0024 Gaborone Household Questionnaire O r neare.H Distrit·t C01m11issioner's Offin! IDENTIFICATION STRATUM NUMBER DISTRICT NAME/CODE VILLAGE NAME LOCALITY NAME ** What is a locality>< than an EA? EA NUMBER PSU/BLOCK NUMBER DWELLING NUMBER HOUSEHOLD NUMBER LINE NUMBER OF HEAD . . . . . . 1'----'---1___,1 LINE NUM. OF RESPONDENT . ·· · · · · · ·· · ~·· · ·~~~ · · · · · · · · · ~ · · ·· · · · · ···· · · I I I ' :VISITS I FINAL VISIT Date INTERVIEWER'S CODE I I I Interviewer's name RESULT CODE c::::::::J RESULTS * TOTAL VISITS c::::::::J Next vi sit: Date Time II '* RESULT CODE: Tota l population I Completed in household I I I 2 Household present, but no respondent at home 3 Postponed? Number of perso11s <5 yrs of age I I I 4 Refused 5 Partly completed (specic ify reasons in comments box) 6 Dwelling not occupied Number of women aged (12-49) I I I 7 Dwel ling destroyed 8 Dwelling not found Other (Specify) Field edited by: (supervisor) Office coded by Keyed by Verified by Name Date I I I BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 I would like to talk to you about the people who usually live in 'o• ' 'with you now, and ony oth" "'-'""'who may not bo mombm l who spool Ia<! nigh! hm, " " SANOVI>ITO'-'> ofyour ~hold,wchas'""'~~"~"' fnn><lo,,.·bos(l<'llllb.ela•ln>glnwilhth"""""'""ldl I'~"'~' 1"'"-- 1:":''"' t"OR THE t•OI.I.OWING QUESTIONS , CIKCI.E Til l-: CODE CORRE.'ii'ONDING TO THt: CORRECT ANSWER I L'SEOFlOOll'lE I Do.:>lhi>l._holJu~ r<XIIl'~ds.tlt fO<(:()Ol:ill$' 1101 I, I ~"'"~' ''' Weakcoloor(7) Sl.ronJ<:<~ooriiS) •rt'"'"'i<OI<Jut()(h) Whoti•lh<J'Iti>LC!p>JS<.Uttof W>terSU)>jllyfO<thl;l>ou>cb<>ld' ll'lpc<!>ndoor• 2SWidptpe"othonl'\oot.ol"~ JSton.Jptpe.,.t.XP"-oolul"apa 6 ~,.,. ,.l"'e' 1 San.Jnw.-(ktoe.b<d) 2 o . m,l111•lnO< J Neo1bboo(~ flu•hMI<1 ~ Ne•p.hbour'• plll>mne S Commun~l flu"' IOikl 6 Comrnunolpol lo1J1"" I'" ,__ ___ _ ;:;. ~:::::. AG£ ~.::.7:··· lfufkkrlyev . . _,,, . . ., l (l<(:tnclty( M•in•) I Ele<tnclly(:\bm>) 2 Elf:~tncny (SoiOf) l.Eie<:IM>Iy (Sol;v) 2 l()l"-;tpa " " " " " " 03 NeJ&hb<>ur'•flu:oht.UCt ) . G. ~ Sem~-<Jol;ocb<d 04l'e1£hl>oor'•po<latml< o1 W<.><>dl('harro. 4.P~n ~ TOI>'nbou$</Duplex ()~ Washaway OSC"""""""III.uh<Oikl S 5.Wood f Flot 06 C"mrtlUJialritlotnne Otlw ~ 6.Car><!le ~ Ser.'W>t>quaner 01 Pa.~lllluo:te<l>Ut"" 7.D.e.,] F P>nof""'rune.~ialbu>klmt OttlcT_fs sh•<~' ~~~tty> ~;,1:,:7/Carm,.,Te.>o NO > I'll IQ Dvn'tb>OW >1'11 H""''"'"'Y''-"-""'"~'<tl><rei.nofti >hvusu>l"""' (£.\,;JudecK nchcn, t<Mkl ,\>athroom.gar• F<· """'-- BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 Iloc! (NAME)'ll l:'lrdr- ~ot nu,.btn natur.olfadxr .,r,.-.,tf!Jiblefur usuoll~h•emttn. lnd:hid llallnc.,.·~o.- (Fm~alu•h<>>pn~l l•i!!nlahtbt~ ud at<'ll-49yunoldl I.Y . au end'-"1 D.,.uynn><"""''uf<lt"ho."'""'I.W hncthcfollo"·'ngh? ""'" WO<bQ$1l.:t<bO Wlll'bnJTclcn - Tclcphonc ( Specil y~ PRIMARY ANDSECO)';'DARY SCI IOOI. ATTEJ>;DANCE [).).,~ ""1 n1<mb<r .,{!In; boo><hold(uouding>i<itQU) wntt,e f•>liV>HDi fnrtran>p<.on • . <•era~endcd \\.,. islhc highest tr•n\lnlot•y t)l>efor qualilic•uonbas 32Bngatk1Ctrurocate ) N" t'~"'""> l' lll 33 Vonriofta!Cerfifkooe 3-!Edu.::. Colle;e<:emlk•"' 3S UBi,cr<II)'C<"rllf'ic~te 4JV.<atio.JDa~ O.rlo.orlu 4l&h:ColkfeDipl<>rm 43Un,<nicyP,plonlll S!Unnr<SnyDtgr.,. 520t~•D<Ii"'" Wh»wutbe.Wj«oof 110inm~? ."'ARITAL STATUTS lJ . cumn:ly mamed ~ 2 Sepc1'•1<d ~ L"''"i "'lmw-. l.albepu~JOdid . s.~ . dodn~ . orlfor <>n<oclffU<profit I Woo~.-d""f'f'odln l'annly llu•ine., <>rfom ily s•in' ~ W"'~ od unpaid omplo)' ., l.Atllt vely (GOTO Pl 9) >«l ing l'url > Nut porwo em~dwtlh ,,SI\Idtnt > Nnl .,., ""~mploy.,., 0. Renrcd ,.Nucp.-r:ood Olh<rs(Spo«:ofy) tGOTO PJ9) • • 7/J() Jgy ~/•una ""''k 4. No iGOTOPll) Wbal l)ptOf,.·orkd><l T~>bopmo;t;t,Wb><"'<<<ll><rnam prudocLK . l,<lii'<C<IDlll'lliC ac11vnynf •rt.,.of . t ·· CONFIDENTIAL BOTSWANA MIS SURVEY Underfive children Questionnaire STRATUM NUMBER DISTRICT NAME/CODE VILLAGE NAME LOCALITY NAME EA NUMBER PSU/BLOCK NUMBER DWELLING NUMBER HOUSEHOLD NUMBER BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 HE PUBLIC OF BOTSWANA CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS PROGRAMME !DENT! FICA TION MIS-2 If found please send w : Central StatiS!ics Office Pri vate Bag 0024 Gaborone Or nearnt Di.flrirt Commissioner's Office LINE NUMBER OF RESPONDE~\ . . INTERVIEWER'S VISITS FINAl VISIT Date INTERVIEWER'S CODE I I I Interviewer's name RESULT CODE c::=J RESULTS * TOTAL VISITS c::=J Next visit: Date number Time ·children aged under five years II I• Result code: <r•~•. I Completed 2 Not completed Field edi ted by supervi sor !Office coded by I Keyed by Verified by Name Date I I I BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 SECTION!· Rt"G!SIRAI!O'S AN!l HREr\,STt' Hil!NG E'NTER BELOW THE NAME, LINE NUMBER ANDAGl:' OF AU CIIJI.J>REN AGED BELOWW f 'I'VE YEARS IJYING IN THIS HOUS£110/JJ. ADlUINISTER ONE CHIWAT A 1'1M£ Line No of child c:::c:J Name, _____ _ DauofBinh 101 Has(:-.imne)beenregis tcred ~ y., No Dotl'tktww 102 Does (Namc) h.a\·eabirthcenific:nc '! y., No Don 'tkflo~<• 103 Why is (Name) nut n:gi>tered? Cm;t too much Musttral•cl tOO f.II 2 >QIOJ I >Q 104 2 >Q J04 9 >Q104 Did not know the birth should he ~gi st ered Late, and did not want to pay fin e Does not know where to register Parent~ do not know bow to regtster Other specify 104 L~ (Name ) anending any orgaui~ed Reception fonn of early childhood education? Playschool Day care centre No Don'tknow 105 Howmanydays did (Namc) attend Number of days D during the 1 ~~~ week (seven day~) 1 106 Has {Name) ever been breastfed '/ )'et No Don'tknow 107 l ~(N:une)st ill being breastfed " y., No Don 't know 108 Since this time yes terday, did (Name Milk receive any of the followmg ? Plain water Swcctcncdwatcrorjuicc Mushy foods Other liquids specify 109 Smcc thts time yesterday. hi!.S } 'l't (Name)becngi>·enanythingto drink fromabottlewithnipllcorteat ? No Don't knoll' 2 >QI09 9 >QJ09 2 >Ql09 9 >Q/09 Line No of chi ld c:::cl Li11e No('fchild=:r=:J Name N~o DauoJBirth ~ Dau of Birth CIIJ YtJ' y., No 2 >QJOJ No 2 >Q/01 Don'tknm•• Dm• 'tk,uw l'ts I >Q I04 y., I >QI04 No 2 >Q i04 No 2 >Ql04 Don'tknow 9 >Q 104 Don'tknow 9 >QJ04 I Cost too much I Cost too much 2 Must travel too far 2 Must travel too far 3 Dtd not know the birth should be regtstct 3 Did not know the birth should be regist 4 Late. and d1d nOt want to pay fine -' Late, and did not want to pay fine 5 Does not know where to register 5 Doe~ n(){ know where to register 6 Parents do not know how to reg1ster 6 Parents do not know how to register Other spectfy Other speci fy Reception Reception Playchool Playchool Day care centre Daycare cemre No No Don't know Don't know Number o f days D Number ofdaysD '" y., No >Q/09 No 2 >Q/()9 Dl)ll'lk/IVW >Q/09 Do11'tknl)w 9 >Q/09 '" y., No >Q/09 No 2 >Ql09 Don'tknow >Q/09 1Jo11'1know 9 >Q /09 Milk Milk Plainwa1er Plain water Swectcnedwatcrorjuicc Sweetened water or juice Mushy food~ Mushy foods 01iterliquidsspccify Other liquids specify y., y_, No No Dn11'rknnw 1Jo11 'lknnw Line No of child c:::c:J Name DottnfRirth y., No 2 >QIOJ i)(!n'tkno•• Yts I >QJQ.l. No 2 >QI04 Don 'tknoM' 9 >QI04 1 Costtoomucb 2 Must travel too far 3 Did not know the hinh should be registered 4 Late, and did not want to pay fine 5 Doesnotkoowwheretoregi.ster 6 Parents do not know how to regi.ster Other specify Receptiou Playchool Day care centre No Don't know Number of days D y., N• >Q/09 IRm 'tklloll' >Q/09 '" No 2 >Q/09 Don 'rkr~ow 9 >Q/09 Milk Plain water Swectcncdwatcrorjuicc Mushy foods Otherliqllidsspecify y,. No Oot~'rkm>"' BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 SECTION'· CA R E Qlo' II I Nt'SS ENTER BEWW THE NAME. UNE NUMBER AND AGE OF AU CHI WREN AGED BEWWW FI VE YEARS LIVI NG IN THI S HOUSEHOW. ADJfiNI STER ONE CJIJWATA TIME 20 1 Has {Name) had diarrhoea in the last24hours ".' 202 Has (Name) had diarrhoea m the last two w~h ? LineNoofehild CD Name _ _ _ __ _ Dalto/ Birth > 0 203 No Don 'tkno t~• '" No 2 >Ql04 Don't know 9 >Q204 Yes No DK 203 During the last episode of diarrhoea Breast milk did (Name) drink any of the followin Soup 204 Has (Name) had severe cough or difficul!orrnpidbreath.inginthe last two weeks? 205 In the last two weeks has (Name) had any otherillnes.~ochealth problem? ••IJ,yts, OOWt ii'OnlWKnoll'! 206 Dllring (Name) illness. did he/she drink much less.aboutthe.sllme ormorethanusual? •• trtueh ftss of whaJ'!' 207 During (Name) illness. did he/she cat much less, about the same ormorethanusual? 208 Dtd you or someone seek adviCe or treatmentfor tbeillnes.~ outside the home ? 209 From where was advice oc tre3tment sought? Shouldn't "other " include OK? ORS Water Other milk Otherliquidsspe~.'ify '" No Don't know Don't know None Much less About the same More than usual Don't know None Much less About the same More than usual Don't know '" No Do, 't k now Ho;pital Health centre Dispensry Qinic HealthfK!SI Village health worker Pri\'atedoctor Phamarcy Trad itional doctor Reb.tive Don'tlutow 2 >301 9 >301 2 >JOJ !I >JOt 10 II Other specify ------ Line No of chi ld o=J Dat~oJBirth ~ '" > 0 203 No Don'tkn11w No >Q204 Don'tknow >Q204 Yes No DK Breast milk Soup ORS Water Othermtlk Otherliqutdsspccify No Don't k now No Dm1'tknow None Mu~hli:ss About the same More than usual Don't know None Much lc~~ About the ~arne 2 >301 9 >301 Morethanusual 4 Don't know No 2 >)01 Don 't k now 9 >301 Hospital Health centre Dispcnsry Clinic Heal th post Villagehealthworker 6 Pt-ivatedoctor Phamarcy Traditional doctor Rel:uive 9 "' II Don'tknow Other spec,fy'----- LineNoofclrild=c=J Name, _____ _ Dattvf Birth CI=r=J >0203 No lhm'tknow No 2 >Q204 Do"'tknow BreaStlllilk Soup ORS Water Other milk Other liquids specify No IJon'tknow No Don'tkrww None Much less About the same 9 >Q204 Yes No DK 2 >301 9 >301 Morcthanusual 4 Don't know None Much less About the same More thanusual 4 Don't know t'es No 2 >301 Don 't /mow 9 >JOI Hospital Health centre Dispensry Clinic Heal!hpost Villagehealthworl::er 6 Private doctor Phamarcy TraditionaldoctOI' Relative Don't know '" II Otherspec.;;;if)'-' ---- LincNoofchild CD Name _____ _ Datto/Birth I >0203 No [J.m 'tkno w '" No 2 >Q204 Don 'tknow 9 >Q204 Yes No DK Brcastmilk Soup ORS Wate r Other mi lk Other liquids specify Y~I No Don 't k now '" No Don 'tknow None Much less ."-bout the same More than usual Don.tknow No~ Much less About the same More than usual Don't know r es No Don 't k now Hospital Health centre Dispensry Clinic Health post Villagehealihworker Private doctor Phamarcy Traditional doctor Relative Don't know 2 >301 !I >301 2 >301 9 >301 Ill II Other specify -------1 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 S ECTION l · IMM! !NISATION ENTER BEWW THE NAME, LINE NUMBER AND AGE Of' ALL CHII.J>REN AGED BEWWW FIVE YEARS LIVING IN TillS IIOUSEHOW. ADM/NJSTERONEC/1/W ATA T/ME LineNoof<:hild CL:J Name, _____ _ 301 lsthf-reanundertivecard for(Name) ? Datt of Birth Ytssttn Yt.J norsun No Dun 'tknow 302 RECORD DA TES OF IMMUNUZATIONS FROM UNDER FIVE CA RD. YES NO DA 2 >QJOS J >QJOS 9 >QJOS MO YR :~~; : ~ f-+-+---1f-1f-+--l ~~~ : ! ~~~~~t~~~~lt~~~~~~ DPT 3 l 2 r ~~ =~~= ~ : ~ f-+-+---1f-1f-+--l ~~:~ ~ : ~ ~~~~~t~~~~Jt~~~~~~ POLJOJ I 2 ~ ~~~~ :~~: ~ : ~ 1-+-+--11-11--+--1 ~:~SLES : ~ f-+-+f-f-1f-+- -l 303 WRITE THE BIRTH WEIGHT Weight (in Kg). . . . . . ===:::J FROM CA RD 304 In addition to the doses shown on YES . . this card, did {Name) m:eive any NO . . other vaccinations including those Don"t know . receivedinimmunisation campaigns'! YES . Line Noof~;hi ld [0 Name, _____ _ Datt of Hirth D=:IJ Yttno/ sun 2 >QJOS No Don 't know 3 >QJ05 9 >Q305 YES NO DA MO YR : ~ f-+1f-f---t~-r--t : ~ ~~~~l~~~~~~~~t~~~ I ' I- : ~ f--+1f-f--t~-r---t : ~ ~~~~Jt~~~~i==~~~~ I ' I- : : 1---1-jf-1---11--t---1 : : f-+jf-f-~f-+---1 Weight(inKg) . ~ YES . . NO . . Don 't know . LineNoofch i ld~ Name _____ _ DaJeofBirth [ITI y,.l Yf's not stt fl 2 >QJOS No Do11 't knm•• 3 >Q305 9 >QJYS YES NO DA MO YR : ~ r-t--lf--f--~~-+---1 : ~ ~~~lt~~~~~~~~t~~ I 2 \- : 2 r-t--lf--f---1~-+---1 : ~ ~~=lt~~~~~~~=i=~ I 2 1- : : l-1--1f--l---l~-+~ : ~ r-t--lf--f--1~-+---1 Weight (m Kg) . c=:=J YES . . NO . . Don't know . YES . . Line No of chi ld CL:J Name _____ _ Datto/Birth l't~ Ytsnotsttn No Don 'tktww YENO OA 2 >Q105 3 >QJOS 9 >Q305 MO : ~ f-+-+---1f-1f--f---1 : ~ f-+-+---1f-1f-- f--1 12 H~~=+=1~=+~ : ~ f-+-+---1-1f--f---1 12 s=~~~s 12 12 :: r-+--tr---1-1f--f---1 ; ~ f-+--trf--jf-f-f--1 Weight (in Kg) .•. . c:====J YES . . NO . . Dun"tknow . YES . 305 Has {Name) ever been gb·en a BCG vaccination ~ NO . YES .•. 2 >307 NO . 2 >307 NO . . 2 >307 NO . 2>307 306 Does (Name) has a BCG so::ar? Ch«.k arm fo r BCG scar 307 Ha.~ (Name) ever been given Don ' t know . Sc:upresent . Scar absent. UnabletOellamine . YES .•.• a vaccination drops in the mouth NO . to protect him/her from polio"? Doo" t know . 308 How old was (Name) whe111he lir.a Just after birth . dose wa~ giVen ? 309 How many tunes ha.~ (Name) been gi,·en these drops? 310 Has(Name)cverbeen giveu Two months. After twornonth.~ . Don "tknow . Numberoft imes c==J Don"t know YES . a vaccination to protect him/her NO . from getting Tetanus, diphtheria Don"t know . and whooping cough ? 3 11 How many times was (Name) given th is vaccinat ion? 312 Has (Name)ever been given YES . Numbcroftimes c==J Don"tl:now avaccinationattheageofnine NO . months or older to protect him/her Don' t k.now . gelling measles? 313 Has(Namc) panicipated inany of the following immunisation. campaign~? Polio campaign in 1996 Measles campaign in 1997 Measles campaign in 1998 No 9 Don't know . Scar present . . Scar absent . . Unable to examine . YES . . 2 >310 NO . . 9 :>310 Doo"t know. Just afterbirth . . Two months . . After two months . Don"t know . 9 Don't know . . Scar present . Scar absent . Unable to examine . 'I'ES . 2 >310 NO. 9 >3 10 Don't know . Just afterbirth . . Two month~ . . After two months . Don't know . . Numberoftimes c===J Don"t know Number oftimes===:J Don"t know YES . . YES . 2 >312 NO . 2 >31 2 NO . 9 >312 Don"t know . 9 >312 Don·! know . Numberoftimcs~ Number oftimcs===:J Don' t know 9 YES . . NO . . Don 't know . Polio campaign in 1996 Measles campaign in 1997 Measles campaign in 1997 No Don"tk.now 9 "YES . . NO . . Don"tk.now . Polio campaign in 1996 Measles campaign in 1997 Mea~les campaign in 1997 No Don"t know . S•:arpresent. . Scar absenc . Unabletoellamine . YES . . 2 >3 10 NO . . 9 :>3 10 Don"t know . Just afterbirth . . Two month.~ . . After two month~ . Don"t lu!ow . Number of times Don'tl:now YES .• 2 :>312 NO. 9 >312 [)Qn"tknow . YE."' . . NO . . Number of times Don't know [)Qn "tknow . Polio campaign in 1996 Measle.~ campairn in 1997 Mc:aslescampaignin1997 No 31 -l WEIG II AND 1\lEASURE Weight in kilograms c==J Weight in kilogram~ c==J Wetghtink.ilograms~ Weight in ki lograms HIEG HT 01-' CHILl) Heightincemimcters ~ Hetghtincentimetersc=J Hetght mcentimetcrsc=J Hetghtineentuneters 2 >310 9 :>310 2 :>312 9>312 BOTSWANA MIS SURVEY RE PUBLIC OF BOTSWANA CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE HOUSEHOLDSURVEYSPROG~ Individual Female Questionnaire Name Date IDENTIFICATION STRATUM NUMBER DISTRICT NAME/CODE VILLAGE NAME LOCALITY NAME EA NUM BER PSU/BLOCK NUM BER DWELLING NUMBER HOUSEHOLD NUMBER LINE NUMBER OF WOMAN Date Interviewer's name RESULTS * Next visit: Date * Result code: Time I Completed 2 Not at home/Not available fo r interview 3 Revisit planned 4 Refused 5 Panly completed (speci fy reasons in comment box) Other (Spec;fy) Field edited by supervisor Office coded by BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 If found fJlease send to: Central Statistics Office Pri vate Bag 0024 Gaborone Or neares1 District Commissioner's Office INTERVIEWER'S CODE RESULT CODE TOTAL VISITS K eyed by Verified by I I I BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 SECTION 2· RESPONDENT'S !IACKGRO!!NDIWomen 12-49) NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP TO 20 1 TIME: Record the starting time of interview on the Female questionnaire Hour . . I I I ln 24 hour dock Minutes . . ! I I 202 ln what month and year were you born? Month . EE Year. . 203 How old are you ? RECONCILE WITH P07 AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS I I I 204 Have you ever attended school ? Yes I No 2 205 Are you currently married ? Yes I No 2 206 Do you know how to register a live birth ? Yes I No 2 SECTION 3· FERTII.ITY NO. I QUESTIONS AND FlL TERS I CODING CA TEGOR!ES !SK I!' TO Now, I would like to ask about all the births you have had during your life time (bear with me if I would be repeating some of the questions) 301 Have you ever been pregnant? Yes . I 302 How old were you when you became pregnant the first time ? Probe for completed yea rs 303 Have you ever given birth to a live child? 303a How old were you when you gave birth to a li ve chi ld for the fi rst time? Probe fo r completed years 304 Do you have any sons or daughters you have given birth to who are now li ving with you? **question can be dropped 305 How many of your own sons live with you now? And how many daugthers of your own live with you now ? £F NONE ENTER '00' 306 Do you have any sons or daughters you ha ve given bi1th to who are now alive but do not live with you now? 307 How many sons of your own do not live with you now? And how many daughters do not live with you now IF NONE ENTER '00' No . 2 ------------- >310 Age in years YES . . NO . . 2 ------------- >308 Age in years YES . . NO . . 2 ------ ------ · >306 SONS LIVING WITH MOTHER ··············EE DAUGHTERS LIVING WITH MOTHER. YES . NO . 2 ------------- '>308 SONS ELSEWHERE. EB DAUGHTERS ELSEWHERE : 308 Have you ever given birth to a boy or a girl who was born alive but later died ? Yes . IF NO, PROBE: Any (other) boy or girl who cried or showed any sign of life but only survived a few hours or days? 309 How many boys that you have g iven binh to have died ? And how many gi rls that you have given bi rth to have di ed ? 3 10 SUM ANSWERS TO 305,307, AND309 AND ENTER TOTAL. IF NO IN 301 ENTER '00 '. 3 1 I LOOK AT 310 : Just to make sure th at I have this right : During your li fe, how many live births in total have you had ? NUMBERSARETHESAME YES D NO CJ Probeand correc1 305 - 3 I 0 IV 3 lla C heck Q310 a nd Q3 11 for n umber of live b irths and circle the cor rect code as necessary No . 2 ------------->3 10 TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS . JL--L--.J TOTAL LIVE BIRTHS ___ =::J At !eat one li ve birth . >401 No li ve birth . . . > SOL JNo. I BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 SECTION 4:HEALTH (TETANUS TOXOID) QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 401 When did you last deliver a live birth? CHECK IF LAST BIRTH OCCURD WITHIN THE LAST 12 MONTHS AND CIRCLE THE CORRECT CODE CODING CATEGORIES )sKIP TO I day . ./month . . ./year. Yes No I -------- >402 2 -- ------ >50 1 402 When you were pregnant with your las! child, were you given any injection (tetanus toxo· Yes . to prevent the child from gening tetanus, lhat is convulsion (stiff jaw and stiff neck.) after birth ? 403 How many doses of tetanus toxoid did you receive during this last pregnancy ? 404 Did you receive any tetanus toxoid injection at any time be fore your last pregnancy ? ( lncluding during a previous pregnancy or between pregnancies) No . 2 -------- >404 UNSURE . ~ -------.:_ >404 Number of doses. L___l DON'T KNOW. 9 Yes. . I No . 2 -----··· >407 1---+--------------------------+=D::O:.:N:.:'T:._KN:.::.:.O::W.:.:.:: . :::· =====-=9 -------· >407 I I 405 How many doses of tetanus toxoid did you receive before your last pregnancy? 406 Considering all the pregnancies you h:~ve had when did you receive the last dose of tetanus toxoid ? 407 Add responses to 403 and 405 to obtain total doses in li fe time. NUMBER . CJ DONTKNOW . . MONTH/YEAR . YEARS ago . DATE not known . Total number of doses D HEALTH IA TENA TAI. CA RE and DEI.IVERY) 408 Did you see anyone for a checkup (antenatal care) on this pregnancy? 409 Whom did you see for a checkup on this pregnancy ? 410 How many times did you go for check up on this pregnancy? 410a Who assisted you with the delivery of your last child ? 411 Was (name) weighed at birth ? 412 How much did (name) weigh ? 413 When you were pregnant wi th you r last child. did you have difficulty with your vission during the day ? 4 14 When you were pregnant with your last child, did you have difficulty with your vission during the night 1 415 PRESENCE OF OTHERS AT THIS POINT I I I I I Yes. . . ! No . . 2 Doctor Nurse/midwife Traditional birth attende1 Traditional doctor Relative/friend Noone Other specify YES 0 to 4 times . ! More than 4 times . . 2 NO YES NO Doctor Nurse/midwife Traditional birth attende1 Traditional doctor Re lative/friend Other specify Yes . 1 >410 No . >413 DONT KNOW . >413 weight in kilograms (card) weight in kilograms (recall) YES NO YES NO CHILDREN UNDER 10 HUSBAND OTHER MALES OTHER FEMALES I I . . . 1 . . 12 . II . . . . 2 Yes No BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 SECTION 5: CONTRACEPTIVE USE NO QUESTIONS AND FILTER~CODING CATEGORIES 501 Are you Pregnant now ? YES . I N0 . 2 DON'T KNOWK. . 9 502 Are you currently doing something or using any method YES . . . . . . .l to avoid getting pregnant ? N0 . 2 503 Which method are you using ? PILL. . . . . . . . 01 IUD . . . . 02 INJECTION . 03 DIAPHRAGM/FOAM/JELLY . 04 FEMALE CONDOM . . 05 MALE CONDOM . . . 06 FEMALE STERILIZATION . 07 MALE STERILIZATION . 08 NORPLANT . 09 TRADITIONAL. . 10 PERIODIC ABSTINENCE. II SKIP TO > 601 > 502 >502 > 601 PROLONGED ABSTINENCE. 12 . > 505 WITHDRAWAL. . . . . . . . . . 13 OTHER ________________ __ **Traditional- specify? (Specify) 504 Is there any other method which you are currently using Yes MALE CONDOM . . . I in addition to the one you mentioned? Yes FEMALE CONDOM . . 2 505 Presence of others during interview lil!lllliililif NO . . . . . . 3 OTHER CHILDREN UNDER 10 HUSBAND OTHER MALES OTHER FEMALES . .4 Yes No 2 2 2 2 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2001 SECTION 6 : HIV I AIDS NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT WHAT YOU KNOW ABOAUT SERIOUS ILLlVESS CA LLED AIDS QUESTIONS AND t"lLTERS 601 Have you ever heard of the HI V virus or an illness called AIDS ? 602 Is there anything a person can do to avoid getting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS? 603 Can a person reduce the chance of getting HIV virus by doing the following? REA D OUT THE UST AND CJRCI~E ' I ' FOR YES AND 2 FOR NO. 604 How did you get information about HJV/AJDS READTIIEUST At Clinic on Radio? on Television ? In the newspaper? At school? AI workplace'! At Kgo!la or Public meetings '.' AI church? On a pamphlet or poster? Anyotherway.s? 605 Ha\"C you ever heard of ways through which HIV/AIDS can be transmiued ? ''"' CODING CATEGOR IES SKIP TO YES. . . ! NO . 2 >END YES . . I NO . 2 >Q604 OK . 9 >Q604 Having one uninfectcd sex partner who has no other sex panncrs Using a condom correctly every time they have sex NotHavingsexalall OTHER (~pccify) _ _____ _ CLIN IC . . RADIO . . TELEVIS ION . . NEWSPAPER . . SCHOOL . WORKPLACE . KGOTLA/PUBLIC MEETING . CHURCH . PAMPHLET/POSTER . OTHER (specify)•------- YES . . NO . . YES NO DK 3 YES NO . . ] . 2 YES . . . I NO . . . . . 2 >6<17 fDo~yo~o~~~t;~,,~<~th=>t~H~IV~/A~I~D~S =ca~<> ~~~"='"='"~';~tt<~d~rr~on~t ~mo=tl="~'t~o='h=ild=?-------------i-----------~D~O~N~~K~NO~W~ . ~~~·=···~·· ~···~···=·=··--~·~·9 __ _,>6<17 60ti Which are the ways through which HJV/AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child'! Rt:AD OUT THE LIST AND CIRCLE 'I ' FOR YES, AND '2' J<'OR NO DURING PREGNANCY . DURING DELIVERY . THROUG H BREAST MILK . OTHER (specify)•------- YES NO OK 9 YES NO OK 607 Do you believe that the chances of 1ransmiUing HI V/ AIDS from one ptrson to another can be increased through the following SUPERNATURAL OR WITCH CRAFT . 9 READ OUT THE LIST AND CIRCLE ' I ' FOR YES, AN D '2' FOR NO 608 Is it possible for a healthy looking person to have the HIV/AIDS virus? 60'1 If a teacher has the HIV/AIDS vi rus but IS not sick. should he or she be allowed to continue teaching in school? biD If you knew that a shopkeeper or food seller has AJDS or HIV VIruS, would you buy food from him or her '! 6 11 Have you ever been tested for HIV/AIDS ? 6 12 Do you know of a place where you ean go to get a test for HIV/AIDS '! 613 PRESENCE OF OTHERS AT THIS POINT. MOSQUITO BITES . S l·IARING UTENSILS SHAKING HANDS (assuming uninfected person has no wounds or cuts on sku SHARING TOILETS (assuming umnfectcd person has no wounds or cuts on sk OTIIER (spccify), ______ _ CH ILDREN UNDER 10 . HUSBAND . OTHER MALES . . OTHER FEMALES . YES . No . DON'T KNOW . . . 1 . . 2 . . . 9 YES . . . ! No . . . 2 DON'T KNOW . . . 9 YES . . . . . ! NO. . . 2 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 9 YES NO DON"T K.i'lOW . 9 YES . . . ! N0 . . . . . . . . 2 DON'TKNOW . . . 9 YES NO >END BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 "The declaration I am going sign today is testimony to our consensus on the diagnosis of the situation. The Plan of Action reflects the measures we wish to adopt. What children expect of us is that we fulfil those those commitments, and that we have the civic commitment to fulfil them on time . " His Excellency the President, Sir Ketumile Masire on signing the Declara-. tionfor Children, on 29 May 1992 BOTSWANA MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY 2000 Goals set by World Summit for Children 1. Between 1990 and the year 2000, reduction of infant and under-five child mortality rate by one third or to 50 and 70 per I 000 live births respectively, whichever. 2. Between 1990 and the year 2000, reduction of maternal mortality rate by half 3. Between 1990 and the year 2000, reduction of severe and moderate malnutrition among under-five children by half 4. Universal access to safe drinking water 5. Universal access to sanitary means of excreta disposal 6. Universal access to basic education, and achievement of primary education by at least 80 percent of primary school- age through formal schooling or non-formal education of comparable learning standard, with emphasis on reducing the current disparities between boys and girls 7. Reduction of the adult illiteracy rate (the appropriate age to be determined in each country) to at least its 1990 level, with emphasis on female literacy 8. Provide improved protection of children in especially difficult circumstance and tackle the root causes leading to such situations. 9. Special attention to the health and nutrition of the female child and to pregnant and lactating woman 10. Access by all couples to inforn1ation and services to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late or too many 11. Access by all pregnant women to pre-natal care, trained attendants during childbirth and referral facilities for high-risk pregnancies and obstetric emergencies. 12. Reduction of low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg) rate to less than I 0 per cent 13. Reduction of iron deficiency anaemia in women by one third of the 1990 levels 14. Virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders 15. Virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness 16. Empowerment of all women to breast-feed their children exclusively for four to six months and to continue breast- feeding, with complementary food, well into the second year 17. Growth promotion and regular monitoring to be institutionalized in all countries by the end of the year 18. Dissemination of knowledge and supporting services to increase food production to ensure household food security 19. Global eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000 20. Elimination of neonatal tetanus by 1995 21. Reduction by 95 per cent in measles deaths and reduction by 90 per cent of measles cases compared to pre-immunization levels by 1990, as a major step to the global eradication of measles in the longer run 22. Maintenance of high level of immunization coverage (at least 90 per cent of children under one year of age by the year 2000) against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, measles, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and against tetanus for women of child bearing age 23. Reduction by 50 per cent in the deaths due to diarrhoea in children under the age of five and 25 per cent reduction in the diarrhoea incident rate 24. Reduction by one third in the deaths due to acute respiratory infections in children under five years 25. Elimination of guinea-wonn disease (dracunculiasis) by the year 2000 26. Expansion of the early childhood development activities, including appropriate low-cost family- and community- based intervention 27. Increased acquisition by individuals and families of knowledge, skills and values, required for better living made available through all educational channels, including mass media, other forms of modern and traditional communication and social action, with effectiveness measured in terms of behavioural change.

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