Azerbaijan - Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2000

Publication date: 2000

Azerbaijan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2000 December 2000 Baku 2 Contents CONTENTS. 2 LIST OF FIGURES . 3 LIST OF TABLES . 4 FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. 7 SUMMARY INDICATORS .11 I. INTRODUCTION .13 BACKGROUND OF THE SURVEY.13 AZERBAIJAN: THE SETTING.13 SURVEY OBJECTIVES .15 II. SURVEY METHODOLOGY.16 SAMPLE DESIGN.16 QUESTIONNAIRES.16 FIELDWORK AND DATA PROCESSING.17 III. SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS AND DATA QUALITY .18 RESPONSE RATES.18 AGE DISTRIBUTION AND MISSING DATA.18 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION.18 IV. RESULTS .21 A. INFANT AND UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY.21 B. MATERNAL MORTALITY.22 C. EDUCATION .22 D. WATER AND SANITATION.24 E. CHILD MALNUTRITION.25 F. CHILD HEALTH.27 G. HIV/AIDS.30 H. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH.32 I. CHILD RIGHTS.34 APPENDIX A: SAMPLE DESIGN .88 A.1 SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION.88 A.2 SAMPLE FRAME.88 A.3 SAMPLE SIZE.88 A.4 SAMPLE ALLOCATION AND SAMPLE SELECTION.89 A.5 COVERAGE OF THE SAMPLE.90 A.6 ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS.90 APPENDIX B: LIST OF PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN THE AZERBAIJAN MICS .101 APPENDIX C: QUESTIONNAIRES .104 3 List of Figures FIGURE 1: SINGLE YEAR AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION BY SEX, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 36 FIGURE 2: POPULATION PYRAMID, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 37 FIGURE 3: ESTIMATES OF INFANT AND UNDER FIVE MORTALITY BASED ON INDIRECT ESTIMATION, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 38 FIGURE 4: PREVALENCE OF UNDERWEIGHT, STUNTING AND WASTING BY AGE, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 39 FIGURE 5: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF LIVING CHILDREN BY BREASTFEEDING STATUS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 40 FIGURE 6: PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WHO HAVE SUFFICIENT KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS TRANSMISSION BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 41 FIGURE 7: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN WITH A BIRTH IN THE LAST YEAR BY TYPE OF PERSONNEL DELIVERING ANTENATAL CARE, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 42 4 List of Tables TABLE 1: NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS AND WOMEN, AND RESPONSE RATES, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 43 TABLE 2: PERCENTAGE OF CASES MISSING INFORMATION FOR SELECTED QUESTIONS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 43 TABLE 3: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 44 TABLE 4: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN 15-49 BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 45 TABLE 5: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN UNDER 5 BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 46 TABLE 6: MEAN NUMBER OF CHILDREN EVER BORN AND PROPORTION DEAD BY MOTHER'S AGE, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 47 TABLE 7: INFANT AND UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY RATES (PER 1000), AZERBAIJAN . 47 TABLE 8: INDIRECT ESTIMATION OF MATERNAL MORTALITY, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 49 TABLE 9: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN AGED 36-59 MONTHS WHO ARE ATTENDING SOME FORM OF ORGANISED EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMME, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 50 TABLE 10: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE ATTENDING PRIMARY SCHOOL, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 51 TABLE 11: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN ENTERING FIRST GRADE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL WHO EVENTUALLY REACH GRADE 5, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 52 TABLE 12: PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION AGED 15 YEARS AND OLDER THAT IS LITERATE, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 53 TABLE 13: PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION USING IMPROVED DRINKING WATER SOURCES, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 55 TABLE 14: PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION USING SANITARY MEANS OF EXCRETA DISPOSAL, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 56 TABLE 15: PERCENTAGE OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WHO ARE SEVERELY OR MODERATELY UNDERNOURISHED, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 57 TABLE 16: PERCENT OF LIVING CHILDREN BY BREASTFEEDING STATUS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 58 TABLE 17: PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS CONSUMING ADEQUATELY IODIZED SALT, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 59 TABLE 18: PERCENTAGE OF LIVE BIRTHS IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS THAT WEIGHED BELOW 2500 GRAMS AT BIRTH, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 60 TABLE 19: PERCENTAGE OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS AND TREATMENT WITH ORS OR ORT, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 61 TABLE 20: PERCENTAGE OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS WHO TOOK INCREASED FLUIDS AND CONTINUED TO FEED DURING THE EPISODE, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 62 TABLE 21: PERCENTAGE OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 63 TABLE 22: PERCENTAGE OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS AND TREATMENT BY HEALTH PROVIDERS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 64 TABLE 23: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN 0-59 MONTHS OF AGE REPORTED ILL DURING THE LAST TWO WEEKS WHO RECEIVED INCREASED FLUIDS AND CONTINUED FEEDING, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 65 TABLE 24: PERCENTAGE OF CARETAKERS OF CHILDREN 0-59 MONTHS WHO KNOW AT LEAST 2 SIGNS FOR SEEKING CARE IMMEDIATELY, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 66 5 TABLE 25: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN 0-59 MONTHS OF AGE WHO SLEPT UNDER AN INSECTICIDE-IMPREGNATED BEDNET DURING THE PREVIOUS NIGHT, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 67 TABLE 26: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN 0-59 MONTHS OF AGE WHO WERE ILL WITH FEVER IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS WHO RECEIVED ANTI-MALARIAL DRUGS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 68 TABLE 27: PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WHO KNOW THE MAIN WAYS OF PREVENTING HIV TRANSMISSION, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 70 TABLE 28: PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WHO CORRECTLY IDENTIFY MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT HIV/AIDS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 72 TABLE 29: PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WHO CORRECTLY IDENTIFY MEANS OF HIV TRANSMISSION FROM MOTHER TO CHILD, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 74 TABLE 30: PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WHO EXPRESS A DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDE TOWARDS PEOPLE WITH HIV/AIDS, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 76 TABLE 31: PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WHO HAVE SUFFICIENT KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS TRANSMISSION, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 77 TABLE 32: PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WHO KNOW WHERE TO GET AN AIDS TEST AND WHO HAVE BEEN TESTED, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 78 TABLE 33: PERCENTAGE OF MARRIED OR IN UNION WOMEN AGED 15-49 WHO ARE USING (OR WHOSE PARTNER IS USING) A CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 79 TABLE 34: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WITH A BIRTH IN THE LAST YEAR BY TYPE OF PERSONNEL DELIVERING ANTENATAL CARE, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 81 TABLE 35: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN AGED 15-49 WITH A BIRTH IN THE LAST YEAR BY TYPE OF PERSONNEL ASSISTING AT DELIVERY, AZERBAIJAN, 2000 . 83 TABLE 36: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN AGED 0-59 MONTHS BY WHETHER BIRTH IS REGISTERED AND REASONS FOR NON-REGISTRATION, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 84 TABLE 37: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN 0-14 YEARS OF AGE IN HOUSEHOLDS NOT LIVING WITH A BIOLOGICAL PARENT, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 86 TABLE 38: PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN 5-14 YEARS OF AGE WHO ARE CURRENTLY WORKING, AZERBAIJAN, 2000. 87 6 Foreword and Acknowledgements 7 Executive Summary The 2000 Azerbaijan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative survey of households, women, and children. The main objectives of the survey are to provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Azerbaijan at the end of the decade and to furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and as a basis for future action. Infant and Under Five Mortality v The infant mortality rate was 79 per 1000 and the under five mortality rate was 102 per 1000 around 1996, according to the indirect estimates from the MICS. Sex differentials are within expected limits, while household wealth and mother’s education have strong negative correlations with children’s survival chances. Maternal Mortality v The maternal mortality ratio, defined as the number of deaths of women from pregnancy- related causes, is indirectly estimated as 79 per 100,000 for 1988. Education v Eighty eight percent of children of primary school age in Azerbaijan are attending primary school. MICS results suggest that the percentage is lower than expected due to different ages at which children are entering primary school. School attendance in the West & Southwest and the South is significantly lower than in the rest of the country at around 85 percent. At the national level, there is virtually no difference between male and female primary school attendance. v Ninety-nine percent of children who enter the first grade of primary school eventually reach grade five. v The vast majority (95 percent) of the population over age 15 years is literate. The percentage literate declines from over 98 percent among those aged 15-44 to 74 percent among the population aged 65 and older. Female literacy is five percentage points below that of males. Water and Sanitation v Seventy-six percent of the population has access to safe drinking water – 93 percent in urban areas and 58 percent in rural areas. v Eighty-one percent of the population of Azerbaijan is living in households with sanitary means of excreta disposal. Regional differences are striking: the percentage ranges from 68 percent in the Center & North to 99 percent in the Baku area. Child Malnutrition v Seventeen percent of children under age five in Azerbaijan are underweight or too thin for their age. Twenty percent of children are stunted or too short for their age and eight percent are wasted or too thin for their height. v Children whose mothers have at least college-vocational school education are the least likely to be underweight and stunted compared to children of mothers with less education. There are significant regional disparities: More than 12 percent of under-5 children in Nakhcivan and the West & Southwest are severely stunted, compared to a national average of 7 percent. 8 Breastfeeding v Approximately 9 percent of children aged 0-3 months are exclusively breastfed, a level considerably lower than recommended. At age 6-9 months, 39 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By age 20-23 months, only 16 percent are continuing to breastfeed. Salt Iodisation v Forty-one percent of households have adequately iodized salt. The percentage of households with adequately iodized salt is lowest in Nakhcivan with 10 percent. Low Birth weight v Approximately 10 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth. Diarrhea v Twenty-two percent of children under five had diarrhea in the last two weeks. Of these children, 92 percent received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). v Only 27 percent of children with diarrhea received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended. Acute Respiratory Infection v Three percent of under-five children had an acute respiratory infection in the two weeks prior to the survey. Approximately 36 percent of these children were taken to an appropriate health provider. IMCI Initiative v Among under-five children who were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the MICS, 28 percent received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMCI programme. v Thirty-four percent of mothers know at least two of the signs that a child should be taken immediately to a health facility. Malaria v Twelve percent of under-five children slept under a bednet the night prior to the survey interview. However, only about eleven percent of the bednets used are impregnated with insecticide. v Approximately 34 percent of children with a fever in the two weeks prior to the MICS interview were given Paracetamol to treat the fever, while less than one percent were given Primachin. A relatively large percentage of children (25 percent) were given some other medicine. HIV/AIDS v Seventy-two percent of women aged 15-49 have heard of AIDS. Only nine percent of women aged 15-49 know all three of the main ways to prevent HIV transmission – having only one uninfected sex partner, using a condom every time, and abstaining from sex. v Only five percent of women correctly identified all three misconceptions about HIV transmission – that HIV can be transmitted through supernatural means, that it can be transmitted through mosquito bites, and that a healthy looking person cannot be infected. 9 v Forty-eight percent of women know that AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child. Thirty-eight percent know all three ways of mother to child transmission – during pregnancy, at delivery, and through breastmilk. v Thirteen percent of women of reproductive age in Azerbaijan know a place to get tested for AIDS and about 7 percent have been tested. v Only 2 percent of women can be considered to have sufficient knowledge of HIV transmission. Contraception v Current use of contraception was reported by 55 percent of married or in union women. The most popular method is withdrawal, which is used by almost a third of all women, followed by IUD, which accounts for 9 percent of married women. Prenatal Care v Seventy-two percent of women receive some type of prenatal care and 69 percent receive antenatal care from skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife). Assistance at Delivery v A doctor, nurse, or midwife delivered about 88 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MICS survey. Birth Registration v The births of 97 percent of children under five years in Azerbaijan have been registered. There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex, region or education categories. However, there is indication that some children are registered rather late, since the proportion registered increases considerably by age. Orphanhood and Living Arrangements of Children v Overall, 93 percent of children aged 0-14 are living with both parents. Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise 1 percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to 3 percent of all children aged 0-14. Child Labor v Only 0.3 percent of children aged 5-14 years engage in paid work. About 5 percent participate in unpaid work for someone other than a household member. v More than half of children engage in domestic tasks, such as cooking, fetching water, and caring for other children, for less than four hours a days while 5 percent spend more than four hours a day on such tasks. 11 Summary Indicators World Summit for Children Indicators Under-five mortality rate Probability of dying before reaching age five 102 per 1000 Infant mortality rate Probability of dying before reaching age one 79 per 1000 Underweight prevalence Proportion of under-fives who are too thin for their age 16.8 percent Stunting prevalence Proportion of under-fives who are too short for their age 19.6 percent Wasting prevalence Proportion of under fives who are too thin for their height 7.9 percent Use of safe drinking water Proportion of population who use a safe drinking water source 76.3 percent Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal Proportion of population who use a sanitary means of excreta disposal 80.8 percent Children reaching grade five Proportion of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade five 98.6 percent Net primary school attendance rate Proportion of children of primary school age attending primary school 88.4 percent Literacy rate Proportion of population aged 15+ years who are able to read a letter or newspaper 95.0 percent Antenatal care Proportion of women aged 15-49 attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled personnel 68.7 percent Contraceptive prevalence Proportion of married women aged 15-49 who are using a contraceptive method 55.1 percent Childbirth care Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel 87.5 percent Birth weight below 2.5 kg. Proportion of live births that weigh below 2500 grams 9.5 percent Iodized salt consumption Proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt 41.3 percent Exclusive breastfeeding rate Proportion of infants aged less than 4 months who are exclusively breastfed 9.4 percent Timely complementary feeding rate Proportion of infants aged 6-9 months who are receiving breast milk and complementary food 39.0 percent Continued breastfeeding rate Proportion of children aged 12-15 months and 20-23 months who are breastfeeding 38.3 percent (12-15) 15.6 percent (20-23) ORT use Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks who were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution 92.6 percent Home management of diarrhea Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks and received increased fluids and continued feeding during the episode 26.5 percent Care seeking for acute respiratory infections Proportion of under-five children who had ARI in the last 2 weeks and were taken to an appropriate health provider 35.6 percent Preschool development Proportion of children aged 36-59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education program 11.4 percent Indicators for Monitoring Children’s Rights Birth registration Proportion of under-five children whose births are reported registered 96.8 percent Children’s living arrangements Proportion of children aged 0-14 years in households not living with a biological parent 1.0 percent Orphans in household Proportion of children aged 0-14 years who are orphans living in households 0.2 percent (both parents) 3.2 percent (one parent) Child labor Proportion of children aged 5-14 years who are currently working 13.0 percent 12 Indicators for Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Home management of illness Proportion of under-five children reported ill during the last 2 weeks who received increased fluids and continued feeding 27.8 percent Care seeking knowledge Proportion of caretakers of under-five children who know at least 2 signs for seeking care immediately 34.0 percent Bednets Proportion of under-five children who sleep under an insecticide impregnated bednet 11.2 percent Malaria treatment Proportion of under five children who were ill with fever in the last 2 weeks who received anti-malarial drugs 0.8 percent Indicators for Monitoring HIV/AIDS Knowledge of preventing HIV/AIDS Proportion of women who correctly state the 3 main ways of avoiding HIV infection 9.2 percent Knowledge of misconceptions of HIV/AIDS Proportion of women who correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV/AIDS 5.0 percent Knowledge of mother to child transmission Proportion of women who correctly identify means of transmission of HIV from mother to child 38.1 percent Attitude to people with HIV//AIDS Proportion of women expressing a discriminatory attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS 8.7 percent Women who know where to be tested for HIV Proportion of women who know where to get a HIV test 13.3 percent Women who have been tested for HIV Proportion of women who have been tested for HIV 6.8 percent 13 I. Introduction Background of the Survey At the World Summit for Children (WSC) held in New York in 1990, 71 Heads of State and Government and 88 senior officials from countries around the world pledged themselves to a Declaration and Plan of Action for Children. Subsequently, National Programs of Action for Children were developed and implemented in countries, now encompassing 9 out of every 10 of the world’s children. Azerbaijan National Assembly ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1992. A law on the Rights of the Child came into effect in 1998, further defining the rights of children, the obligations of state agencies and issues of implementation. The WSC Plan of Action had also called for the establishment of mechanisms for monitoring progress toward the goals and objectives set for the year 2000. Toward this end, UNICEF, in coordination with other international organizations, has developed a core set of 75 indicators on specific aspects of the situation of children. As a signatory state to the CRC, and as a result of her commitment to the improvement of her children’s rights, Azerbaijan joined other signatory states in the year 2000 to undertake a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). MICS is designed as a tool for monitoring progress made at end-decade in regard to many of the indicators. Information on other indicators will be derived from the vital registration system and from various disease- monitoring systems. The Azerbaijan MICS was conducted by the State Statistics Committee. Funding was provided by the Azerbaijan UNICEF office. The overall coordination of the end-decade review, including MICS as its component part, was performed by the Steering Committee established under the auspices of the Cabinet of Ministries, following a request from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Steering Committee comprised representatives of 5 sectoral ministries, including the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population, the Ministry of Youth and Sport, and the State Statistics Committee. A Deputy Head of Department from the Cabinet of Ministries chaired the Committee. This report presents results on the principal topics covered in the survey and on the World Summit indicators. Azerbaijan: The Setting Azerbaijan lies on the southeastern slopes of the Caucasian Mountains and on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. Neighboring Azerbaijan are Russian Federation and Georgia in the north, Armenia and Turkey in the west, and Iran in the south. Azerbaijan covers an area of 86,000 square kilometers, of which 20 percent are currently under the occupation of Armenia. Azerbaijan has a population of 7.9 million, with an average population density of 91 persons per square kilometer. Baku, the capital, is the largest city in the country, with approximately 1.7 inhabitants. More than 80 percent of the population are Azerbaijanis. Russians and Armenians each constitute 6 percent of the population. Other distinct ethnic groups include 14 Lezghis, Avars, Ukranians, Tatars, Jews, Turks and Georgians. The absolute majority of the population is Muslims. Azerbaijan was part of the Soviet Union for nearly 70 years. Independence was formally restored on 18 October 1991. Since the restoration of independence, the domestic political agenda has been dominated by the conflict over Nagorno Karabakh, an autonomous oblast with the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic before the collapse of the Soviet Union, with a mixed population of Azerbaijanis and Armenians. Upon the demand by the Armenians of the oblast for unification with Armenia, the conflict that erupted resulted in the exodus of the Azerbaijani population of Nagorno Karabakh. Armenia occupied Nagorno Karabakh and seven other districts, fully or partially. As of January 1999, 788,000 refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) were living in Azerbaijan, constituting almost 10 percent of the de facto population of the country. Azerbaijan’s demographic situation is today characterized by low rates of population growth and replacement level fertility. The annual population growth rate declined from 1.7 percent in 1985 to 0.4 percent in 1997. During the same period, the total fertility rate declined from 2.9 births per woman to 2.1, while the crude birth rate declined from 27 per thousand to 17 per thousand. Between 1980 and 1997, the life expectancy at birth increased from 64.2 years for males and 71.8 years for females, to 67.4 years for males and 74.6 years for females. In the late 1980s, Azerbaijan was receiving net migration. Beginning from the early 1990s, migration flows reversed direction. Azerbaijan is now facing net emigration rates in the order of 7 per thousand. Azerbaijan is a unitary state in which all the powers are vested with the central government. The executive branch of the government is headed by the President, who has a wide range of powers, including the appointment and dismissal of the cabinet of ministers and heads of local executive branches. The National Assembly, which constitutes the legislative branch of the state, consists of 125 deputies, elected with a mixed majority and proportional system. The executive branch of the government is not accountable for its activities to the National Assembly, and the President can veto its decisions. However, the state budget is subject to the approval of the National Assembly. City courts, regional courts, the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court form the judiciary. Under the existing system inherited from the Soviet era, the basic units of administrative- territorial division are districts (rayons), and cities subordinate to the Republic. Azerbaijan has 74 districts, of which 7 are fully or partly occupied by Armenia, and 11 cities subordinate to the Republic. Azerbaijan has a predominantly non-agrarian economy, dominated by industry, followed by agriculture and construction. Industrial production is in turn dominated by fuel industry, followed by manufacturing industry. Recent years have witnessed a gradual shift from a predominantly state controlled economy to a market controlled economy. The share of GDP emanating from the private sector rose from 32 percent in 1995 to 46 percent in 1997. Azerbaijan has faced serious economic problems during the last decade. The GDP declined annually by 20 percent from 1992 to 1995. The inflation rate rose to 1664 percent in 1994. A quarter of the labor force was unemployed in 1995. Tight fiscal and credit policies were introduced in the mid-1990s, and the economic situation has gradually improved during the last few years. The inflation rate fell to 4 percent in 1997, and per capita income increased 15 from 323 USD in 1995 to 500 USD in 1997. However, the absolute majority of the population is still poor, with low levels of income, poor diet and poor living conditions. Survey Objectives The 2000 Azerbaijan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives: · To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Azerbaijan at the end of the decade and for looking forward to the next decade. · To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and a basis for future action. · To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Azerbaijan and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems. 16 II. Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the Azerbaijan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was designed as a self-weighted sample to provide estimates of World Summit indicators at the national level and for urban and rural areas. The enumeration areas and the households from the Population Census of 1999 formed the sample frame. An enumeration area comprised about 507 persons on the average. It was thus possible to use enumeration areas directly as primary sampling units (PSUs) for first stage selection. The total sample size for the Azerbaijan MICS was calculated as 6112 households. The average cluster size was determined as 24 households and 254 clusters were selected. The sample was selected in two stages. At the first stage, the 254 clusters were distributed to three domains (the Baku area, other urban areas and rural areas) proportionately according to their size. The enumeration areas in each of the three domains were geographically sorted using the nine zones designated during the Soviet era but still in use in the country, albeit in a more limited fashion. Enumeration areas were selected with probability proportional to size, separately from the three domains. The household lists were updated in each selected enumeration area by using several computerized lists originating from the census, as well as the actual household questionnaires from the census, for the primary reason of including IDP/refugee households in the sample. During the second selection stage, households were systematically selected using a fixed sampling interval. A total of 6166 households were selected. The difference between the number of households selected and the target number of households is attributed to rounding during the selection procedures and the presence of multiple households in the selected households. Full technical details of the MICS sample are included in Appendix A. Questionnaires The questionnaires for the Azerbaijan MICS were based on the MICS Model Questionnaire with some modifications, additions, and deletions. A household questionnaire was administered in each household, which collected information on household members including sex, age, literacy, marital status, and orphanhood status. The household questionnaire also includes education, child labor, water and sanitation, maternal mortality, and salt iodisation modules, as well as several questions on household amenities. In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49 and children under age five. For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother or caretaker of the child. The questionnaire for women contains the following modules: · Child mortality · Maternal and newborn health · Contraceptive use · HIV/AIDS The questionnaire for children under age five includes modules on: · Birth registration and early learning · Breastfeeding · Care of Illness · Malaria 17 · Immunization · Anthropometry From the MICS model English version, the questionnaires were translated into two languages: Azeri and Russian. The questionnaires were pre-tested during June 2000. Based on the results of the pretest, modifications were made to the wording and codes of questions. Fieldwork and Data Processing The field staff was trained in two stages. During 7 days in June 2000 a group of 17 interviewers were trained, to take part as interviewers in the pretest and to participate in the main training and fieldwork as trainers, regional coordinators, supervisors and editors. The main training was carried out in July during a six day long training session. A total of 67 individuals were trained during the main training session, and a two-day pilot study was conducted upon the completion of training. In the main fieldwork, ten teams collected the data. Each team comprised three interviewers, one editor, one supervisor and one driver. Two regional coordinators provided constant monitoring of the fieldwork. The MICS Coordinator provided overall supervision. The fieldwork began on 1 August 2000 and concluded on 29 August 2000. Data were entered on fifteen microcomputers using the ISSA software. Appropriate changes to the initial software were made in accordance with the modifications in the Azerbaijan MICS questionnaire. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under MICS and adapted to the Azerbaijan questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began on 7 August 2000 and finished on 20 September 2000. 18 III. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality Response Rates Of the 6166 households selected for the Azerbaijan MICS sample, 6044 were found to be occupied (Table 1). Of these, 5861 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 97 percent. The response rate was similar in urban and rural areas. In the interviewed households, 7488 eligible women aged 15-49 were identified. Of these, 6959 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 93 percent. In addition, 2004 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Of these, questionnaires were completed for 1875 children for a response rate of 94 percent. Age Distribution and Missing Data As shown in Figure 1, the single year age distribution of household members by sex exhibits distortions of various types. There appears to be considerable digit preference, more pronounced for women, for ages ending in 0 and 5. Age heaping becomes more evident with increasing age, most notably for women at ages 50 and 60. One interesting finding from Figure 1 is the high age-specific sex ratios up to age 15. Sex ratios level off with increasing age, falling below unity (indicating excess of females) at higher ages. The population pyramid in Figure 2 provides further visual evidence on the population dynamics of Azerbaijan as well as demonstrating the effects of past historical events on the age structure. The narrowing of the base of the pyramid is indicative of a recent decline in fertility, and possibly as a result of the dearth of men and women in ages 25 to 35, who are producing low numbers of births. The relatively low numbers of men and women at ages 55- 59 are most probably due to low levels of fertility during the Second World War, which explains the dearth of population in ages 25 to 35, mostly the children of the former group. Another notable pattern is the greater concentration of population at ages 35-45, which seems to have resulted in the birth of relatively large cohorts 10-20 years ago. These large cohorts will be entering the reproductive ages in the next decade, and this will probably result in larger numbers of births, especially if fertility rates do not further decline below today’s replacement levels. As a basic check on the quality of the survey data, the percentage of cases missing information on selected questions is shown in Table 2. Less than one percent of household members have missing information on their level and year of education. Complete birth dates could not be obtained for only one percent of women age 15-49, while the corresponding figure for children under 5 was a mere 0.1 percent. These low levels of missing data suggest that there were not significant problems with the questions or the fieldwork. The data on weight and height are the most likely among the selected information in Table 2 to be missing. Less than five percent of children are missing this information, which may be the result of the child not being present, refusal, or some other reason. By international standards, this percentage is again relatively low. Characteristics of the Household Population Information on the characteristics of the household population and the survey respondents is provided to assist in the interpretation of the survey findings and to serve as a basic check on the sample implementation. 19 Table 3 presents the percent distribution of households in the sample by background characteristics. Azerbaijan is divided into 9 economic zones, designated during the Soviet era. Almost 30 percent of the households are in the Baku area, which includes Baku City and its surroundings, all designated as urban areas. Only 4 percent of the population are in Nakhcivan, while Yevlakh-Ali Bayramli and Quba-Qusar zones each comprise more than 12 percent of households. In the MICS, the current official definitions of urban and rural were adopted, whereby settlements are designated by the National Assembly as urban or rural according to their population size, administrative status and other administrative considerations. About 42 percent of the households (2473 households) are rural and 58 percent of households are of urban origin (3388 households). More than nine percent of the MICS households are headed by IDPs or refugees. This provides some confidence in the representativeness of the MICS sample, since the official figure for the proportion of IDPs and refugees in the population is in the order of 9.9 percent (UNICEF and Republic of Azerbaijan, 1999). A series of questions were asked in the MICS to be used for assessing the wealth status of households. Using information on the ownership of various assets and housing characteristics, and by applying the method of principal components, households were first divided into economic quintiles (Filmer and Pritchett, 1998). The method provides a useful classification of households by long-run wealth, which can be used to examine correlations between economic status and other indicators of interest, such as child health, nutrition, mortality and so on. In the Azerbaijan MICS, information was collected on the following to apply the method: · the main material of dwelling floor, · the number of rooms in the dwelling, · the main source of drinking water, · toilet facility, · availability of electricity, ownership of radio, television, refrigerator, bicycle, motorcycle, car, · the main cooking fuel used. For the analyses, the quintiles were collapsed into three groups during the tabulation stage, as poor, middle and rich, respectively comprising the poorest 20 percent, the middle 60 percent and the richest 20 percent of the households. In urban areas, 35 percent of households are classified as rich, while no households in the rural areas were included in the fifth quintile, i.e. the richest 20 percent. Only 5 percent of urban households are considered as poor, whereas the corresponding figure is 40 percent among rural households. It appears from these findings that economic status correlates very strongly with urban-rural residence. Almost half of the households have 4-5 members. While single-person households comprise only 5 percent of all households, 2-3 and 6-7 person households each comprise about a fifth of Azerbaijan’s households. In rural areas, 6-7 person households are almost a third of all households, while the proportion of 2-3 person households declines to 15 percent. This is a result of considerably smaller households in the urban areas than rural areas, which is also 20 depicted by the almost one-person difference in the average household size between urban and rural areas (4.3 versus 5.1). A quarter of the households has at least one child under age five; at least one woman age 15- 49 was present in eighty seven percent of the households. For two-thirds of households, at least one child age 0-14 was present. Table 4 shows the characteristics of female respondents age 15-49. Women age 15-19 and women age 35–39 comprise higher proportions of the sample at 19 and 17 percent respectively. Women age 25-29 and 45-49 comprise the lowest proportions of all women of reproductive age at 12.5 and 8.9 percent respectively. The latter may be partly attributable to considerable heaping of women’s ages on age 50. Approximately 61 percent of women in the sample are married and two-thirds have ever had a birth. The Azerbaijan population is relatively well educated, evident from the educational distribution of women, and as discussed in the pages that follow. The majority of women have had at least high school education while 1.2 percent had only primary education. Women in urban areas are considerably more educated than women in rural areas. Table 5 shows the characteristics of children under age five. Almost fifty four percent of the children are male and 46 percent are female, yielding a high sex ratio of 1.16, which needs to be further investigated. The sex ratio of children under five is also implied to be relatively high (1.08) in official statistics (UNICEF and Republic of Azerbaijan, 1999). The number of children increases steadily with age of children. Nine percent of children live in IDP/refugee- headed households, and 26 percent live in the poorest 20 percent of households, probably a result of higher fertility among women in lower economic strata. The reverse is also evident, where only 12 percent of children live in the richest 20 percent of households. As with women in general, almost all mothers of children under age 5 have had some form of education. More than 80 percent of mothers have attended at least high school. 21 IV. Results A. Infant and Under-Five Mortality The infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the first birthday. The under-five mortality rate is the probability of dying before the fifth birthday. In MICS, infant and under five mortality rates are calculated based on an indirect estimation technique (the Brass method). The data used in the estimation are: the mean number of children ever born for five year age groups of women from age 15 to 49, and the proportion of these children who are dead, also for five year age groups of women. The technique converts these data into probabilities of dying by taking account of both the mortality risks to which children are exposed and their length of exposure to the risk of dying. The data used for mortality estimation are shown in Table 6. The mean number of children ever born rises from 0.04 among 15-19 year olds to 3.74 among 45-49 year olds as expected. The proportion of children dead increases with age, with the exception of similar proportions for age groups 25-29 and 30-34. An examination of sex ratios at birth reveals that girls may have been underreported slightly in the Azerbaijan MICS. The overall sex ratio of children ever born to women is 1.10, which is higher than the typically expected value of 1.05. The pattern of sex ratios by age is also unexpected, since the most unlikely sex ratios are obtained for children of women in their late 20s and early 30s. These are groups of women who tend to provide the most accurate information for infant and under-five estimation. Nevertheless, although Table 6 implies that girls may have been underreported and that subsequent estimates of infant and under-five mortality from these data will most likely be underestimates, the question in Azerbaijan is one of overestimation rather than underestimation, as discussed below. Mortality estimates were obtained using the United Nations QFIVE program. The Coale- Demeny East model life table was selected as most appropriate in reflecting the age pattern of mortality. Estimates of infant and under five mortality for several reference years are plotted in Figure 3. The estimate for reference year 1994 based on the reports of women aged 25-29 is lower than the others, while the estimates based on the reports of women aged 40-44 are the highest. As expected, estimates from women aged 15-19 are also higher than those obtained from women 5-10 years older. Estimates based on the youngest age group of women are usually not recommended in the Brass method. A common solution to obtaining final estimates of infant and under-mortality is to average the estimates based on women in different age groups, usually by leaving out women in the youngest age group and older women who usually have a tendency to underreport deaths among their children. In Azerbaijan MICS, final estimates of infant and under-five mortality were obtained by averaging the estimates based on women 20-24, 25-29 and 30-34. Final estimates refer approximately to mid-1996. Table 7 shows the final estimates of infant and under-five mortality in Azerbaijan. For 1996, the infant mortality estimate is 79 per thousand, and the under-five mortality is 102 per thousand live births. Differentials between population groups are in the expected directions. The sex ratio of infant and under-five mortality (the ratio of male rates to female rates) is plausible, based on model life tables. Mortality rates in rural areas are almost 50 percent higher than in urban areas, while children born to women in poor households appear to face mortality risks three times higher than their counterparts in rich households. As expected, mortality rates diminish rapidly with mother’s education. 22 However, these results are far beyond what is expected on the basis of official figures in Azerbaijan. The infant mortality rate estimate for 1996, estimated from vital registration data, was 19.9 per thousand, while the under-five mortality estimate was 39.3 per thousand (UNICEF and Republic of Azerbaijan). Although these figures were calculated in accordance with the Soviet definitions (which considers premature live births and early neonatal births, which face elevated risks of mortality, as stillbirths) and there is some recognition that deaths occurring within the first few days which are never reported, the difference between the MICS estimates and the official estimates are still too great for any easy explanation. Nevertheless, the official figures are incompatible, from an international perspective, with the GNP per capita of 500 USD, and there are other international estimates of the mortality rates for Azerbaijan, which are akin to the MICS estimates. For instance, a recent report by the US Bureau of the Census gives Azerbaijan’s infant mortality rate as 82 per thousand and the under five mortality rate as 93 per thousand (US Bureau of the Census, 1999). B. Maternal Mortality In Azerbaijan MICS, a series of questions were asked to all adult household members concerning the survival of their sisters and the timing of death relative to pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period for deceased sisters, to permit the use of the indirect sisterhood method for the estimation of maternal mortality. The indirect sisterhood method converts proxy information on the survival of sisters into lifetime risks of maternal death and by using external information on the total fertility rate for the 10-14 year period prior to the survey, estimates the maternal mortality ratio referring to approximately 12 years before the survey. Maternal mortality ratio is defined as the number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes, per 100,000 live births. Table 8 shows the application of the indirect sisterhood method to Azerbaijan MICS data and the maternal mortality ratio estimate. The total fertility rate (TFR) for the period 10-14 years prior to MICS has been taken as 2.8 births per woman (UNICEF and Republic of Azerbaijan, 1999). The method estimates the maternal mortality ratio as 79 deaths per 100,000 live births for 1988. The official figure from the registration system for the same year was in the region of 40 per 100,000. However, it is recognized that the official figure may underestimate the ratio by as much as 50 percent (UNICEF and Republic of Azerbaijan). C. Education Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the most important goals of the World Summit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labor and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. Early Childhood Education Only 11 percent of children aged 36-59 months are attending an organized early childhood education program, such as kindergarten or community childcare with organized learning activities (Table 9). Attendance of male children to these programs is slightly more than that of female children. In Table 9 and other tables that follow in the report, the nine economic zones are collapsed into five regions, as described in Appendix A, to circumvent the problem of low numbers of 23 cases, and to provide insights into regional disparities for as many indicators as possible. Attendance to early childhood education programs is most common in the Baku area (20 percent), but almost non-existent in the South (0.9 percent) and very infrequent in Nakhcivan (2.7 percent). Children in urban areas attend early childhood education programs considerably more than their rural counterparts. Children living in IDP/refugee-headed households are slightly more likely to attend early education activities. Attendance to these programs correlates positively with household wealth. Relatively few children attend at age three (36-47 months) while the majority of children attend at age four (48-59 months). Finally, the education of the mother is strongly related to the likelihood that a child will attend an early childhood education program. The percentage of children attending increases from 7 percent to 28 percent as the mother’s education increases from secondary school education or less to university education. Basic Education The normal primary school ages in Azerbaijan are from 6 to 9 years of age. The Azerbaijan MICS was administered in summer, during school vacation, and questions on school attendance referred to the previous school year. Therefore, for the analysis of primary school attendance, children age 7-10 at the time of MICS were considered as eligible for primary school attendance during the previous year (1999-2000 school year). Overall, 88.4 percent of children of primary school age in Azerbaijan are attending primary school (Table 10). There is virtually no significant difference between male and female primary school attendance. The urban–rural disparity in attendance does exist to some extent, and primary school attendance varies by region, household status and household wealth. Primary school attendance varies from 85 percent in the West & Southwest to 94 percent in Nakhcivan. With regard to primary school attendance rate, it should also be noted that 10.6 percent of children age 6 and 34 percent of children age 11 at the time of MICS were also attending primary school. Moreover, 9 percent of children age 10 had attended secondary school during the last year. These results are possibly due to different ages at which children are entering primary school, as well as due to reporting of ages, which all result in an underestimation of primary school attendance. Table 11 shows that 98.6 percent of children who enter the first grade of primary school eventually reach grade five in Azerbaijan. There is little, if any variation in regard to this indicator by sex, area, household status or wealth. Nakhcivan has the lowest rate among all regions (94 percent). Literacy The vast majority of the population over age 15 years in Azerbaijan is literate (Table 12). The literate population includes those who are reported to read ‘easily or with difficulty’. No literacy test was administered at the moment of interview. Overall, females are slightly less likely than males to be literate (93 vs. 98 percent). The literacy rate is lower in rural areas with 92 percent than in urban areas (97 percent). The gender disparity in literacy rate is more obvious in rural areas, where only 88.6 percent of women are literate versus 96.4 percent among men. The lowest literacy rates are in Nakhcivan and the Southern region. Virtually all males and females in rich households are literate, while the rate declines to 87 percent for females living in poor households. Literacy declines with increasing age. The percentage 24 literate declines from about 99 percent among those aged 15-24 to 74 percent among the population aged 65 and older. Again, the decline of literacy is more pronounced for women, from 98.7 for the 15-24 age group to 64.2 for those aged 65 and above. D. Water and Sanitation Use of Drinking Water Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, particularly in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances. Safe drinking water sources include the following types of supply: piped water, public tap, borehole/tubewell, protected well, protected spring or rainwater. In Azerbaijan, 76.3 percent of the population uses drinking water from improved drinking water sources (Table 13). While the figure is above 94 percent for the Baku area, it declines to 65 percent in the South. Access of the rural population to safe drinking water appears to be a problem (58 percent). It is interesting to note that IDP/refugee households have slightly greater access to safe drinking water than the resident population, possibly due to the availability of public tap to the areas where IDP/refugees are concentrated. While all of the richest 20 percent of households enjoy the presence of safe drinking water sources, the proportion declines to 52 percent among poor households. The specific sources of drinking water for the population of Azerbaijan vary strongly by region, urban-rural residence, and household wealth. In Azerbaijan as a whole, 28.6 percent of population uses water that is piped into their dwelling and 19.3 percent use water piped into their yard or plot. Other important sources of drinking water are public tap; tubewell/borehole with pump; pond, river or stream; tanker; protected dug well; and unprotected spring. Use of water piped into the dwelling appears to be a characteristic of households in the Baku area; this type of water supply is virtually non-existent in Nakhcivan and the South. While piped water (into the dwelling or into the yard or plot) is used by 84 percent of the Baku area population, this figure is 40-45 percent in the Central & Northern and Western & Southern regions. More than 70 percent of the urban population live in households where drinking water is piped. This figure declines to less than 20 percent in rural areas. In the latter areas, use of ponds, rivers or streams as sources of drinking water is quite common (17 percent). Use of Sanitation Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene is associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio. Sanitary means of excreta disposal include: flush toilets connected to sewage systems or septic tanks, other flush toilets, improved pit latrines, and traditional pit latrines. In Azerbaijan, 80.8 percent of the population live in households with sanitary means of excreta disposal (Table 14). This percentage peaks for rich households (100 percent) and households in the Baku area (99 percent). The predominant means of excreta disposal for the Baku area and for rich households are flush systems to sewage or septic tanks. These means are less accessible for population in regions other than the Baku area and for rural areas and poor households. Traditional pit 25 latrines predominate in Nakhcivan (94 percent), South (76 percent), and West & Southwest (66 percent). The use of open pits in regions other than the Baku area and Nakhcivan, and in rural areas is responsible for lower rates of sanitary means of excreta disposal for these population subgroups. E. Child Malnutrition Nutritional Status Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply and are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. In a well-nourished population, there is a standard distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Undernourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to this standard distribution. The standard or reference population used here is the NCHS standard, which is recommended for use by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Each of the three nutritional status indicators are expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of this reference population. Weight for age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height for age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Children whose height for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Finally, children whose weight for height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. In Table 15, children who were not weighed and measured (approximately 6 percent of boys and 2.8 percent for girls) and those children whose measurements are outside a plausible range are excluded. In addition, a small number of children, whose birth dates are not known are excluded. In Azerbaijan, 16.8 percent of under age five children are underweight and 4.3 percent are classified as severely underweight (Table 15). Almost a fifth of children are stunted or too short for their age and eight percent are wasted or too thin for their height. Seven percent of children are severely stunted. The prevalence of underweight and stunting is higher among rural children than their urban counterparts. In general, variations in the prevalence of wasting are minimal across population 26 subgroups. Children living in the West & Southwest have higher percentages in all three indices, followed by children in Nakhcivan. It is interesting to note that more than 10 percent of children living in these two regions appear to be severely stunted. In all three anthropometric indices, children living in the Baku area fare better than children in other regions. Boys are slightly less likely to be underweight and stunted than girls are. Results for the resident and IDP/refugee populations are similar, while household wealth appears to correlate very strongly with nutrition. Percent underweight among children in poor households is 21 percent, compared to only 9 percent for children in rich households. The corresponding figures are 27 and 13 percent when stunting is taken into account. Children whose mothers have college-vocational or university education are the least likely to be underweight and stunted compared to children of mothers with less education. The age pattern shows that a higher percentage of children aged 12-23 months are undernourished according to all three indices in comparison to children who are younger and older (Figure 4). This pattern is expected and is related to the age at which many children cease to be breastfed and are exposed to contamination in water, food, and environment. Breastfeeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon, and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. The World Summit for Children goal states that children should be exclusively breastfed for four to six months, that breastfeeding should be complemented with appropriate foods from the age of around six months, and that children continue to be breastfed for two or more years. In Table 16, breastfeeding status is based on women’s reports of children’s consumption in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusive breastfeeding refers to children who receive only breast milk and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine. Complementary feeding refers to children who receive breast milk and solid or semi-solid food. The last two columns of the table include children who are continuing to be breastfed at one and at two years of age. Due small numbers of observation, all estimates by the selected breakdowns in the table should be interpreted with caution. Approximately 9.4 percent of children aged less than four months are exclusively breastfed, a level considerably lower than recommended. At age 6-9 months, 39.0 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By age 12-15 months, 38.3 percent of children are still being breastfed and by age 20-23 months, 15.6 percent are still breastfed. Although the numbers of cases are small, the figures indicate that continued breastfeeding among male children (22 percent) is considerably higher than among female children (6.5 percent), and that exclusive breastfeeding of children age 0-3 months is more prevalent in urban areas than in rural areas. Figure 5 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding status by the child’s age in months. Even at the earliest ages, the majority of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk. The percentage of children exclusively breastfed diminishes rapidly to close to zero after three months. Soon after the end of the first year, fewer than half of children is still breastfed. 27 Salt Iodisation Deficiency of iodine in the diet is the world’s single greatest cause of preventable mental retardation and can lower the average intelligence quotient (IQ) of a population by as much as thirteen points. Salt iodisation is an effective, low-cost way of preventing iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Adequately iodized salt contains 15 ppm (parts per million) of iodine or more. In MICS, interviewers tested household salt for iodine levels by means of a testing kit. Approximately 99 percent of households had salt, which was tested during the MICS (Table 17). Among households in which salt was tested, 41.3 percent had adequately iodized salt. The percentage of households with adequately iodized salt ranges from 11 percent in Nakhcivan to almost half of households in the West & Southwest, in the South, and in the Center & North. Urban households are more likely and poor households are less likely to use iodized salt. Low Birth Weight Infants who weigh less than 2500 grams (2.5 kg.) at birth are categorized as low birth weight babies. Since many infants are not weighed at birth and those who are weighed may be a biased sample of all births, reported birth weight cannot be used to estimate the prevalence of low birth-weight among all children. Therefore, the percentage of births weighing below 2500 grams is estimated from two items in the questionnaire: the mother’s assessment of the child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth. Sixty percent of births in the Azerbaijan MICS were weighed at birth. First, the two items are cross-tabulated for those children who were weighed at birth to obtain the proportion of births in each category of size who weighed less than 2500 grams. This proportion is then multiplied by the total number of children falling in the size category to obtain the estimated number of children in each size category who were of low birth weight. The numbers for each size category are summed to obtain the total number of low birth weight children. This number is divided by the total number of live births to obtain the percentage with low birth weight. In Azerbaijan, approximately 9.5 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth (Table 18). The prevalence of low birth weight births varies considerably across regions, ranging from 6 percent (Baku area) to 20 percent (Nakhcivan), although the latter figure is based on a small number of cases, and moreover, on a smaller proportion of babies weighed at birth. The urban-rural differential is relatively low, but household wealth exhibits a strong negative correlation with low birth weight. Increasing mother’s education is associated with lower prevalence of low birth weight babies. F. Child Health Immunization Coverage According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 28 months. In MICS, mothers were asked to provide vaccination cards for children under the age of five. Interviewers copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS questionnaire. Mothers were also probed to report any vaccinations the child received that did not appear on the card. If the child did not have a card, the mother was read a short description of each vaccine and asked to recall whether or not the child had received it and, for DPT and Polio, how many times. During Azerbaijan MICS, only 1.9 percent of children were found to have health cards available at home. Such a low rate does not allow the application of the methodology used in MICS for estimation of vaccination coverage, which combines mother recall with information on the vaccination card. Therefore, MICS findings, which would only depend upon mother’s recall, are not presented here. However, Azerbaijan MICS still produces an important finding that many families with young children cannot control the vaccination schedule of their children, despite the enormous efforts that UNICEF put in Azerbaijan in order to provide families with vaccination cards. Considering the current situation in regard to the availability of vaccination cards, a different approach would be normally recommendable for the evaluation of vaccination coverage in Azerbaijan. This approach would involve interviews with mothers, to be followed by the verification of their responses in health facilities. This technique was not utilized during MICS, because it would require longer time considering that medical cards are not always kept in the nearest health facility and that medical cards at medical facilities are not always properly organized to assure easy and fast access and reference. Diarrhea Dehydration caused by diarrhea is a major cause of mortality among children in Azerbaijan. Home management of diarrhea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) - can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhea. In the MICS questionnaire, mothers (or caretakers) were asked to report whether their child had had diarrhea in the two weeks prior to the survey. If so, the mother was asked a series of questions about what the child had to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually ate and drank. Overall, 21.7 percent of under five children had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table 19). Diarrhea prevalence was highest in Nakhcivan (35 percent) and lowest in the Baku area (11 percent), and higher in rural areas (27 percent) than in urban areas (17 percent). Children in IDP/refugee households have higher diarrhea prevalence (26 percent) than children in resident households (21 percent). Household wealth and mother’s education are negatively correlated with diarrhea prevalence. The peak of diarrhea prevalence occurs in the weaning period, among children age 12-23 months. Table 19 also shows the percentage of children receiving various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhea. Since mothers were able to name more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add to 100. Twenty seven percent of children received breast milk while they had diarrhea. Children under age 12 months are especially likely to have received breast milk. About 30 percent of children received gruel and only one out of ten received ORS. Children of mothers with higher education, children in the Baku area, children in urban areas and children in rich households appear to be more likely than 29 other children to receive ORS. Receipt of gruel does not vary considerably across subgroups. More than 90 percent of children with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). The figure is high in all population subgroups. Fifty six percent of under five children with diarrhea drank more than usual while 40.8 percent drank the same or less (Table 20). About half of children ate somewhat less or the same, or more than usual while another half ate much less than usual or none. Overall, only 26.5 percent of children with diarrhea received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended. Acute Respiratory Infection Acute lower respiratory infections, particularly pneumonia, are leading causes of child deaths in Azerbaijan as elsewhere. In the MICS questionnaire, children with acute respiratory infection are defined as those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were due to a problem in the chest, or both a problem in the chest and a blocked nose, or whose mother did not know the source of the problem. Only 3 percent of under five children had an acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the two weeks prior to the survey according to these criteria (Table 21). It should be noted, however, that MICS was carried out in summer, when ARI prevalence is lowest. ARI prevalence increases to 7 percent in Nakhcivan and 6 percent in children living in IDP/refugee-headed households. Of children with ARI, 22 percent were taken to a hospital, 10.2 percent to a health center and 1.7 percent to dispensary for examination and treatment by a medical doctor (Table 22). Additionally, 3.4 percent were taken to a traditional healer, and another 3.4 percent were taken to a private physician. Overall, 35.6 percent of children with ARI were taken to an appropriate health provider (i.e., doctor, specialist, nurse/health assistant, and hospital). IMCI Initiative The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) is a programme developed by UNICEF and WHO that combines strategies for control and treatment of five major killers of children – acute lower respiratory tract infections, diarrhoeal dehydration, measles, malaria, and malnutrition. The programmed focuses on the improvement of case management skills by health workers, improvement of the health system, and improvement of family and community practices in the prevention and early management of childhood illnesses. Appropriate home management of illness is one component of IMCI. The approach teaches mothers that appropriate home management of diarrhea or any other illness requires giving more fluids and continuing to feed sick children as they are normally fed. Table 23 presents information on the drinking and eating behavior of sick children. Almost a third (32.6 percent) of children under five were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these, 57.2 percent drank more liquids during the illness and 51.5 percent continued eating (i.e., ate somewhat less, the same, or more). Overall, only 27.8 percent of ill children received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMCI programme. Promoting knowledge among caretakers about when it is appropriate to seek care for ill children is another important component of the IMCI programme. In the Azerbaijan MICS, mothers or caretakers of children were asked to name all of the symptoms that would cause 30 them to take a child to a health facility right away. The most common response, given by 75 percent of mothers, was that they would take their child to a health facility right away if he/she developed a fever (Table 24). Almost 21 percent said that the child becoming sicker would cause them to take the child to a health facility and more than 10 percent of mothers mentioned difficulty in breathing and blood in stools. Smaller percentages of mothers cited inability to breastfeed, fast breathing, and drinking poorly as reasons for taking a child to a health facility right away. Among the regions, mothers in Nakhcivan and, to a lesser extent, in the South are more likely than mothers in rural locations to know the signs for seeking care immediately. Overall, 34 percent of mothers know at least two signs for seeking care. The percentage increases to 49.5 in the Nakhcivan area and 42 percent iin the South, and declines to 26 percent in the Center & North. These differences are not as obvious in educational groups of mothers, and household wealth groups. Malaria Malaria is not a leading morbidity or mortality factor in Azerbaijan. However, there have been indications of an increase in malaria prevalence. Questions on malaria were thus included in the Azerbaijan MICS questionnaire. The MICS questionnaire incorporates questions on the use of bed-nets among children. Twelve percent of under five children slept under a bed-net the night prior to the survey interview (Table 25). This percentage declines steadily with age. 40.3 percent of infants under 6 months of age sleep under a bed-net compared to 15.2 percent of children aged 12-23 months and 5.4 percent of children aged 48-59 months. Most of the bed-nets are not treated with insecticide, however. Overall, only about 11.2 percent of the bed-nets used are impregnated with insecticide. For most subgroups, the numbers of cases are too low for meaningful interpretation. Questions on the prevalence and treatment of fever were asked for all children under age five. Fourteen percent of under five children were ill with fever in the two weeks prior to the MICS (Table 26). The prevalence of fever reaches 18 percent of all children aged 6-23 months then declines to around 11.7 percent for children aged 24-47 months and 8.7 percent among children aged 48-59 months. Fever is less common among children in the South, among children of the resident households, among children in rich households and among children whose mothers have university education. Mothers were asked to report all of the medicines given to a child during their illness, both any medicine given at home and medicines given or prescribed at a health facility. Approximately 37.7 percent of children were given Paracetamol, none were given Chloroquine while less than one percent were given Primachin. A relatively large percentage of children (24.5 percent) were given some other medicine. Overall, administration of appropriate anti-malarial drugs in Azerbaijan appears to be almost non-existent. G. HIV/AIDS AIDS Knowledge One of the most important strategies for reducing the rate of HIV/AIDS infection is the promotion of accurate knowledge of how AIDS is transmitted and how to prevent 31 transmission. Among women aged 15-49 in Azerbaijan, only 72 percent have ever heard of AIDS (Table 27). This percentage is higher in urban areas (84 percent) and lower in rural areas (56 percent). The percentage declines to 41 percent in Nakhcivan, to 54 percent in the South, to 51 percent among women in poor households, and to 49 percent for women with secondary or less education. Women in the MICS were read several statements about means of HIV/AIDS transmission and asked to state whether they believed the statements were true. Nineteen percent believe that having only one uninfected sex partner can prevent HIV transmission. Fifteen percent believe that using a condom every time one has sex can prevent HIV transmission and 14.3 percent agreed that abstaining from sex prevents HIV transmission. Overall, 9 percent knew all three ways and 22 percent were aware of at least one of the means of preventing transmission. Almost four out of every five women did not know any of the means of preventing transmission. Accurate knowledge of the means of HIV/AIDS transmission is substantially less among women in rural areas than among urban women. Women in the West & Southwest appear to be more knowledgeable in this respect. Also, household wealth and education are very important factors in AIDS knowledge. Differences across age groups are not particularly large; the percentage of women who know all three means ranges from 5 percent among women aged 15–19 to 10.4 percent among 45-49 year olds. Almost 19 percent of women correctly stated that AIDS couldn’t be transmitted by supernatural means whereas 9 percent stated that AIDS can’t be spread by mosquito bites (Table 28). Forty percent of women correctly believe that a healthy looking person can be infected. Women in the Baku area, women in urban areas, women in rich households and women who have university education are less likely to believe misconceptions about AIDS transmission than other women are. The proportion of women who failed to correctly identify any of the three misconceptions rises to four-fifths in Nakhcivan and the South. Forty-eight percent of women in Azerbaijan know that AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child (Table 29). When asked specifically about the mechanisms through which mother to child transmission can take place, 45.8 percent said that transmission during pregnancy was possible, 42.6 percent said that transmission at delivery was possible, and 41.5 percent agreed that AIDS can be transmitted through breast milk. Thirty-eight percent of women knew all three modes of transmission. This percentage is above 50 percent for women in the Baku area, for women living in rich households and for women who have attended university. The MICS survey also attempted to measure discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. To this end, respondents were asked whether they agreed with two questions. The first asked whether a teacher who has the AIDS virus but is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching in school. The second question asked whether the respondent would buy food from a shopkeeper or food seller who the respondent knew to be infected with AIDS. The results are presented in Table 30. Only 7.7 of the respondents believe that a teacher with HIV/AIDS should not be allowed to work. This percentage is highest in Baku area at 12.8 percent, among women who have attended university and among women in rich households. Only 3.4 percent of women would not buy food from a person infected with AIDS. Overall, 91.8 percent of women do not agree with either of the discriminatory statements. Interestingly, expression of discriminatory 32 attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS is highest among groups of women with higher knowledge of AIDS and who are more knowledgeable about modes of transmission. Table 31 summarizes information from two previous tables on AIDS knowledge (Tables 29 and 30). The second column shows the percentage of women who know all three means of preventing HIV transmission – having on faithful uninfected partner, using a condom every time, and abstaining from sex. Some 9 percent of women know all three ways. The third column of the table shows the percentage of women who correctly identified all three misconceptions about HIV transmission – that HIV can be transmitted through supernatural means, that it can be transmitted through mosquito bites, and that a healthy looking person cannot be infected. About one in twenty women correctly identified these misconceptions. Finally, the fourth column of the table shows the percentage of women who have ‘sufficient knowledge’ of HIV/AIDS transmission. These are women who know all three ways of preventing HIV transmission and correctly identified all three misconceptions. Only 1.7 percent of women aged 15-49 falls into this category. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission varies dramatically by level of education (Figure 6). Women with university education are almost four times more likely to know all three ways to prevent transmission than women with secondary school or less education. They are also almost ten times more likely to correctly identify all three misconceptions about AIDS. AIDS Testing Voluntary testing for AIDS, accompanied by counseling, allows those infected to seek health care and to prevent the infection of others. Testing is particularly important for pregnant women who can then take steps to prevent infecting their babies. The indicators shown in Table 32 are designed to monitor whether women are aware of places to get tested for HIV/AIDS, the extent to which they have been tested, and the extent to which those tested have been told the result of the test. In some places, a relatively large proportion of people who are tested do not return to get their results due to fear of having the disease, fear that their privacy will be violated, or other reasons. Thirteen percent of women of reproductive age in Azerbaijan know a place to get tested for AIDS. Women living in Baku area are most likely to know a place (24 percent), while women in Nakhcivan and the South have little knowledge on places to get tested. Knowledge in this respect is significantly higher for urban women than rural women, for women living in rich households than for women in poor households. Only 5 percent of women with secondary school or less education know of a place to get tested compared to 28 percent of women with university education. About 6.8 percent of women have been tested for AIDS. Again, this percentage is highest in Baku area and women living in rich households, each at 14 percent. The vast majority of women who have been tested were told the result. However, there is some variation across regions, age groups, and education levels. Adolescent women (age 15-19) are the least likely of any age group to have been tested and least likely to know the result. H. Reproductive Health Contraception 33 Current use of contraception was reported by 55 percent of married or in union women (Table 33). The most popular method is the withdrawal, which is used by 30.6 percent of married women in Azerbaijan. The next most popular method is IUD, which accounts for 9.3 percent of married women. Other methods used by married women include periodic abstinence (4 percent), the pill (3 percent), and the condom (2 percent). Smaller proportions of couples use female sterilization, male sterilization, injection, diaphragm/foam/jelly and the lactation- amenorrhea method (LAM). Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is highest in the Center & North. However, regional and urban-rural differences are not great. Contraceptive prevalence does not vary significantly by education, household wealth or household status. As expected, use of contraception strongly correlates with age of woman; the CPR is only 16 percent for women age 15-19, and rises rapidly with age, reaching 59 percent for women age 25 to 49. Overall, the use of traditional methods exceeds that of modern methods by 2.5 times. In all subgroups of the population, the use of traditional methods exceeds that of modern methods, sometimes by very large margins. Prenatal Care Quality prenatal care can contribute to the prevention of maternal mortality by detecting and managing potential complications and risk factors, including pre-eclampsia, anemia, and sexually transmitted diseases. Antenatal care also provides opportunities for women to learn the danger signs of pregnancy and delivery, to be immunized against tetanus, to learn about infant care, and be treated for existing conditions, such as malaria and anemia. Female respondents who had had a birth in the year prior to the Azerbaijan MICS were asked whether they had received antenatal care for the birth and, if so, what type of person provided the care. If the woman saw more than one type of provider, all were recorded in the questionnaire. Table 34 presents the percent distribution of women with a birth in the year prior to the MICS by the type of personnel who delivered antenatal care. If the respondent mentioned more than one provider, she is categorized as having seen the most skilled person she mentioned. Twenty-eight percent of interviewed women in Azerbaijan did not receive any antenatal care, while 68.7 percent receive antenatal care from skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife). About 61 percent of women with a birth in the year prior to the survey received antenatal care from a doctor, 6.3 percent from a nurse, and 1.5 percent from a midwife (Figure 7). Traditional birth attendants (TBA) and auxiliary midwives provided antenatal care for 1.5 percent each. The proportion of women with antenatal care from any skilled personnel and in particular from doctor was higher in Baku area and in urban areas. The proportion of women who received antenatal care from a skilled personnel declines to 52 percent for women in poor households and to 58 percent for women with secondary school or less education. Assistance at Delivery The provision of delivery assistance by skilled attendants can greatly improve outcomes for mothers and children by the use of technically appropriate procedures, and accurate and speedy diagnosis and treatment of complications. Skilled assistance at delivery is defined as assistance provided by a doctor, nurse, or midwife. Skilled personnel attended about 87.5 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MICS survey (Table 35). This percentage 34 is highest in Baku area at 93.8 percent and lowest in Nakhcivan at 81 percent. The more educated a woman is, the more likely she is to have a delivery with the assistance of a skilled personnel. Sixty-nine percent of the births in the year prior to the MICS survey were delivered with the assistance of a doctor. Midwives and nurses assisted with the delivery of 11 percent of births. Overall, auxiliary midwives attended about 7 percent of births, and traditional birth attendants were responsible for 6 percent of deliveries. The type of personnel providing delivery assistance is noticeably different in the West & South, where 23 percent of births were delivered with the assistance of nurses and midwives. It is noteworthy that no assistance was received in 11 percent of the births of women from IDP/refugee households. Midwives and nurses assisted for 29 percent of the births of these women. I. Child Rights Birth Registration The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. The births of 96.8 percent of children under five years in Azerbaijan have been registered (Table 36). There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex, education, area, household wealth and household status categories. However, there is indication that some children are registered rather late, since the proportion registered increases considerably by age. Some 14 percent of children within the first six months of their life are not registered. Orphanhood and Living Arrangements of Children Children who are orphaned or living away from their parents may be at increased risk of impoverishment, discrimination, denial of property rights and rights to inheritance, various forms of abuse, neglect, and exploitation of their labor or sexuality. Monitoring the level of orphanhood and the living arrangements of children assists in identifying those who may be at risk and in tracking changes over time. In Azerbaijan, 93 percent of children aged 0-14 are living with both parents (Table 37). Only one percent of children is not living with a biological parent. One or both parents of three percent of children are dead. Only 0.2 percent are orphaned by both parents. Among the seven percent of children who are not living with both parents, the majority is living with their mothers only, with either their father alive (2.7 percent) or their father dead (2.6 percent). Older children are more likely to live away without their biological parents than younger children. While only 0.8 percent of children under age five are not living with a biological parent, 1.1 percent of children aged 10-14 do so. While only 0.7 percent of children age 0-4 years are orphaned by one or both of their parents, the percentage increases to 4.9 percent for children age 10-14 years. This percentage is above 5 percent for children living in IDP/refugee households. Child Labor For several reasons, it is important to monitor the extent to which children work and the type of work in which they participate. Children who are working are less likely to attend school 35 and more likely to drop out. This pattern can trap children in a cycle of poverty and disadvantage. Working conditions for children are often unregulated with few safeguards against potential abuse. In addition, many types of work are intrinsically hazardous and others present less obvious hazards to children, such as exposure to pesticides in agricultural work, carrying heavy weights and scavenging in garbage dumps. In Azerbaijan, the MICS survey estimates that only about 0.3 percent of children aged 5-14 years engage in paid work (Table 38). Five percent participate in unpaid work for someone other than a household member. The percentage increases to 10 percent in the Southern region. ‘Domestic work’ is defined as cooking, shopping, cleaning, washing clothes, fetching water, and caring for children. Slightly more than half of children are involved with these tasks for less than four hours a day, while 5.2 percent only spend more than four hours a day on such tasks. Overall, girls are somewhat more likely than boys and older children (aged 10-14) are more likely than younger children (aged 5-9 years) to do domestic work. Variations across regions are greatest in the percentage of children who engage in more than four hours of domestic work a day, reaching a peak value in Nakhcivan (12.4 percent). Children who have done any paid or unpaid work for someone who is not a member of the household or who did more than four hours of housekeeping chores in the household or who did other family work are considered to be ‘currently working’. Overall, 13 percent of children are classified as currently working. There is virtually no difference between boys and girls, but there are large variations across regions, urban-rural residence, household wealth, and age of the child. Most notably, only 5 percent of children in rich households are currently working, while the corresponding figure for children in poor households is 22 percent. 36 Figure 1: Single Year Age Distribution of the Household Population by Sex, Azerbaijan, 2000 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Age P er ce n t Males Females 37 Figure 2: Population Pyramid, Azerbaijan, 2000 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75+ A ge Percent Males Females 38 Figure 3: Estimates of Infant and Under Five Mortality Based on Indirect Estimation, Azerbaijan, 2000 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Reference Year P er 1 00 0 Infant Mortality Under-5 Mortality 39 Figure 4: Prevalence of Underweight, Stunting and Wasting by Age, Azerbaijan, 2000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 < 6 6-11 12-23 24-35 36-47 48-59 Age (months) P er ce n t Underweight Stunted Wasted 40 Figure 5: Percent Distribution of Living Children by Breastfeeding Status, Azerbaijan, 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 Age (Months) P er ce n t Not breastfeeding Breast milk and solid/mushy food Breast milk and liquids only Breast milk and water only Exclusively breastfed 41 Figure 6: Percentage of Women Aged 15-49 Who Have Sufficient Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Transmission by Level of Education, Azerbaijan, 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Know 3 ways to prevent HIV transmiss ion Correct ly ident i fy 3 misconcept ions about HIV t ransmiss ion Have suff ic ient knowledge P er ce n t Secondary or Less High Schoo l Col lege-Vocat ional University 42 Figure 7: Percent Distribution of Women with a Birth in the Last Year by Type of Personnel Delivering Antenatal Care, Azerbaijan, 2000 Doctor 60% Nurse/midwife 6% Auxiliary midwife 2% Traditional birth attendant 2% Other/missing 2% No antenatal care received 28% 43 Table 1: Number of Households and Women, and Response Rates, Azerbaijan, 2000 Area Urban Rural Total Sampled households 3550 2616 6166 Occupied households 3491 2553 6044 Interviewed households 3388 2473 5861 Household response rate 97.0 96.9 97.0 Eligible women 4182 3306 7488 Interviewed women 3910 3049 6959 Women response rate 93.5 92.2 92.9 Children under 5 983 1021 2004 Interviewed children under 5 914 961 1875 Child response rate 93.0 94.1 93.6 Table 2: Percentage of Cases Missing Information for Selected Questions, Azerbaijan, 2000 Reference Population Percent missing Number Level of education Household members .2 23236 Year of education Household members .6 23236 Number of hours worked Working children age 5-14 .0 317 Complete birth date Women 15-49 1.0 6959 Ever been tested for HIV Women 15-49 .0 4982 Complete birth date Children under 5 .1 1875 Diarrhoea in last 2 weeks Children under 5 .3 1875 Weight Children under 5 4.5 1875 Height Children under 5 4.4 1875 44 Table 3: Percent Distribution of Households by Background Characteristics, Azerbaijan, 2000 Area Urban Rural Total Zone Baku area 51.4 .0 29.7 Nakhcivan 1.7 6.5 3.7 Gence 6.3 .0 3.7 Quba,Qusar 13.7 10.4 12.3 Balaken,Zaqatala 4.3 17.1 9.7 Aqstafa,Qazax 4.3 16.9 9.6 Agdam,Fizuli 2.6 13.0 7.0 Lenkeran,Astara 5.1 20.6 11.7 Yevlakh,Ali Bayramli 10.5 15.5 12.6 Household Status Resident 88.5 94.1 90.9 IDP or Refugee 11.5 5.9 9.1 Household Wealth Poor 5.2 40.3 20.0 Middle 60.2 59.7 60.0 Rich 34.6 .0 20.0 Number of Household 1 5.4 3.7 4.7 Members 2-3 24.6 15.2 20.6 4-5 50.1 43.4 47.3 6-7 15.4 28.2 20.8 8-9 3.5 7.1 5.0 10+ 1.1 2.4 1.7 At least one child age <15 61.9 70.4 65.5 At least one child age <5 21.9 30.0 25.3 At least one woman age 15-49 85.2 88.2 86.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Average Household Size 4.3 5.1 4.6 45 Table 4: Percent Distribution of Women 15-49 by Background Characteristics, Azerbaijan, 2000 Area Total Urban Rural Age 15-19 18.0 20.4 19.1 20-24 14.3 14.4 14.3 25-29 12.0 13.2 12.5 30-34 14.2 14.8 14.5 35-39 18.0 15.7 17.0 40-44 14.0 13.4 13.7 45-49 9.4 8.1 8.9 Zone Baku area 49.6 .0 27.9 Nakhcivan 1.6 6.5 3.8 Gence 6.2 .0 3.5 Quba,Qusar 15.3 10.7 13.3 Balaken,Zaqatala 4.1 16.8 9.6 Aqstafa,Qazax 4.4 13.4 8.3 Agdam,Fizuli 3.0 12.8 7.3 Lenkeran,Astara 5.6 23.3 13.4 Yevlakh,Ali Bayramli 10.3 16.5 13.0 Household Status Resident 88.3 94.2 90.9 IDP or Refugee 11.7 5.8 9.1 Household Wealth Poor 5.4 37.7 19.6 Middle 62.3 62.3 62.3 Rich 32.3 .0 18.1 Marital status Currently married 59.8 62.4 60.9 Formerly married 8.0 4.8 6.6 Never married 32.2 32.8 32.5 Ever given birth Yes 63.1 61.2 62.2 No 36.9 38.8 37.8 Highest level of school None .0 .0 .0 attended Primary 1.0 1.5 1.2 Secondary 12.2 23.4 17.1 Higher 41.5 54.5 47.2 College 18.7 10.6 15.1 Vocational school 6.4 5.4 6.0 University 20.2 4.6 13.4 DK .0 .0 .0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 3910 3049 6959 46 Table 5: Percent Distribution of Children Under 5 by Background Characteristics, Azerbaijan, 2000 Area Total Urban Rural Sex Male 54.0 54.4 54.2 Female 46.0 45.6 45.8 Age < 6 7.1 9.3 8.2 (Months) 6-11 8.2 11.2 9.8 12-23 20.9 19.0 19.9 24-35 18.6 18.5 18.6 36-47 21.9 20.1 21.0 48-59 23.3 21.9 22.6 Zone Baku area 46.0 .0 22.4 Nakhcivan 2.4 7.8 5.2 Gence 5.0 .0 2.5 Quba,Qusar 12.6 12.1 12.3 Balaken,Zaqatala 7.3 17.6 12.6 Aqstafa,Qazax 4.4 15.3 10.0 Agdam,Fizuli 4.2 13.0 8.7 Lenkeran,Astara 8.0 20.5 14.4 Yevlakh,Ali Bayramli 10.2 13.7 12.0 Household Status Resident 88.8 93.4 91.2 IDP or Refugee 11.2 6.6 8.8 Household Wealth Poor 6.9 44.1 26.0 Middle 67.6 55.9 61.6 Rich 25.5 .0 12.4 Mother’s Education None .1 .1 .1 Primary 1.5 .8 1.2 Secondary 12.3 20.0 16.2 Higher 41.7 59.4 50.8 College 20.4 10.9 15.5 Vocational school 6.1 5.5 5.8 University 17.9 3.2 10.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 914 961 1875 47 Table 6: Mean number of children ever born and proportion dead by mother's age, Azerbaijan, 2000 Mean number of Children ever born Proportion Dead Sex Ratio of Children Ever Born* Number of women Age 15-19 .044 .068 0.90 1327 20-24 .649 .085 1.05 997 25-29 1.556 .096 1.29 873 30-34 2.202 .096 1.12 1007 35-39 2.708 .111 1.09 1183 40-44 3.131 .126 1.07 955 45-49 3.744 .129 1.06 617 Total 1.837 .112 1.10 6959 * Male Births / Female Births Table 7: Infant and under-five mortality rates (per 1000), Azerbaijan Infant Mortality rate Under-5 Mortality Rate Sex Males 82 107 Females 75 97 Area Urban 63 79 Rural 92 122 Household Poor 102 133 Wealth Middle 79 99 Rich 35 41 Mother’s Secondary or Less 92 118 Education High School 84 108 College- Vocational 65 80 University 42 50 Total 79 102 Reference date is 1996.6 49 Table 8: Indirect Estimation of Maternal Mortality, Azerbaijan, 2000 A B C D E F (B*E) D/F D/C Age Number of Respondents Number of Sisters Who: Adjustment Factors Sister Units of Risk Lifetime Risk of Maternal Death Percent of Maternal Deaths Reached Age 15 Reached Age 15 (Adjusted) Died After Age 15 Died of Maternal Causes 15-19 2791 3013 7744 27 2 0.1070 828.6 0.002 7.4 20-24 2209 3832 9849 45 2 0.2060 2028.9 0.001 4.4 25-29 1882 4281 11003 43 4 0.3430 3774.0 0.001 9.3 30-34 1990 5064 5064 87 8 0.5030 2547.2 0.003 9.2 35-39 2358 6120 6120 123 10 0.6640 4063.7 0.002 8.1 40-44 2028 5232 5232 126 14 0.8020 4196.1 0.003 11.1 45-49 1272 3190 3190 131 5 0.9000 2871.0 0.002 3.8 15-49 14530 30732 48202 582 45 20309 0.002 7.7 Total Fertility Rate 1985-1990 2.8 Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) 79 per 100,000 births (MMR estimate approximately refers to 1988) 50 Table 9: Percentage of Children Aged 36-59 Months Who Are Attending Some Form of Organised Early Childhood Education Programme, Azerbaijan, 2000 Attending programme Number of children Sex Male 12.2 444 Female 10.5 372 Age 36-47 months 8.7 393 48-59 months 13.9 423 Region Baku area 20.2 188 Nakhcivan 2.7 37 Centre & North 11.3 311 West & Southwest 10.4 173 South .9 107 Area Urban 19.1 413 Rural 3.5 403 Household Status Resident 11.0 744 IDP or Refugee 15.3 72 Household Wealth Poor 5.5 220 Middle 12.0 492 Rich 21.2 104 Mother's education Secondary or Less 7.4 136 High School 8.1 419 College- Vocational 13.7 168 University 28.0 93 Total 11.4 816 51 Table 10: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, Azerbaijan, 2000 Male Female Total Percent Percent Percent Attending Number Attending Number Attending Number Age 7 71.5 284 72.2 241 71.8 525 8 94.8 328 93.5 277 94.2 605 9 96.0 328 96.1 305 96.1 633 10 88.7 337 89.0 317 88.8 654 Region Baku area 92.5 322 90.6 287 91.6 609 Nakhcivan 95.0 40 94.0 50 94.4 90 Center, North 87.8 483 88.8 445 88.3 928 West, Southwest 84.8 250 85.5 207 85.1 457 South 85.7 182 85.4 151 85.6 333 Area Urban 89.4 634 90.5 598 89.9 1232 Rural 87.2 643 86.2 542 86.8 1185 Household Resident 88.4 1145 88.2 1031 88.3 2176 Status IDP or Refugee 87.9 132 90.8 109 89.2 241 Household Poor 85.2 318 86.2 239 85.6 557 Wealth Middle 88.5 793 88.6 735 88.5 1528 Rich 93.4 166 91.0 166 92.2 332 Total 88.3 1277 88.4 1140 88.4 2417 52 Table 11: Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5, Azerbaijan, 2000 Percent in grade 1 reaching grade 2 Percent in grade 2 reaching grade 3 Percent in grade 3 reaching grade 4 Percent in grade 4 reaching grade 5 Percent who reach grade 5 of those who enter grade 1 Sex Male 99.7 100.0 99.4 100.0 99.1 Female 99.0 99.7 100.0 99.3 98.0 Region Baku area 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Nakhcivan 94.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.1 Center, North 99.2 99.6 99.6 99.1 97.5 West, Southwest 99.2 100.0 99.2 100.0 98.4 South 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Area Urban 99.7 100.0 99.4 99.7 98.8 Rural 99.0 99.7 100.0 99.7 98.3 Household Resident 99.3 99.8 99.7 99.6 98.4 Status IDP or Refugee 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Household Poor 98.6 99.3 100.0 100.0 97.9 Wealth Middle 99.5 100.0 99.8 99.5 98.8 Rich 100.0 100.0 99.0 100.0 99.0 Total 99.4 99.8 99.7 99.7 98.6 53 Table 12: Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older that is literate, Azerbaijan, 2000 Male Female Total Percent Not Percent Not Percent Not Literate known Number Literate known Number Literate Known Number Region Baku area 99.7 .0 2398 98.0 .1 2774 98.8 .1 5172 Nakhcivan 94.6 .3 352 86.8 .8 380 90.6 .5 732 Center, North 97.6 .1 3153 92.0 .2 3484 94.7 .1 6637 West, Southwest 97.0 .4 1812 92.1 .2 1994 94.4 .3 3806 South 96.5 .2 1295 85.1 .7 1345 90.7 .5 2640 Area Urban 98.9 .2 4901 95.7 .2 5553 97.2 .2 10454 Rural 96.4 .1 4109 88.6 .3 4424 92.4 .2 8533 Household Resident 97.7 .2 8233 92.5 .3 9103 95.0 .2 17336 Status IDP or Refugee 98.7 .0 777 93.1 .3 874 95.8 .2 1651 Household Poor 95.0 .3 1794 86.9 .5 1981 90.8 .4 3775 Wealth Middle 98.0 .2 5654 92.6 .3 6167 95.2 .2 11821 Rich 99.9 .0 1562 98.5 .0 1829 99.1 .0 3391 Age 15-24 98.7 .2 2487 98.7 .0 2513 98.7 .1 5000 25-34 99.1 .2 1829 98.2 .1 2043 98.6 .2 3872 35-44 99.3 .0 2115 97.1 .2 2271 98.2 .1 4386 45-54 98.9 .1 1062 94.4 .2 1197 96.5 .1 2259 55-64 95.7 .3 726 81.7 .7 906 87.9 .5 1632 65+ 87.9 .1 791 64.2 1.0 1047 74.4 .6 1838 Total 97.8 .2 9010 92.6 .3 9977 95.0 .2 18987 55 Table 13: Percentage of the population using improved drinking water sources, Azerbaijan, 2000 Region Area Household Status Wealth Group Total Baku Area Nakhciva n Center, North West, Southwes t South Urban Rural Resident IDP or Refugee Poor Middle Rich Main source of water Piped into dwelling 72.8 .0 20.8 10.0 .4 52.2 1.3 28.7 27.5 .0 20.4 95.6 28.6 Piped into yard or plot 11.1 8.7 22.6 30.8 12.9 21.5 16.9 20.0 12.6 .2 29.8 4.4 19.3 Public tap 7.5 13.3 13.4 12.9 1.7 10.1 10.1 7.9 32.9 17.7 10.2 .0 10.1 Tubewell/borehole with pump 1.1 18.2 5.2 9.7 34.5 4.9 15.1 10.0 6.1 14.8 10.4 .1 9.6 Protected dug well 1.5 20.1 3.1 4.7 14.0 2.7 8.1 5.5 1.8 11.4 4.5 .0 5.2 Protected spring .3 8.1 4.6 5.7 1.5 1.2 6.0 3.6 1.0 7.8 2.8 .0 3.4 Rainwater collection .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 Bottled water .1 .0 .3 .8 .2 .2 .4 .4 .0 .5 .4 .0 .3 Unprotected dug well .0 .0 2.0 3.4 7.8 .1 5.2 2.3 4.6 5.3 2.2 .0 2.5 Unprotected spring .0 12.0 5.6 9.3 4.4 .8 9.8 5.3 1.6 14.5 3.1 .0 5.0 Pond, river or stream .0 18.6 13.9 6.2 11.6 .9 17.4 8.8 6.5 18.1 7.6 .0 8.6 Tanker truck vendor 4.2 .0 5.6 5.9 6.3 4.0 6.5 5.3 3.3 5.7 6.4 .0 5.2 Other 1.3 1.0 2.9 .5 4.6 1.3 3.1 2.1 2.1 3.9 2.1 .0 2.1 Missing/DK .0 .0 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .0 .0 .0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total with safe drinking water 94.4 68.4 69.7 73.7 65.1 92.5 57.5 75.8 81.9 51.9 78.2 100.0 76.3 Number of persons 7108 1075 9634 5427 3786 14517 12513 24605 2425 5686 16845 4499 27030 56 Table 14: Percentage of the population using sanitary means of excreta disposal, Azerbaijan, 2000 Region Area Household Status Wealth Group Total Baku area Nakhciva n Center, North West, Southwes t South Urban Rural Resident IDP or Refugee Poor Middle Rich Toilet facility Flush to sewage system-septic tank 64.8 .0 21.2 11.1 1.2 49.7 .7 27.2 24.4 .1 16.7 99.3 27.0 Pour flush latrine 10.5 .0 1.5 .0 .0 5.6 .6 2.5 11.0 .3 5.0 .6 3.3 Improved pit latrine .7 .0 .5 2.3 .0 1.5 .1 .8 .9 .0 1.3 .1 .8 Traditional pit latrine 22.8 93.6 45.2 65.8 75.8 33.0 69.0 50.6 40.2 75.4 54.3 .0 49.7 Open pit .6 6.4 31.3 20.5 21.8 9.7 29.3 18.3 23.0 23.6 22.1 .0 18.8 Bucket .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 .1 .0 .0 .2 .1 .1 .0 .1 Other .4 .0 .1 .1 .9 .3 .2 .3 .3 .1 .4 .0 .3 No facility/bush/field .1 .0 .1 .1 .2 .1 .1 .1 .0 .3 .1 .0 .1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total with sanitary means 98.9 93.6 68.4 79.2 77.0 89.8 70.3 81.2 76.6 75.9 77.3 100.0 80.8 Number of persons 7108 1075 9634 5427 3786 14517 12513 24605 2425 5686 16845 4499 27030 57 Table 15: Percentage of under-five children who are severely or moderately undernourished, Azerbaijan, 2000 Weight for age: -2 SD Weight for age: -3 SD Height for age: -2 SD Height for age: -3 SD Weight for height: -2 SD Weight for height: -3 SD Number of children Underweight Severely underweight Stunted Severely stunted Wasted Severely Wasted Sex Male 15.3 3.8 19.2 7.2 8.1 2.2 913 Female 18.4 4.8 20.1 7.3 7.8 1.6 798 Area Urban 14.9 3.9 17.2 6.8 8.0 1.7 814 Rural 18.5 4.6 21.7 7.7 7.9 2.1 897 Region Baku area 11.4 2.7 15.4 4.9 5.4 1.1 370 Nakhcivan 19.6 7.2 23.7 12.4 7.2 1.0 97 Center, North 16.3 3.3 19.6 6.5 8.3 2.1 612 West, Southwest 22.4 8.0 25.1 12.3 10.7 2.7 375 South 16.3 2.3 16.0 3.1 7.0 1.9 257 Household Resident 16.9 4.4 19.5 7.4 7.8 2.0 1564 Status IDP or Refugee 15.6 2.7 20.4 6.1 9.5 1.4 147 Household Poor 21.2 5.3 26.5 8.6 7.3 1.8 452 Wealth Middle 16.4 4.3 17.8 7.3 8.7 2.2 1055 Rich 8.8 2.0 13.2 3.9 5.4 1.0 204 Age < 6 8.3 .0 9.8 3.8 9.1 3.8 132 (months) 6-11 20.1 6.1 17.1 7.3 11.6 3.0 164 12-23 28.0 9.5 30.7 12.8 14.6 3.0 336 24-35 18.4 5.0 21.8 10.0 7.5 2.5 321 36-47 13.7 2.2 16.5 5.2 5.2 1.4 364 48-59 10.2 1.8 15.5 3.3 3.3 .0 394 Mother's Secondary or Less 23.2 6.4 24.5 8.7 10.1 3.0 298 Education High School 18.0 4.3 20.8 7.6 7.3 1.5 877 College-Vocational 11.6 3.3 16.3 5.5 7.7 1.9 363 University 10.4 2.3 12.1 6.4 8.1 2.3 173 Total 16.8 4.3 19.6 7.2 7.9 1.9 1711 58 Table 16: Percent of living children by breastfeeding status, Azerbaijan, 2000 Exclusive breastfeeding Children 0-3 months Complementary feeding Children 6-9 months Continued breastfeeding Children 12-15 months Continued breastfeeding Children 20-23 months Percent Number of children Percent Number of children Percent Number of children Percent Number of children Sex Male 8.9 56 42.6 61 42.4 66 22.2 63 Female 10.0 50 35.1 57 34.3 67 6.5 46 Area Urban 6.7 45 37.3 51 32.4 68 16.0 50 Rural 11.5 61 40.3 67 44.6 65 15.3 59 Total 9.4 106 39.0 118 38.3 133 15.6 109 59 Table 17: Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt, Azerbaijan, 2000 Percent of households Result of test With no salt Where salt was not tested In which salt was tested < 15 PPM 15+ PPM Number of households interviewed Region Baku area .4 4.4 95.2 65.3 34.7 1810 Nakhcivan .4 9.2 90.4 89.4 10.6 240 Center, North .9 5.0 94.1 56.2 43.8 2113 West, Southwest .3 8.9 90.8 51.5 48.5 1300 South .1 2.8 97.0 52.2 47.8 703 Area Urban .4 5.1 94.5 56.2 43.8 3550 Rural .6 6.2 93.1 62.2 37.8 2616 Household Resident .4 5.4 94.2 58.8 41.2 5587 Status IDP or Refugee 1.0 7.8 91.2 57.4 42.6 579 Household Poor 1.0 .8 98.2 66.6 33.4 1172 Wealth Middle .5 .6 99.0 56.0 44.0 3516 Rich .3 .9 98.9 59.1 40.9 1173 Total .5 .7 98.8 58.7 41.3 5861 60 Table 18: Percentage of live births in the last 12 months that weighed below 2500 grams at birth, Azerbaijan, 2000 Percent of live births Number of live births Below 2500 Grams Weighed at birth Region Baku area 6.3 85.2 81 Nakhcivan 19.9 19.4 31 Center, North 8.1 62.4 141 West, Southwest 7.1 60.0 70 South 13.5 47.4 76 Area Urban 8.3 83.2 173 Rural 10.4 42.9 226 Household Resident 9.7 60.6 371 Status IDP or Refugee 7.3 57.1 28 Household Poor 12.6 35.0 100 Wealth Middle 9.3 64.3 244 Rich 5.0 89.1 55 Mother's Secondary or Less 11.9 56.4 78 Education High School 9.8 51.7 201 College-Vocational 8.1 73.8 80 University 6.5 85.0 40 Total 9.5 60.4 399 61 Table 19: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks and treatment with ORS or ORT, Azerbaijan, 2000 Children with diarrhea who received: Had diarrhea in last two weeks Number of children Breast Milk Gruel Local acceptable ORS packet Other milk or infant formula Water with feeding Any recommended treatment No treatment Number of children with diarrhea Sex Male 22.8 1017 30.6 32.3 66.4 9.5 31.0 38.8 92.2 7.8 232 Female 20.4 858 22.3 27.4 66.9 10.9 41.1 40.6 93.1 6.9 175 Region Baku area 11.0 420 28.3 34.8 65.2 26.1 23.9 45.7 93.5 6.5 46 Nakhcivan 35.1 97 26.5 29.4 73.5 5.9 26.5 61.8 94.1 5.9 34 Center, North 22.1 692 26.1 30.7 71.2 9.2 35.9 38.6 96.1 3.9 153 West, Southwest 27.0 396 27.1 26.2 69.2 10.3 41.1 38.3 89.7 10.3 107 South 24.8 270 28.4 32.8 49.3 3.0 37.3 28.4 88.1 11.9 67 Area Urban 16.5 914 24.5 33.1 67.5 18.5 23.8 41.1 93.4 6.6 151 Rural 26.6 961 28.5 28.5 66.0 5.1 42.2 38.7 92.2 7.8 256 Household Resident 21.3 1710 26.9 30.5 65.4 10.7 34.3 40.1 92.6 7.4 364 Status IDP or Refugee 26.1 165 27.9 27.9 76.7 4.7 44.2 34.9 93.0 7.0 43 Household Poor 29.6 487 30.6 31.3 68.1 2.8 43.1 34.7 93.8 6.3 144 Wealth Middle 20.8 1155 25.8 30.0 66.7 12.5 32.1 42.1 92.5 7.5 240 Rich 9.9 233 17.4 26.1 56.5 30.4 21.7 43.5 87.0 13.0 23 Age < 6 25.3 154 87.2 7.7 10.3 12.8 20.5 33.3 97.4 2.6 39 (months) 6-11 29.5 183 55.6 40.7 55.6 13.0 48.1 38.9 94.4 5.6 54 12-23 31.0 374 32.8 36.2 74.1 15.5 32.8 35.3 96.6 3.4 116 24-35 18.7 348 6.2 27.7 75.4 3.1 46.2 35.4 89.2 10.8 65 36-47 16.5 393 1.5 30.8 76.9 6.2 26.2 47.7 89.2 10.8 65 48-59 16.1 423 4.4 26.5 76.5 7.4 36.8 47.1 88.2 11.8 68 Mother's Secondary or Less 28.7 328 24.5 27.7 66.0 3.2 46.8 44.7 95.7 4.3 94 Education High School 21.8 952 27.4 31.3 63.9 8.7 34.1 34.6 90.9 9.1 208 College-Vocational 20.3 400 28.4 29.6 76.5 14.8 30.9 43.2 95.1 4.9 81 University 12.3 195 29.2 33.3 58.3 33.3 16.7 50.0 87.5 12.5 24 Total 21.7 1875 27.0 30.2 66.6 10.1 35.4 39.6 92.6 7.4 407 62 Table 20: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks who took increased fluids and continued to feed during the episode, Azerbaijan, 2000 Drinking during diarrhea Eating during diarrhea Had diarrhea in last 2 weeks Number of Children More Same Or Less Missing DK Total Somewhat less, same, more Much Less, None Missing DK Total Received increased fluids and continued eating Number of Children with Diarrhea Sex Male 22.8 1017 56.9 38.8 4.3 100.0 51.7 47.4 .9 100.0 29.3 232 Female 20.4 858 54.9 43.4 1.7 100.0 46.9 52.0 1.1 100.0 22.9 175 Region Baku area 11.0 420 41.3 56.5 2.2 100.0 45.7 52.2 2.2 100.0 19.6 46 Nakhcivan 35.1 97 67.6 32.4 .0 100.0 41.2 58.8 .0 100.0 29.4 34 Center, North 22.1 692 62.1 35.9 2.0 100.0 42.5 55.6 2.0 100.0 24.8 153 West, Southwest 27.0 396 50.5 43.0 6.5 100.0 51.4 48.6 .0 100.0 24.3 107 South 24.8 270 55.2 41.8 3.0 100.0 70.1 29.9 .0 100.0 37.3 67 Area Urban 16.5 914 51.7 45.0 3.3 100.0 46.4 51.7 2.0 100.0 22.5 151 Rural 26.6 961 58.6 38.3 3.1 100.0 51.6 48.0 .4 100.0 28.9 256 Household Resident 21.3 1710 55.8 40.9 3.3 100.0 50.5 48.4 1.1 100.0 26.1 364 Status IDP or Refugee 26.1 165 58.1 39.5 2.3 100.0 41.9 58.1 .0 100.0 30.2 43 Household Poor 29.6 487 61.1 36.8 2.1 100.0 52.1 47.2 .7 100.0 29.9 144 Wealth Middle 20.8 1155 54.2 42.5 3.3 100.0 49.6 50.0 .4 100.0 25.8 240 Rich 9.9 233 43.5 47.8 8.7 100.0 34.8 56.5 8.7 100.0 13.0 23 Age < 6 25.3 154 28.2 71.8 .0 100.0 69.2 30.8 .0 100.0 20.5 39 (months) 6-11 29.5 183 51.9 46.3 1.9 100.0 44.4 55.6 .0 100.0 20.4 54 12-23 31.0 374 58.6 38.8 2.6 100.0 45.7 53.4 .9 100.0 25.9 116 24-35 18.7 348 64.6 30.8 4.6 100.0 47.7 50.8 1.5 100.0 30.8 65 36-47 16.5 393 58.5 36.9 4.6 100.0 56.9 43.1 .0 100.0 32.3 65 48-59 16.1 423 60.3 35.3 4.4 100.0 44.1 52.9 2.9 100.0 26.5 68 Mother's Secondary or Less 28.7 328 60.6 35.1 4.3 100.0 52.1 45.7 2.1 100.0 27.7 94 Education High School 21.8 952 51.9 45.7 2.4 100.0 52.9 46.6 .5 100.0 27.4 208 College-Vocational 20.3 400 61.7 34.6 3.7 100.0 35.8 63.0 1.2 100.0 21.0 81 University 12.3 195 54.2 41.7 4.2 100.0 58.3 41.7 .0 100.0 33.3 24 Total 21.7 1875 56.0 40.8 3.2 100.0 49.6 49.4 1.0 100.0 26.5 407 63 Table 21: Percentage of under-five children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the last two weeks, Azerbaijan, 2000 Had ARI Number of children Sex Male 3.2 1017 Female 3.0 858 Region Baku area 1.9 420 Nakhcivan 7.2 97 Center, North 2.9 692 West, Southwest 5.3 396 South 1.1 270 Area Urban 1.9 914 Rural 4.4 961 Household Resident 2.9 1710 Status IDP or Refugee 6.1 165 Household Poor 5.7 487 Wealth Middle 2.7 1155 Rich .0 233 Age < 6 months 2.6 154 6-11 months 6.6 183 12-23 months 3.7 374 24-35 months 2.3 348 36-47 months 2.0 393 48-59 months 3.1 423 Mother's Secondary or Less 5.5 328 Education High School 3.2 952 College-Vocational 2.5 400 University .5 195 Total 3.1 1875 64 Table 22: Percentage of under-five children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the last two weeks and treatment by health providers, Azerbaijan, 2000 Sex Area Total Male Female Urban Rural Had ARI 3.2 3.0 1.9 4.4 3.1 Number of children under 5 1017 858 914 961 1875 Children with ARI who were taken to: Hospital 24.2 19.2 11.8 26.2 22.0 Health center 3.0 19.2 17.6 7.1 10.2 Dispensary .0 3.8 5.9 .0 1.7 Village health worker 3.0 .0 .0 2.4 1.7 MCH clinic .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 Mobile/outreach clinic .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 Private physician .0 7.7 5.9 2.4 3.4 Traditional healer 3.0 3.8 5.9 2.4 3.4 Other 3.0 .0 .0 2.4 1.7 Any appropriate provider 30.3 42.3 29.4 38.1 35.6 Number of children with ARI 33 26 17 42 59 65 Table 23: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age reported ill during the last two weeks who received increased fluids and continued feeding, Azerbaijan, 2000 Children with illness who drank: Children with illness who ate: Reported illness in last two weeks Number of children under 5 More Same/ Less Missing/ DK Total Somewhat less/same /more Much less/none Missing/ DK Total Received increased fluids and continued eating Number of sick Children Sex Male 34.0 1017 59.5 37.3 3.2 100.0 52.9 46.5 .6 100.0 30.1 346 Female 31.0 858 54.1 44.7 1.1 100.0 49.6 49.6 .8 100.0 24.8 266 Region Baku area 27.4 420 44.3 54.8 .9 100.0 58.3 40.9 .9 100.0 25.2 115 Nakhcivan 47.4 97 73.9 26.1 .0 100.0 41.3 58.7 .0 100.0 32.6 46 Center, North 29.8 692 63.1 35.4 1.5 100.0 41.3 57.3 1.5 100.0 24.8 206 West, Southwest 39.4 396 55.8 39.7 4.5 100.0 54.5 45.5 .0 100.0 28.2 156 South 33.0 270 53.9 42.7 3.4 100.0 66.3 33.7 .0 100.0 34.8 89 Area Urban 31.1 914 54.2 43.7 2.1 100.0 51.4 47.5 1.1 100.0 26.1 284 Rural 34.1 961 59.8 37.8 2.4 100.0 51.5 48.2 .3 100.0 29.3 328 Household Resident 32.1 1710 56.8 40.8 2.4 100.0 51.2 48.1 .7 100.0 27.0 549 Status IDP or Refugee 38.2 165 60.3 38.1 1.6 100.0 54.0 46.0 .0 100.0 34.9 63 Household Poor 39.2 487 60.2 37.7 2.1 100.0 52.4 47.1 .5 100.0 29.8 191 Wealth Middle 31.9 1155 57.1 40.8 2.2 100.0 51.1 48.6 .3 100.0 27.2 368 Rich 22.7 233 47.2 49.1 3.8 100.0 50.9 45.3 3.8 100.0 24.5 53 Age < 6 32.5 154 30.0 70.0 .0 100.0 70.0 30.0 .0 100.0 22.0 50 6-11 39.3 183 55.6 43.1 1.4 100.0 47.2 52.8 .0 100.0 25.0 72 12-23 39.8 374 59.7 37.6 2.7 100.0 46.3 53.0 .7 100.0 26.2 149 24-35 31.6 348 60.9 36.4 2.7 100.0 50.9 48.2 .9 100.0 28.2 110 36-47 29.0 393 59.6 37.7 2.6 100.0 54.4 45.6 .0 100.0 33.3 114 48-59 27.7 423 60.7 36.8 2.6 100.0 50.4 47.9 1.7 100.0 28.2 117 Mother's Secondary or Less 39.3 328 58.1 38.8 3.1 100.0 52.7 45.7 1.6 100.0 27.9 129 Education High School 31.4 952 54.8 43.1 2.0 100.0 52.8 46.8 .3 100.0 26.8 299 College-Vocational 35.0 400 60.0 37.9 2.1 100.0 45.0 54.3 .7 100.0 25.0 140 University 22.6 195 61.4 36.4 2.3 100.0 59.1 40.9 .0 100.0 43.2 44 Total 32.6 1875 57.2 40.5 2.3 100.0 51.5 47.9 .7 100.0 27.8 612 66 Table 24: Percentage of caretakers of children 0-59 months who know at least 2 signs for seeking care immediately, Azerbaijan, 2000 Knows child should be taken to health facility if child: Not able to drink or breastfeed Becomes sicker Develops a fever Has fast breathing Has difficult breathing Has blood in stool Is drinking poorly Knows at least two signs Number of caretakers Region Baku area 1.9 19.0 79.0 4.5 14.0 12.1 4.0 38.1 420 Nakhcivan 2.1 27.8 63.9 9.3 27.8 27.8 .0 49.5 97 Center, North 1.9 17.2 71.5 5.2 6.9 9.7 4.0 26.4 692 West, Southwest 4.3 23.0 80.6 2.3 8.6 9.3 3.3 33.6 396 South 5.6 27.4 73.7 9.3 10.4 2.6 7.4 41.9 270 Area Urban 2.7 20.2 76.7 5.0 12.5 11.2 4.5 36.1 914 Rural 3.1 21.4 73.5 5.4 8.5 9.1 3.9 31.9 961 Household Resident 3.0 20.3 75.3 5.1 10.6 9.7 4.3 33.7 1710 Status IDP or Refugee 2.4 26.7 72.7 6.1 9.1 13.9 3.0 37.0 165 Household Poor 3.9 24.2 72.1 6.4 8.8 10.5 3.7 34.1 487 Wealth Middle 2.7 20.2 75.5 4.7 10.5 9.9 4.6 33.3 1155 Rich 2.1 17.2 79.0 5.6 13.7 10.3 3.0 36.9 233 Mother's Secondary or Less 2.7 20.1 71.0 4.3 12.5 9.1 3.0 31.7 328 education High School 3.0 21.7 74.9 5.0 8.9 10.8 4.8 33.9 952 College-Vocational 3.3 20.5 78.3 6.3 13.0 10.3 3.0 36.8 400 University 2.1 18.5 75.9 5.6 9.2 7.7 5.1 32.3 195 Total 2.9 20.9 75.0 5.2 10.5 10.1 4.2 34.0 1875 67 Table 25: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age who slept under an insecticide-impregnated bednet during the previous night, Azerbaijan, 2000 Slept under a bednet Bednet treated Yes No DK or missing Number of children Yes No DK or missing Children who slept under a bednet Sex Male 12.8 87.1 .1 1017 11.5 85.4 3.1 130 Female 12.0 87.5 .5 858 10.7 89.3 .0 103 Region Baku area 4.3 95.2 .5 420 16.7 83.3 .0 18 Nakhcivan 37.1 62.9 .0 97 5.6 94.4 .0 36 Center, North 10.5 89.2 .3 692 5.5 90.4 4.1 73 West, Southwest 12.1 87.6 .3 396 10.4 87.5 2.1 48 South 21.5 78.5 .0 270 20.7 79.3 .0 58 Area Urban 6.5 93.2 .3 914 13.6 83.1 3.4 59 Rural 18.1 81.7 .2 961 10.3 88.5 1.1 174 Household Resident 12.5 87.3 .3 1710 10.8 88.3 .9 213 Status IDP or Refugee 12.1 87.9 .0 165 15.0 75.0 10.0 20 Household Poor 16.4 83.6 .0 487 11.3 86.3 2.5 80 Wealth Middle 12.2 87.4 .4 1155 10.6 88.7 .7 141 Rich 5.2 94.8 .0 233 16.7 75.0 8.3 12 Age < 6 40.3 59.1 .6 154 4.8 95.2 .0 62 (months) 6-11 23.5 76.5 .0 183 9.3 90.7 .0 43 12-23 15.2 84.5 .3 374 12.3 84.2 3.5 57 24-35 8.0 92.0 .0 348 10.7 82.1 7.1 28 36-47 5.1 94.7 .3 393 20.0 80.0 .0 20 48-59 5.4 94.1 .5 423 21.7 78.3 .0 23 Total 12.4 87.3 .3 1875 11.2 87.1 1.7 233 68 Table 26: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age who were ill with fever in the last two weeks who received anti-malarial drugs, Azerbaijan, 2000 Children with a fever who were treated with: Had a fever in last two weeks Number of children Paracetamol Chloroquine Primachin Other Don't know Any appropriate anti-malarial drug Number of children with fever Sex Male 14.0 1017 40.1 .0 1.4 23.9 2.8 1.4 142 Female 13.4 858 34.8 .0 .0 25.2 3.5 .0 115 Region Baku area 11.2 420 46.8 .0 .0 34.0 .0 .0 47 Nakhcivan 18.6 97 44.4 .0 .0 38.9 .0 .0 18 Center, North 13.0 692 46.7 .0 1.1 25.6 5.6 1.1 90 West, Southwest 20.2 396 27.5 .0 1.3 20.0 3.8 1.3 80 South 8.1 270 13.6 .0 .0 4.5 .0 .0 22 Area Urban 13.9 914 49.6 .0 .8 33.9 .0 .8 127 Rural 13.5 961 26.2 .0 .8 15.4 6.2 .8 130 Household Resident 13.2 1710 40.4 .0 .9 24.9 3.1 .9 225 Status IDP or Refugee 19.4 165 18.8 .0 .0 21.9 3.1 .0 32 Household Poor 15.6 487 22.4 .0 .0 18.4 3.9 .0 76 Wealth Middle 13.8 1155 47.2 .0 1.3 26.4 3.1 1.3 159 Rich 9.4 233 22.7 .0 .0 31.8 .0 .0 22 Age < 6 13.6 154 47.6 .0 .0 23.8 .0 .0 21 6-11 18.0 183 33.3 .0 .0 27.3 3.0 .0 33 12-23 18.7 374 37.1 .0 1.4 18.6 2.9 1.4 70 24-35 14.4 348 32.0 .0 2.0 32.0 2.0 2.0 50 36-47 11.7 393 43.5 .0 .0 21.7 2.2 .0 46 48-59 8.7 423 37.8 .0 .0 27.0 8.1 .0 37 Mother's Secondary or Less 14.3 328 25.5 .0 .0 14.9 4.3 .0 47 education High School 13.4 952 32.8 .0 1.6 20.3 3.9 1.6 128 College-Vocational 15.0 400 55.0 .0 .0 38.3 1.7 .0 60 University 11.3 195 45.5 .0 .0 31.8 .0 .0 22 69 Total 13.7 1875 37.7 .0 .8 24.5 3.1 .8 257 70 Table 27: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, Azerbaijan, 2000 Heard of AIDS Percent who know transmission can be prevented by: Knows all three ways Knows at least one way Doesn't know any way Number of women Have only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Abstaining from sex Region Baku area 89.3 24.7 18.1 15.3 9.0 27.7 72.3 1939 Nakhcivan 40.6 11.5 9.2 11.9 7.3 13.4 86.6 261 Center, North 68.7 17.1 14.0 14.4 10.0 19.6 80.4 2499 West, Southwest 69.9 22.5 21.1 19.8 13.5 27.3 72.7 1329 South 53.6 6.0 4.1 5.3 1.7 8.9 91.1 931 Area Urban 83.4 23.2 18.7 16.9 11.3 26.3 73.7 3910 Rural 56.4 12.6 10.2 11.1 6.5 15.7 84.3 3049 Household Resident 71.4 18.8 15.1 14.5 9.4 21.8 78.2 6325 Status IDP or Refugee 73.7 16.4 13.6 12.8 7.3 20.0 80.0 634 Household Poor 51.1 11.6 10.0 11.2 7.2 14.3 85.7 1361 Wealth Middle 72.0 18.5 14.6 14.2 8.8 21.8 78.2 4336 Rich 92.2 26.1 21.9 18.1 12.6 29.1 70.9 1262 Age 15-19 54.3 11.3 8.6 8.4 5.0 13.9 86.1 1327 20-24 70.4 17.8 15.2 13.9 8.7 22.0 78.0 997 25-29 75.1 19.5 15.3 14.9 9.4 22.9 77.1 873 30-34 77.6 22.0 18.4 17.7 12.2 25.0 75.0 1007 35-39 78.9 20.7 16.4 16.1 10.2 23.7 76.3 1183 40-44 75.6 20.8 16.1 14.6 10.2 23.0 77.0 955 45-49 75.9 20.7 18.0 18.0 10.4 24.8 75.2 617 Woman's Secondary or Less 48.8 8.9 6.8 8.2 4.6 10.5 89.5 1274 Education High School 67.8 15.2 12.0 12.2 7.5 18.2 81.8 3284 College-Vocational 85.2 25.0 21.6 19.5 13.0 29.8 70.2 1468 University 94.6 33.4 26.6 22.3 15.6 36.3 63.7 932 71 Total 71.6 18.6 15.0 14.3 9.2 21.7 78.3 6959 72 Table 28: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who correctly identify misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, Azerbaijan, 2000 Percent who know: AIDS cannot be transmitted by: A healthy looking person can be infected Knows all Three misconceptions Knows at least one misconception Doesn't correctly identify any misconception Number of women Heard of AIDS Supernatural means Mosquito bites Region Baku area 89.3 22.8 12.2 61.6 7.3 68.4 31.6 1939 Nakhcivan 40.6 13.4 8.4 14.6 5.0 19.9 80.1 261 Center, North 68.7 17.5 7.2 35.4 4.5 41.5 58.5 2499 West, Southwest 69.9 23.4 8.9 38.4 4.7 47.4 52.6 1329 South 53.6 6.6 3.8 17.0 1.7 20.8 79.2 931 Area Urban 83.4 22.5 11.4 51.8 7.0 58.9 41.1 3910 Rural 56.4 13.4 4.8 24.9 2.3 30.7 69.3 3049 Household Resident 71.4 18.6 8.3 40.2 4.9 46.6 53.4 6325 Status IDP or Refugee 73.7 17.0 10.3 38.2 5.7 45.7 54.3 634 Household Poor 51.1 12.4 4.0 22.6 1.8 28.7 71.3 1361 Wealth Middle 72.0 18.6 8.5 38.8 5.0 45.5 54.5 4336 Rich 92.2 24.6 13.5 63.0 8.2 69.6 30.4 1262 Age 15-19 54.3 12.8 5.9 30.0 3.2 35.0 65.0 1327 20-24 70.4 18.2 9.5 42.0 5.9 47.0 53.0 997 25-29 75.1 19.6 10.0 41.4 5.8 48.9 51.1 873 30-34 77.6 21.2 8.6 42.4 5.2 50.2 49.8 1007 35-39 78.9 19.4 8.5 44.7 4.6 51.6 48.4 1183 40-44 75.6 19.9 9.4 40.4 5.5 47.7 52.3 955 45-49 75.9 21.4 8.9 42.9 5.2 49.8 50.2 617 Woman's Secondary or Less 48.8 8.6 3.3 21.0 1.3 25.2 74.8 1274 Education High School 67.8 15.6 6.8 33.9 3.4 40.7 59.3 3284 73 College-Vocational 85.2 24.0 11.5 51.9 6.9 59.4 40.6 1468 University 94.6 33.7 17.1 68.8 12.4 76.4 23.6 932 Total 71.6 18.5 8.5 40.0 5.0 46.6 53.4 6959 74 Table 29: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Azerbaijan, 2000 Percent who know AIDS can be transmitted: Know AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child During pregnancy At Delivery Through breastmilk Knows all three Did not know Any specific way Number of women Region Baku area 62.7 61.5 59.3 54.9 53.2 37.8 1939 Nakhcivan 20.7 20.3 14.9 19.2 13.8 79.3 261 Center, North 44.9 42.9 39.6 38.8 34.9 56.0 2499 West, Southwest 47.0 44.3 41.3 41.2 37.4 54.2 1329 South 31.8 30.2 25.9 27.2 23.2 69.3 931 Area Urban 56.5 54.9 52.6 49.0 46.5 44.2 3910 Rural 36.1 34.1 29.9 31.8 27.3 64.8 3049 Household Resident 47.2 45.3 42.2 41.0 37.6 53.6 6325 Status IDP or Refugee 51.4 50.5 47.5 46.1 43.4 49.1 634 Household Poor 32.0 30.2 26.8 28.7 25.1 68.9 1361 Wealth Middle 47.5 45.5 41.9 41.2 37.4 53.5 4336 Rich 64.7 63.5 62.2 56.1 54.7 35.5 1262 Age 15-19 32.5 30.4 29.0 27.7 26.2 68.9 1327 20-24 45.0 42.2 38.9 38.6 34.5 56.0 997 25-29 50.3 48.7 44.7 43.1 38.8 50.3 873 30-34 53.3 51.2 47.3 46.0 41.9 47.6 1007 35-39 54.4 53.3 49.6 48.5 45.0 46.2 1183 40-44 50.8 49.4 46.0 46.0 42.1 49.8 955 45-49 53.0 51.5 49.1 45.7 42.8 47.3 617 Woman's Secondary or Less 29.4 27.9 25.4 26.2 23.5 71.4 1274 Education High School 43.9 42.0 39.0 38.7 35.4 57.0 3284 College- Vocational 61.2 59.1 55.0 53.0 48.5 39.6 1468 University 64.2 62.7 59.5 54.1 51.2 36.5 932 75 Total 47.6 45.8 42.6 41.5 38.1 53.2 6959 76 Table 30: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who express a discriminatory attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS, Azerbaijan, 2000 Percent of women who: Believe that a teacher with HIV should not be allowed to work Would not buy food from a person with HIV/AIDS Agree with at least one discriminatory statement Agree with neither discriminatory statement Number of women Region Baku area 12.8 5.5 14.2 85.8 1939 Nakhcivan 6.5 .8 6.9 93.1 261 Center, North 6.0 2.3 6.7 93.3 2499 West, Southwest 6.5 3.4 7.8 92.2 1329 South 3.1 2.9 4.5 95.5 931 Area Urban 10.0 4.2 11.2 88.8 3910 Rural 4.6 2.4 5.5 94.5 3049 Household Resident 7.9 3.5 8.9 91.1 6325 Status IDP or Refugee 5.5 2.2 6.6 93.4 634 Household Poor 3.7 1.8 4.3 95.7 1361 Wealth Middle 6.6 3.2 7.8 92.2 4336 Rich 15.6 5.9 16.6 83.4 1262 Age 15-19 7.1 3.3 7.8 92.2 1327 20-24 8.8 4.5 10.1 89.9 997 25-29 7.8 3.8 9.4 90.6 873 30-34 8.1 3.5 8.9 91.1 1007 35-39 7.1 3.1 8.4 91.6 1183 40-44 6.9 2.5 7.6 92.4 955 45-49 8.3 3.2 9.4 90.6 617 Woman's Secondary or Less 3.1 1.4 3.8 96.2 1274 Education High School 6.0 3.0 7.1 92.9 3284 College-Vocational 8.9 3.4 9.9 90.1 1468 University 17.6 7.8 19.3 80.7 932 Total 7.7 3.4 8.7 91.3 6959 77 Table 31: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, Azerbaijan, 2000 Heard of AIDS Know 3 ways to prevent HIV transmission Correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV transmission Have sufficient knowledge Number of women Region Baku area 89.3 9.0 7.3 2.1 1939 Nakhcivan 40.6 7.3 5.0 2.7 261 Center, North 68.7 10.0 4.5 2.0 2499 West, Southwest 69.9 13.5 4.7 1.6 1329 South 53.6 1.7 1.7 .2 931 Area Urban 83.4 11.3 7.0 2.6 3910 Rural 56.4 6.5 2.3 .6 3049 Household Resident 71.4 9.4 4.9 1.7 6325 Status IDP or Refugee 73.7 7.3 5.7 2.2 634 Household Poor 51.1 7.2 1.8 .6 1361 Wealth Middle 72.0 8.8 5.0 1.8 4336 Rich 92.2 12.6 8.2 2.7 1262 Age 15-19 54.3 5.0 3.2 .7 1327 20-24 70.4 8.7 5.9 2.1 997 25-29 75.1 9.4 5.8 1.9 873 30-34 77.6 12.2 5.2 2.2 1007 35-39 78.9 10.2 4.6 1.5 1183 40-44 75.6 10.2 5.5 2.0 955 45-49 75.9 10.4 5.2 2.4 617 Woman's Secondary or Less 48.8 4.6 1.3 .5 1274 Education High School 67.8 7.5 3.4 1.0 3284 College- Vocational 85.2 13.0 6.9 2.7 1468 University 94.6 15.6 12.4 4.4 932 Total 71.6 9.2 5.0 1.7 6959 78 Table 32: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who know where to get an AIDS test and who have been tested, Azerbaijan, 2000 Know a place to get tested Have been tested If tested, have been told result Number of women Region Baku area 23.9 14.2 97.5 1939 Nakhcivan 3.1 2.3 83.3 261 Center, North 10.4 3.9 92.9 2499 West, Southwest 11.5 5.3 90.0 1329 South 4.6 2.1 80.0 931 Area Urban 19.2 10.4 95.8 3910 Rural 5.8 2.1 85.9 3049 Household Resident 13.5 7.0 95.0 6325 Status IDP or Refugee 11.0 4.7 86.7 634 Household Poor 3.5 1.5 90.5 1361 Wealth Middle 12.1 6.3 92.3 4336 Rich 28.0 14.1 98.3 1262 Age 15-19 4.7 .7 77.8 1327 20-24 14.1 6.5 93.8 997 25-29 15.5 11.3 97.0 873 30-34 16.5 8.7 92.0 1007 35-39 16.7 9.0 94.3 1183 40-44 14.7 7.2 97.1 955 45-49 13.8 5.5 94.1 617 Woman's Secondary or Less 5.4 3.5 95.5 1274 Education High School 9.4 4.8 90.4 3284 College- Vocational 19.6 9.9 97.3 1468 University 28.0 13.3 96.0 932 Total 13.3 6.8 94.5 6959 79 Table 33: Percentage of married or in union women aged 15-49 who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, Azerbaijan, 2000 Percent of married or in-union women who are using: Any modern method Any traditional method Any method Number of currently married women No method Female sterili- zation Male sterili- zation Pill IUD Injection Implants Condom Female condom Diaphragm/ foam /jelly LAM Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Total Region Baku area 49.7 .7 .1 3.0 11.6 1.5 .1 2.6 .0 .1 1.5 7.9 19.9 1.2 100.0 19.7 30.6 50.3 1148 Nakhcivan 39.5 1.2 .0 2.3 11.6 .0 .0 .6 .0 .6 .0 1.7 42.4 .0 100.0 16.3 44.2 60.5 172 Center, North 38.6 .4 .1 2.4 8.6 .0 .0 2.0 .0 .0 1.1 3.2 39.9 3.7 100.0 13.5 47.9 61.4 1527 West, Southwest 48.3 .4 .1 5.3 7.7 .1 .0 2.0 .1 .4 .6 4.2 24.2 6.6 100.0 16.1 35.6 51.7 832 South 48.6 .4 .0 3.6 7.8 .0 .0 2.0 .0 .0 .0 .7 33.1 3.9 100.0 13.7 37.7 51.4 562 Area Urban 44.7 .7 .1 3.2 11.7 .7 .0 2.5 .0 .2 1.2 6.1 26.1 2.6 100.0 19.3 36.0 55.3 2339 Rural 45.1 .3 .0 3.3 6.3 .1 .0 1.6 .1 .0 .6 2.1 36.2 4.5 100.0 11.6 43.4 54.9 1902 Househol d Resident 44.7 .5 .1 3.2 9.6 .4 .0 2.1 .0 .1 .9 4.1 30.8 3.4 100.0 16.2 39.2 55.3 3860 Status IDP or Refugee 47.0 .0 .0 3.7 5.8 .5 .0 2.1 .0 .3 1.0 6.6 28.6 4.5 100.0 12.3 40.7 53.0 381 Wealth Poor 45.3 .0 .1 4.6 6.4 .0 .0 1.1 .1 .1 .4 2.8 33.5 5.7 100.0 12.4 42.3 54.7 830 Group Middle 44.2 .6 .0 3.0 9.0 .4 .0 2.2 .0 .1 .9 4.1 32.3 3.2 100.0 15.3 40.5 55.8 2680 Rich 46.9 .8 .1 2.7 13.5 1.1 .1 2.9 .0 .1 1.8 6.7 21.2 1.9 100.0 21.5 31.6 53.1 731 Age 15-19 83.9 .0 .0 .0 .8 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 3.4 .8 11.0 .0 100.0 .8 15.3 16.1 118 20-24 62.0 .2 .0 2.7 6.2 .0 .0 .9 .0 .2 2.9 2.2 20.9 1.8 100.0 10.2 27.8 38.0 450 25-49 41.5 .5 .1 3.5 9.9 .5 .0 2.3 .0 .1 .6 4.7 32.5 3.8 100.0 17.0 41.5 58.5 3673 Woman's Secondary or Less 50.1 .4 .0 2.2 6.4 .0 .0 1.2 .0 .0 1.0 2.4 31.3 4.8 100.0 10.3 39.6 49.9 667 Educatio n High School 44.7 .4 .1 3.5 8.5 .6 .0 1.3 .0 .0 .9 3.8 32.6 3.5 100.0 14.5 40.8 55.3 2053 80 College- Vocational 42.1 .7 .0 2.7 10.8 .5 .0 2.7 .0 .3 .6 4.8 32.1 2.8 100.0 17.7 40.2 57.9 979 University 44.2 .6 .2 4.8 12.8 .2 .2 5.5 .0 .2 1.3 7.6 19.4 3.1 100.0 24.4 31.4 55.8 541 Total 44.9 .5 .1 3.3 9.3 .4 .0 2.1 .0 .1 .9 4.3 30.6 3.5 100.0 15.8 39.3 55.1 4241 81 Table 34: Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the last year by type of personnel delivering antenatal care, Azerbaijan, 2000 Person delivering antenatal care No antenatal care received Total Any skilled personnel Number of women Doctor Nurse /midwife Auxiliary midwife Traditiona l birth attendant Other /missing Region Baku area 79.0 2.5 1.2 .0 .0 17.3 100.0 82.7 81 Nakhcivan 58.1 3.2 .0 .0 .0 38.7 100.0 61.3 31 Center, North 56.7 7.1 .7 1.4 2.1 31.9 100.0 64.5 141 West, Southwest 55.7 12.9 1.4 2.9 1.4 25.7 100.0 70.0 70 South 55.3 3.9 3.9 2.6 5.3 28.9 100.0 63.2 76 Area Urban 76.9 4.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 15.6 100.0 82.1 173 Rural 48.7 8.0 1.8 1.8 2.7 37.2 100.0 58.4 226 Household Resident 61.2 5.9 1.3 1.3 2.2 28.0 100.0 68.5 371 Status IDP or Refugee 57.1 10.7 3.6 3.6 .0 25.0 100.0 71.4 28 Household Poor 38.0 9.0 5.0 1.0 4.0 43.0 100.0 52.0 100 Wealth Middle 64.8 5.7 .4 2.0 1.6 25.4 100.0 70.9 244 Rich 85.5 3.6 .0 .0 .0 10.9 100.0 89.1 55 Woman's Secondary or Less 52.6 5.1 .0 1.3 1.3 39.7 100.0 57.7 78 Education High School 53.2 7.5 2.5 2.5 3.0 31.3 100.0 63.2 201 College- Vocational 76.3 5.0 .0 .0 1.3 17.5 100.0 81.3 80 University 85.0 5.0 2.5 .0 .0 7.5 100.0 92.5 40 Total 60.9 6.3 1.5 1.5 2.0 27.8 100.0 68.7 399 83 Table 35: Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the last year by type of personnel assisting at delivery, Azerbaijan, 2000 Person assisting at delivery Total Any skilled personnel Number of women Doctor Nurse/ midwife Auxiliary midwife Traditiona l birth attendant Relative/ friend Other/ Missing No assistance received Region Baku area 87.7 3.7 2.5 3.7 .0 .0 2.5 100.0 93.8 81 Nakhcivan 61.3 19.4 .0 6.5 3.2 .0 9.7 100.0 80.6 31 Center, North 68.8 9.9 5.0 8.5 2.1 2.1 3.5 100.0 83.7 141 West, Southwest 58.6 22.9 8.6 1.4 4.3 1.4 2.9 100.0 90.0 70 South 64.5 7.9 15.8 6.6 2.6 .0 2.6 100.0 88.2 76 Area Urban 86.1 6.4 2.3 2.3 .6 .0 2.3 100.0 94.8 173 Rural 56.6 15.0 10.2 8.4 3.5 1.8 4.4 100.0 81.9 226 Household Resident 70.9 10.0 7.0 5.9 2.2 1.1 3.0 100.0 87.9 371 Status IDP or Refugee 50.0 28.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 .0 10.7 100.0 82.1 28 Household Poor 48.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 6.0 2.0 5.0 100.0 75.0 100 Wealth Middle 73.4 11.9 5.3 4.1 1.2 .8 3.3 100.0 90.6 244 Rich 90.9 3.6 1.8 1.8 .0 .0 1.8 100.0 96.4 55 Woman's Secondary or Less 59.0 16.7 7.7 7.7 3.8 1.3 3.8 100.0 83.3 78 Education High School 62.7 11.4 9.5 7.5 3.0 1.5 4.5 100.0 83.6 201 College-Vocational 85.0 7.5 2.5 2.5 .0 .0 2.5 100.0 95.0 80 University 92.5 7.5 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0 40 Total 69.4 11.3 6.8 5.8 2.3 1.0 3.5 100.0 87.5 399 84 Table 36: Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reasons for non-registration, Azerbaijan, 2000 Registration status Birth is not registered because: Total Number of children Birth registered DK if birth registered Costs too much Must travel too far Late & didn't want to pay fine Doesn't know where to register Other Reason DK or Missing Sex Male 96.9 .2 1.1 .2 .1 .0 1.2 .4 100.0 1017 Female 96.7 .2 1.0 .0 .1 .1 1.5 .2 100.0 858 Region Baku area 98.1 .2 .5 .0 .0 .0 1.2 .0 100.0 420 Nakhcivan 97.9 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 1.0 1.0 100.0 97 Center, North 95.4 .0 2.3 .1 .3 .0 1.3 .6 100.0 692 West, Southwest 98.2 .3 .5 .3 .0 .3 .5 .0 100.0 396 South 95.9 .7 .0 .0 .0 .0 3.0 .4 100.0 270 Area Urban 98.1 .1 .4 .0 .0 .0 1.2 .1 100.0 914 Rural 95.5 .3 1.7 .2 .2 .1 1.5 .5 100.0 961 Household Resident 96.6 .2 1.1 .1 .1 .1 1.5 .4 100.0 1710 Status IDP or Refugee 98.8 .0 .6 .6 .0 .0 .0 .0 100.0 165 Household Poor 96.7 .4 1.0 .2 .2 .0 1.4 .0 100.0 487 Wealth Middle 96.5 .1 1.2 .1 .1 .1 1.4 .5 100.0 1155 Rich 98.3 .4 .4 .0 .0 .0 .9 .0 100.0 233 Age < 6 86.4 1.3 3.2 .0 .0 .6 7.8 .6 100.0 154 (Months) 6-11 94.0 .0 1.6 .5 .5 .0 2.2 1.1 100.0 183 12-23 96.3 .3 1.1 .0 .0 .0 1.6 .8 100.0 374 24-35 98.0 .3 1.1 .3 .0 .0 .3 .0 100.0 348 36-47 99.5 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .5 .0 100.0 393 48-59 98.8 .0 .9 .0 .2 .0 .0 .0 100.0 423 Mother's Secondary or Less 94.2 .3 1.8 .6 .0 .0 3.0 .0 100.0 328 Education High School 96.7 .3 1.2 .0 .2 .1 1.1 .4 100.0 952 College-Vocational 98.3 .0 .8 .0 .0 .0 1.0 .0 100.0 400 85 University 98.5 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .5 1.0 100.0 195 Total 96.8 .2 1.1 .1 .1 .1 1.3 .3 100.0 1875 86 Table 37: Percentage of children 0-14 years of age in households not living with a biological parent, Azerbaijan, 2000 Living with both parents Living with neither parent Living with mother Living with father Total Not living with a biological parent One or both parents dead Number of children Only father alive Only mother alive Both Are alive Both Are dead Father alive Father dead Mother alive Mother dead Impossible to determine Sex Male 93.7 .1 .1 .4 .1 2.7 2.3 .1 .4 .2 100.0 .7 3.0 4159 Female 92.4 .0 .1 .9 .3 2.8 3.0 .1 .3 .1 100.0 1.3 3.7 3818 Region Baku area 91.1 .1 .1 .5 .3 4.3 3.2 .1 .2 .2 100.0 .9 3.8 1932 Nakhcivan 97.1 .0 .0 .3 .0 1.5 1.2 .0 .0 .0 100.0 .3 1.2 343 Center, North 94.0 .1 .1 .4 .2 1.5 3.1 .2 .5 .1 100.0 .7 3.8 2974 West, Southwest 94.6 .1 .1 .4 .1 1.7 2.3 .1 .4 .3 100.0 .6 2.9 1594 South 90.5 .0 .1 2.1 .5 4.9 1.4 .0 .4 .0 100.0 2.7 2.5 1134 Area Urban 92.9 .1 .0 .5 .3 3.1 2.6 .1 .3 .1 100.0 .9 3.3 4044 Rural 93.2 .1 .1 .9 .2 2.3 2.6 .1 .4 .2 100.0 1.2 3.3 3933 Household Resident 93.1 .0 .1 .7 .2 2.8 2.4 .1 .4 .2 100.0 1.0 3.1 7207 Status IDP or Refugee 92.1 .4 .0 .5 .3 2.1 4.4 .0 .3 .0 100.0 1.2 5.3 770 Household Poor 93.3 .1 .0 .3 .1 2.7 2.8 .1 .4 .3 100.0 .4 3.3 1882 Wealth Middle 93.0 .1 .1 .8 .3 2.5 2.5 .1 .3 .1 100.0 1.3 3.4 4988 Rich 92.7 .0 .0 .5 .3 3.5 2.5 .1 .4 .1 100.0 .7 3.2 1107 Age 0-4 years 96.0 .0 .0 .7 .0 2.5 .4 .0 .1 .1 100.0 .8 .7 2004 5-9 years 92.2 .1 .1 .6 .2 3.2 2.8 .3 .2 .3 100.0 1.1 3.4 2813 10-14 years 92.0 .0 .1 .7 .4 2.4 3.8 .0 .6 .0 100.0 1.1 4.9 3160 Total 93.0 .1 .1 .7 .2 2.7 2.6 .1 .4 .1 100.0 1.0 3.3 7977 Table 38: Percentage of children 5-14 years of age who are currently working, Azerbaijan, 2000 Paid work Unpaid work Domestic work: Family work Currently working Number of children < 4 hours/day 4 or more hours/day Sex Male .3 5.2 49.2 3.8 6.1 13.6 3082 Female .2 4.9 57.0 6.8 1.8 12.3 2891 Region Baku area .3 1.3 49.9 2.3 1.2 4.6 1478 Nakhcivan .4 3.7 56.2 12.4 8.7 20.2 242 Center, North .1 5.2 54.7 7.9 4.8 16.6 2247 West, Southwest .7 6.1 57.2 5.1 6.3 15.2 1173 South .1 10.1 47.1 1.3 2.4 13.1 833 Area Urban .2 2.6 53.0 3.4 1.9 7.6 3061 Rural .3 7.6 53.0 7.1 6.3 18.7 2912 Household Resident .2 5.4 53.7 5.4 4.1 13.4 5379 Status IDP or Refugee .5 2.0 46.5 3.7 3.7 9.1 594 Household Poor .7 8.6 55.5 8.5 7.4 21.5 1371 Wealth Middle .1 4.7 52.4 4.5 3.5 11.7 3751 Rich .5 .7 51.7 3.1 0.9 4.9 851 Age 5-9 years .2 3.3 42.5 1.3 2.5 6.6 2813 10-14 years .3 6.6 62.3 8.7 5.4 18.7 3160 Total .3 5.0 53.0 5.2 4.0 13.0 5973 88 Appendix A: Sample Design The major features of sample design and implementation are described in this appendix. Sample design features include: target sample size, choice of domains, sampling stages, stratification, degree of clustering, and the relationship of design decisions to the nature of the sample frame. Sample implementation includes response rate and sampling error calculations. A.1 Sample Design and Implementation A self-weighting, multistage cluster sampling approach was used in the selection of the Azerbaijan MICS sample. A standard segment design was adopted for the selection of sample households. The Azerbaijan MICS was designed so that a variety of CRC indicators would be analyzed for Azerbaijan as a whole and for urban and rural domains. The universe of the Azerbaijan MICS was defined as the total population of Azerbaijan for the Household Questionnaire, and as subsets, all women age 15-49 for the Women’s Questionnaire and all living children under age 5 for the Children’s Questionnaire. The aim was to survey the population by designing a sample of households, interviewing women age 15-49 and administering a Children’s Questionnaire to the mothers or caretakers of children under age 5. A.2 Sample Frame Azerbaijan conducted a general population census in January 1999. In the absence of any other source which could serve as a sample frame for the MICS, the census was the only information source from which the Azerbaijan MICS sample could be selected. Households in the Azerbaijan census were divided into enumeration areas, comprising populations of 506 on the average, which made it possible to consider them as primary sampling units (PSUs). Since the census was carried out recently, no listing activity was deemed necessary to update the sample frame. Several computer files were available from the census that could be used to construct a sample frame. Two computer files were used to generate the sample frame for the Azerbaijan MICS. The first of these was an enumeration-area based file which included 15,475 enumeration areas, and information on the numbers of households and population in each enumeration area at the time of the census. This file was first used to select 254 enumeration areas for the MICS sample, as discussed later. The second file available was a household-based file from the census, which listed all households with enumeration area codes. However, this file excluded IDP/refugee-headed households, since such households were assigned the enumeration codes to which the household heads belonged in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan. In short, IDP/refugee households did not appear in the 254 enumeration areas that were selected. Therefore, an in-office updating of the sample frame was carried out, by comparing the numbers of households from the enumeration-area based file with the numbers of households in the household-based file. If the latter produced lower numbers of households for a particular selected enumeration area, the original census questionnaires were retrieved from the State Committee of Statistics archives and the questionnaires were compared with those in the household-based file. The household- based data file was updated by including identification information of the households missing from the computerized list, which were predominantly IDP/refugee-headed households. The enumeration area-based file was used to obtain three separate files for the Baku area, for other urban areas and for rural areas, which were used as sample domains in the selection stage. Definitions current in the country for urban and rural settlements were used, where a combination of population sizes, administrative status and administrative considerations by the state to designate settlements as urban or rural. The Baku area, for instance, including the main city of Baku and settlements in the vicinity, is locally defined as an urban area. In each of the three files, enumeration areas were sorted geographically to ascertain implicit stratification, by using the nine- zone division of the country designated during the Soviet era but still in use, albeit in a limited fashion, by the interested circles in the country. A.3 Sample Size The target sample size for the Azerbaijan MICS was 6120 households. For the calculation of this sample size, the key indicator used was the administration of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to children under 5 with 89 diarrhoea at any time and duration during a period of two weeks. The assumptions used in the calculation are as follows: · The prevalence of ORT use is 10 percent. · The proportion of children with diarrhoea in the general population is 4.8 percent, calculated by multiplying the estimated diarrhoea prevalence of 30 percent with the proportion of under-5 children in the population, 16 percent. · A design effect of 1.5. · A confidence interval of 95 percent. · A margin of error of 3 percent. · An average household size of 4.5. · A non-response of 10 percent. The resulting number of households from this exercise – 3056 households - were multiplied by two to ascertain statistically sound analyses of the indicators by urban and rural areas. The average cluster size in the Azerbaijan MICS was determined as 24, making necessary the selection of 255 enumeration areas (clusters). A.4 Sample Allocation and Sample Selection Since the Azerbaijan MICS sample was designed as a self-weighting sample, the target number of clusters were distributed to the sample domains by using the share of population in each domain in Azerbaijan’s total population: Share of Population Target Number of Clusters Baku Area 24.9 63 Other Urban Areas 28.7 73 Rural Areas 46.4 118 Total 100.0 254 After rounding, 254 clusters were selected during the selection of PSUs (enumeration areas). PSUs having measures of size of more than one were divided into the number of possible segments and one segment was randomly selected. As discussed above, enumeration areas were first sorted geographically to allow implicit stratification by regions in the country. Enumeration areas were sorted geographically within each settlement, and households were sorted within each enumeration area. No cartographic material was available. The nine-zone division of the country is as follows (each named after the main district(s) within the zone): · Baku area · Nakhcivan · Gence · Quba, Qusar · Balaken, Zaqatala · Aqstafa, Qazax · Agdam, Fizuli · Lenkeran, Astara · Yevlakh, Ali Bayramli The nine zones were sorted geographically in a serpentine fashion for purposes of implicit stratification to increase the effectiveness of the sample. Although the MICS sample size was not calculated on the basis of regional representation, this implicit stratification allowed some statistically significant analyses to be performed for some variables. To this end, the nine zones were collapsed into five regions as follows, indicating the names used in the main body of the report: · Baku area 90 · Nakhcivan · Center & North (Quba, Qusar, Balaken, Zaqatala, Yevlakh, Ali Bayramli) · West & Southwest (Gence, Aqstafa, Qazax, Agdam, Fizuli) · South (Lenkeran, Astara) In each of the three sample domains, the required numbers of enumeration areas were selected by using systematic pps (probability proportional to size) sampling procedures, based on the populations in each enumeration area. The first stage selection was thus completed by selecting the required number of enumeration areas from each sample domain (Baku area, other urban areas, and rural areas). For the second stage selection (i.e. selection of households), calculations were performed to determine the sampling interval. The average household size in the sample frame that was obtained was 4.76 persons. Since an average enumeration area had a population of 506.8 persons, it followed from here that there were about 108 households in an enumeration area on the average. Therefore, one in every 4.4 households had to be selected from each enumeration area to obtain the average cluster size of 24 households. After the in-office updating of the enumeration areas was completed, sample households were systematically selected by generating separate random starting numbers for each enumeration area. A total of 6166 households were selected for interviews during the MICS. A.5 Coverage of the Sample The results of sample implementation for the household and for individual interviews for Azerbaijan as a whole, and for urban and rural areas are shown in Table 1 in the main text of the report. As shown in the table, response rates were high in general, at 97 percent for households and around 93-94 percent for individual women and children under five. Response rates did not vary by urban and rural areas. Therefore, no correction factors were calculated to compensate for varying response rates. A.6 Estimates of Sampling Errors The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: non-sampling and sampling errors. Non- sampling errors result from mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewers or the respondents, and data entry errors. Non-sampling errors are generally impossible to avoid and difficult to detect and evaluate statistically. Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sampling error is a measure of the variability between all possible samples from the same universe. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. Sampling error is usually measured in terms of standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage etc) which is the ratio of the standard deviation to the square root of the sample size. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical sample and design. If the MICS sample had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulae for calculating sampling errors. However, the MICS sample is a multi-stage cluster design, and there is need for use of more complex formulae. The computer package, CLUSTERS, was therefore used to compute sampling errors for selected variables with the proper statistical methodology. In addition to the standard errors, CLUSTERS computes the design effect (DEFT) for each estimate, which is defined as the ratio of the standard error using the given sample design to the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used. A DEFT value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, whereas a DEFT value greater than 1.0 indicates the increase in the sampling error due to the use of a more complex and less statistically efficient design. CLUSTERS also computes the relative error and confidence limits for the estimates. 91 The results for selected variables are presented here for Azerbaijan as a whole, for urban and rural areas, and for the five regions. Note that all variables are in the form of proportions. The confidence interval can be interpreted as follows: As an example, the overall proportion of women who have ever given birth from the national sample is 0.622 (see variable EVERBR in Table A.2), and the standard error is 0.007. Therefore, to obtain the 95 percent confidence limits, one adds and subtracts twice the standard error to the sample estimate. There is a high probability (95 percent) that the true proportion of women who have ever given birth is between 0.608 and 0.636. Table A.1. List of Selected Variables for Sampling Errors, Azerbaijan, 2000 Estimate Population URBAN Urban Households RESIDE Resident Households IDP IDP or refugee Households IODINE Using iodized salt Households SCHOOL Attending primary school Children age 7-10 years LITERA Literate Household members age 15+ SAFE Using improving drinking water sources Household members SANIT Using sanitary means of excrete disposal Household members WORK Currently working Children age 5-14 years EVERBR Ever given birth Women age 15-49 WEIGH Weighed at birth Births last year AIDS Heard of AIDS Women age 15-49 THREE Know all three ways of preventing HIV transmission Women age 15-49 THREEM Correctly identify all three HIV/AIDS misconceptions Women age 15-49 MOMKID Know AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child Women age 15-49 THREEW Correctly identify all three ways of HIV transmission From mother to child Women age 15-49 ONEPLS Agree with at least one discriminatory statement Towards people with HIV/AIDS Women age 15-49 KNOWS Have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS Women age 15-49 PLACE Know a place to get an AIDS test Women age 15-49 TESTED Have been tested for AIDS Women age 15-49 NOMETH Currently not using a contraceptive method Currently married women ANYMOD Currently using any modern contraceptive Currently married women ANYTRA Currently using any traditional contraceptive Currently married women ANY Currently using any method of contraceptio n Currently married women SKILAN Antenatal care received from any skilled personnel Births last year SKILDC Delivery assistance from any skilled personnel Births last year ECEP Attending early childhood education programme Children age 36-59 months WA2 Underweight Children under five years HA2 Stunted Children under five years WH2 Wasted Children under five years EXBF Exclusively breastfeeding Children age 0-3 months SOLIDS Complementary feeding Children age 6-9 months BF1223 Continued bre astfeeding Children age 12-15 months BF2023 Continued breastfeeding Children age 20-23 months DIARR Had diarrhea in last 2 weeks Children under five years RECTRE Received recommended treatment for diarrhea Children with diarrhea in Last 2 weeks DRNKD Received increased fluid and continued feeding during diarrhea Children with diarrhea in Last 2 weeks ARI Had acute respiratory infection in last 2 weeks Children under five years ANY Received treatment form an appropriate provider for ARI Children with ARI in Last 2 weeks 92 SICK Had a reported illness in last 2 weeks Children under five years DRNKS Received increased fluids and continued feeding during illness Children with reported illness In last 2 weeks TWOSIG Know at least two signs for seeking care immediately Caretakers of children under five BEDNET Slept under a bednet during the previous night Children under five years FEVER Had fever in last 2 weeks Children under five years REGIST Birth registered Children under five years 93 Table A.2. Sampling Errors, Azerbaijan, 2000 Standard Number Design Relative Value Error of Cases Effect Error Confidence Limits (R) (SE) (N) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.578 0.008 5861 1.298 0.014 0.561 0.595 RESIDE 0.909 0.014 5861 3.613 0.015 0.882 0.936 IDP 0.091 0.014 5861 3.613 0.149 0.064 0.118 IODINE 0.413 0.011 5791 1.632 0.026 0.392 0.434 SCHOOL 0.884 0.007 2417 1.099 0.008 0.869 0.898 LITERA 0.950 0.002 18987 1.307 0.002 0.946 0.954 SAFE 0.763 0.015 27030 5.684 0.019 0.734 0.792 SANIT 0.808 0.012 27030 4.807 0.014 0.785 0.831 WORK 0.130 0.007 5973 1.518 0.051 0.117 0.143 EVERBR 0.622 0.007 6959 1.206 0.011 0.608 0.636 WEIGH 0.604 0.025 399 1.031 0.042 0.553 0.655 AIDS 0.716 0.009 6959 1.729 0.013 0.697 0.735 THREE 0.092 0.004 6959 1.251 0.047 0.083 0.101 THREEM 0.050 0.003 6959 1.081 0.057 0.044 0.055 MOMKID 0.476 0.009 6959 1.526 0.019 0.458 0.494 THREEW 0.381 0.009 6959 1.547 0.024 0.363 0.399 ONEPLS 0.087 0.004 6959 1.321 0.051 0.078 0.096 KNOWS 0.017 0.001 6959 0.890 0.080 0.015 0.020 PLACE 0.133 0.005 6959 1.348 0.041 0.122 0.144 TESTED 0.068 0.004 6959 1.424 0.063 0.059 0.076 NOMETH 0.449 0.009 4241 1.230 0.021 0.430 0.467 ANYMOD 0.158 0.007 4241 1.200 0.043 0.145 0.172 ANYTRA 0.393 0.009 4241 1.135 0.022 0.376 0.410 ANY 0.551 0.009 4241 1.230 0.017 0.533 0.570 SKILAN 0.687 0.027 399 1.170 0.040 0.632 0.741 SKILDC 0.875 0.019 399 1.118 0.021 0.838 0.912 ECEP 0.114 0.014 816 1.268 0.124 0.086 0.142 WA2 0.168 0.011 1711 1.176 0.063 0.146 0.189 HA2 0.196 0.011 1711 1.095 0.054 0.175 0.217 WH2 0.079 0.008 1711 1.163 0.096 0.064 0.095 EXBF 0.094 0.029 106 1.000 0.302 0.037 0.151 SOLIDS 0.390 0.046 118 1.028 0.119 0.297 0.483 BF1223 0.383 0.045 133 1.063 0.117 0.294 0.473 BF2023 0.156 0.040 109 1.148 0.257 0.076 0.236 DIARR 0.217 0.011 1875 1.206 0.053 0.194 0.240 RECTRE 0.926 0.012 407 0.894 0.013 0.903 0.949 DRNKD 0.265 0.020 407 0.920 0.076 0.225 0.306 ARI 0.031 0.005 1875 1.221 0.156 0.022 0.041 ANY 0.356 0.064 59 1.011 0.179 0.229 0.483 SICK 0.326 0.013 1875 1.192 0.040 0.301 0.352 DRNKS 0.278 0.019 612 1.046 0.068 0.240 0.316 TWOSIG 0.340 0.017 1875 1.527 0.049 0.306 0.373 BEDNET 0.124 0.008 1875 1.053 0.065 0.108 0.140 FEVER 0.137 0.010 1875 1.201 0.070 0.118 0.156 REGIST 0.968 0.006 1875 1.407 0.006 0.957 0.979 94 Table A.3. Sampling Errors, Urban Areas, Azerbaijan, 2000 Standard Number Design Relative Value Error of Cases Effect Error Confidence Limits (R) (SE) (N) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 1.000 0.000 3388 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 RESIDE 0.885 0.019 3388 3.420 0.021 0.848 0.923 IDP 0.115 0.019 3388 3.420 0.163 0.077 0.152 IODINE 0.438 0.015 3355 1.701 0.033 0.409 0.467 SCHOOL 0.899 0.009 1232 1.041 0.010 0.881 0.917 LITERA 0.972 0.002 10454 1.302 0.002 0.968 0.976 SAFE 0.925 0.013 14517 6.143 0.015 0.898 0.952 SANIT 0.898 0.012 14517 4.886 0.014 0.874 0.923 WORK 0.076 0.008 3061 1.602 0.101 0.060 0.091 EVERBR 0.631 0.009 3910 1.216 0.015 0.612 0.649 WEIGH 0.832 0.029 173 1.018 0.035 0.774 0.890 AIDS 0.834 0.011 3910 1.810 0.013 0.813 0.856 THREE 0.113 0.006 3910 1.262 0.056 0.101 0.126 THREEM 0.070 0.004 3910 1.020 0.059 0.062 0.079 MOMKID 0.565 0.012 3910 1.543 0.022 0.541 0.590 THREEW 0.465 0.013 3910 1.609 0.028 0.440 0.491 ONEPLS 0.112 0.007 3910 1.321 0.059 0.099 0.125 KNOWS 0.026 0.002 3910 0.903 0.088 0.021 0.031 PLACE 0.192 0.009 3910 1.433 0.047 0.174 0.210 TESTED 0.104 0.007 3910 1.416 0.067 0.090 0.118 NOMETH 0.447 0.013 2339 1.256 0.029 0.421 0.473 ANYMOD 0.193 0.010 2339 1.210 0.051 0.173 0.213 ANYTRA 0.360 0.012 2339 1.182 0.033 0.337 0.383 ANY 0.553 0.013 2339 1.256 0.023 0.527 0.579 SKILAN 0.821 0.034 173 1.154 0.041 0.753 0.888 SKILDC 0.948 0.014 173 0.849 0.015 0.919 0.977 ECEP 0.191 0.024 413 1.245 0.126 0.143 0.240 W A2 0.149 0.017 814 1.351 0.113 0.115 0.182 HA2 0.172 0.016 814 1.197 0.092 0.140 0.204 WH2 0.080 0.012 814 1.278 0.152 0.056 0.104 EXBF 0.067 0.037 45 0.992 0.560 0.008 0.141 SOLIDS 0.373 0.067 51 0.984 0.181 0.238 0.507 BF1223 0.324 0.060 68 1.044 0.184 0.204 0.443 BF2023 0.160 0.055 50 1.045 0.342 0.051 0.269 DIARR 0.165 0.014 914 1.113 0.083 0.138 0.193 RECTRE 0.934 0.019 151 0.952 0.021 0.895 0.972 DRNKD 0.225 0.033 151 0.977 0.148 0.159 0.292 ARI 0.019 0.005 914 1.193 0.287 0.008 0.029 ANY 0.294 0.103 17 0.901 0.349 0.089 0.499 SICK 0.311 0.016 914 1.040 0.051 0.279 0.343 DRNKS 0.261 0.028 284 1.084 0.109 0.204 0.317 TWOSIG 0.361 0.025 914 1.584 0.070 0.311 0.411 BEDNET 0.065 0.010 914 1.210 0.152 0.045 0.084 FEVER 0.139 0.012 914 1.070 0.088 0.114 0.163 REGIST 0.981 0.005 914 1.083 0.005 0.972 0.991 95 Table A.4. Sampling Errors, Rural Areas, Azerbaijan, 2000 Standard Number Design Relative Value Error of Cases Effect Error Confidence Limits (R) (SE) (N) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.000 0.000 2473 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 RESIDE 0.941 0.019 2473 4.086 0.021 0.902 0.979 IDP 0.059 0.019 2473 4.086 0.327 0.021 0.098 IODINE 0.378 0.015 2436 1.545 0.040 0.348 0.408 SCHOOL 0.868 0.011 1185 1.121 0.013 0.845 0.890 LITERA 0.924 0.003 8533 1.214 0.004 0.917 0.931 SAFE 0.575 0.027 12513 6.043 0.046 0.522 0.629 SANIT 0.703 0.021 12513 5.030 0.029 0.662 0.744 WORK 0.187 0.011 2912 1.459 0.056 0.166 0.208 EVERBR 0.612 0.011 3049 1.208 0.017 0.590 0.633 WEIGH 0.429 0.038 226 1.143 0.088 0.354 0.505 AIDS 0.564 0.017 3049 1.843 0.029 0.531 0.597 THREE 0.065 0.006 3049 1.256 0.087 0.053 0.076 THREEM 0.023 0.003 3049 1.290 0.152 0.016 0.030 MOMKID 0.361 0.015 3049 1.677 0.040 0.332 0.390 THREEW 0.273 0.013 3049 1.598 0.047 0.247 0.299 ONEPLS 0.055 0.005 3049 1.331 0.100 0.044 0.066 KNOWS 0.006 0.001 3049 0.816 0.187 0.004 0.009 PLACE 0.058 0.005 3049 1.284 0.094 0.047 0.069 TESTED 0.021 0.003 3049 1.173 0.145 0.015 0.027 NOMETH 0.451 0.014 1902 1.197 0.030 0.423 0.478 ANYMOD 0.116 0.009 1902 1.214 0.077 0.098 0.133 ANYTRA 0.434 0.012 1902 1.063 0.028 0.410 0.458 ANY 0.549 0.014 1902 1.197 0.025 0.522 0.577 SKILAN 0.584 0.039 226 1.172 0.066 0.507 0.661 SKILDC 0.819 0.030 226 1.157 0.036 0.759 0.878 ECEP 0.035 0.012 403 1.367 0.359 0.010 0.060 WA2 0.185 0.013 897 1.013 0.071 0.159 0.211 HA2 0.217 0.014 897 1.007 0.064 0.190 0.245 WH2 0.079 0.009 897 1.045 0.119 0.060 0.098 EXBF 0.115 0.041 61 0.998 0.358 0.033 0.197 SOLIDS 0.403 0.063 67 1.042 0.156 0.277 0.529 BF1223 0.446 0.067 65 1.079 0.150 0.312 0.580 BF2023 0.153 0.058 59 1.221 0.378 0.037 0.268 DIARR 0.266 0.018 961 1.285 0.069 0.230 0.303 RECTRE 0.922 0.014 256 0.859 0.016 0.893 0.951 DRNKD 0.289 0.025 256 0.881 0.087 0.239 0.339 ARI 0.044 0.008 961 1.235 0.186 0.027 0.060 ANY 0.381 0.078 42 1.028 0.205 0.225 0.537 SICK 0.341 0.020 961 1.326 0.059 0.301 0.382 DRNKS 0.293 0.026 328 1.014 0.087 0.242 0.344 TWOSIG 0.319 0.022 961 1.483 0.070 0.275 0.364 BEDNET 0.181 0.013 961 1.009 0.069 0.156 0.206 FEVER 0.135 0.015 961 1.314 0.107 0.106 0.164 REGIST 0.955 0.010 961 1.521 0.011 0.935 0.976 96 Table A.5. Sampling Errors, Baku Region, Azerbaijan, 2000 Standard Number Design Relative Value Error of Cases Effect Error Confidence Limits (R) (SE) (N) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 1.000 0.000 1740 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 RESIDE 0.882 0.024 1740 3.065 0.027 0.835 0.930 IDP 0.118 0.024 1740 3.065 0.201 0.070 0.165 IODINE 0.347 0.018 1723 1.606 0.053 0.310 0.384 SCHOOL 0.916 0.009 609 0.808 0.010 0.898 0.934 LITERA 0.988 0.001 5172 0.872 0.001 0.985 0.990 SAFE 0.944 0.020 7108 7.210 0.021 0.904 0.983 SANIT 0.989 0.003 7108 2.530 0.003 0.982 0.995 WORK 0.046 0.011 1478 1.999 0.237 0.024 0.068 EVERBR 0.636 0.013 1939 1.150 0.020 0.611 0.661 WEIGH 0.852 0.041 81 1.038 0.048 0.769 0.934 AIDS 0.893 0.009 1939 1.316 0.010 0.875 0.912 THREE 0.090 0.007 1939 1.071 0.077 0.076 0.104 THREEM 0.073 0.006 1939 1.070 0.087 0.061 0.086 MOMKID 0.627 0.020 1939 1.812 0.032 0.587 0.667 THREEW 0.532 0.021 1939 1.889 0.040 0.489 0.575 ONEPLS 0.142 0.011 1939 1.424 0.080 0.119 0.164 KNOWS 0.021 0.002 1939 0.736 0.115 0.016 0.025 PLACE 0.239 0.013 1939 1.388 0.056 0.212 0.266 TESTED 0.142 0.011 1939 1.384 0.077 0.120 0.164 NOMETH 0.497 0.015 1148 1.001 0.030 0.468 0.527 ANYMOD 0.197 0.014 1148 1.160 0.069 0.170 0.224 ANYTRA 0.306 0.013 1148 0.988 0.044 0.279 0.333 ANY 0.503 0.015 1148 1.001 0.029 0.473 0.532 SKILAN 0.827 0.048 81 1.126 0.058 0.732 0.922 SKILDC 0.938 0.020 81 0.730 0.021 0.899 0.978 ECEP 0.202 0.030 188 1.012 0.147 0.143 0.262 WA2 0.114 0.022 370 1.310 0.191 0.070 0.157 HA2 0.154 0.019 370 0.985 0.120 0.117 0.191 WH2 0.054 0.012 370 1.027 0.224 0.030 0.078 DIARR 0.110 0.015 420 1.006 0.140 0.079 0.140 RECTRE 0.935 0.035 46 0.951 0.037 0.865 1.000 DRNKD 0.196 0.054 46 0.910 0.275 0.088 0.303 ARI 0.019 0.008 420 1.184 0.415 0.003 0.035 SICK 0.274 0.022 420 1.021 0.081 0.229 0.318 DRNKS 0.252 0.051 115 1.251 0.202 0.150 0.354 TWOSIG 0.381 0.034 420 1.425 0.089 0.313 0.449 BEDNET 0.043 0.012 420 1.165 0.269 0.020 0.066 FEVER 0.112 0.015 420 0.971 0.134 0.082 0.142 REGIST 0.981 0.007 420 1.123 0.008 0.966 0.996 97 Table A.6. Sampling Errors, Nakhcivan Region, Azerbaijan, 2000 Standard Number Design Relative Value Error of Cases Effect Error Confidence Limits (R) (SE) (N) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.261 0.081 218 2.710 0.309 0.100 0.423 RESIDE 0.995 0.005 218 1.033 0.005 0.986 1.000 IDP 0.005 0.005 218 1.033 1.033 0.005 0.014 IODINE 0.106 0.026 217 1.225 0.242 0.055 0.157 SCHOOL 0.944 0.019 90 0.763 0.020 0.907 0.981 LITERA 0.906 0.012 732 1.079 0.013 0.882 0.929 SAFE 0.684 0.074 1075 5.236 0.109 0.535 0.832 SANIT 0.936 0.030 1075 4.024 0.032 0.876 0.996 WORK 0.202 0.015 242 0.584 0.075 0.172 0.233 EVERBR 0.644 0.034 261 1.135 0.052 0.576 0.711 WEIGH 0.194 0.097 31 1.345 0.501 0.000 0.388 AIDS 0.406 0.037 261 1.220 0.092 0.332 0.480 THREE 0.073 0.022 261 1.350 0.299 0.029 0.116 THREEM 0.050 0.012 261 0.878 0.238 0.026 0.073 MOM KID 0.207 0.034 261 1.334 0.162 0.140 0.274 THREEW 0.138 0.024 261 1.134 0.176 0.089 0.186 ONEPLS 0.069 0.019 261 1.212 0.276 0.031 0.107 KNOWS 0.027 0.015 261 1.483 0.554 0.003 0.057 PLACE 0.031 0.011 261 0.990 0.345 0.009 0.052 TESTED 0.023 0.010 261 1.045 0.422 0.004 0.042 NOMETH 0.395 0.026 172 0.684 0.065 0.344 0.447 ANYMOD 0.163 0.024 172 0.845 0.147 0.115 0.211 ANYTRA 0.442 0.028 172 0.741 0.064 0.386 0.498 ANY 0.605 0.026 172 0.684 0.042 0.553 0.656 SKILAN 0.613 0.139 31 1.563 0.227 0.335 0.891 SKILDC 0.806 0.116 31 1.615 0.144 0.573 1.000 ECEP 0.027 0.028 37 1.037 1.037 0.029 0.083 WA2 0.196 0.052 97 1.285 0.266 0.092 0.300 HA2 0.237 0.058 97 1.334 0.244 0.121 0.353 WH2 0.072 0.009 97 0.358 0.131 0.053 0.091 DIARR 0.351 0.059 97 1.206 0.168 0.233 0.468 RECTRE 0.941 0.031 34 0.763 0.033 0.879 1.000 DRNKD 0.294 0.073 34 0.923 0.249 0.148 0.441 ARI 0.072 0.026 97 0.977 0.358 0.021 0.124 SICK 0.474 0.067 97 1.319 0.142 0.340 0.609 DRNKS 0.326 0.080 46 1.147 0.246 0.166 0.486 TWOSIG 0.495 0.053 97 1.031 0.106 0.390 0.600 BEDNET 0.371 0.032 97 0.652 0.087 0.307 0.435 FEVER 0.186 0.044 97 1.099 0.235 0.098 0.273 REGIST 0.979 0.013 97 0.925 0.014 0.953 1.000 98 Table A.7. Sampling Errors, Central & Northern Region, Azerbaijan, 2000 Standard Number Design Relative Value Error of Cases Effect Error Confidence Limits (R) (SE) (N) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.476 0.015 2029 1.339 0.031 0.446 0.506 RESIDE 0.905 0.027 2029 4.112 0.030 0.851 0.958 IDP 0.095 0.027 2029 4.112 0.282 0.042 0.149 IODINE 0.438 0.014 1989 1.237 0.031 0.411 0.466 SCHOOL 0.883 0.011 928 1.062 0.013 0.860 0.905 LITERA 0.947 0.004 6637 1.424 0.004 0.939 0.954 SAFE 0.697 0.028 9634 6.073 0.041 0.640 0.754 SANIT 0.684 0.021 9634 4.401 0.031 0.642 0.725 WORK 0.166 0.011 2247 1.441 0.068 0.143 0.189 EVERBR 0.613 0.011 2499 1.178 0.019 0.590 0.636 WEIGH 0.624 0.045 141 1.092 0.072 0.535 0.714 AIDS 0.687 0.017 2499 1.880 0.025 0.652 0.722 THREE 0.100 0.007 2499 1.221 0.073 0.085 0.115 THREEM 0.045 0.005 2499 1.184 0.109 0.035 0.055 MOMKID 0.449 0.016 2499 1.593 0.035 0.417 0.481 THREEW 0.349 0.014 2499 1.494 0.041 0.320 0.377 ONEPLS 0.067 0.007 2499 1.396 0.104 0.053 0.081 KNOWS 0.020 0.002 2499 0.879 0.122 0.015 0.025 PLACE 0.104 0.009 2499 1.447 0.085 0.086 0.122 TESTED 0.039 0.004 2499 0.926 0.092 0.032 0.046 NOMETH 0.386 0.016 1527 1.291 0.042 0.354 0.418 ANYMOD 0.135 0.011 1527 1.201 0.078 0.114 0.156 ANYTRA 0.479 0.017 1527 1.297 0.035 0.446 0.513 ANY 0.614 0.016 1527 1.291 0.026 0.582 0.646 SKILAN 0.645 0.051 141 1.251 0.078 0.544 0.747 SKILDC 0.837 0.037 141 1.182 0.044 0.763 0.911 ECEP 0.113 0.022 311 1.243 0.198 0.068 0.157 WA2 0.163 0.016 612 1.082 0.099 0.131 0.196 HA2 0.196 0.015 612 0.944 0.077 0.166 0.226 WH2 0.083 0.013 612 1.207 0.162 0.056 0.110 DIARR 0.221 0.019 692 1.223 0.087 0.182 0.260 RECTRE 0.961 0.017 153 1.068 0.017 0.927 0.994 DRNKD 0.248 0.032 153 0.916 0.129 0.184 0.313 ARI 0.029 0.008 692 1.219 0.269 0.013 0.044 SICK 0.298 0.020 692 1.145 0.067 0.258 0.338 DRNKS 0.248 0.031 206 1.035 0.126 0.185 0.310 TWOSIG 0.264 0.025 692 1.506 0.096 0.214 0.315 BEDNET 0.105 0.014 692 1.185 0.131 0.078 0.133 FEVER 0.130 0.013 692 1.051 0.103 0.103 0.157 REGIST 0.954 0.013 692 1.625 0.014 0.928 0.980 99 Table A.8. Sampling Errors, Western & Southwestern Region, Azerbaijan, 2000 Standard Number Design Relative Value Error of Cases Effect Error Confidence Limits (R) (SE) (N) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.379 0.023 1190 1.620 0.060 0.333 0.425 RESIDE 0.887 0.035 1190 3.769 0.039 0.818 0.957 IDP 0.113 0.035 1190 3.769 0.307 0.043 0.182 IODINE 0.485 0.031 1180 2.163 0.065 0.422 0.548 SCHOOL 0.851 0.020 457 1.209 0.024 0.811 0.892 LITERA 0.944 0.005 3806 1.451 0.006 0.934 0.955 SAFE 0.737 0.032 5427 5.286 0.043 0.674 0.800 SANIT 0.792 0.028 5427 5.144 0.036 0.736 0.849 WORK 0.152 0.013 1173 1.270 0.088 0.125 0.178 EVERBR 0.637 0.017 1329 1.310 0.027 0.602 0.671 WEIGH 0.600 0.068 70 1.153 0.113 0.464 0.736 AIDS 0.699 0.023 1329 1.857 0.033 0.652 0.746 THREE 0.135 0.012 1329 1.330 0.092 0.110 0.160 THREEM 0.047 0.005 1329 0.829 0.103 0.037 0.056 MOMKID 0.470 0.021 1329 1.501 0.044 0.428 0.511 THREEW 0.374 0.018 1329 1.387 0.049 0.337 0.411 ONEPLS 0.078 0.009 1329 1.159 0.110 0.060 0.095 KNOWS 0.016 0.003 1329 0.792 0.171 0.010 0.021 PLACE 0.115 0.013 1329 1.503 0.114 0.089 0.141 TESTED 0.053 0.009 1329 1.428 0.166 0.035 0.070 NOMETH 0.483 0.025 832 1.457 0.052 0.433 0.534 ANYMOD 0.161 0.016 832 1.267 0.100 0.129 0.193 ANYTRA 0.356 0.018 832 1.083 0.051 0.320 0.392 ANY 0.517 0.025 832 1.457 0.049 0.466 0.567 SKILAN 0.700 0.043 70 0.775 0.061 0.614 0.786 SKILDC 0.900 0.031 70 0.870 0.035 0.837 0.963 ECEP 0.104 0.038 173 1.652 0.370 0.027 0.181 WA2 0.224 0.029 375 1.363 0.131 0.165 0.283 HA2 0.251 0.027 375 1.217 0.109 0.196 0.305 WH2 0.107 0.019 375 1.188 0.178 0.069 0.145 DIARR 0.270 0.028 396 1.232 0.102 0.215 0.325 RECTRE 0.897 0.026 107 0.897 0.029 0.844 0.950 DRNKD 0.243 0.042 107 1.014 0.174 0.159 0.327 ARI 0.053 0.015 396 1.302 0.277 0.024 0.082 SICK 0.394 0.033 396 1.353 0.084 0.327 0.460 DRNKS 0.282 0.033 156 0.902 0.116 0.217 0.347 TWOSIG 0.336 0.035 396 1.478 0.105 0.266 0.406 BEDNET 0.121 0.014 396 0.838 0.114 0.094 0.149 FEVER 0.202 0.029 396 1.456 0.146 0.143 0.261 REGIST 0.982 0.009 396 1.377 0.009 0.964 1.000 100 Table A.9. Sampling Errors, Southern Region, Azerbaijan, 2000 Standard Number Design Relative Value Error of Cases Effect Error Confidence Limits (R) (SE) (N) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.254 0.045 684 2.672 0.175 0.165 0.343 RESIDE 0.997 0.002 684 1.020 0.002 0.993 1.000 IDP 0.003 0.002 684 1.020 0.720 0.001 0.007 IODINE 0.478 0.036 682 1.857 0.074 0.407 0.549 SCHOOL 0.856 0.023 333 1.197 0.027 0.810 0.902 LITERA 0.907 0.006 2640 1.032 0.006 0.895 0.918 SAFE 0.651 0.036 3786 4.635 0.055 0.579 0.723 SANIT 0.770 0.047 3786 6.865 0.061 0.676 0.864 WORK 0.131 0.019 833 1.598 0.143 0.093 0.168 EVERBR 0.592 0.020 931 1.245 0.034 0.552 0.632 WEIGH 0.474 0.059 76 1.032 0.126 0.355 0.593 AIDS 0.536 0.032 931 1.937 0.059 0.473 0.599 THREE 0.017 0.004 931 0.936 0.232 0.009 0.025 THREEM 0.017 0.005 931 1.153 0.286 0.007 0.027 MOMKID 0.318 0.025 931 1.647 0.079 0.268 0.368 THREEW 0.232 0.026 931 1.853 0.111 0.181 0.283 ONEPLS 0.045 0.007 931 0.967 0.146 0.032 0.058 KNOWS 0.002 0.002 931 1.020 0.721 0.001 0.005 PLACE 0.046 0.008 931 1.185 0.177 0.030 0.063 TESTED 0.021 0.005 931 1.116 0.247 0.011 0.032 NOMETH 0.486 0.023 562 1.098 0.048 0.439 0.532 ANYMOD 0.137 0.019 562 1.297 0.137 0.099 0.175 ANYTRA 0.377 0.021 562 1.020 0.055 0.335 0.419 ANY 0.514 0.023 562 1.098 0.045 0.468 0.561 SKILAN 0.632 0.067 76 1.212 0.107 0.497 0.767 SKILDC 0.882 0.025 76 0.678 0.029 0.831 0.932 ECEP 0.009 0.009 107 0.977 0.977 0.009 0.028 WA2 0.163 0.018 257 0.765 0.108 0.128 0.199 HA2 0.160 0.025 257 1.093 0.157 0.109 0.210 WH2 0.070 0.013 257 0.830 0.189 0.044 0.097 DIARR 0.248 0.030 270 1.153 0.122 0.187 0.309 RECTRE 0.881 0.027 67 0.686 0.031 0.826 0.935 DRNKD 0.373 0.048 67 0.812 0.130 0.276 0.470 ARI 0.011 0.006 270 1.006 0.579 0.002 0.024 SICK 0.330 0.034 270 1.183 0.103 0.262 0.397 DRNKS 0.348 0.050 89 0.979 0.143 0.249 0.448 TWOSIG 0.419 0.042 270 1.385 0.100 0.335 0.502 BEDNET 0.215 0.028 270 1.125 0.131 0.158 0.271 FEVER 0.081 0.019 270 1.156 0.237 0.043 0.120 REGIST 0.959 0.009 270 0.765 0.010 0.941 0.978 101 Appendix B: List of Personnel Involved in the Azerbaijan MICS State Committee of Statistics Mr. Arif Veliyev (Chair) Mr. Agadadash Mammedov (Deputy Chair)) Mr. Rza Allahverdiyev (Survey Director, Head, Department of Demography, State Committee of Statistics) Mr. Kamal Panahov (Data Processing) Mr. Veli Allahverdiyev (Data Processing) Steering Committee Mr. G. Amirov, Chairman (Deputy Head of the Department of Science, Education and Social Issues, the Cabinet of Ministers) Mr. A. Muradov (Head, Division of General and Pre-school Education, Ministry of Education) Ms. Z. Abdullaheva (Deputy Head, Division of Higher and Vocational Education, Ministry of Education) Mr. V. Gasymov (Head, Division of Sanitary and Epidemiology, Ministry of Health) Mr. R. Allahverdiyev (Head, Department of Demography, State Committee of Statistics) Mr. M. Rahimov (Head, Division of Physical Culture, Ministry of Youth and Sports) Mr. V. Mammadov (Head, Department of Demography and Employment Policy, Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population) UNICEF Azerbaijan Dr.Akif Saatcioglu (Head of Office) Dr.Kamil Melikov (Focal Point) UNICEF Consultant Assoc.Prof.Attila Hancioglu Local Consultant Mr.Latif Kengerlinsky Field Staff Ùuñåéíîâ Ñàëìàí Regional coordinator Ùuñåéíîâ Òîôèã Regional coordinator Àááàñîâà Ìeòàíeò interviewer Àëëàùâåðäèéåâà Ñeèäe interviewer Áàáàõàíîâ Sàùèí supervisor Áàéðàìîâà Òàìåëëà interviewer Áàéðàìîâà Ôàòìà interviewer Áeéëeðîâ Íàìèã editor Ãàðäàsõàíîâà Íàòàâàí interviewer Ãàñûìîâ Åëíóð editor Ãàñûìîâ Ñåéìóð supervisor Ãàñûìîâà Õàòèðe interviewer Ãóëèéåâ Åìèë supervisor Ãóëèéåâà Ëeìàí interviewer Ãóðáàíîâà Ìeòàíeò interviewer Äàäàsîâà Éåýàíe interviewer 102 Æeëèëîâ Áeùðóç editor Æeôeðîâ Åëìàí supervisor Èìàìeëèéåâà Ýuë÷þùðe interviewer Èìàíîâ Íàèë editor Èñýeíäeðîâ Àíàð editor Éàãóáëó Åòèáàð supervisor Êeðèìîâà Eìèíe interviewer Êeòàíáeéîâ Ùåéäeð editor Ìeììeäîâ Åë÷èí editor Ìeììeäîâ Æåéùóí supervisor Ìeììeäîâ Òåëìàí supervisor Ìeììeäîâà Àìèëe interviewer Ìeììeäîâà Àñèôe interviewer Ìeììeäîâà Ñåâèíæ interviewer Ìeììeäðeùèìîâà Ñeäàãeò interviewer Ìeùeððeìîâà Íeðýèç interviewer Íóðèéåâ Éàâeð editor Íeèðîâà Uëêeð interviewer Ñàäûãîâà Ìàùèðe interviewer Ñeìeäîâ Àäèë supervisor Ñeìeäîâ Ñåâèíäèê editor Ñeôeðëè Íeðèìàí supervisor Ùàæûéåâ Îãòàé supervisor Ùàæûéåâ Ôeðùàä editor Ùuñåéíîâà Éàâeð interviewer Ùuñåéíîâà Ýuëýuí interviewer Ùeñeíîâà Ìåùðèáàí interviewer Ýþçeëîâà Ðóùèéée interviewer Aáèëîâà Çåéíeá interviewer Açèçîâà Ðuáàáe interviewer Açèçîâà Ðeñìèéée interviewer Aëèéåâà Èëàùe interviewer Aëèéåâà Èðàäe interviewer Aëèùåéäeðîâà Eäèëe interviewer Añeäîâà Àéòeí interviewer Asðeôîâà Íàòåëëà interviewer Aùìeäîâà Æeìèëe interviewer Àáäóëëàéåâà Ìàùíóð data clerk Àëëàùâåðäèéåâà Òeðàíe data clerk Âeòeíõà Ðeôèãe data clerk Ãàðàõàíîâà Ñåâèíæ data clerk Ãàñûìîâà Ýuëus data clerk Ãóëèéåâà Ñeêèíe data clerk Æàááàðîâà Íusàáe data clerk Æàááàðîâà Ñîëòàí data clerk Íóðèéåâà Àéýuí data clerk Íeæeôeëèéåâà Íeçàêeò data clerk Ïeíàùîâà Êeìàëe data clerk Ïeíàùîâà Ìåùðèáàí data clerk Ðçàéåâà Æeìèëe data clerk 103 Suêuðîâà Îôåëéà data clerk Ùeìèäîâà Ëàëe data clerk 104 Appendix C: Questionnaires

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