Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010-2011: Final Report.

Publication date: 2012

ii Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010-2011 Central Statistics Organisation (CSO) UNICEF (United Nations Children s Fund) January 2013 The Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (AMICS) was carried out in 2010-2011 by the Central Statistics Organisation (CSO) of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in collaboration with United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF). Financial and technical support was provided by UNICEF. MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The Afghanistan MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children and women, and measures key indicators to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. Suggested citation: Central Statistics Organisation (CSO) and UNICEF (2012). Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010-2011: Final Report. Kabul: Central Statistics Organisation (CSO) and UNICEF. Photos Copyright: Chapter 1: © UNICEF/NYHQ2007-1196/Noorani Report Cover Photos: Chapter 2: © UNICEF/NYHQ2000-0859/LeMoyne © UNICEF/AFGA2007-00819/Noorani Chapter 3: © UNICEF/AFGA2011-00116/Aziz Froutan © UNICEF/AFGA2009-00802/Shehzad Noorani Chapter 4: © UNICEF/AFGA2009-00654/Noorani © UNICEF/AFGA2010-01134/Noorani Chapter 5: © UNICEF/NYHQ2001-0491/Noorani Chapter 6: © UNICEF/AFGA2011-00010/Jalali Chapter 7: © UNICEF/AFGA2009-00546/Noorani Chapter 8: © UNICEF/NYHQ1992-0344/Isaac Chapter 9: © UNICEF/NYHQ2001-0486/Noorani Chapter 10: © UNICEF/NYHQ2007-1106/Noorani Chapter 11: © UNICEF/AFGA2010-00211/Noorani Chapter 12: © UNICEF/AFGA2007-00043/Khemka Report Copyright © Central Statistics Organization, 2012 iii Foreword After over three decades of armed conflict, Afghanistan has made great strides in overcoming some of the legacies of the past, amidst ongoing challenges and hope for the future. The Government of Afghanistan has worked closely with the international community to lead in progress achieved in a number of key social and economic indicators since 2002. Article 54 of the Afghanistan Constitution (2004) stipulates that the family is the fundamental pillar of society, and that the Government shall adopt all necessary measures to attain the physical and spiritual health of the family, especially that of children and mothers. Article 22 declares non- discrimination and equality in rights and duties between men and women, while Article 49 prohibits the forced labour of children. Several government ministries such as the Ministry of Women s Affairs (MoWA), the Ministry of Education (MoE), the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled (MoLSAMD), and organizations as well as departments within other ministries have been tasked with addressing the needs of children, women, and families. The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) came into being in 2002, and includes a Child s Rights Desk focused on protecting the basic human rights of children. Based on the global commitment to meeting the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), several national policies and strategies aimed at improving the wellbeing of children and women have been adopted. These include the National Action Plan for the Women of Afghanistan, 2007-2017 (NAPWA), the National Child and Adolescent Health Policy, 2009-2013, the National Strategy for Street Working Children, the National Strategy for the Protection of Children at Risk, the National Education Strategic Plan of Afghanistan (NESP), the National Social Protection policy, among others. Afghanistan is also considering the development of a comprehensive Child Act. The Child Protection Action Plan (CPAN) was adopted in 2003 by MoLSAMD, and has the goal of protecting children against all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse. CPAN promotes and disseminates the principles embodied in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in Afghanistan. However, the 2011 concluding observations of the CRC Committee urged the Government to apply to a much greater extent the provisions of the CRC in our domestic legal framework. As the main poverty reduction strategy policy, the Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) 2008-2013 was developed to identify national development priorities and to outline a plan of action for achieving Afghanistan s MDGs, through the enhanced delivery of health services, expanded access to education, improved water and sanitation facilities, and the entrenchment of the rule of law. To protect the legal rights of children in conflict, ANDS calls upon the Government to enhance the legal and policy framework related to the juvenile offenders and children in conflict, and also calls for improved access to the formal legal system for women and children. Recognizing the plight of children in Afghanistan, ANDS underlines the commitments made by the Government to focus on supporting the most vulnerable and the poorest of the poor. This includes in particular, children at risk, chronically poor women, and poor and disabled people; and the obligation to develop social protection programmes to meet the needs of these most vulnerable groups. iv Further, the Government and the donor community affirmed their commitment to realizing identified national priorities through the National Priority Programmes (NPP). These commitments were reaffirmed at the Bonn Conference in November 2011 where pledges were made to support Afghanistan beyond 2014. The Afghanistan MICS for 2010-2011 contributes greatly towards our efforts to monitor the progress of the Afghan MDGs for 2020, as well as other national priorities defined in the ANDS and NPPs. The present report highlights the status of children and women in Afghanistan, and will prove to be of great value to planners, administrators, policy makers, researchers, and to all of our development partners. The data here will serve to develop and prescribe appropriate programmes and to develop responsive policies for the development and welfare of children and women in Afghanistan, which is ultimately aimed at helping us achieve important national goals. I am grateful to all the team members who provided various forms of technical assistance that allowed for the publication of this report. And last but not least, I would like to extend my sincere thanks to UNICEF for extending their financial and technical support towards the realization of the report. Abdul Rahman Ghafoori President General Central Statistics Organization Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Kabul v Summary Table of Findings Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Unit CHILD MORTALITY Child mortality 1.1 4.1 Under-five mortality rate 102 per thousand 1.2 4.2 Infant mortality rate 74 per thousand NUTRITION Nutritional status 1.8 Underweight prevalence 2.1a Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) 25.0 percent 2.1b Severe (- 3 SD) 10.6 percent Stunting prevalence 2.2a Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) 51.6 percent 2.2b Severe (- 3 SD) 34.1 percent Wasting prevalence 2.3a Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) 13.9 percent 2.3b Severe (- 3 SD) 7.2 percent Breastfeeding and infant feeding 2.4 Children ever breastfed 93.4 percent 2.5 Early initiation of breastfeeding 53.6 percent 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 54.3 percent 2.7 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 87.8 percent 2.8 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 69.4 percent 2.9 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 69.2 percent 2.10 Duration of breastfeeding 23.7 percent 2.11 Bottle feeding 28.2 percent 2.12 Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods 20.1 percent 2.13 Minimum meal frequency 17.8 percent 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 36.7 percent 2.15 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children 59.5 percent Salt iodization 2.16 Iodized salt consumption 20.4 percent Vitamin A 2.17 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 50.6 percent Anaemia Child Anaemia prevalence 33.7 percent Non-pregnant women anaemia prevalence 21.4 percent Pregnant women anaemia prevalence 16.3 percent CHILD HEALTH Vaccinations 3.1 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 64.2 percent 3.2 Polio immunization coverage 48.0 percent 3.3 Immunization coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) 40.2 percent 3.4 4.3 Measles immunization coverage 55.5 percent vi Tetanus toxoid 3.7 Neonatal tetanus protection 40.8 percent Care of illness 3.8 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 47.5 percent 3.9 Care seeking for suspected pneumonia 60.5 percent 3.10 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 63.9 percent Solid fuel use 3.11 Solid fuels 84.2 percent WATER AND SANITATION Water and sanitation 4.1 7.8 Use of improved drinking water sources 56.7 percent 4.2 Water treatment 14.9 percent 4.3 7.9 Use of improved sanitation facilities 28.5 percent 4.4 Safe disposal of child's faeces 45.8 percent Hand washing 4.5 Place for hand washing 70.8 percent 4.6 Availability of soap 74.4 percent REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Early childbearing and contraception 5.2 Early childbearing 25.6 percent 5.3 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate 21.2 percent Maternal and newborn health 5.5 Antenatal care coverage 5.5a At least once by skilled personnel 47.9 percent 5.5b At least four times by any provider 14.6 percent 5.6 Content of antenatal care 12.1 percent 5.7 5.2 Skilled attendant at delivery 38.6 percent 5.8 Institutional deliveries 32.9 percent 5.9 Caesarean section 3.6 percent CHILD DEVELOPMENT Child development 6.1 Support for learning 73.1 percent 6.2 Father's support for learning 61.8 percent 6.3 Learning materials: children s books 2.2 percent 6.4 Learning materials: playthings 52.6 percent 6.5 Inadequate care 40.2 percent 6.7 Attendance to early childhood education 1.0 percent EDUCATION Literacy and education 7.1 2.3 Literacy rate among young women 22.2 percent 7.2 School readiness 12.7 percent 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education 29.0 percent 7.4 2.1 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 55.2 percent 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 32.4 percent 7.6 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary 84.1 percent 7.7 Primary completion rate 30.7 percent 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school 92.9 percent 7.9 Gender parity index (primary school) 0.74 ratio 7.10 Gender parity index (secondary school) 0.49 ratio CHILD PROTECTION Birth registration 8.1 Birth registration 37.4 percent Child labour 8.2 Child labour 25.3 percent 8.3 School attendance among child labourers 50.9 percent 8.4 Child labour among students 30.9 percent Child discipline 8.5 Violent discipline 74.4 percent vii Early marriage and polygamy 8.6 Marriage before age 15 15.2 percent 8.7 Marriage before age 18 46.3 percent 8.8 Young women age 15-19 currently married 19.8 percent 8.9 Polygamy 7.1 percent Spousal age difference 8.10a Women age 15-19 11.0 percent 8.10b Women age 20-24 14.0 percent Domestic violence 8.14 Attitudes towards domestic violence 91.5 percent Orphaned children 9.17 Children s living arrangements 1.7 percent 9.18 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 4.7 percent 9.19 6.4 School attendance of orphans 34.4 percent 9.2 6.4 School attendance of non-orphans 57.4 percent HIV & AIDS HIV and AIDS knowledge and attitudes 9.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 1.5 percent 9.2 6.3 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 1.8 percent 9.3 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 8.4 percent 9.4 Accepting attitude towards people living with HIV 16.0 percent viii Table of Contents Foreword . iii Summary Table of Findings . v Table of Contents . viii List of Tables . xi List of Figures . xiv List of Abbreviations . xv Acknowledgements . xvii Executive Summary . xviii 1. Introduction . 1 Background . 2 Survey Objectives . 4 2. Sample and Survey Methodology . 5 Sample Design . 6 Sample Coverage . 7 Contents of Questionnaires . 8 Training and Fieldwork . 9 Data Processing . 10 3. Household and Population Characteristics . 11 Characteristics of Households . 12 Characteristics of the Population . 13 Characteristics of Female Respondents 15-49 Years of Age . 14 Characteristics of Children Under Age 5 . 16 4. Child Mortality . 18 Introduction: Child Mortality . 19 Child Mortality Estimates for Afghanistan . 19 Progress on Child Mortality in Afghanistan . 22 5. Nutrition . 24 Introduction: Nutrition . 25 Nutritional Status . 26 Breastfeeding, Infant and Young Child Feeding . 26 Salt Iodization . 35 Children s Vitamin A Supplementation . 37 Children s Anaemia Prevalence . 39 Women s Anaemia Prevalence . 40 A Profile of Women s and Children s Nutrition in Afghanistan . 41 6. Child Health . 43 Introduction: Child Health . 44 Vaccinations . 44 Neonatal Tetanus Protection . 48 ix Oral Rehydration Treatment . 50 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia . 57 Solid Fuel Use . 61 Assessing Children s Health in Afghanistan . 64 7. Water and Sanitation . 65 Safe Drinking Water . 66 Use of Improved Water Sources . 66 Use of Adequate Water Treatment Methods . 69 Time to Source of Drinking Water . 71 Person Collecting Drinking Water . 72 Use of Improved Sanitation Facilities . 73 Use and Sharing of Sanitation Facilities . 75 Disposal of Child s Faeces . 77 Drinking Water and Sanitation Ladders . 79 Hand Washing . 81 Water and Sanitation Practices in Afghanistan . 84 8. Reproductive Health . 85 Early Childbearing . 86 Contraception . 88 Antenatal Care . 91 Assistance at Delivery . 94 Place of Delivery . 98 The State of Reproductive Health in Afghanistan . 99 9. Child Development . 100 Early Childhood Education and Learning . 101 Adults Engaging in Activities with Children . 102 Children s Exposure to Reading Material and Play Items . 103 Care of Children. 105 Assessing Early Child Development in Afghanistan . 106 10. Literacy and Education . 108 Literacy Among Young Women . 109 School Readiness . 110 Primary and Secondary School Participation . 111 The School Experience of Children in Afghanistan . 119 11. Child Protection . 120 Birth Registration . 121 Child Labour . 122 Child Discipline . 126 Orphans . 128 Early Marriage and Polygamy . 131 Spousal Age Difference . 134 Attitudes toward Domestic Violence . 136 Protecting Children s Interests in Afghanistan . 137 12. HIV and AIDS. 139 x Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS . 140 Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV and AIDS . 146 Measuring HIV/AIDS Awareness Among Afghan Women. 147 Appendix A. Sample Design . 148 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey . 153 Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors . 162 Appendix D. Data Quality Tables . 177 Appendix E. AMICS4 Indicators: Numerators and Denominators . 192 Appendix F. Questionnaires . 198 xi List of Tables Table 2.1: Results of household, women, and under-5 interviews . 7 Table 3.1: Household composition . 12 Table 3.2: Population distribution by age and sex . 13 Table 3.3: Women's background characteristics . 15 Table 3.4: Under-5s background characteristics. 16 Table 4.1: Children ever born, children surviving and proportion dead . 19 Table 4.2: Child mortality . 20 Table 4.3: Reduction in U5MR and IMR in South Asia . 22 Table 5.1: Initial breastfeeding . 27 Table 5.2: Breastfeeding . 29 Table 5.3: Duration of breastfeeding . 30 Table 5.4: Age-appropriate breastfeeding . 31 Table 5.5: Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods . 33 Table 5.6: Minimum meal frequency . 33 Table 5.7: Bottle-feeding . 34 Table 5.8: Iodized salt consumption . 36 Table 5.9: Children's Vitamin A supplementation . 38 Table 5.10: Anaemia status of children . 40 Table 5.11: Anaemia status of women . 41 Table 6.1: Routine immunization schedule in Afghanistan . 44 Table 6.2: Vaccinations in first year of life . 45 Table 6.3: Vaccinations by background characteristics . 46 Table 6.4: Neonatal tetanus protection . 48 Table 6.5: Oral rehydration solutions and recommended homemade fluids . 51 Table 6.6: Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 53 Table 6.7: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments . 55 Table 6.8: Care seeking for suspected pneumonia and antibiotic use during suspected pneumonia . 58 Table 6.9: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia . 60 Table 6.10: Solid fuel use . 62 Table 6.11: Solid fuel use by place of cooking . 64 Table 7.1: Use of improved water sources . 67 Table 7.2: Household water treatment . 70 Table 7.3: Time to source of drinking water . 71 Table 7.4: Person collecting water . 72 Table 7.5: Types of sanitation facilities . 74 Table 7.6: Use and sharing of sanitation facilities . 76 Table 7.7: Disposal of child's faeces . 77 Table 7.8: Drinking water and sanitation ladders . 80 Table 7.9: Water and soap at place for hand washing . 82 xii Table 7.10: Availability of soap . 83 Table 8.1: Early childbearing . 86 Table 8.2: Trends in early childbearing . 87 Table 8.3: Use of contraception . 89 Table 8.4: Antenatal care coverage . 91 Table 8.5: Number of antenatal care visits. 93 Table 8.6: Content of antenatal care . 94 Table 8.7: Assistance during delivery . 96 Table 8.8: Place of delivery . 98 Table 9.1: Early childhood education . 101 Table 9.2: Support for learning . 102 Table 9.3: Learning materials . 104 Table 9.4: Inadequate care . 105 Table 10.1: Literacy among young women . 109 Table 10.2: School readiness . 110 Table 10.3: Primary school entry . 111 Table 10.4: Primary school attendance . 112 Table 10.5: Secondary school attendance . 114 Table 10.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school . 116 Table 10.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school . 117 Table 10.8: Education gender parity . 118 Table 11.1: Birth registration . 121 Table 11.2: Child labour, Ages 5-11 . 123 Table 11.3: Child labour, Ages 12-14 and Ages 5-14 . 124 Table 11.4: Child labour and school attendance . 125 Table 11.5: Child discipline . 126 Table 11.6: Children's living arrangements and orphanhood . 129 Table 11.7: School attendance of orphans and non-orphans . 130 Table 11.8: Early marriage and polygamy . 132 Table 11.9: Trends in Early Marriage . 134 Table 11.10: Spousal age difference . 135 Table 11.11: Attitudes toward domestic violence . 136 Table 12.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission . 140 Table 12.2: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young women . 142 Table 12.3: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission . 144 Table 12.4: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS . 146 Table A.1: Allocation of Sample Clusters (Primary Sampling Units) and Households by Region, Urban and Rural Strata . 149 Table A.2: Subsample selection for a Hemoglobin Test . 152 xiii Table C.1: Sampling Errors Total Sample . 162 Table C.2: Sampling Errors - Urban Areas . 163 Table C.3: Sampling Errors - Rural Areas . 164 Table C.4: Sampling Errors Central Region . 166 Table C.5: Sampling Errors Central Highlands Region . 167 Table C.6: Sampling Errors East Region . 168 Table C.7: Sampling Errors North Region . 170 Table C.8: Sampling Errors North East Region . 171 Table C.9: Sampling Errors South Region . 172 Table C.10: Sampling Errors South East Region . 174 Table C.11: Sampling Errors West Region . 175 Table D.1: Age distribution of household population . 177 Table D.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 179 Table D.3: Age distribution of under-5s in household and under-5 questionnaires . 180 Table D.4: Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households . 180 Table D.5: Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households . 180 Table D.6: Completeness of reporting . 181 Table D.7: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators . 183 Table D.8: Heaping in anthropometric measurements . 185 Table D.9: Observation of places for hand washing. 186 Table D.10: Observation of under-5s birth certificates . 186 Table D.11: Observation of women s health cards . 187 Table D.12: Observation of vaccination cards . 188 Table D.13: Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire. 189 Table D.14: Selection of children age 2-14 years for the child discipline module . 189 Table D.15: School attendance by single age . 190 Table D.16: Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living . 191 xiv List of Figures Figure 2.1: Map Showing Regions Sampled . 6 Figure 3.1: Age and sex distribution of household population . 14 Figure 4.1: Under-5 mortality rates by background characteristics . 21 Figure 5.1: Percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth . 28 Figure 5.2: Percent distribution of children under age 2 by feeding pattern . 30 Figure 5.3: Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt . 37 Figure 6.1: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received the recommended vaccinations by 12 months . 46 Figure 6.2: Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 12 months who are protected against neonatal tetanus . 50 Figure 6.3: Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration treatment . 52 Figure 6.4: Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea who received ORT Or increased fluids, and continued feeding Afghanistan, 2010-2011 . 57 Figure 7.1: Percent distribution of household members by source of drinking water . 68 Figure 12.1: Percentage of women who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission . 144 xv List of Abbreviations AIHRC Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AMICS Afghanistan s Multiple Indicator Survey ANDS Afghanistan National Development Strategy BCG Bacillis-Cereus-Geuerin (Tuberculosis) CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women CO Carbon Monoxide CPAN Child Protection Action Network CSPro Census and Survey Processing System CSO Central Statistics Organization CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child DPT Diphteria Pertussis Tetanus EA Enumeration Area EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization g/dl gram per decilitre GDP Gross Domestic Product GPI Gender Parity Index HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus IDD Iodine Deficiency Disorders IMR Infant Mortality Rate ITN Insecticide Treated Net IUD Intrauterine Device JMP Joint Monitoring Programme LAM Lactational Amenorrhea Method MDG Millennium Development Goal MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MoE Ministry of Education MoLSAMD Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled MoWA Ministry of Women s Affairs MoPH Ministry of Public Health NAPWA National Action Plan for the Women of Afghanistan, 2007-2017 NAR Net Attendance Rate NESP National Education Strategic Plan NGO Non-Governmental Organization NPP National Priority Programs NRVA National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment OHCHR Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ORS Oral Rehydration Salts ORT Oral rehydration treatment PPS Probability proportional to size ppm Parts Per Million RHF Recommended Home Fluid RME Relative Margin of Error PSU Primary Sampling Units SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences STI Sexually Transmitted Infection xvi U5MR Under-five Mortality Rate UNAIDS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNICEF United Nations Children s Fund USI Universal Salt Iodization VIP Ventilated improved pit latrine WFFC World Fit For Children WHO World Health Organization xvii Acknowledgements The Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has mandated the Central Statistics Organization (CSO) to collect data in order to provide strong evidence for equity-based planning and programming, as well as to monitor progress on the implementation of international conventions. The CSO, in collaboration with UNICEF, conducted the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Survey (AMICS), which began in October 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The CSO collaborated with the Ministry of Public Health, the Ministry of Education, and other government stakeholders to successfully complete the survey. Staff from the CSO and UNICEF, as well as many others from various government agencies, UN programs and other partners took part in conducting this AMICS. We greatly appreciate the support demonstrated by the relevant ministries, agencies and individuals, and we want to thank everyone involved in the survey, the subsequent data analysis, and all those involved in preparing the final report. The Global MICS Team of UNICEF defined the MICS protocols and methodology, and in consultation with the CSO s staff, the survey tools were customized to Afghanistan s context. The standardized MICS questionnaires, sample selection procedures and software used for tabulations (provided by UNICEF) were indispensable for carrying out the survey and data analysis. The CSO, with the collaboration of UNICEF consultants, trained their staff and others for the fieldwork required to undertake the survey s sampling, data processing, analysis and report writing. UNICEF also supported training abroad for the AMICS team members. In particular, we sincerely thank UNICEF for their technical and financial support, which made this survey and the resulting report possible. xviii Executive Summary The Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (AMICS) is a nationally representative sample survey that presents data on the social, health, and educational status of women and children in Afghanistan. It was conducted in 2010-2011 by the Central Statistics Organisation (CSO) of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, with the technical and financial support of UNICEF. The survey is based on the need to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements such as the Millennium Declaration and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children. It further helps track progress towards the Afghan Government s policy commitments to reduce poverty and support the wellbeing of women and children, such as the commitments made through the Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS). The findings of the AMICS reveal the story of a country in transition, where many significant improvements have occurred in the last decade, as Afghanistan emerged from decades of war, poor governance, and widespread human rights abuses. Many Afghans have improved access to drinking water, school attendance is up for both boys and girls, and child mortality is relatively down, if still unacceptably high when compared with global estimates. Yet, progress has come more slowly in many areas, such as women s literacy, and Afghanistan faces new threats on the horizon, such as HIV/AIDS. Across all sectors covered in AMICS, major disparities exist by the background characteristics of respondents. There are often dramatic differences in indicators between urban and rural areas, by household socio-economic status, and by region. Consistently, the education level of women emerges as a reliable predictor of almost all indicators for women and children. This finding is compelling evidence that investments in the status and wellbeing of women are investments in children, and in communities at large. Below follows major findings highlighted from each chapter of the report. Survey Coverage In the AMICS, there were 13,314 households visited, across eight regions of Afghanistan, with a household response rate of 98.5%. In the interviewed households, 22,053 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 21,290 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 96.5% within interviewed households. In addition, 15,327 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 14,872 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 97.0% within interviewed households. Overall response rates are 95.1% for women and 95.6% for children under-5. Characteristics of Households and Population Of the 21,290 female respondents aged 15-49 years who were surveyed, 81% live in rural areas. Most of the women interviewed were married (69%), while 29% had never been married, 1.5% were widowed, and 0.1% were divorced or separated. The majority of the women (64%) had given birth at least once in their lifetime, 36% had never given birth at the time of the survey, and 36% had given birth in the previous two years. Most of the women respondents (82%) had no formal education, while 8% had primary level education only, and 11% had attained secondary level education or higher. Of females aged 15-49 years, 22% were in the wealthiest quintile, while 19% were in the poorest quintile. xix Of the children under five years of age included in the sample, 51% were male and 49% were female, with most (84%) residing in rural areas. The vast majority of the mothers of these children have attained no formal education (91%), while 5% had attained primary education and 4% had attained secondary education or higher. The children surveyed are quite evenly distributed across households of different wealth quintiles, with 21% in the poorest quintile, and 17% in the wealthiest quintile. Child Mortality The AMICS estimates Afghanistan s infant mortality rate at 74 per thousand live births, while the probability of dying before the age of five, the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR), is around 102 per thousand live births. The male infant and under-five mortality rates for males are much higher than the female rates, with a 10% difference between the probabilities of dying between males and females. The mortality rates are lower in urban areas as compared to rural areas. There are also differences in mortality in terms of educational levels and wealth. As education and wealth levels rise, infant and under-5 mortality rates lower. While the infant mortality rate is 62 for the wealthiest quintile, it is 75 for the poorest quintile. Infant mortality for mothers with no education is 74, while it is notably lower (55) for mothers with secondary education or higher. Given that for other countries in the region that are comparatively more stable than Afghanistan, such as India and Bangladesh, the speed of reduction in U5MR and IMR is less than 4% per year over the past two decades, the AMICS findings on child mortality should be interpreted with caution. Nutrition One in four children under age five in Afghanistan is moderately and severely underweight (25%), one in two is moderately stunted (52%) and almost one in seven is moderately or severely wasted (14%). Children in the Southern region are more likely to be underweight, stunted and wasted than other children. The same pattern is observed for children living in rural areas, and for children whose mothers have secondary education or higher. Only 54% of babies are breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth, while 84% of newborns in Afghanistan start breastfeeding within one day of birth, with notable differences by region. Women who delivered in a public sector health facility were most likely to have breastfed within the first hour of birth (62%) and within the first day of birth (89%), compared to women who delivered in a private sector health facility, at home, or in another location. Approximately 54% of children aged less than six months are exclusively breastfed. Even at the earliest ages, almost 40% of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk, which puts them at increased risk of consuming contaminated foods and water. By the end of the sixth month, the percentage of children exclusively breastfed is below 30%. Overall, only 37% of children aged 0-23 months are being adequately breastfed, with a radical decrease in appropriate feeding practice observed among infants aged 6-23 months in the Southern and South Eastern regions. Only 20% of households are consuming adequate levels of iodized salt, with use lowest in the Western region (9%) and highest in the Central region (52%), and a considerable gap found in consumption between urban (41%) and rural (16%) areas. Within the six months prior to survey, 51% of children aged 6-59 months received a high dose Vitamin A supplement, with significant variation in coverage by region, with the lowest in the Southern region (19%). The mother s level of education is related to the likelihood of Vitamin A supplementation. Anaemia, which poses an increased risk of child mortality, has prevalence among children aged 6-59 months of 34%. Overall, xx the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women aged 15-49 is 16%, and among non-pregnant women aged 15-49, it is 21%. Child Health The data present major concerns with the reach of vaccination coverage in Afghanistan. Only 18% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated, one in four children receive no vaccination before age 1, and only 31% of children had vaccination cards. For vaccines with multiple dosages, coverage declines with the dosage, with the highest coverage at the first dosage. For instance, 66% of children received Polio 1 by the age of 12 months and this declines to 42% by the third dose. The coverage for the measles vaccine by 12 months reaches 44%. The mother s education appears to be a factor significantly influencing children s immunization rates, with higher educational attainment being linked to higher immunization rates. This is also the case for women s protection against tetanus, with her education level and wealth index quintile influencing the likelihood of protection. Only 41% of women with a birth in the last two years are protected against tetanus. Overall, 23% of children under age five had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey, with prevalence varying by region. Approximately 64% of children with diarrhoea received oral rehydration salt or any recommended home fluid. Less than half of children were given oral rehydration treatment with continued feeding during diarrhoeal episodes. It was found that 19% of children aged 0-59 months were reported to have had symptoms of pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these children, 61% were taken to an appropriate provider. In Afghanistan, 19% of children were taken to a governmental hospital for treatment of suspected pneumonia, and 64% of children under-5 with suspected pneumonia had received an antibiotic during the two weeks prior to the survey. Overall, only 15% of women know of the two danger signs of pneumonia fast and difficult breathing. Overall, most households (84%) in Afghanistan are using solid fuels for cooking. Use of solid fuels is low in urban areas (33%), but very high in rural areas, where almost all of the households (95%) are using solid fuels. Differentials with respect to household wealth and the educational level of the household head are also significant. In urban areas, 73% of households cook with solid fuel in a separate room used as a kitchen, while 66% of rural households do so. More than half of households cook with solid fuel in a separate room in most regions, except in the Western region where only 44% of households do so. Water and Sanitation Overall, 57% of the Afghan population is using an improved source of drinking water, including 82% who use an improved source in urban areas and 51% who are using an improved source in rural areas, though the source of drinking water for the population varies significantly by region. With high regional, wealth and other variations, overall there exists a wide range of practices in the disposal of human excreta. In Afghanistan, 31% of the population live in households using improved sanitation facilities, including 60% in urban areas and 25% in rural areas. Use of improved sanitation facilities is strongly correlated with wealth, and also differs profoundly between urban and rural areas. Nationally, 29% of households use an improved sanitation facility that is not shared with other households. The percentage using improved and unshared sanitation facilities is significantly higher in urban areas (51%) than in rural areas (24%). xxi Nationally, it was observed that 60% of households use a specific place for hand washing. Of those households where a designated place for hand washing was observed, 71% had both water and soap present at the designated place. Reproductive Health Despite the significant risks of early childbearing to mother and child, 10% of women in Afghanistan aged 15-19 have already had a birth and 4% are pregnant with their first child; therefore, 14% have begun childbearing. Alarmingly, 2% have had a live birth before the age of 15. One in four women age 20-24 years have had already a live birth before reaching age 18. There are strong correlations between early childbearing and mothers education levels. Contraception use is extremely low with almost 80% of women not using any form of contraception. Of those women who do use contraception, the most popular method is use of injectables followed by the pill. The percentage of women using any method of contraception rises from 20% among those with no education to 27% among women with primary education, and to 38% among women with secondary education or higher. Coverage of antenatal care (by a doctor, nurse, or midwife) is low in Afghanistan with 48% of women receiving antenatal care at least once by skilled health personnel during the pregnancy. Overall, recommended antenatal care is inconsistent, with recommended practices applied only in a minority of cases. Among women who have given birth to a child during the two years preceding the survey, only 12% of pregnant women had antenatal care visits where their blood pressure was measured, and urine and blood tested. Doctors assisted with the delivery of 20% of births, nurses or midwives assisted with 16% of births, and auxiliary midwives assisted with 2% of births. More than 60% of births were delivered with the assistance of non-skilled personnel. Almost 33% of births in Afghanistan are delivered in a health facility. More than half of births (65%) occur at home. Women in urban areas (66%) are more than twice as likely to deliver in a health facility as their rural counterparts (25%). Child Development Only 1% of children aged 36-59 months are attending pre-school in Afghanistan. While exceedingly low overall, the attendance figure is still eight times higher in urban areas (4%), compared to rural areas (0.5%), with variances by socioeconomic status. For more than two-thirds (73%) of under- five children, an adult household member engaged in more than four activities that promote learning and school readiness during the three days preceding the survey, such as reading a book, singing a song, or playing, with fathers involvement in such activities accounting for two thirds of instances. Only 2% of children aged 0-59 months are living in households where at least three children s books are present, and the proportion of children with 10 or more books declines to less than 0.5%. Of children aged 0-59 months, 53% had two or more play items in their homes. With regards to inadequate care, it was found that 40% of children had recently either been left alone or in the care of another child. Literacy and Education One in five Afghan women aged 15-24 are literate. The women s literacy rate in rural areas is more than three times lower than in urban areas. Of women who stated that primary school was their highest level of education attained, only 29% were actually literate. Literacy among women living in the poorest households is 10 times lower than their counterparts in the wealthiest quintile. xxii In 2010/2011, 29% of school eligible children were attending the first grade of primary school, with significant regional disparities. In the Southern region, for instance, the school attendance indicator is below 12%, but 45% in the Eastern region. Children s entry into primary school is timelier in urban areas (43%) than in rural areas (26%). Only 55% of children of primary school age are attending school, with disparities between urban and rural areas, and about 68% of secondary school age children are not attending school. The secondary school net attendance rate for girls is more than two times lower than that of boys. Of all children starting Grade 1, nearly four in five will eventually reach the last grade, and the majority of the children who successfully completed the last grade of primary school (93%) were attending the first grade of secondary school. Gender parity for primary school is 0.74, indicating a difference in the attendance of girls and boys in primary school. The indicator drops to 0.49 for secondary education, with a particularly pronounced inequity for girls in the Southern region. Child Protection The births of 63% of children under five years of age in Afghanistan have not been registered. Child labour is very prevalent, with 25% of children aged between 5 and 14 participating in labour activities. Of children aged 2-14 years, 74% have been subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by their mothers/caretakers or other household members, and 38% of children were subjected to severe physical punishment. The majority (94%) of children aged 0-17 years in Afghanistan live with both of their parents, with around 2% living with neither parent. While still high overall, the data suggests that early marriage is on the decrease in Afghanistan. Still, one in five women aged 15-19 years is already married. Overall, 15% of women surveyed were married before the age of 15, while 46% were married before the age of 18. Early marriage is strongly correlated to education: young women without education are more than three times as likely to be married before the age of 18 than are their counterparts who have secondary education or higher. The survey found that about 7% of women aged 15-49 years are in a polygamous marriage. The AMICS considered spousal age difference and found that 11% of women aged 15-19 and 14% of women aged 20-24 are married to men at least ten years older than them. A finding of great concern was that the majority (92%) of women surveyed feel that their husband is justified in using physical violence against them, for any specific reason. HIV and AIDS Afghanistan is considered to be a country with low HIV prevalence, but at high risk for an outbreak. The survey found that one in four women aged 15-49 (26%) had heard of AIDS. However, only 2% have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission. Numerous disparities were found in HIV/AIDS awareness and knowledge levels. For instance, more than half (55%) of urban dwelling women had heard of AIDS, compared to 21% of rural women. One in five women (21%) knows that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. The percentage of women who know all three ways of mother-to-child transmission is 8%, while 4% of women did not know of any specific way. 1 2 Background This report is based on the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (AMICS), conducted in 2010-2011 by the Central Statistics Organisation (CSO) of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The survey provides valuable information on the situation of children and women in Afghanistan, and was based in large part on the needs to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements such as the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children. In signing these international agreements, governments committed themselves to improving conditions for their children and to monitoring progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task. A Commitment to Action National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60). We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61). The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: As the world s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action. Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action. 3 The Government of Afghanistan ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1994 and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) was signed in 1980, but ratified only in 2003 (without reservations). Ratification of these conventions are aimed at fulfilling the human rights of women and children as per international law and in accordance with global commitments made towards improving the status of women and children worldwide. Due to political instability under the Taliban regime, which was in power at the time the Millennium Declaration was issued, Afghanistan endorsed the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) only in 2004, and was granted an extension to meet the MDG targets by 2020 rather than by 2015. A ninth Development Goal was also added for Afghanistan, that of ensuring security as a precondition for development. The Government of Afghanistan has worked with the international community to develop various tools to help measure human development indicators. The most extensive of these tools is the National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) of 2007-2008. The NRVA is Afghanistan s most comprehensive source of statistical information to date, providing a wide range of information on conditions such as poverty and wealth, the labour force, health, the status of women, education, and housing and agriculture, among others. The NRVA was a key step in collecting information that would assist in developing policies and programs that would target the most vulnerable citizens of Afghanistan. While less extensive, the AMICS provides updated, complementary and comparative data to the NRVA, and is an additional data tool that will further help track progress towards the country s development objectives, particularly those aimed at women and children. Since 2004, Afghanistan has made important progress across many human development indicators, as the country has embarked upon an ambitious rebuilding effort. Government services have been reinstated, helping to meet basic needs in many parts of the country, from the expansion of primary education to an increase in access to basic healthcare. Yet, poverty continues to characterize the lives of much of the population. The Central Statistics Organization of Afghanistan estimates that 36% of the population, approximately 10 million people, live in poverty in the country. Food insecurity is an ongoing vulnerability, and many people are still unable to access basic guarantees of human security such as safe drinking water, sanitation, or housing. Social inequalities are widespread and threaten to undermine the economic growth that has been achieved over the last decade. The ongoing violence is another destabilizing factor, which systematically victimizes women and children, and renders poor people even more vulnerable. The Afghan Government is seeking to reduce poverty and raise human development indicators, as reflected in the policy efforts mentioned earlier. Having accurate and reliable data on hand is critical to designing strong evidence-based interventions that will be responsive to the needs of Afghan citizens. This data should also inform the work of all stakeholders to Afghanistan s humanitarian and development assistance efforts, including donor governments, multilateral agencies, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and Afghan civil society. Much remains to be done to fulfil the commitments made to better protecting and promoting the basic rights of Afghan children and women. 4 The AMICS was carried out by Afghanistan s Central Statistics Organization (CSO), with the technical and financial assistance of UNICEF. The AMICS is a nationally representative sample of 13,468 selected households. The survey was designed to produce representative estimates of indicators for Afghanistan as a whole, for urban and rural areas, and for each of the country s eight regions (Central, Central Highlands, East, North, North East, South, South East and West). A stratified two-stage cluster sample design was used in the AMICS. Questionnaires for the household, for women, and for children were administered in each sampled household. The methodology is described in further detail in Chapter Two. The results of the AMICS are presented in ten chapters: (3) characteristics of household and population, (4) child mortality, (5) nutrition, (6) child health, (7) water and sanitation, (8) reproductive health, (9) child development, (10) literacy and education, (11) child protection, and (12) HIV and AIDS. The findings chapters share the data in table format, highlight key aspects of the results, and provide relevant methodological information that helps to further illuminate the data. This final report presents the results of the indicators and topics covered in the survey. As a report sharing the findings of a complex survey covering a multitude of indicators across several major sectors, the AMICS report has as its purpose to present the key findings resulting from the collection of data. It is beyond the scope of the report to analyze the findings or speculate on causes for survey results, though it is hoped that the data presented here will serve other stakeholders in better understanding the causes and consequences of these findings. Survey Objectives The primary objectives of the AMICS 2010-2011 include the following: To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Afghanistan; To generate data on the situation of children and women, including the identification of vulnerable groups and of disparities. To furnish data required for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed upon goals; To serve as the evidence basis for future action and programming design, and to inform relevant policies and interventions; To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Afghanistan and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems. 5 6 Sample Design The sample for the AMICS was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, in eight regions: Central, Central Highlands, East, North, North East, South, South East, and West. The list of provinces by region is shown below: Name of Region Name of Province Name of Region Name of Province Central Kabul Wardak Kapisa Logar Parwan Panjsher North East Baghlan Takhar Badakhshan Kunduz Central Highlands Bamyan Daikundi South Uruzgan Helmand Zabul Nimroz Kandahar East Nangarhar Kunar Laghman Nooristan South East Ghazni Paktya Paktika Khost North Samangan Sar-e-Pul Balkh Jawzjan Faryab West Ghor Herat Badghis Farah Figure 2.1: Map Showing Regions Sampled 7 A stratified two-stage sample design was used for the AMICS. The primary sampling units (PSUs) are the enumeration areas (EAs), which are segments with well-defined boundaries delineated by the CSO within each administrative unit for the purposes of census enumeration. The EAs have an average of about 185 households each, which is a reasonable size for conducting a new listing of households. The sampling frame has a total of 21,194 EAs covering the territory of Afghanistan. The frame was based on a quick count of the households and population in each EA that the CSO had previously conducted in preparation for the census. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was the rate of fully immunized children from 12 to 23 months. The urban and rural areas within each region were identified as the main sampling strata and the sample was selected in two stages. Within each stratum, a specified number of EAs were selected systematically with probability proportional to size as the first stage. After a household listing was carried out within the selected EAs, a systematic sample of 30 households was drawn in each sample EA as the second stage. The selection of 30 households per sample EA was based on the consideration of the high costs of transportation, logistics for the fieldwork, and cost-effective cluster size. Sample Coverage Table 2.1 shows the number of households, women, men, and children under five by results of the household, women's, men's and under-5's interviews, and household, women's, men's and under-5's response rates. Table 2.1: Results of household, women's, men's and under-5 interviews Number of households, women, men, and children under 5 by results of the household, women's, men's and under-5's interviews, and household, women's, men's and under-5's response rates, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Residence Region Total Urban Rural Central Central Highlands East North North East South South East West Households Sampled 3,681 9,787 2,763 1,203 1,591 1,949 1,831 1,352 1,314 1,465 13,468 Visited 3,634 9,680 2,717 1,174 1,586 1,932 1,819 1,340 1,309 1,437 13,314 Interviewed 3,545 9,571 2,626 1,164 1,571 1,922 1,811 1,309 1,280 1,433 13,116 Household response rate 97.6 98.9 96.7 99.1 99.1 99.5 99.6 97.7 97.8 99.7 98.5 Women Eligible 5,962 16,091 4,650 1,907 2,320 2,935 3,265 2,251 2,809 1,916 22,053 Interviewed 5,740 15,550 4,423 1,781 2,276 2,904 3,222 2,228 2,597 1,859 21,290 Women's response rate 96.3 96.6 95.1 93.4 98.1 98.9 98.7 99.0 92.5 97.0 96.5 Women's overall response rate 93.9 95.5 91.9 92.6 97.2 98.4 98.2 96.7 90.4 96.8 95.1 Children under 5 Eligible 3,633 11,694 2,795 1,402 1,834 2,112 2,165 1,469 2,302 1,248 15,327 Mothers/caretakers interviewed 3,529 11,343 2,703 1,321 1,814 2,104 2,134 1,450 2,131 1,215 14,872 Under-5's response rate 97.1 97.0 96.7 94.2 98.9 99.6 98.6 98.7 92.6 97.4 97.0 Under-5's overall response rate 94.8 95.9 93.5 93.4 98.0 99.1 98.1 96.4 90.5 97.1 95.6 8 Of the 13,468 households selected for the sample, 13,314 were visited. Of these, 13,116 were successfully interviewed for a high household response rate of 98.5%. In the interviewed households, 22,053 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 21,290 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 96.5% within interviewed households. In addition, 15,327 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 14,872 of these children, corresponding to a response rate of 97% within interviewed households. Overall, response rates of 95.6% are calculated for interviews with women and children under age five (Table 2.1). A reserve sample of EAs was also selected within each stratum (using the same type of systematic PPS selection) to be used as possible replacements in extreme cases where the security situation for an original sample EA made it difficult to enumerate. A total of 102 sample EAs were selected as possible replacements. During the MICS fieldwork, 423 of the original 516 sample EAs were enumerated, and 26 replacement EAs were enumerated; while the remaining 67 sample EAs were not replaced. Therefore the final sample in the AMICS data file includes 449 sample EAs; thus there was an overall reduction in the effective sample size. Of the 516 EAs, 67 were not accessible due to high insecurity during the fieldwork period. The sample was stratified by region and by urban/rural divide, and is not self-weighting. For reporting national level results, sample weights are used. For all tables mentioning the background characteristic of mother s educational level, up to a maximum of seven cases out of 14,872 cases, and for all tables mentioning the background characteristic of household head s educational level, up to maximum of eleven cases out of 13,116 cases, are missing. For this reason, the sums for each educational level do not equal the total number of cases shown in the tables where these background characteristics are shown. A subsample was administered to test blood in some households for anaemia. The results of the anaemia test subsample are included in Chapter 5, and a description of how the subsample was selected can be found in Appendix A, along with a more detailed description of the overall sample design. Contents of Questionnaires Three sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) A household questionnaire used to collect information on all de jure household members (usual residents), on the household, and on the dwelling; 2) A women s questionnaire administered in each household to all women aged 15-49; 3) An under-five questionnaire administered to all mothers or caretakers for all children under the age of five living in the household. The Questionnaire for the household included the following modules: o Household Listing Form o Education o Water and Sanitation o Household Characteristics o Child Labour o Child Discipline o Hand washing o Salt Iodization 9 The Questionnaire for individual women included the following modules: o Woman s Background o Child Mortality o Desire for Last Birth o Maternal and Newborn Health o Illness Symptoms o Contraception o Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence o Marriage o Anthropometry1 o HIV/AIDS o Blood Test for Anaemia2 The Questionnaire for Children Under Five3 was normally administered to mothers of children under the age of five; however, in cases when the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caretaker for the child was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules: o Age o Birth Registration o Early Childhood Development o Breastfeeding o Care of Illness o Immunization o Anthropometry o Blood Test for Anaemia4 The questionnaires are based on the MICS4 model questionnaire5. From the MICS4 model English version, the questionnaires were translated into Dari and Pashto, and were pre-tested in Kabul province (Kabul city district and Farza district) and Parwan province (Charikar city district and Bagram district) during May 2010. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires. A copy of the AMICS questionnaires is provided in Appendix F. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, fieldwork teams tested the salt used for cooking in the households for iodine content, observed the place and facilities used for hand washing, measured the weights and heights of children aged less than five years, and tested the blood of children aged under five and the blood of women aged between 15 and 49 years. Details and findings of these measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report. Training and Fieldwork Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 21 days in August and September 2010. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, in addition 1 This module is country-specific. 2 This module has been added to the Afghanistan adapted version of MICS. 3 The terms children under 5 , children age 0-4 years , and children aged 0-59 months are used interchangeably in this report. 4 This module has been added to the Afghanistan adapted version of MICS. 5 The model MICS4 questionnaires can be found at www.childinfo.org/mics4_questionnaire.html. 10 to mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent three days holding practice interviews in Kabul. For the fieldwork, data were collected by 66 teams. Each team was comprised of six interviewers (three females, three males), two editors (one female editor/measurer) and a supervisor. Fieldwork began in October 2010 and concluded in May 2011. Data Processing Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data were entered onto 24 microcomputers and carried out by 24 data entry operators, two data entry supervisors and one data processing manager. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS4 programme and adapted to the Afghanistan questionnaire were used throughout the processing. Data processing was completed in August 2011. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 18, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose. 11 12 Characteristics of Households Table 3.1 provides basic background information on the households, with both weighted and unweighted numbers. Within households, the sex of the household head, region, residence, number of household members, and education of household head are shown. These background characteristics are used in subsequent tables in this report; the figures in the table are also intended to show the numbers of observations by major categories of analysis in the report, and provide important details to the interpretation of the data by respondents characteristics. The remaining tables in this report are presented only with weighted numbers. See Appendix A for more details about the weighting. The weighted and unweighted numbers of households are equal, since sample weights were normalized (See Appendix A). The table also shows the proportions of households with at least one child under 18, at least one child under five, and at least one eligible woman aged 15-49. The table also shows the weighted average household size estimated by the survey. Table 3.1: Household composition Percent and frequency distribution of households by selected characteristics, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Weighted percent Number of households Weighted Unweighted Sex of household head Male 99.1 13,003 12,977 Female 0.9 113 139 Region Central 16.5 2,159 2,626 Central Highlands 3.3 432 1,164 East 11.6 1,520 1,571 North 14.6 1,913 1,922 North East 15.9 2,091 1,811 South 12.1 1,584 1,309 South East 9.6 1,263 1,280 West 16.4 2,155 1,433 Residence Urban 18.5 2,427 3,545 Rural 81.5 10,689 9,571 Number of household members 1 0.2 20 23 2 2.8 373 343 3 4.6 599 567 4 8.1 1,064 1,040 5 10.5 1,375 1,416 6 12.7 1,667 1,716 7 12.7 1,668 1,668 8 12.7 1,664 1,703 9 10.4 1,360 1,339 10+ 25.4 3,326 3,301 Education of household head None 68.0 8,922 8,460 Primary 11.4 1,498 1,567 Secondary + 20.5 2,689 3,078 13 Percent and frequency distribution of households by selected characteristics, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Weighted percent Number of households Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 13,116 13,116 Households with at least One child age 0-4 years 69.0 13,116 13,116 One child age 0-17 years 94.2 13,116 13,116 One woman age 15-49 years 96.3 13,116 13,116 Mean household size 7.8 13,116 13,116 Characteristics of the Population The weighted age and sex distribution of the survey population is provided in Table 3.2. The distribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure 3.1. Table 3.2: Population distribution by age and sex Percent and frequency distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, dependency age groups, and by child (age 0-17 years) and adult populations (age 18 or more), by sex, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Males Females Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Age 0-4 7,972 15.0 7,503 15.4 15,475 15.2 5-9 8,928 16.8 8,267 17.0 17,195 16.9 10-14 7,500 14.1 6,899 14.2 14,399 14.2 15-19 6,578 12.4 5,748 11.8 12,326 12.1 20-24 4,750 8.9 4,271 8.8 9,021 8.9 25-29 3,589 6.8 3,673 7.6 7,262 7.1 30-34 2,747 5.2 2,494 5.1 5,241 5.2 35-39 2,238 4.2 2,427 5.0 4,664 4.6 40-44 1,965 3.7 1,846 3.8 3,811 3.7 45-49 1,562 2.9 1,474 3.0 3,036 3.0 50-54 1,385 2.6 1,648 3.4 3,033 3.0 55-59 956 1.8 788 1.6 1,743 1.7 60-64 1,211 2.3 688 1.4 1,899 1.9 65-69 554 1.0 327 0.7 881 0.9 70-74 662 1.2 290 0.6 952 0.9 75-79 215 0.4 92 0.2 307 0.3 80-84 200 0.4 90 0.2 290 0.3 85+ 128 0.2 47 0.1 175 0.2 Dependency age groups 0-14 24,400 45.9 22,668 46.7 47,069 46.3 15-64 26,981 50.8 25,056 51.6 52,037 51.2 65+ 1,759 3.3 846 1.7 2,605 2.6 Child and adult populations Children age 0-17 years 28,304 53.3 25,988 53.5 54,292 53.4 Adults age 18+ years 24,835 46.7 22,583 46.5 47,418 46.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 In the 13,116 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 101,713 household members were listed. Of these, 53,140 were males, and 48,573 were females. 14 Characteristics of Female Respondents 15-49 Years Tables 3.3 and 3.4 provide information on the background characteristics of female respondents aged 15-49 years and of children under age five. In both tables, the total numbers of weighted and unweighted observations are equal, since sample weights have been normalized (standardized). In addition to providing useful information on the background characteristics of women and children, the tables are also intended to show the numbers of observations in each background category. These categories are used in subsequent tabulations found in this report. Table 3.3 provides background characteristics of female respondents 15-49 years of age. The table includes information on the distribution of women according to region, residence, age, marital status, motherhood status, births in the last two years, education6, and wealth index quintiles. Principal components analysis was performed by using information on the ownership of consumer goods, dwelling characteristics, water and sanitation, and other characteristics that are related to the household s wealth to assign weights (factor scores) to each of the household assets. Each household was then assigned a wealth score based on these weights and the assets owned by that household. The survey household population was then ranked according to the wealth score of the household they are living in, and was finally divided into five equal parts (quintiles) from lowest (poorest) to highest (wealthiest). The assets used in these calculations Unless otherwise stated, throughout this report education refers to educational level attained by the respondent when used as a background variable. 15 were as follows: household water source, sanitation facility, number of persons per sleeping room, type of floor, type of roof, type of wall, type of cooking fuel, TV, radio, refrigerator. The wealth index is assumed to capture the underlying long-term wealth through information on the household assets, and is intended to produce a ranking of households by wealth, from poorest to wealthiest. The wealth index does not provide information on absolute poverty, current income or expenditure levels. Table 3.3: Women's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of women age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Weighted percent Number of women Weighted Unweighted Region Central 17.4 3,696 4,423 Central Highlands 3.4 714 1,781 East 10.1 2,153 2,276 North 13.5 2,876 2,904 North East 17.6 3,752 3,222 South 12.6 2,672 2,228 South East 12.8 2,731 2,597 West 12.7 2,695 1,859 Residence Urban 18.9 4,031 5,740 Rural 81.1 17,259 15,550 Age 15-19 25.9 5,510 5,579 20-24 19.3 4,110 4,139 25-29 16.8 3,579 3,546 30-34 11.6 2,460 2,434 35-39 11.2 2,389 2,420 40-44 8.5 1,805 1,759 45-49 6.8 1,438 1,413 Marital status Currently married 69.4 14,757 14,521 Widowed 1.5 316 326 Divorced/Separated 0.1 18 21 Never married 29.1 6,185 6,411 Motherhood status Ever gave birth 64.1 13,640 13,468 Never gave birth 35.9 7,650 7,822 Births in last two years Had a birth in last two years 22.9 4,865 4,962 Had no birth in last two years 77.1 8,775 8,506 Education None 81.5 17,359 16,621 Primary 7.5 1,595 1,767 Secondary + 10.9 2,330 2,899 Wealth index quintile Poorest 18.7 3,989 3,513 16 Percent and frequency distribution of women age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Weighted percent Number of women Weighted Unweighted Second 19.5 4,143 3,869 Middle 19.9 4,227 3,997 Fourth 20.4 4,333 4,250 Richest 21.6 4,598 5,661 Total 100.0 21,290 21,290 Of the 21,290 female respondents aged 15-49 years, 81% live in rural areas, while 19% live in urban areas. The largest age group segment featured in the survey was the ages 15-19 category (26%), followed by the ages 20-24 category (19%). The smallest segment is the ages 45-49 category (7%). A high proportion of the women interviewed were married (69%), while 29% had never been married, less than 2% were widowed, and 0.1% were divorced or separated. The majority of the women (64%) had given birth at least once in their lifetime, 36% had never given birth at the time of the survey, and 23% had given birth in the previous two years. Of note is that most of the women respondents (82%) had no formal education, while 8% had primary level education only, and 11% had attained secondary level education or higher7. This signals continued overall low levels of formal education among women, even more than ten years after the end of the Taliban regime. Women respondents aged 15-49 were fairly evenly distributed among the five wealth quintiles, with 22% were in the wealthiest quintile, and 19% in the poorest quintile. The largest sample of women is represented by the Central region (17%), while the smallest is found in the Central Highlands region (3%). If the unweighted figure is higher than the weighted, it signifies that the women in any domain were oversampled by selection, and vice versa. This means that, for example, women in the Central Highlands region were under-sampled by selection while women living in the West region and in rural areas were over-sampled by selection. Characteristic of Children Under Age 5 Some background characteristics of children under age five are presented in Table 3.4. These include the distribution of children by several attributes: sex, region and residence, age, mother s or caretaker s education, and wealth. Table 3.4: Under-5s background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of children under five years of age by selected characteristics, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Weighted percent Number of under-5 children Weighted Unweighted Sex Male 51.5 7,653 7,607 Female 48.5 7,218 7,265 Region 7 In the AMICS, secondary education is combined with post-secondary education. 17 Percent and frequency distribution of children under five years of age by selected characteristics, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Weighted percent Number of under-5 children Weighted Unweighted Central 15.0 2,230 2,703 Central Highlands 3.5 517 1,321 East 11.2 1,667 1,814 North 14.0 2,087 2,104 North East 16.6 2,464 2,134 South 11.9 1,774 1,450 South East 15.5 2,308 2,131 West 12.3 1,825 1,215 Residence Urban 16.1 2,398 3,529 Rural 83.9 12,474 11,343 Age 0-5 months 8.1 1,202 1,270 6-11 months 7.0 1,042 1,100 12-23 months 16.8 2,497 2,535 24-35 months 21.6 3,220 3,185 36-47 months 23.1 3,438 3,379 48-59 months 23.4 3,474 3,403 Mother s education* None 91.0 13,532 13,198 Primary 4.7 698 831 Secondary + 4.3 634 839 Wealth index quintile Poorest 20.9 3,101 2,788 Second 21.4 3,190 2,984 Middle 20.3 3,015 2,882 Fourth 20.1 2,983 2,967 Richest 17.4 2,583 3,251 Total 100.0 14,872 14,872 * Mother's education refers to educational attainment of mothers and caretakers of children under 5. Of the children under five (Table 3.4), 51% were male and 49% were female, with most (84%) residing in rural areas. The largest segment represented are those children aged 48-59 months (23%), while the lowest represented are those aged 0-11 months (15%). The vast majority of the mothers of these children have attained no formal education (91%), while 5% had attained primary education and 4% had attained secondary education or higher. In terms of wealth, the children surveyed are quite evenly distributed across households of different wealth quintiles, with 21% in the poorest quintile, and 17% in the wealthiest quintile. 18 19 Introduction: Child Mortality One of the overarching goals of the MDGs is the reduction of infant and under-five mortality. Specifically, the MDGs call for the reduction in under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. The infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the first birthday. The under-five mortality rate is the probability of dying before the fifth birthday. Monitoring progress towards this goal is an important but challenging objective. Measuring childhood mortality is a complex process. For instance, attempts using direct questions such as Has anyone in this household died in the last year? often give inaccurate results. Using direct measures of child mortality from birth histories is time consuming, more expensive, and requires greater attention to the training and supervision of surveyors. Alternatively, indirect methods developed to measure child mortality produce estimates that are comparable with the ones obtained from other sources. Indirect methods minimize the pitfalls of memory lapses, inexact or misinterpreted definitions, and poor interviewing technique. Child Mortality Estimates for Afghanistan In MICS surveys, infant and under five mortality rates are calculated based on an indirect estimation technique known as the Brass method8. The data used in the estimation are: the mean number of children ever born for five year age groups of women from age 15 to 49, and the proportion of these children who are dead, also for five-year age groups of women (Table 4.1). The technique converts the proportions dead among children of women in each age group into probabilities of dying by taking into account the approximate length of exposure of children to the risk of dying, assuming a particular model age pattern of mortality. The West model life table was selected, as it is most appropriate for Afghanistan, based on recommendations in the United Nations Manual X: Indirect Techniques for Demographic Estimation. Table 4.1: Children ever born, children surviving and proportion dead Children ever born Children surviving Proportion dead Number of women Mean Total Mean Total Age 15-19 0.130 716 0.121 664 0.072 5,510 20-24 1.194 4,905 1.094 4,496 0.083 4,110 25-29 3.024 10,823 2.751 9,844 0.090 3,579 30-34 4.714 11,596 4.241 10,433 0.100 2,460 35-39 6.128 14,636 5.440 12,993 0.112 2,389 40-44 6.756 12,197 5.871 10,600 0.131 1,805 45-49 7.173 10,313 6.107 8,781 0.149 1,438 Total 3.062 65,187 2.715 57,810 0.113 21,290 Table 4.2 provides estimates of child mortality. The infant mortality rate is estimated at 74 per thousand live births, while the probability of dying under age 5 (U5MR) is around 102 per 8 United Nations (1983). Manual X: Indirect Techniques for Demographic Estimation (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.83.XIII.2); United Nations (1990a); QFIVE, United Nations Program for Child Mortality Estimation. New York: UN Pop Division; United Nations (1990b). Step-by-step Guide to the Estimation of Child Mortality. New York: UN. 20 thousand live births. These estimates have been calculated by averaging mortality estimates obtained from women age 25-29 and 30-34.9 Table 4.2: Child mortality (Reference year 2005) Infant and under-five mortality rates, West Model, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Infant mortality rate1 Under-five mortality rate2 Sex Male 78 106 Female 68 97 Region Central 66 90 Central Highlands 86 122 East 50 65 North 86 122 North East 71 99 South 54 71 South East 87 124 West 89 127 Residence Urban 63 85 Rural 76 105 Mother's education None 74 103 Primary 71 98 Secondary + 55 73 Wealth index quintile Poorest 75 104 Second 68 94 Middle 80 112 Fourth 80 113 Richest 62 84 Total 74 102 1 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2; 2 MICS indicator 1.1; MDG indicator 4.1 As Table 4.2 shows, the infant mortality rate among males is 78, while it is 68 among females. The under-five mortality rate shows 106 among males and 97 among females. The male infant mortality is higher than the female rate because biologically, male infants are more vulnerable than female infants. There are wide regional variations found in infant and under-5 mortality rates. The West region has the highest U5MR and IMR (127 and 89 per thousand live births, respectively) and the East region has the lowest U5MR and IMR (65 and 50 per thousand live births, respectively). The U5MR in the West region is twice as high as in the East region, while the IMR figures for the Central, Central Highlands, North, North East, South East and West regions are all at least 22% higher than those of the East and South regions. In terms of rural-urban differences, the mortality rate is lower in urban areas than in rural areas. 9Note that further analyses are needed to explain the differences between administrative records and survey findings. 21 There are also differences in mortality in terms of mother s educational levels and household wealth. As education and wealth levels rise, infant and under-5 mortality rates lower. While the infant mortality rate is 62 for the wealthiest quintile, it is 75 for the poorest quintile. Infant mortality for the children of mothers with no education is 74, while it is notably lower (55) for the children of mothers with secondary education or higher. Differentials in under-5 mortality rates by selected background characteristics are shown in Figure 4.1. In the 2007-2008 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA), the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 111 (per thousand live births) and the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) was 161. The NRVA applied a similar sampling methodology to that used by AMICS, a provincially representative sample with 20,576 sample households enumerated. Like the AMICS, the NRVA used the indirect method for its child mortality module. 22 The child mortality findings from AMICS indicate that the reduction of the IMR and U5MR would be 11% and 12% annually, respectively. Table 4.3 shows the speed of reduction between 1990 and 2010 in U5MR in the South Asian region overall as well as some specific countries. Countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan and India are stabilized in terms of these indicators, and have seen a steady increase in the social and economic status of their populations. However, their speed of reduction in U5MR is less than 6% per year over the past two decades. Afghanistan experienced violent conflict during the last three decades, a near absence of social services in many areas, and a rapidly deteriorating human security situation in the last few years of the post-Taliban period. Its child immunization coverage is low, and child malnutrition levels are high. Table 4.3: Reduction in U5MR and IMR in South Asia U5MR 1990 2010 Average annual rate of reduction (percent) South Asia 120 67 2.9 Bangladesh 143 48 5.5 Bhutan 139 56 4.5 India 115 63 3.0 Source: Levels and Trends in Child Mortality, Report 2011, UN Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation Considering the above noted regional comparisons and characteristics of the situation in Afghanistan, it can be concluded that the U5MR and IMR are under-estimated in the AMICS. The estimation of child mortality is complex, especially in a country such as Afghanistan. The mortality data resulting from any single survey cannot be reflected as a true value, unless a series of data from different surveys are found to be comparable, and thus validated. As UNICEF has previously noted: Generating accurate estimates of child mortality poses a considerable challenge because of the limited available of high-quality data for many developing countries. Complete vital registration systems are the preferred source of data on child mortality because they collect information as events occur and they cover the entire population. However, many developing countries lack fully functioning vital registration systems that accurately record all births and deaths.10 For these reasons, users are advised to interpret the child mortality data from the AMICS with caution. Progress on Child Mortality in Afghanistan To put child mortality in Afghanistan in historical perspective, in 1970 UNICEF reported Afghanistan s U5MR at 314. In 1990, the U5MR was estimated at 209 by UNICEF11 (and the IMR 10 See Child Mortality Methodology, www.childInfo.org. 11 Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, Levels and Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2011. 23 was estimated at 140), a reduction by more than one third over that 20-year period. The AMICS 2010/11 estimates U5MR at 102. Thus, there has been laudable progress. However, Afghanistan s U5MR is still one of the highest child mortality rates in the world, with more than 1 in 10 children dying before their fifth birthdays. The vast majority of child deaths occurring in Afghanistan are preventable. Research undertaken by UNICEF has found that cost-effective, low-tech interventions such as vaccination programs, antibiotics, micronutrient supplementation, and improved family care and breastfeeding practices can help children survive into adulthood. The extent and impact of access to some of these programs are reported on in the next chapters of this report. 24 25 Introduction: Nutrition Children s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they can reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. Malnutrition is associated with more than half of all child deaths worldwide. Undernourished children are more likely to die from common childhood ailments, and for those who survive, they are more likely to have recurring sicknesses and faltering growth. Three-quarters of the children who die from causes related to malnutrition were only mildly or moderately malnourished showing no outward signs of their vulnerability. The Millennium Development target is to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger between 1990 and 2015. A reduction in the prevalence of malnutrition will also greatly assist in the goal of reducing child mortality. In a well-nourished population, there is a reference distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Under-nourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to a reference population. The reference population used in this report is based on new WHO growth standards12. Each of the three nutritional status indicators can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of the reference population. Weight-for-age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight-for- age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered to be moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and from recurrent or chronic illness. Finally, children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. In the AMICS, weights and heights of all children under five years of age were measured using anthropometric equipment recommended by UNICEF13. Findings in this section are based on the results of these measurements. 12 WHO Child Growth Standards, WHO (2007). http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/second_set/technical_report_2.pdf 13 See www.childinfo.org. 26 Nutritional Status The prevalence estimates of the three key nutrition indicators are underweight 25%, stunting 52% and wasting 14% in Afghanistan based on anthropometric measurements during the field data collection. A detailed review of the anthropometric data and the three nutrition indicators by experts in UNICEF New York and Centre for Disease Control of United States raised questions around the quality of the data. During the analysis children with incomplete birth date (month and year) and children whose measurements are outside a plausible range are excluded from the estimates. Children are excluded from one or more of the anthropometric indicators when their weights and heights have not been measured, whichever applicable. For example, if a child was weighed but his/her height was not measured, the child is included in underweight calculations, but not in the calculations for stunting and wasting. The extent and reasons for these exclusions are shown in the data quality tables (see Appendix D: Tables D.6 and D.7). Based on the findings of the expert review, it was concluded that whilst the data provides a strong indication of a significant problem of malnutrition in children of age under five, the results are likely to be overestimates. It is recommended therefore that the AMICS anthropometric data is to be used with caution and should not be used as the sole evidence to trigger policy and program decisions. Breastfeeding, Infant and Young Child Feeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula. This can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition, and is also unsafe if clean water is not readily available. WHO and UNICEF have the following feeding recommendations: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; Continued breastfeeding for two years or more; Safe, appropriate and adequate complementary foods beginning at six months; Frequency of complementary feeding: twice per day for 6 to 8-month-olds; and three times per day for 9 to 11-month-olds. It is also recommended that breastfeeding be initiated within one hour of birth. The indicators related to recommended child feeding practices are as follows: Early initiation of breastfeeding (within one hour of birth) Exclusive breastfeeding rate (< six months) Predominant breastfeeding (< six months) Continued breastfeeding rate (at one year and at two years) Duration of breastfeeding Age-appropriate breastfeeding (0-23 months) 27 Introduction of solid, semi-solid and soft foods (six-eight months) Minimum meal frequency (six-23 months) Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfeeding children (six-23 months) Bottle feeding (0-23 months) Table 5.1: Initial breastfeeding Percentage of last-born children in the two years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, percentage who were breastfed within one hour of birth and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage who were ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last- born children in the two years preceding the survey Within one hour of birth2 Within one day of birth Region Central 93.9 57.2 87.4 22.4 824 Central Highlands 96.4 45.5 84.7 22.1 196 East 84.7 52.5 78.1 26.2 491 North 96.6 53.3 87.6 33.9 743 North East 95.7 70.8 91.3 33.9 869 South 91.8 24.1 71.7 50.1 353 South East 93.6 37.4 77.4 28.0 726 West 92.5 63.5 87.6 25.1 662 Residence Urban 94.6 58.5 87.2 30.4 903 Rural 93.2 52.5 83.8 29.6 3,962 Months since last birth 0-11 months 93.6 54.5 84.3 29.5 2,340 12-23 months 93.2 52.7 84.6 30.1 2,525 Assistance at delivery Skilled attendant 94.6 59.1 87.0 29.0 1,880 Traditional birth attendant 95.7 51.9 86.9 34.4 1,463 CHW/Relative/Friend 96.5 52.8 85.9 28.3 1,294 Other 52.0 23.0 39.3 15.3 228 Place of delivery Public sector health facility 95.5 61.6 88.9 27.1 1,363 Private sector health facility 94.9 47.2 79.0 40.0 237 Home 95.4 52.3 85.7 31.1 3,149 Other 12.2 7.1 10.2 5.1 116 Mother s education None 93.1 53.0 83.8 29.8 4,311 Primary 95.5 63.2 89.4 32.0 286 Secondary + 96.1 53.3 88.9 26.9 268 Wealth index quintile Poorest 92.8 52.1 84.2 32.2 933 Second 93.4 55.1 85.8 29.8 1,029 Middle 93.5 54.6 83.9 28.0 993 Fourth 93.2 51.8 83.1 28.0 967 Richest 94.3 54.3 85.3 31.0 944 Total 93.4 53.6 84.5 29.8 4,865 1 MICS indicator 2.4; 2 MICS indicator 2.5 28 Table 5.1 provides the proportion of children born in the last two years who were ever breastfed, those who were first breastfed within one hour and within one day of birth, and those who received a prelacteal feed. Although a very important step in the management of lactation and in the establishment of a physical and emotional relationship between the baby and the mother, only half of babies (54%) are breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth, while 85% of newborns in Afghanistan start breastfeeding within one day of birth. Whereas there is no significant difference in the breastfeeding pattern between urban and rural areas, there is a remarkable difference by region (Figure 5.1). While 71% of newborns in the North Eastern region are initially breastfed within one hour of birth, less than a quarter of babies (24%) in the Southern region receive the initial breastfeeding just after birth. Women who did not deliver with either a skilled birth attendant or a traditional birth attendant present were far less likely to have breastfed within the first hour of delivery (23%) as well as within the first day of delivery (39%), and a remarkable 48% in this group never breastfed at all. Women who delivered in a public sector health facility were most likely to have breastfed within the first hour of birth (62%) and within the first day of birth (89%), compared to women who delivered in a private sector health facility, at home, or in another location. There was some difference found by mother s educational level in breastfeeding pattern, with a difference between mothers with no education at all and with secondary education and above found to be breastfeeding within the first hour of birth (53%), and mothers with primary education (63%). There was little difference by educational level in babies being breastfed within the first day of birth. 29 In Table 5.2, breastfeeding status is based on the reports of mothers/caretakers of children s consumption of food and fluids in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusively breastfed refers to infants who received only breast milk (and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine). The table below shows the degree to which there was exclusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life, as well as continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 months and at 20-23 months of age. Table 5.2: Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Children age 0-5 months Children age 12-15 months Children age 20-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Percent predominantly breastfed2 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year)3 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 2 years)4 Number of children Sex Male 53.5 66.8 611 90.4 502 71.0 284 Female 55.2 71.7 591 85.2 510 67.7 277 Region Central 54.1 68.0 204 72.5 171 54.0 92 Central Highlands 64.9 77.2 46 94.4 49 (74.2) 17 East 62.3 79.5 113 94.1 89 75.3 52 North 56.5 71.4 186 89.4 172 77.4 86 North East 49.1 70.0 235 93.9 220 59.3 56 South 48.1 48.1 46 95.3 101 89.5 85 South East 57.5 66.0 223 78.3 90 54.4 95 30 Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Children age 0-5 months Children age 12-15 months Children age 20-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Percent predominantly breastfed2 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year)3 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 2 years)4 Number of children West 47.8 68.2 150 89.2 120 77.4 77 Residence Urban 50.9 64.4 248 78.3 162 55.8 100 Rural 55.2 70.5 954 89.6 850 72.4 461 Mother s education None 55.4 69.7 1,039 88.8 913 70.2 510 Primary 58.8 76.0 80 70.5 51 (61.3) 26 Secondary + 36.4 57.5 84 87.0 47 (62.8) 25 Wealth index quintile Poorest 57.8 73.1 185 93.9 213 71.5 121 Second 54.2 71.6 257 89.8 230 80.3 121 Middle 54.6 67.8 235 90.7 210 72.6 116 Fourth 51.6 67.6 249 86.8 168 63.2 110 Richest 54.2 67.2 277 76.1 191 56.0 94 Total 54.3 69.2 1,202 87.8 1,012 69.4 561 1 MICS indicator 2.6; 2 MICS indicator 2.9; 3 MICS indicator 2.7; 4 MICS indicator 2.8 Figures in parenthesis indicate that the percentage is based on only 25-49 unweighted cases. Approximately 54% of children aged less than six months are exclusively breastfed. By age 12- 15 months, 88% of children are still being breastfed and by age 20-23 months, 69% are still breastfed. Although there is minimal difference between exclusive breastfeeding in girls (55%) and boys (53%), boys at 12-15 months (90%) and 20-23 months (71%) continue receiving breastfeeding more than girls (85% and 68% respectively). While children in the Western region are least likely to be exclusively breastfed, they are more likely to continue to be breastfed at two years of age compared to children from the South Eastern region and Central region. More interestingly, children living in the households falling in the richest quintile (54%) are slightly less breastfed than their peers in the poorest quintile (58%). In terms of the mother s education, mothers with secondary education or higher exclusively breastfed their children aged 0-5 months less so (36%) than mothers with primary education (59%). Figure 5.2 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding by children s ages in months. Even at the earliest ages, almost 40% of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk. By the end of the sixth month, the percentage of children exclusively breastfed is below 30%. Only about 8% of children are receiving breast milk after two years. 31 Table 5.3 shows the median duration of breastfeeding by selected background characteristics. Table 5.3: Duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children age 0-35 months, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Median duration (in months) of Number of children age 0-35 months Any breastfeeding1 Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Sex Male 23.5 3.1 5.9 4,106 Female 23.2 3.4 8.8 3,854 Region Central 21.6 3.2 7.3 1,269 Central Highlands 23.2 4.4 6.1 294 East 24.0 4.1 7.5 846 North 23.4 4.6 8.0 1,138 North East 23.7 2.3 7.0 1,332 South 29.5 2.3 2.3 750 South East 22.0 3.5 5.6 1,290 West 23.1 2.3 8.0 1,041 Residence Urban 21.8 2.7 5.4 1,391 Rural 23.6 3.5 7.8 6,570 Mother s education None 23.3 3.5 7.4 7,126 Primary 22.5 3.5 6.6 429 Secondary + 23.6 .7 5.5 402 Wealth index quintile Poorest 24.1 3.9 8.4 1,567 32 Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children age 0-35 months, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Median duration (in months) of Number of children age 0-35 months Any breastfeeding1 Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Second 24.0 3.3 6.8 1,697 Middle 23.3 3.5 9.0 1,587 Fourth 22.6 2.8 8.0 1,608 Richest 21.9 3.2 5.6 1,502 Median 23.3 3.3 7.2 7,961 Mean 23.7 5.4 9.9 7,961 1 MICS indicator 2.10 Among children under age three, the median duration is 23 months for any breastfeeding, 3 months for exclusive breastfeeding, and 7 months for predominant breastfeeding (Table 5.3). There is no gender difference in the duration of any breastfeeding between boys and girls. Infants in rural areas receive a longer duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding than infants in urban areas. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding is longer among infants from the Northern region (5 months) and Central Highlands region (4 months) than in other regions. The adequacy of infant feeding in children under 24 months old is provided in Table 5.4. Different criteria for adequate feeding are used depending on the age of the child. For infants aged 0-5 months, exclusive breastfeeding is considered as adequate feeding, while infants aged 6-23 months are considered to be adequately fed if they are receiving breast milk and solid, semi-solid or soft food. Table 5.4: Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Number of children Percent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children Percent appropriately breastfed2 Number of children Sex Male 53.5 611 31.6 1,801 37.2 2,412 Female 55.2 591 29.9 1,737 36.3 2,329 Region Central 54.1 204 25.7 595 33.0 798 Central Highlands 64.9 46 47.9 140 52.1 186 East 62.3 113 32.8 362 39.8 475 North 56.5 186 29.1 535 36.2 721 North East 49.1 235 40.2 628 42.6 863 South 48.1 46 18.8 304 22.6 350 South East 57.5 223 18.3 497 30.5 720 West 47.8 150 40.6 477 42.3 627 Residence Urban 50.9 248 32.8 652 37.8 900 Rural 55.2 954 30.3 2,887 36.5 3,841 Mother s education None 55.4 1,039 30.8 3,164 36.9 4,202 33 Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Number of children Percent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children Percent appropriately breastfed2 Number of children Primary 58.8 80 33.6 201 40.7 281 Secondary + 36.4 84 26.2 174 29.5 258 Wealth index quintile Poorest 57.8 185 30.6 710 36.3 895 Second 54.2 257 33.9 758 39.0 1,014 Middle 54.6 235 26.5 708 33.5 943 Fourth 51.6 249 29.3 695 35.2 944 Richest 54.2 277 33.4 668 39.5 945 Total 54.3 1,202 30.8 3,539 36.7 4,741 1 MICS indicator 2.6; 2 MICS indicator 2.14 Of infants aged 0-5 months, 54% are adequately fed through exclusive breastfeeding, and 31% of infants aged 6-23 months are appropriately breastfed and receiving adequate feeding (Table 5.4). As a result of these feeding patterns, only 37% of children aged 0-23 months are being adequately breastfed. Infants at 0-23 months in the Central Highlands region are receiving the most adequate feeding by the age of two, compared to other regions. In the Southern and South Eastern regions, a radical decrease in appropriate feeding practice is observed among infants aged 6-23 months. Adequate complementary feeding of children from six months to two years of age is particularly important for growth and development and for the prevention of under-nutrition. Continued breastfeeding beyond six months should be accompanied by consumption of nutritionally adequate, safe and appropriate complementary foods that help meet nutritional requirements when breast milk is no longer sufficient. This requires that for breastfed children, two or more daily meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed if they are 6-8 months old, and three or more meals daily if they are 9-23 months of age. For children 6-23 months and older who are not breastfed, four or more daily meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods or milk feeds are needed. Table 5.5 shows the percentage of infants aged 6-8 months who received solid, semi- solid or soft foods during the previous day from the survey date. 34 Table 5.5: Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Currently breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods1 Number of children age 6-8 months Sex Male 19.8 331 20.6 351 Female 18.0 323 19.6 343 Residence Urban 25.8 133 27.1 139 Rural 17.2 522 18.3 554 Total 18.9 654 20.1 694 1 MICS indicator 2.12 Overall, 20% of infants aged 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (Table 5.5). Among currently breastfeeding infants this percentage is 19%. Infants living in urban areas (27%) are better fed than those living in rural areas (18%). Table 5.6 presents the proportion of children aged 6-23 months who received semi-solid or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day according to breastfeeding status (see the note in Table 5.6 for a definition of minimum number of times for different age groups). Table 5.6: Minimum meal frequency Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (and milk feeds for non-breastfeeding children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, according to breastfeeding status, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times Number of children age 6-23 months Percent receiving at least 2 milk feeds1 Percent receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more Number of children age 6-23 months Percent with minimum meal frequency2 Number of children age 6-23 months Sex Male 11.5 1,541 54.8 51.3 260 17.3 1,801 Female 11.0 1,456 63.7 56.7 281 18.4 1,737 Age 6-8 months 10.6 654 76.1 (59.2) 39 13.4 694 9-11 months 6.8 313 63.4 (62.5) 36 12.5 349 12-17 months 11.2 1,262 62.1 56.6 203 17.5 1,464 18-23 months 13.6 768 54.4 50.3 264 23.0 1,032 Region Central 10.1 443 65.2 60.5 151 22.9 595 Central Highlands 25.5 126 24.9 (21.2) 15 25.1 140 East 9.8 322 67.5 (73.5) 40 16.9 362 35 Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (and milk feeds for non-breastfeeding children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, according to breastfeeding status, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times Number of children age 6-23 months Percent receiving at least 2 milk feeds1 Percent receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more Number of children age 6-23 months Percent with minimum meal frequency2 Number of children age 6-23 months North 9.3 471 49.6 48.6 64 14.1 535 North East 12.3 558 32.5 40.7 70 15.5 628 South 8.2 275 80.5 (64.2) 29 13.6 304 South East 4.5 383 65.3 41.9 114 13.1 497 West 18.1 420 68.9 (74.1) 57 24.9 477 Residence Urban 15.1 505 62.7 59.3 147 25.0 652 Rural 10.5 2,492 58.3 52.2 395 16.2 2,887 Mother s education None 11.1 2,697 58.4 52.0 466 17.1 3,164 Primary 15.2 160 61.1 (63.2) 41 25.0 201 Secondary + 9.0 140 71.7 (72.5) 34 21.5 174 Wealth index quintile Poorest 11.2 636 51.4 54.5 73 15.7 710 Second 8.9 665 55.8 44.1 92 13.2 758 Middle 10.2 607 67.0 48.6 102 15.7 708 Fourth 10.5 580 52.3 50.2 115 17.1 695 Richest 16.4 509 65.7 66.1 159 28.2 668 Total 11.2 2,997 59.5 54.1 542 17.8 3,539 1 MICS indicator 2.15 Note: Figures in parenthesis indicate that the percentage is based on just 25-49 unweighted cases. Overall, more than one in five children aged 6-23 months (18%) were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times (Table 5.6). Among currently breastfeeding children aged 6-23 months, nearly one in six children (11%) were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times. There is no significant gender difference in this proportion. Among non-breastfeeding children, more than a half of the children were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods or milk feeds four times or more (54%). The continued practice of bottle-feeding is a concern because of possible contamination resulting from unsafe water and/or lack of hygiene in preparation. Table 5.7 shows the percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day. Table 5.7: Bottle-feeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children age 0-23 months Sex Male 28.4 2,412 36 Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children age 0-23 months Female 28.1 2,329 Age 0-5 months 22.6 1,202 6-11 months 31.8 1,042 12-23 months 29.5 2,497 Region Central 30.9 798 Central Highlands 17.0 186 East 21.4 475 North 22.8 721 North East 26.0 863 South 53.8 350 South East 26.8 720 West 30.1 627 Residence Urban 31.9 900 Rural 27.4 3,841 Mother s education None 28.0 4,202 Primary 28.2 281 Secondary + 32.5 258 Wealth index quintile Poorest 25.8 895 Second 27.4 1,014 Middle 27.1 943 Fourth 28.2 944 Richest 32.7 945 Total 28.2 4,741 1 MICS indicator 2.11 Table 5.7 shows that bottle-feeding is still prevalent in Afghanistan. More than a quarter of children under six months of age (28%) are fed using a bottle with a nipple. As the mother s education level and wealth index quintile increases, infants are more likely to be fed through a bottle with a nipple. The highest prevalence of bottle-feeding is observed among children age 0- 23 months in the Southern region (54%). Salt Iodization Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are the world s leading cause of preventable mental retardation and impaired psychomotor development in young children. In its most extreme form, iodine deficiency causes cretinism. It also increases the risks of stillbirth and miscarriage in pregnant women. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with goitre. IDD takes its greatest toll in impaired mental growth and development, contributing in turn to poor school performance, reduced intellectual ability, and impaired work performance. The international goal was to achieve sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency by 2005. The indicator used is the percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt (>15 parts per million). 37 In Afghanistan, the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) program was initiated in 2003 through public and private partnerships. The overall objective of the program is to achieve the elimination of IDD, by ensuring that 90% of households in Afghanistan have access to and consume adequately quality iodized salt by 2015 or sooner. In-country capacity to produce iodized salt, social mobilization and communication to promote the use of iodized salt, the creation of an enabling environment, and the establishment of a surveillance system are the major strategies that have been implemented to increase access and consumption of iodized salt at the household level in Afghanistan. Table 5.8: Iodized salt consumption Percent distribution of households by consumption of iodized salt, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of households in which salt was tested Number of households Percent of households with Total Number of households in which salt was tested or with no salt No salt Salt test result Not iodized 0 PPM >0 and <15 PPM 15+ PPM1 Region Central 99.0 2,159 0.4 8.4 39.1 52.2 100.0 2,145 Central Highlands 93.1 432 0.0 29.2 43.7 27.0 100.0 402 East 97.2 1,520 0.8 24.6 50.1 24.6 100.0 1,488 North 99.6 1,913 0.1 64.3 24.6 10.9 100.0 1,907 North East 99.0 2,091 0.4 58.0 26.7 14.9 100.0 2,080 South 97.8 1,584 1.1 48.4 36.5 14.0 100.0 1,566 South East 95.3 1,263 1.8 33.3 54.0 10.9 100.0 1,226 West 98.1 2,155 1.3 69.9 20.2 8.6 100.0 2,141 Residence Urban 98.6 2,427 0.5 21.0 37.3 41.2 100.0 2,404 Rural 97.9 10,689 0.8 49.8 33.7 15.7 100.0 10,552 Wealth index quintile Poorest 97.7 2,809 1.2 66.7 23.2 8.9 100.0 2,777 Second 97.7 2,721 0.7 53.6 30.3 15.5 100.0 2,676 Middle 97.6 2,524 0.8 44.8 38.3 16.1 100.0 2,483 Fourth 99.0 2,419 0.4 33.9 41.7 24.0 100.0 2,404 Richest 98.3 2,643 0.7 20.9 39.8 38.7 100.0 2,617 Total 98.0 13,116 0.8 44.5 34.3 20.4 100.0 12,956 1 MICS indicator 2.16 In about 98% of households, salt used for cooking was tested for iodine content by using salt test kits and by testing for the presence of potassium iodate content. Table 5.8 shows that in a very small proportion of households (less than 1%), there was no salt available. In 20% of households, salt was found to contain 15 parts per million (ppm) or more of iodine, thus only a small portion of households are consuming adequately iodized salt. Use of iodized salt was lowest in the Western region (8.6%) and highest in the Central region (52%). There is a considerable gap in iodized salt consumption between urban and rural areas: 41% of urban households were found to be using adequately iodized salt as compared to only 16% in rural areas (Figure 5.3). 38 Children s Vitamin A Supplementation Vitamin A is essential for eye health and proper functioning of the immune system. It is found in foods such as milk, liver, eggs, red and orange fruits, red palm oil and green leafy vegetables, although the amount of Vitamin A readily available to the body from these sources varies widely. In developing areas of the world, where Vitamin A is largely consumed in the form of fruits and vegetables, daily per capita intake is often insufficient to meet dietary requirements. Inadequate intakes are further compromised by increased requirements for the vitamin as children grow or during periods of illness, as well as increased losses during common childhood infections. As a result, Vitamin A deficiency is quite prevalent in the developing world and particularly in countries with the highest burden of under-five deaths. The 1990 World Summit for Children set the goal of virtual elimination of Vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness, by the year 2000. This goal was also endorsed at the Policy Conference on Ending Hidden Hunger in 1991, the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition, and the UN General Assembly's Special Session on Children in 2002. The critical role of Vitamin A for child health and immune function also makes control of deficiency a primary component of child survival efforts, and therefore critical to the achievement of the fourth MDG: a two-thirds reduction in under-five mortality by the year 2015. 39 For countries with Vitamin A deficiency problems, current international recommendations call for high-dose Vitamin A supplementation every four to six months, targeted at all children between the ages of 6-59 months living in affected areas. Providing young children with two high-dose Vitamin A capsules a year is a safe, cost-effective, efficient strategy for eliminating Vitamin A deficiency and improving child survival. Giving Vitamin A to new mothers who are breastfeeding helps protect their children during the first months of life and helps to replenish the mother's stores of Vitamin A, which are depleted during pregnancy and lactation. For countries with Vitamin A supplementation programs, the definition of the indicator is the percentage of children 6-59 months of age receiving at least one high dose Vitamin A supplement in the previous six months period. Based on UNICEF/WHO guidelines, the Afghan Ministry of Health s recommendation is that children aged 6-11 months are given one high dose Vitamin A capsule and children aged 12-59 months are given one high dose Vitamin A capsule every six months. In some parts of the country, Vitamin A capsules are linked to immunization services and are given when the child has contact with these services after six months of age. It is also recommended that mothers take a Vitamin A supplement within eight weeks of giving birth due to mothers increased Vitamin A requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Table 5.9: Children's Vitamin A supplementation Percent distribution of children age 6-59 months by receipt of a high dose Vitamin A supplement in the last 6 months, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage who received Vitamin A according to: Percentage of children who received Vitamin A during the last 6 months1 Number of children age 6-59 months Child health book/card/vaccination card Mother's report Sex Male 0.6 51.0 51.1 7,043 Female 0.6 50.0 50.1 6,627 Region Central 0.4 75.7 75.8 2,026 Central Highlands 1.2 53.2 53.3 471 East 0.8 48.4 49.0 1,553 North 0.3 54.4 54.5 1,901 North East 1.7 59.1 59.3 2,230 South 0.0 19.3 19.3 1,727 South East 0.2 52.7 52.8 2,085 West 0.3 34.5 34.7 1,676 Residence Urban 0.6 63.7 63.9 2,150 Rural 0.6 48.0 48.1 11,520 Age 6-11 months 1.4 40.3 41.0 1,042 12-23 months 2.1 50.0 50.3 2,497 24-35 months 0.3 51.7 51.8 3,220 36-47 months 0.1 52.2 52.2 3,438 48-59 months 0.1 51.0 51.1 3,474 Mother s education None 0.6 49.4 49.5 12,494 Primary 0.3 60.0 60.3 619 Secondary + 0.6 65.6 65.6 550 40 Percent distribution of children age 6-59 months by receipt of a high dose Vitamin A supplement in the last 6 months, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage who received Vitamin A according to: Percentage of children who received Vitamin A during the last 6 months1 Number of children age 6-59 months Wealth index quintile Poorest 0.8 43.7 43.9 2,916 Second 0.6 48.3 48.3 2,933 Middle 0.4 49.5 49.5 2,780 Fourth 0.3 51.3 51.5 2,734 Richest 0.8 62.1 62.4 2,306 Total 0.6 50.5 50.6 13,670 1 MICS indicator 2.17 Within the six months prior to the AMICS, 51% of children aged 6-59 months received a high dose Vitamin A supplement, as reported by the mothers (Table 5.9). The prevalence shows a significant variation among regions. For instance, the Central region shows the highest Vitamin A coverage rate (76%), while it is lowest in the Southern region (19%). There is no gender difference found in Vitamin A supplement coverage in Afghanistan. However, it is notable that data for 51% of children aged 6-59 are based on the reports from mothers/caretakers, and fewer than 1% of cases are verified by a child health book or vaccination card. The age pattern of Vitamin A supplementation shows that supplementation in the last six months rises from 41% among children aged 6-11 months to 50% among children aged 12-23 months and reaches the highest prevalence at 36-47 months. Then the rate slightly declines with age to 51% among the oldest children. The mother s level of education is also related to the likelihood of Vitamin A supplementation. The percentage receiving a supplement in the last six months increases from 50% among children whose mothers have no education to 60% of those whose mothers have primary education, and to 66% among children of mothers with secondary education or higher. As the wealth index quintiles increase, the coverage rate is higher: from 44% of children living in the poorest households to 62% of those living in the wealthiest households. Children s Anaemia Prevalence Anaemia in childhood is defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) concentration below established cut-off levels. These levels vary depending on the age of the child, and on the laboratory in which the blood sample is tested. The WHO has suggested levels of Hb below which anaemia is said to be present. Children aged 6-59 months have anaemia if their Hb concentration is less than 11 grams per decilitre (g/dl). Childhood anaemia poses a major public health issue leading to an increased risk of child mortality, as well as to the negative consequences of iron deficiency anaemia on cognitive and physical development. In the AMICS, blood tests were administered for sub-sampled children aged 6-59 months. All children aged 6-59 months in the odd number of clusters were selected for the blood test. Table 5.11 presents the prevalence of anaemia among children 6-59 months. 41 Table 5.10: Anaemia Status of Children Percentage of children 6-59 months who have blood tested and who have anaemia, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children who have anaemia Number of children under 5 who have blood tested Sex Male 32.7 3,058 Female 34.8 2,801 Residence Urban 31.2 929 Rural 34.2 4,931 Region Central 18.5 848 Central Highlands 19.8 172 East 42.9 671 North 50.1 946 North East 38.0 906 South 35.2 617 South East 19.3 897 West 35.6 800 Wealth index quintile Poorest 36.0 1,319 Second 36.6 1,237 Middle 36.9 1,096 Fourth 28.2 1,180 Richest 30.0 1,027 Total 33.7 5,859 Overall, the prevalence of anaemia among children 6-59 months is 34%. Small differentials were found between children living in urban areas (31%) and in rural areas (34%). Significant differences among regions are observed, with the lowest prevalence found in the Central region (19%) and the highest in the Northern region (50%). W omen s Anaemia Prevalence Women often become anaemic during pregnancy because the demand for iron and other vitamins is increased. The mother must increase her production of red blood cells and, in addition, the foetus and placenta need their own supply of iron, which can only be obtained from the mother. Anaemia in women aged 15-49 is defined as Hb concentration less than 12 g/dl for non- pregnant women and 11 g/dl for pregnant women. In the AMICS, the blood test was administered for women aged 15-49. Anaemia testing was done on a sub-sample of women in the survey, whereby all women aged 15-49 in the odd number of clusters were selected for the blood test. The same clusters were selected for both women s and children s anaemia tests. Table 5.11 shows the anaemia prevalence among women aged 15-49 in Afghanistan. 42 Table 5.11: Anaemia Status of Women Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who have blood tested and who are anaemic, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 % of non-pregnant women who have anemia Number of non- pregnant women aged 15-49 who have blood tested % of pregnant women who have anemia Number of pregnant women aged 15-49 who have blood tested Residence Urban 17.5 1,644 11.4 88 Rural 22.4 6,518 16.8 928 Region Central 9.6 1,439 5.0 60 Central Highlands 5.0 279 7.7 13 East 22.2 712 21.4 159 North 27.0 1,249 18.7 75 North East 37.8 1,504 21.3 89 South 16.4 962 8.7 150 South East 20.3 953 19.5 313 West 16.8 1,064 13.4 157 Education None 22.6 6,439 15.9 966 Primary 20.1 673 (27.6) 29 Secondary+ 15.2 1,052 (15.0) 20 Wealth index quintile Poorest 25.0 1,574 17.0 270 Second 23.4 1,502 18.1 171 Middle 24.2 1,528 18.9 222 Fourth 18.9 1,678 12.6 230 Richest 16.7 1,882 13.8 123 Total 21.4 8,164 16.3 1,016 Note: Figures in parenthesis indicate that the percentage is based on just 25-49 unweighted cases Overall, the prevalence of anaemia is 21% among non-pregnant women aged 15-49, and 16% among pregnant women. There is a higher rate of anaemia found among pregnant women living in rural areas (17%) compared to urban areas (11%), as well as among non-pregnant women (18% among urban women, and 22% among rural women). Significant differences are observed by region. Prevalence is lowest among pregnant women in the Central region (5%) and highest in the East and North East regions (21%), and follows the same pattern for non-pregnant women (the lowest prevalence at 5% in the Central Highlands region; and the highest at 38% in the North East region). Non-pregnant women living in the poorest households (25%) are more likely to have anaemia than their counterparts living in the wealthiest households (17%). A Profile of W omen s and Children s Nutrition in Afghanistan Afghanistan has made some progress in improving children s and women s health, such as in the establishment of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) programme in an effort to achieve the elimination of IDD. However, significant challenges remain. Only 20% of households are consuming adequate levels of iodized salt. Approximately only half of children receive Vitamin A supplementation. Anaemia is common among young children. Almost one in three children 43 under age five are moderately underweight, and 18% are classified as severely underweight. Breastfeeding practices among women vary by region and other factors, but in general, the data demonstrate an acute need for greater awareness of the recommended good practices in breastfeeding, as well as for targeting interventions at women who are giving birth in places other than in public sector facilities. Improving the nutritional practices and status of women and children will help reduce mortality rates. Optimal feeding and supplementation practices are critical for brain development, healthy growth, and energy intake, and ultimately play a major role in the health of the population, and in Afghanistan s prospects for development. 44 45 Introduction: Child Health Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015. Immunization plays a key part in reaching this goal. Immunizations have saved the lives of millions of children in the three decades since the launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Yet worldwide, there are still 27 million children overlooked by routine immunization. As a result, vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than two million deaths every year. One of the goals of A World Fit for Children is to ensure full immunization of children under one year of age at 90% nationally, with at least 80% coverage in every district or equivalent administrative unit. According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG (Bacillis-Cereus- Geuerin) vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination, all by the age of 12 months. The routine immunization schedule in Afghanistan is shown in Table 6.1. Table 6.1: Routine Immunization Schedule in Afghanistan (children under 5) Antigen At Birth 6 weeks 10 weeks 14 weeks 9 months BCG X Polio X X X X X Pentavalent X X X Measles X The Pentavalent vaccine is a combination of five vaccines: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and haemophilus influenza. Although the Pentavalent vaccine was introduced in Afghanistan in 2009, there has been no change to reflect this in the vaccination card. Therefore, interviewers recorded only the DPT vaccination during the field data collection. Vaccinations Information on vaccination coverage was collected for all children under five years of age. All mothers or caretakers were asked to provide vaccination cards. If the vaccination card for a child was available, interviewers copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS questionnaire. If no vaccination card was available for the child, the interviewer proceeded to ask the mother to recall whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations, and for Polio, DPT and Hepatitis B, how many doses were received. The final vaccination coverage estimates are based on both information obtained from the vaccination card and from the mother s report of vaccinations received by the child. 46 Table 6.2: Vaccinations in first year of life Percentage of children age 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before the first birthday, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to Vaccinated by 12 months of age Vaccination card Mother's report Either BCG1 31.0 33.1 64.2 61.3 Polio At birth 30.3 17.8 48.1 45.9 1 30.4 41.1 71.4 66.1 2 30.4 32.1 62.5 57.3 32 30.3 17.8 48.0 41.8 DPT 1 31.8 25.6 57.5 53.2 2 31.7 20.2 51.9 47.5 33 31.5 8.7 40.2 35.0 Measles4 29.9 25.6 55.5 43.8 All vaccinations 29.4 0.7 30.0 17.6 No vaccinations 0.1 24.0 24.0 24.7 Number of children age 12-23 months 2,497 2,497 2,497 2,497 MICS Indicators 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4; MDG 4.3 Overall, 31% of children had vaccination cards. If the child did not have a card, the mother was asked to recall whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations and, for DPT and polio, how many times. The percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received each of the vaccinations is shown in Table 6.2. The denominator for the table is comprised of children aged 12-23 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination card or the mother s report. In the bottom panel, only those who were vaccinated before their first birthday, as recommended, are included. For children without vaccination cards, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. Approximately 61% of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to 53% of children. The percentage declines for subsequent doses of DPT to 48% for the second dose, and 35% for the third dose (Figure 6.1). Similarly, 66% of children received polio 1 by the age of 12 months and this declines to 42% by the third dose. The coverage for the measles vaccine by 12 months reaches 44%. As a result, the percentage of children who had all the recommended vaccinations by their first birthday is low, at only 18%. In Afghanistan, one in four children receive no vaccination before age 1 (25%). 47 Table 6.3 shows vaccination coverage rates among children 12-23 months by background characteristics. The figures indicate children receiving the vaccinations at any time up to the date of the survey, and are based on information from both the vaccination cards and from the mothers/caretakers reports. Table 6.3: Vaccinations by background characteristics Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children who received: Percentage with vaccination card seen Number of children age 12- 23 months BCG Polio DPT Measles None All At birth 1 2 3 1 2 3 Sex Male 64.4 49.0 71.1 62.8 48.8 58.0 52.8 41.6 56.4 24.3 30.9 31.6 1,262 Female 63.9 47.2 71.7 62.3 47.2 56.9 51.0 38.9 54.5 23.7 29.2 29.6 1,235 Region Central 79.0 60.7 79.9 67.2 56.5 72.7 63.5 50.0 70.4 14.1 34.8 36.3 405 Central Highlands 57.5 37.2 64.0 59.8 53.3 54.7 50.2 42.6 53.8 34.9 29.6 30.8 104 East 76.5 62.2 79.8 66.6 52.7 71.3 67.2 46.0 69.6 13.5 38.7 39.5 247 North 60.6 43.9 69.7 63.6 47.9 53.5 47.0 33.6 49.9 24.4 23.6 26.6 377 North East 70.8 60.0 81.4 72.6 57.9 61.6 59.5 52.6 62.0 16.0 41.5 41.7 427 South 34.8 13.9 41.4 28.2 8.4 23.9 14.0 4.6 19.4 52.4 1.5 1.5 254 South East 63.2 48.8 64.2 57.2 44.9 59.2 54.1 40.1 57.7 31.8 33.3 33.1 351 West 57.4 40.4 77.2 72.4 53.4 51.0 48.0 41.9 50.2 20.7 28.7 27.1 332 Residence Urban 79.2 64.1 81.1 69.5 58.4 72.3 63.5 53.2 70.0 12.4 37.0 36.4 436 Rural 61.0 44.7 69.4 61.1 45.8 54.3 49.4 37.5 52.4 26.5 28.5 29.4 2,060 48 Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children who received: Percentage with vaccination card seen Number of children age 12- 23 months BCG Polio DPT Measles None All At birth 1 2 3 1 2 3 Mother s education None 62.4 46.1 70.4 61.7 46.6 55.6 50.2 38.3 53.5 25.1 28.7 29.5 2,267 Primary 78.1 65.5 79.2 68.8 60.5 72.2 64.3 54.9 73.6 15.8 41.9 40.7 122 Secondary + 85.9 69.9 83.8 72.1 63.2 78.5 71.9 64.0 75.2 11.2 44.0 43.4 108 Wealth index quintile Poorest 54.4 34.0 68.4 58.4 40.0 47.3 41.6 28.9 43.7 27.6 23.1 23.0 532 Second 63.0 48.6 71.9 63.9 49.2 55.3 52.3 40.1 55.6 24.3 30.0 30.8 549 Middle 59.8 44.2 67.7 60.0 43.4 53.8 47.8 36.4 52.2 28.1 28.2 29.3 495 Fourth 66.8 51.1 70.4 62.0 51.0 59.7 54.2 43.5 59.7 25.8 32.7 33.4 473 Richest 79.3 65.4 79.8 69.1 58.1 73.4 65.2 54.4 68.1 13.0 37.3 37.9 447 Total 64.2 48.1 71.4 62.5 48.0 57.5 51.9 40.2 55.5 24.0 30.0 30.6 2,497 In Afghanistan, 30% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated (Table 6.3). One in four children are not vaccinated at all against any diseases (24%). There is no significant gender disparity in immunization coverage; however, a disparity between urban (37%) and rural (29%) areas is observed. The situation differs considerably by region: in the North Eastern region, children have the highest rate of vaccination coverage against communicable diseases (42%). However, in the Southern region, fewer than 2% of children are fully vaccinated, an alarming situation that stands in contrast to all other regions. The mother s education appears to be a factor significantly influencing children s immunization rates. The higher the mother s educational level, the more her children tend to be vaccinated. For example, 63% of children whose mothers are educated to the secondary level received the third dose of polio vaccine, while only 47% of children are fully protected against polio if their mothers have no education at all. Overall, 64% of children aged 12-23 are protected against tuberculosis as a result of having received the BCG vaccine. More children living in urban areas (79%) are immunized with the BCG vaccine compared to those living in rural areas (61%). In the Central region, almost four in five children received the BCG vaccine, while in the Southern region, one in three children are immunized. Table 6.3 shows a regressive trend in the immunization coverage of the oral polio vaccine up to the third dose, according to the immunization schedule. Children in the North Eastern region (81%) are protected against polio 1 most frequently, followed by children in the Central and Eastern regions (80%). However, the coverage rate of polio 3 drops to 58% in the North East region, to 57% in the Central region, and to 53% in the East region by the third polio vaccination. Among the eight regions, the Southern region has the lowest coverage from polio 1 to 3. 49 More than one in two children (58%) aged 12-23 months were vaccinated with the first dosage of DPT (DPT 1), with the coverage rate slightly lower by the second dosage (52%), and falling to 40% by the third dosage. The national coverage rate of children protected against measles is 56%. The Central region has the highest coverage rate (70%), while the lowest coverage rate for the measles vaccine is found in the Southern region (19%). Neonatal Tetanus Protection One of the MDGs is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters. One strategy to that end is to eliminate maternal tetanus. Another goal is to reduce the incidence of neonatal tetanus to less than one case of neonatal tetanus per 1,000 live births in every district. The goal of A World Fit for Children was to eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus by 2005. The prevention of maternal and neonatal tetanus requires assuring that all pregnant women receive at least two doses of the tetanus toxoid vaccine. However, if a woman has not received two doses of the vaccine during her pregnancy, she (and her new born) are also considered to be protected if the following conditions are met: Received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine, the last within the prior three years; Received at least three doses, the last within the prior five years; Received at least four doses, the last within 10 years; Received at least five doses during her lifetime. Table 6.4 shows the tetanus protection status of women aged 15-49 who had had a live birth within the last two years preceding the survey, by major characteristics. Table 6.4: Neonatal tetanus protection Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years protected against neonatal tetanus, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of women who received at least 2 doses during last pregnancy Percentage of women who did not receive two or more doses during last pregnancy but received: Protected against tetanus1 Number of women with a live birth in the last 2 years 2 doses, the last within prior 3 years 3 doses, the last within prior 5 years 4 doses, the last within prior 10 years 5 or more doses during lifetime Region Central 36.3 10.5 2.5 0.9 1.1 51.3 824 Central Highlands 33.2 14.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 48.4 196 East 29.9 10.5 1.3 0.6 0.2 42.5 491 North 29.2 5.2 2.3 0.0 0.1 36.9 743 North East 37.5 10.1 0.8 0.6 0.1 49.2 869 South 17.7 6.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 24.1 353 South East 35.4 6.9 0.0 0.2 0.0 42.5 726 West 18.0 5.7 0.3 0.3 0.2 24.4 662 Residence Urban 33.4 10.9 1.6 1.3 1.1 48.4 903 Rural 30.1 7.7 1.0 0.2 0.1 39.0 3,962 Education None 29.5 7.7 1.0 0.3 0.2 38.6 4,311 50 Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years protected against neonatal tetanus, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of women who received at least 2 doses during Percentage of women who did not receive two or more doses during last pregnancy but received: Protected against tetanus1 Number of women with a live birth in the Primary 34.0 15.5 2.1 1.6 0.8 54.0 286 Secondary + 47.1 9.5 2.3 0.5 1.2 60.6 268 Wealth index quintile Poorest 24.6 6.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 32.4 933 Second 28.7 7.9 0.8 0.3 0.0 37.7 1,029 Middle 30.4 8.6 1.0 0.0 0.2 40.2 993 Fourth 34.5 7.9 0.8 0.2 0.3 43.8 967 Richest 35.2 10.2 1.9 1.6 0.8 49.8 944 Total 30.7 8.3 1.1 .4 .3 40.8 4,865 1 MICS indicator 3.7 Only 41% of women with a birth in the last two years are protected against tetanus (Table 6.4). Mother s education level and household wealth were found to have a positive association with neonatal tetanus protection. As mothers are more educated, they tend to be more vaccinated (39% among mothers without education compared to 61% among mothers with secondary education or higher). Almost half of women from the wealthiest households are protected against neonatal tetanus, while only one in three women from the poorest wealth quintile are protected. Figure 6.2 shows the protection of women against neonatal tetanus by major background characteristics. Women living in the Central region are the most protected against tetanus (51%) followed by the North Eastern region (49%). The lowest coverage of neonatal tetanus vaccination is found in the Southern and Western regions, where only one in four women are protected (24%). There is a disparity between urban and rural areas in neonatal tetanus protection (48 % versus 39%). 51 Oral Rehydration Treatment Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under five worldwide. Most diarrhoea-related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. The goal of A World Fit for Children is to reduce by one half death due to diarrhoea among children under age five by 2010 (compared to 2000); and the MDG is to reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five by 2015 (compared to 1990). In addition, A World Fit for Children calls for a reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea by 25% worldwide. The indicators used in the MICS survey include: Prevalence of diarrhoea Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) among children age less than 5 years with diarrhea Home management of diarrhoea among children age less than 5 years with diarrhea 52 ORT with continued feeding among children age less than 5 years with diarrhea In the MICS questionnaire, mothers (or caretakers) were asked to report whether their child had had diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. If so, the mother was asked a series of questions about what the child had to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually ate and drank. Table 6.5: Oral rehydration solutions and recommended homemade fluids Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks, and treatment with oral rehydration solutions and recommended homemade fluids, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Had diarrhoea in last two weeks Number of children age 0-59 months Children with diarrhoea who received: Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea ORS (Fluid from ORS packet or pre- packaged ORS fluid) Recommended homemade fluids ORS or any recommended homemade fluid Wheat Salt Solution Salt & Sugar Solution Any recommended homemade fluid Sex Male 22.9 7,653 55.1 13.0 18.9 26.4 65.2 1,752 Female 22.9 7,218 51.3 13.6 16.7 24.3 61.6 1,652 Region Central 25.0 2,230 46.0 12.6 17.2 23.1 59.9 557 Central Highlands 33.4 517 36.3 12.4 12.7 19.6 48.2 173 East 21.4 1,667 58.9 15.6 17.5 23.2 70.6 357 North 25.9 2,087 48.3 12.9 12.4 21.6 56.5 541 North East 19.3 2,464 36.5 6.6 7.9 11.8 42.8 477 South 20.0 1,774 74.0 17.8 44.5 49.6 85.0 355 South East 24.3 2,308 60.5 14.8 18.1 29.5 69.4 560 West 21.0 1,825 64.6 15.0 16.0 27.0 75.7 384 Residence Urban 21.2 2,398 48.2 8.7 14.8 19.0 57.2 508 Rural 23.2 12,474 54.2 14.1 18.3 26.5 64.5 2,896 Age 0-11 months 18.6 2,244 44.3 10.0 10.6 17.9 51.9 418 12-23 months 28.2 2,497 55.8 12.7 16.2 23.8 66.1 704 24-35 months 27.6 3,220 55.7 13.4 18.3 25.4 65.6 888 36-47 months 22.5 3,438 51.2 14.1 21.4 28.8 63.0 772 48-59 months 17.9 3,474 55.7 14.9 19.3 27.8 65.9 622 Mother s education None 23.1 13,532 53.7 13.5 18.4 26.0 63.9 3,125 Primary 23.3 698 44.5 13.0 14.3 20.7 56.2 163 Secondary + 17.8 634 55.5 8.3 8.3 14.2 62.0 113 Wealth index quintile Poorest 22.0 3,101 55.6 16.8 18.1 30.1 68.7 683 Second 22.2 3,190 50.8 13.6 21.1 28.9 63.4 707 Middle 25.1 3,015 52.4 13.7 16.9 24.4 61.8 758 Fourth 25.0 2,983 55.6 12.6 17.1 23.2 63.4 744 Richest 19.8 2,583 51.6 8.5 15.3 18.6 59.0 512 Total 22.9 14,872 53.3 13.3 17.8 25.3 63.5 3,403 53 Overall, 23% of children under five had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table 6.5). Diarrhoea prevalence varies by region. One in three children in the Central Highlands region had diarrhoea in the last two weeks, while one in five children had had diarrhoea in the North Eastern and Southern regions. This high prevalence of diarrhoea in the Central Highlands region is assumed to be due to low coverage in improved sources of drinking water (at 25%; refer to Table 7.1 in the next chapter). The peak of diarrhoea prevalence occurs in the weaning period, among children aged 12-23 months (28%). Table 6.5 also shows the percentage of children receiving various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhoea.14 About 53% received fluids from ORS packets or pre- packaged ORS fluids and 25% received recommended homemade fluids. Interestingly, it was found that the mother s education level does not influence the frequency of ORT use to treat children with diarrhoea in Afghanistan. Mothers without any formal education give ORS or any RHF to the children to treat diarrhoea (64%) at comparable rates to mothers with secondary education or higher (62%). Approximately 63% of children with diarrhoea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or any RHF), as shown in Figure 6.3. 14 Since mothers were able to name more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add up to 100%. 54 Table 6.6: Feeding practices during diarrhoea Percent distribution of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks by amount of liquids and food given during episode of diarrhoea, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Had diarrhea in last two weeks Number of children age 0-59 months Drinking practices during diarrhoea: Total Eating practices during diarrhoea: Total Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in last two weeks Given much less to drink Given somewhat less to drink Given about the same to drink Given more to drink Given nothing to drink Missing/ DK Given much less to eat Given somewhat less to eat Given about the same to eat Given more to eat Stopped food Had never been given food Missing/ DK Sex Male 22.9 7,653 21.0 24.1 25.3 19.0 7.0 3.5 100.0 18.1 23.0 34.2 8.6 8.6 5.7 1.9 100.0 1,752 Female 22.9 7,218 20.9 23.9 26.3 17.3 7.1 4.4 100.0 17.6 21.7 34.9 8.8 8.6 6.3 2.1 100.0 1,652 Region Central 25.0 2,230 20.7 24.5 25.5 21.8 7.2 0.2 100.0 18.1 17.5 32.7 12.2 12.2 6.4 0.7 100.0 557 Central Highlands 33.4 517 26.5 15.1 18.6 31.3 7.4 1.0 100.0 31.0 19.4 22.9 8.0 9.8 8.0 0.7 100.0 173 East 21.4 1,667 20.5 31.6 19.6 7.1 15.0 6.2 100.0 15.8 28.7 27.0 6.4 4.3 14.8 2.9 100.0 357 North 25.9 2,087 28.0 15.3 28.1 18.3 8.5 1.8 100.0 26.5 20.4 32.2 6.3 9.4 4.2 1.0 100.0 541 North East 19.3 2,464 24.7 23.3 25.8 19.5 5.7 0.9 100.0 16.8 21.8 39.1 9.3 8.2 4.2 0.5 100.0 477 South 20.0 1,774 16.9 22.6 34.8 17.9 4.7 3.1 100.0 17.3 20.2 46.2 6.6 5.2 2.8 1.7 100.0 355 South East 24.3 2,308 14.2 25.0 31.6 12.5 4.4 12.4 100.0 6.5 17.7 47.9 8.0 7.7 5.9 6.3 100.0 560 West 21.0 1,825 18.4 33.2 15.4 24.2 5.0 3.7 100.0 19.9 36.9 16.6 11.2 10.7 4.0 0.7 100.0 384 Residence Urban 21.2 2,398 24.2 24.4 24.4 19.4 6.6 0.9 100.0 21.0 21.5 28.1 11.3 9.0 8.3 0.8 100.0 508 Rural 23.2 12,474 20.4 23.9 26.1 18.0 7.1 4.5 100.0 17.3 22.5 35.7 8.2 8.6 5.6 2.2 100.0 2,896 Age 0-11 months 18.6 2,244 19.0 25.4 26.2 13.0 12.5 3.9 100.0 15.1 17.2 30.0 7.0 10.0 17.4 3.3 100.0 418 12-23 months 28.2 2,497 22.4 21.5 27.7 17.7 8.2 2.6 100.0 21.1 19.7 33.4 7.7 9.9 7.1 1.1 100.0 704 24-35 months 27.6 3,220 21.0 24.9 25.6 18.5 6.3 3.7 100.0 18.1 22.9 37.2 7.7 8.4 4.2 1.5 100.0 888 36-47 months 22.5 3,438 22.4 24.6 23.8 19.5 5.9 3.9 100.0 17.5 26.6 32.5 10.4 8.1 3.4 1.6 100.0 772 48-59 months 17.9 3,474 19.0 24.0 26.3 20.2 4.6 5.9 100.0 16.2 22.8 37.6 10.2 7.3 2.8 3.2 100.0 622 Mother s education None 23.1 13,532 21.0 24.5 25.3 18.3 6.8 4.2 100.0 17.8 22.7 34.7 8.8 8.3 5.7 2.0 100.0 3,125 55 Percent distribution of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks by amount of liquids and food given during episode of diarrhoea, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Had diarrhea in last two weeks Number of children age 0-59 months Drinking practices during diarrhoea: Total Eating practices during diarrhoea: Total Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in last two weeks Given much less to drink Given somewhat less to drink Given about the same to drink Given more to drink Given nothing to drink Missing/ DK Given much less to eat Given somewhat less to eat Given about the same to eat Given more to eat Stopped food Had never been given food Missing/ DK Primary 23.3 698 24.6 19.3 29.5 16.2 9.9 0.5 100.0 19.2 17.0 34.3 6.3 11.4 10.0 1.8 100.0 163 Secondary + 17.8 634 17.4 18.4 34.9 16.6 10.3 2.4 100.0 19.3 20.9 28.8 7.6 13.1 7.4 2.8 100.0 113 Wealth index quintile Poorest 22.0 3,101 21.1 26.5 22.0 17.2 7.6 5.6 100.0 17.5 28.3 27.8 7.9 9.7 6.6 2.1 100.0 683 Second 22.2 3,190 22.0 23.6 24.0 17.7 9.1 3.6 100.0 21.1 23.1 31.0 7.4 9.8 5.6 2.0 100.0 707 Middle 25.1 3,015 21.4 24.7 27.6 15.2 6.0 5.2 100.0 15.8 20.3 40.4 8.5 7.3 5.2 2.5 100.0 758 Fourth 25.0 2,983 20.0 21.4 27.4 21.5 6.2 3.6 100.0 16.9 18.8 42.3 8.1 7.2 4.9 1.9 100.0 744 Richest 19.8 2,583 20.3 23.9 28.7 19.8 6.3 1.0 100.0 18.3 21.5 28.4 12.5 9.6 8.5 1.1 100.0 512 Total 22.9 14,872 21.0 24.0 25.8 18.2 7.0 3.9 100.0 17.9 22.4 34.5 8.7 8.6 6.0 2.0 100.0 3,403 Feeding practices during incidence of children s diarrhoea are important in the prevention of dehydration as well as further complications resulting from diarrhoea in children. Table 6.6 shows the feeding patterns by mothers or caretakers during a diarrhoeal episode among children. Less than one fifth (18%) of under-five children with diarrhoea drank more than usual while 71% drank the same or less. Nine percent of children are given nothing to drink, and 22% ate somewhat less, the same or more (continued feeding), but 32% ate much less or ate almost nothing. Almost 9% of children had feeding stopped during the episode. Table 6.7 provides the proportion of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received ORT with continued feeding, and the percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other treatments. 56 Table 6.7: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding, and percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other treatments, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Children with diarrhoea who received: Other treatments: Not given any treatment or drug Number of children age 0- 59 months with diarrhoea in last two weeks ORS or increased fluids ORT (ORS or recommended homemade fluids or increased fluids) ORT with continued feeding1 Pill or syrup Injection Intra- venous Home remedy, herbal medicine Other Anti- biotic Anti- motility Zinc Other Unknown Anti- biotic Non- antibiotic Unknown Sex Male 63.3 71.8 48.7 16.9 24.5 5.4 1.3 16.6 5.0 0.6 3.3 1.9 14.6 4.4 9.8 1,752 Female 59.2 68.4 46.3 17.2 24.4 5.1 1.8 17.0 4.6 0.7 3.3 1.6 15.6 4.0 9.7 1,652 Region Central 55.9 67.4 41.9 16.6 20.8 4.7 0.9 17.6 1.7 0.2 2.8 0.4 5.1 4.7 10.3 557 Central Highlands 57.0 65.0 30.6 14.0 13.1 0.4 0.6 21.1 0.1 0.3 2.0 0.7 4.0 2.6 22.0 173 East 62.3 73.7 47.3 28.0 16.6 4.0 2.1 14.7 9.3 0.9 2.7 1.0 21.0 2.8 9.8 357 North 58.7 66.1 39.2 15.8 25.1 3.8 0.2 21.9 4.7 0.0 2.0 3.1 10.0 5.9 11.8 541 North East 46.5 51.6 35.2 13.5 31.7 5.0 1.4 17.7 5.1 0.0 1.8 0.3 15.4 6.0 13.9 477 South 78.1 88.3 67.9 31.8 35.2 10.4 6.6 15.8 9.4 2.3 3.3 0.9 27.6 7.5 2.7 355 South East 64.2 71.4 59.6 12.6 26.1 9.8 0.7 12.7 4.2 1.4 6.7 4.6 19.8 1.9 6.5 560 West 72.8 83.1 54.2 7.8 20.2 0.5 0.8 14.2 4.0 0.0 4.1 1.2 17.5 1.4 6.8 384 Residence Urban 57.0 64.9 39.5 24.8 24.0 4.2 1.7 20.4 5.6 0.6 2.2 1.8 6.1 5.7 8.3 508 Rural 62.1 71.0 48.9 15.7 24.5 5.4 1.5 16.1 4.7 0.6 3.5 1.7 16.7 3.9 10.1 2,896 Age 0-11 months 51.7 57.7 32.3 16.2 22.0 2.5 1.0 16.7 4.1 0.4 2.2 2.5 9.4 4.7 16.5 418 12-23 months 62.7 71.7 45.3 16.1 22.2 3.5 0.8 16.2 5.5 0.6 2.9 2.2 13.5 5.0 8.6 704 24-35 months 64.0 72.8 49.9 17.7 25.7 6.9 2.1 15.0 5.0 0.4 3.2 1.7 14.4 4.1 9.4 888 36-47 months 60.3 70.6 51.4 16.9 26.6 7.4 2.0 18.4 5.2 1.0 3.7 1.8 19.2 3.7 8.2 772 48-59 months 63.7 72.3 52.2 18.0 24.1 4.2 1.5 18.1 3.9 0.5 4.3 0.7 16.5 3.7 9.0 622 Mother s education 57 Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding, and percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other treatments, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Children with diarrhoea who received: Other treatments: Not given any treatment or drug Number of children age 0- 59 months with diarrhoea in last two weeks ORS or increased fluids ORT (ORS or recommended homemade fluids or increased fluids) ORT with continued feeding1 Pill or syrup Injection Intra- venous Home remedy, herbal medicine Other Anti- biotic Anti- motility Zinc Other Unknown Anti- biotic Non- antibiotic Unknown None 61.6 70.4 48.5 16.7 24.4 5.5 1.6 16.8 5.0 0.6 3.4 1.8 15.6 4.1 9.8 3,125 Primary 55.4 66.1 34.5 19.3 30.8 2.3 0.6 15.9 2.4 0.4 1.0 1.6 11.0 3.9 7.5 163 Secondary + 61.7 67.3 40.0 23.8 18.7 3.8 0.0 15.6 4.1 0.6 1.5 0.4 5.7 9.0 12.3 113 Wealth index quintile Poorest 63.4 75.0 50.7 12.1 13.8 3.7 1.3 13.0 4.3 0.6 4.7 2.0 17.8 5.8 10.5 683 Second 58.5 68.8 42.9 15.6 26.5 6.0 0.9 15.2 4.2 1.0 3.9 1.6 16.2 3.9 12.5 707 Middle 58.4 66.7 48.0 19.4 29.1 7.0 1.2 16.3 6.5 0.5 1.8 1.7 15.7 1.9 9.8 758 Fourth 66.2 72.9 52.8 17.2 27.7 5.3 2.5 21.1 3.5 0.7 3.3 1.9 15.8 5.0 6.8 744 Richest 59.6 66.4 41.3 21.9 24.2 3.6 1.8 18.4 5.8 0.3 2.9 1.5 7.9 4.8 9.4 512 Total 61.3 70.1 47.5 17.1 24.5 5.3 1.5 16.8 4.8 0.6 3.3 1.7 15.1 4.2 9.8 3,403 1 MICS indicator 3.8 Observing Table 6.7, overall, 61% of children with diarrhoea received ORS or increased fluids, 70% received ORT (ORS or recommended homemade fluids, or increased fluids). It was observed that 48% of children either received ORT and/or at the same time, feeding was continued, as per the recommendation. There are significant differences in the home management of diarrhoea by background characteristics. In the Central Highlands region, less than one in three children (31%) received ORT and continued feeding, while 68% of children in the Southern region received ORT and continued feeding. Interestingly, better treatment practices during an episode of diarrhoea among children are observed in the Southern region despite otherwise discouraging indicators on child health such as the low vaccination coverage noted earlier: 88% of children with diarrhoea in the Southern region were treated by ORT, while only 52% of children in the North Eastern region were treated with ORT. 58 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. The use of antibiotics in children under age five with suspected pneumonia is a key intervention. The goal of A World Fit for Children is to reduce by one-third deaths due to acute respiratory infections. Children with suspected pneumonia are those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were NOT due to a problem in the chest and a blocked nose. The indicators are: Prevalence of suspected pneumonia Care seeking for suspected pneumonia Antibiotic treatment for suspected pneumonia Knowledge of the danger signs of pneumonia 59 Table 6.8: Care seeking for suspected pneumonia and antibiotic use during suspected pneumonia Percentage of children age 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks who were taken to a health provider and percentage of children who were given antibiotics, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Had suspected pneumoni a in the last two weeks Number of children age 0-59 months Children with suspected pneumonia who were taken to: Other Any appropriat e provider1 Percentage of children with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics in the last two weeks2 Number of children age 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks Public sources Private sources Other source Govt. hospital Govt. health centre Govt. health post Village health worke r Mobile/ outreach clinic Other public Private hospital/ clinic Private physician Private pharmacy Mobile clinic Other private medical Relative or friend Shop Trad. Practi- tioner Sex Male 18.2 7,653 18.2 9.0 3.7 6.5 2.9 0.2 3.2 25.5 6.4 0.6 0.0 3.9 1.5 3.5 0.7 61.9 63.2 1,392 Female 19.0 7,218 19.5 7.8 3.8 6.6 1.8 0.7 3.4 23.1 8.2 0.6 0.2 3.2 2.1 3.9 0.0 59.1 64.6 1,370 Region Central 25.0 2,230 19.1 9.0 0.7 2.1 2.2 0.1 7.2 28.2 7.8 0.2 0.0 2.0 0.2 0.5 0.3 65.3 60.2 558 Central Highlands 30.2 517 17.0 10.5 0.0 2.0 5.9 1.4 .2 5.9 4.9 0.4 0.3 1.8 0.0 0.5 0.4 40.7 37.9 156 East 23.6 1,667 12.4 8.1 13.3 7.0 0.1 0.0 3.3 36.1 9.0 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.8 1.5 0.3 72.2 68.9 394 North 20.3 2,087 18.3 8.8 0.5 9.6 4.8 1.1 2.1 15.6 3.8 1.6 0.4 2.9 2.3 2.6 0.2 54.6 63.2 424 North East 13.0 2,464 18.5 17.0 1.0 4.5 2.9 0.0 1.7 10.1 10.7 0.0 0.0 5.3 3.2 2.9 0.0 52.9 58.2 320 South 10.0 1,774 22.4 6.6 6.7 8.6 2.0 2.0 7.2 39.5 4.0 1.5 0.0 1.7 0.0 24.0 0.0 63.3 83.4 178 South East 18.7 2,308 25.2 1.9 6.7 13.2 0.4 0.3 0.6 32.2 9.0 0.4 0.0 5.3 1.9 2.5 0.0 72.1 74.4 431 West 16.5 1,825 17.6 7.8 0.3 3.6 3.1 0.0 2.3 18.5 6.5 0.0 0.0 9.1 5.5 5.9 1.6 45.0 58.1 301 Residence Urban 19.1 2,398 25.7 4.7 2.3 1.0 2.2 0.3 5.4 36.1 8.1 0.2 0.0 1.4 0.6 1.8 0.4 67.3 70.3 457 Rural 18.5 12,474 17.5 9.2 4.0 7.6 2.4 0.5 2.8 22.0 7.2 0.6 0.1 4.0 2.0 4.1 0.3 59.2 62.6 2,304 Age 0-11 months 19.5 2,244 21.3 9.9 2.3 4.3 2.9 0.3 3.9 28.1 5.5 1.2 0.1 2.2 .4 1.8 0.0 67.6 66.3 439 12-23 months 19.6 2,497 21.0 8.0 2.9 5.4 3.0 0.1 2.3 25.4 9.1 0.5 0.0 3.4 2.7 3.0 0.3 60.4 61.8 489 24-35 months 19.7 3,220 18.1 8.0 4.4 8.3 2.3 0.5 4.4 24.4 6.3 0.4 0.0 3.7 1.4 4.7 0.1 60.8 62.6 633 36-47 months 19.1 3,438 17.0 7.9 4.0 6.7 2.6 0.7 3.4 26.0 7.5 0.5 0.3 4.1 2.0 4.0 0.2 60.9 67.6 655 48-59 months 15.7 3,474 18.0 8.7 4.5 7.2 1.3 0.5 2.2 18.2 8.2 0.4 0.0 4.1 2.2 4.2 1.0 54.2 60.9 547 Mother s education None 18.4 13,532 18.7 8.7 3.7 7.0 2.3 0.4 2.9 23.4 7.3 0.6 0.0 3.5 1.9 4.0 0.3 59.6 63.6 2,496 Primary 22.3 698 25.5 7.2 3.8 2.0 2.8 0.0 4.6 30.0 8.1 0.0 0.0 3.4 1.8 0.4 0.0 68.8 62.7 156 Secondary+ 17.3 634 12.8 3.3 4.8 3.3 3.2 1.6 9.1 37.5 7.4 1.3 1.6 5.5 0.0 1.9 0.9 71.1 72.4 110 60 Percentage of children age 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks who were taken to a health provider and percentage of children who were given antibiotics, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Had suspected pneumoni a in the last two weeks Number of children age 0-59 months Children with suspected pneumonia who were taken to: Other Any appropriat e provider1 Percentage of children with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics in the last two weeks2 Number of children age 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks Public sources Private sources Other source Govt. hospital Govt. health centre Govt. health post Village health worke r Mobile/ outreach clinic Other public Private hospital/ clinic Private physician Private pharmacy Mobile clinic Other private medical Relative or friend Shop Trad. Practi- tioner Wealth index quintile Poorest 15.7 3,101 10.4 8.5 4.4 6.5 3.1 1.3 1.6 18.6 4.9 0.8 0.5 2.6 2.8 3.3 0.2 46.4 57.0 486 Second 18.7 3,190 18.7 12.0 3.9 8.2 2.4 0.2 1.8 18.3 6.4 0.8 0.0 3.0 1.6 5.4 0.0 59.7 58.6 597 Middle 20.7 3,015 20.7 10.6 5.4 8.9 2.3 0.2 3.2 22.9 7.7 0.2 0.0 3.6 2.9 4.1 0.7 65.6 67.5 625 Fourth 18.6 2,983 21.1 7.2 2.9 6.4 2.7 0.4 4.2 26.0 9.1 1.0 0.0 6.3 1.2 3.6 0.3 63.5 66.2 554 Richest 19.3 2,583 22.3 2.9 1.8 1.8 1.4 0.2 5.7 37.1 8.4 0.2 0.0 2.1 0.2 1.6 0.4 65.7 69.8 500 Total 18.6 14,872 18.8 8.4 3.7 6.5 2.4 0.4 3.3 24.3 7.3 0.6 0.1 3.6 1.8 3.7 0.3 60.5 63.9 2,762 1 MICS indicator 3.9; 2 MICS indicator 3.10 Table 6.8 presents the prevalence of suspected pneumonia, whether care was sought outside the home, and the site of care. It was found that 19% of children aged 0-59 months were reported to have had symptoms of pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these children, 61% were taken to an appropriate provider, and 64% of children under five with suspected pneumonia had received an antibiotic during the two weeks prior to the survey. There is some difference between urban (70%) and rural areas (63%) in children receiving an antibiotic during suspected pneumonia. Among eight regions in Afghanistan, the Central Highlands and Central regions reported higher prevalence of suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks before the survey (30% and 25% respectively). In the Central Highlands region, only 41% of children were taken to any appropriate health provider and 38% received antibiotics in the last two weeks. In the South region, 63% of children were taken to any appropriate provider, while more than 80% received medication, and 22% of children were taken to a governmental hospital for treatment of suspected pneumonia. Also, good practices in seeking appropriate care for suspected pneumonia among children are observed in the Eastern region, where 72% of children were taken to an appropriate provider (36% of them were taken to a private physician) and 69% of cases were treated with antibiotics. The table also shows that the antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia is lower among the poorest households and among children whose mothers/caretakers have no education. The use of antibiotics is not correlated to the age of the child, and children at any age receive medication in case of suspected pneumonia. Overall, around 60-70% of children in each age group with suspected pneumonia received antibiotics. 61 Table 6.9: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia Percentage of mothers and caretakers of children age 0-59 months by symptoms that would cause them to take the child immediately to a health facility, and percentage of mothers who recognize fast and difficult breathing as signs for seeking care immediately, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of mothers/caretakers of children age 0-59 months who think that a child should be taken immediately to a health facility if the child: Mothers/car etakers who recognize the two danger signs of pneumonia Number of mothers/c aretakers of children age 0-59 months Is not able to drink or breastfeed Becomes sicker Develops a fever Has fast breathing Has difficult breathing Has blood in stool Is drinking poorly Has other symptoms Region Central 17.0 19.3 73.5 23.0 43.6 22.0 11.8 34.6 8.7 1,481 Central Highlands 13.6 17.6 75.1 24.2 41.4 12.9 13.9 44.4 8.4 356 East 43.7 56.0 68.8 44.8 35.7 26.3 21.9 13.5 18.9 1,137 North 28.1 32.3 80.0 25.2 48.3 30.8 27.5 46.2 17.2 1,342 North East 22.1 36.3 73.7 31.7 42.9 23.4 22.0 32.9 15.9 1,640 South 57.9 65.6 76.1 54.3 49.7 30.7 56.0 33.4 35.8 1,220 South East 53.7 29.1 60.0 22.3 21.4 21.5 37.4 26.2 5.7 1,444 West 27.4 32.5 71.9 26.2 43.8 29.8 15.3 26.8 9.5 1,274 Residence Urban 22.8 28.8 75.5 27.8 45.0 22.0 16.8 34.5 12.4 1,627 Rural 36.2 38.5 71.4 32.2 39.8 26.3 28.4 30.9 15.8 8,269 Mother's education None 35.2 37.8 72.0 32.1 40.4 26.0 27.6 30.8 15.7 8,925 Primary 23.4 29.7 71.1 23.9 45.8 22.3 14.7 40.4 10.0 489 Secondary + 22.4 26.8 73.9 25.8 40.2 20.7 16.8 34.5 10.6 475 Wealth index quintile Poorest 39.3 42.4 72.4 34.3 43.2 27.8 31.5 25.8 18.6 2,028 Second 33.4 39.8 71.5 31.0 40.2 26.7 26.5 30.8 15.1 2,071 Middle 37.2 37.4 71.2 34.1 40.8 27.3 29.5 33.8 16.9 2,017 Fourth 35.5 33.9 71.7 31.3 38.5 24.9 27.7 32.9 15.1 1,993 Richest 23.6 30.1 73.8 26.0 40.8 20.8 16.0 34.3 9.7 1,786 Total 34.0 36.9 72.1 31.5 40.7 25.6 26.5 31.5 15.2 9,895 Issues related to knowledge of the danger signs of pneumonia are presented in Table 6.9. It is clearly evident that mothers knowledge of the danger signs is an important determinant of care-seeking behaviour. Overall, only 15% of women know of the two danger signs of pneumonia fast and difficult breathing. The most commonly identified symptom for taking a child to a health facility is when a child develops a fever (72%). Of the mothers surveyed, 32% identified fast breathing and nearly 41% of mothers identified difficult breathing as symptoms for taking children immediately to a health care provider. Mothers/caretakers living in the poorest households (19%) and who have no education (16%) are more likely to seek care if their children develop the symptoms of pneumonia. Less than 10% of the mothers in the wealthiest quintile know two danger signs of pneumonia in Afghanistan, compared to 18% in the poorest households. Out of eight regions, mothers in the Southern region are more likely to recognize the two danger signs of pneumonia (36%). In the Central Highlands and Central regions, where there is a higher prevalence of suspected pneumonia than in other regions, only 8-9% of mothers recognize the two danger signs of pneumonia. 62 Solid Fuel Use More than three billion people around the world rely on solid fuels (biomass and coal) for their basic energy needs, including cooking and heating. Cooking and heating with solid fuels leads to high levels of indoor smoke, which is a complex mix of health-damaging pollutants. The main problem with the use of solid fuels is products of incomplete combustion, including CO, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, SO2, and other toxic elements. Use of solid fuels increases the risks of acute respiratory illness, pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer, and possibly tuberculosis, low birth weight, cataracts, and asthma. The primary indicator of solid fuel use is the proportion of the population using solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking. Table 6.10 shows the percentage of household members according to the type of cooking fuel used by the household, and the percentage of household members living in households using solid fuels for cooking. 63 Table 6.10: Solid fuel use Percent distribution of household members according to type of cooking fuel used by the household, and percentage of household members living in households using solid fuels for cooking, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of household members in households using: Number of household members Electricity Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Natural Gas Biogas Kerosene Solid fuels No food cooked in the household Other Missing Total Solid fuels for cooking1 Coal, lignite Char- coal Wood Straw, shrubs, grass Animal dung Agricultural crop residue Region Central 0.9 10.4 40.5 0.1 0.0 0.4 1.5 35.7 4.0 6.2 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 48.1 16,232 Central Highlands 0.0 0.1 1.4 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.3 21.0 29.2 43.5 1.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 98.3 3,449 East 0.1 4.6 0.6 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 70.8 11.3 9.8 2.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 100.0 94.2 11,335 North 0.2 0.9 4.6 0.3 0.0 0.2 1.2 39.5 9.4 38.0 4.6 0.0 0.9 0.3 100.0 92.9 14,055 North East 0.4 1.3 9.4 0.0 0.4 0.9 0.4 14.2 26.0 42.0 4.8 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 88.3 16,557 South 0.2 5.8 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.7 38.0 31.7 15.7 6.2 0.0 0.2 0.5 100.0 92.4 13,825 South East 0.2 1.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 72.6 15.4 5.9 3.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 98.2 12,867 West 0.2 2.1 17.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 21.4 44.2 11.2 2.4 0.1 0.3 0.1 100.0 79.5 13,393 Residence Urban 1.1 14.7 50.9 0.3 0.1 0.8 1.6 22.1 4.0 3.6 0.5 0.0 0.3 0.1 100.0 32.6 18,000 Rural 0.1 1.4 2.6 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.6 42.9 24.0 23.5 3.9 0.0 0.2 0.2 100.0 95.2 83,713 Education of household head None 0.2 2.2 6.6 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.7 38.0 23.8 23.4 4.0 0.0 0.3 0.2 100.0 90.2 69,034 Primary 0.1 3.7 15.4 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.7 41.4 15.7 19.1 3.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 80.5 11,529 Secondary + 0.6 8.7 23.9 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.8 42.1 12.3 9.6 1.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 100.0 66.4 21,099 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 29.9 39.0 24.4 6.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 100.0 99.4 20,338 Second 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 36.8 26.1 31.4 4.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 100.0 99.1 20,340 Middle 0.0 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.4 48.9 19.7 25.2 3.5 0.1 0.3 0.2 100.0 98.0 20,344 64 Percent distribution of household members according to type of cooking fuel used by the household, and percentage of household members living in households using solid fuels for cooking, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of household members in households using: Number of household members Electricity Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Natural Gas Biogas Kerosene Solid fuels No food cooked in the household Other Missing Total Solid fuels for cooking1 Coal, lignite Char- coal Wood Straw, shrubs, grass Animal dung Agricultural crop residue Fourth 0.1 2.9 5.2 0.1 0.0 0.7 1.5 57.0 13.9 15.5 2.6 0.0 0.3 0.2 100.0 91.1 20,345 Richest 1.3 15.2 49.8 0.1 0.0 0.5 1.4 23.6 3.7 3.6 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.0 100.0 33.2 20,347 Total 0.3 3.7 11.2 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.7 39.2 20.5 20.0 3.3 0.0 0.2 0.2 100.0 84.2 101,713 MICS Indicator 3.11 Overall, most households (84%) in Afghanistan are using solid fuels for cooking (Table 6.10). Use of solid fuels is low in urban areas (33%), but very high in rural areas, where almost all households (95%) are using solid fuels. Differentials with respect to household wealth and the educational level of the household head are also significant. The findings show that use of solid fuels is at 90% in households where the head of household has no education, while it is 66% in households where the head of household has secondary education or higher. One in three of the wealthiest households use solid fuel, while 99% of the poorest households use solid fuel, demonstrating striking differentials by household socio-economic status. The table also clearly shows that the overall percentage of use of solid fuels is high due to use of wood for cooking purposes (39%), use of straw/shrubs/grass (21%), and use of animal dung (20%). Solid fuel use alone is a poor proxy for indoor air pollution, since the concentration of the pollutants is different when the same fuel is burned in different stoves or fires. Use of closed stoves with chimneys minimizes indoor pollution, while open stoves or fires with no chimney or hood means that there is no protection from the harmful effects of solid fuels. Solid fuel use by place of cooking is shown in Table 6.11. 65 Table 6.11: Solid fuel use by place of cooking Percent distribution of household members in households using solid fuels by place of cooking, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Place of cooking: Number of household members in households using solid fuels for cooking In a separate room used as kitchen Elsewhere in the house In a separate building Outdoors At another place Missing Total Region Central 82.5 10.8 1.2 4.7 0.4 0.5 100.0 7,801 Central Highlands 76.5 17.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 0.3 100.0 3,392 East 57.4 34.5 0.5 6.0 1.2 0.5 100.0 10,672 North 84.1 6.6 0.2 6.4 2.4 0.3 100.0 13,057 North East 69.5 12.8 4.0 12.9 0.2 0.5 100.0 14,621 South 63.7 30.2 0.4 4.2 0.2 1.1 100.0 12,778 South East 62.9 34.2 0.8 1.3 0.1 0.8 100.0 12,637 West 44.4 20.0 2.4 32.0 1.1 0.2 100.0 10,644 Residence Urban 73.2 15.4 0.9 8.8 0.9 0.9 100.0 5,867 Rural 66.2 21.6 1.5 9.3 0.9 0.5 100.0 79,736 Education of household head None 65.3 21.2 1.5 10.6 0.9 0.5 100.0 62,292 Primary 69.5 19.2 1.3 8.7 0.9 0.5 100.0 9,285 Secondary + 71.1 22.2 1.4 3.8 0.8 0.8 100.0 14,000 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 49.0 30.6 1.5 15.5 2.6 0.8 100.0 20,216 Second 66.4 20.8 1.2 10.8 0.4 0.3 100.0 20,151 Middle 71.5 20.0 1.0 6.5 0.3 0.7 100.0 19,945 Fourth 77.3 15.5 1.8 4.9 0.2 0.3 100.0 18,537 Richest 77.3 12.9 2.6 6.0 0.4 0.8 100.0 6,754 Total 66.7 21.2 1.4 9.2 0.9 0.6 100.0 85,602 The table shows that 9% of households that use solid fuels cook outdoors and 1% cook in a separate building, while 67% of households use solid fuel in a separate room used as the kitchen. More than one in five households does the cooking elsewhere in the house (21%). In urban areas, 73% of households that use solid fuels cook with solid fuel in a separate room used as a kitchen, compared to 66% of rural households. More than half of households cook with solid fuel in a separate room in most regions, except the Western region where only 44% of households that use solid fuels do so. Assessing Children s Health in Afghanistan The reach of vaccination coverage in Afghanistan is cause for concern, particularly the low reach of measles coverage, and the inconsistency in ensuring children receive all required dosages of vaccines such as that for polio prevention. For both children s and women s immunization, mothers educational levels are strongly associated to the likelihood of vaccination coverage, suggesting that the more educated a mother, the more likely she is to immunize her children, and herself. While the findings demonstrate awareness of treatment options for diarrhoea in children, there is wide variation found in treatment and feeding practices, pointing to the need for consistent, clear and convincing messaging around diarrhoea treatment targeted at parents. There is also a demonstrated need for better awareness of the danger signs of pneumonia, a significant threat facing Afghan children. 66 67 Safe Drinking Water Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Access to safe drinking water and to adequate sanitation facilities are fundamental human rights. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children who often bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, especially in rural areas, often over long distances. The MDG goal for improving access to safe drinking water is to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and to basic sanitation. The goal of a World Fit for Children with regards to safe drinking water calls for a reduction by at least one-third in the proportion of households without access to hygienic sanitation facilities and to affordable and safe drinking water. The list of indicators used for water and sanitation in the AMICS are as follows: Water Use of improved drinking water sources Use of adequate water treatment method Time to source of drinking water Person collecting drinking water Sanitation Use of improved sanitation facilities Sanitary disposal of child s faeces Use of Improved Water Sources The population using improved sources of drinking water are those using any of the following types of supply: piped water (into dwelling, compound, yard or plot, public tap/standpipe), tube well/borehole, protected well, protected spring, rainwater collection, and bottle water. The distribution of the population by source of drinking water is shown in Table 7.1 and Figure 7.1. 68 Table 7.1: Use of Improved Water Sources Percent distribution of household population according to main source of drinking water and percentage of household population using improved drinking water sources, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Main source of drinking water Total Percentage using improved sources of drinking water1 Number of household members Improved sources Unimproved sources Piped water Tube- well/ bore- hole Pro- tected well/ Kariaz Pro- tected spring Rainwater collection Bottled water Unpro- tected well/ Kariaz Unpro- tected spring Tanker truck Cart with tank/ drum Surface water* Other Into dwell- ing Into yard/ plot To neighbour Public tap/ stand- pipe Region Central 5.1 9.7 1.0 6.0 32.1 13.4 1.8 0.0 0.2 6.3 4.1 2.2 0.3 16.8 0.9 100.0 69.3 16,232 Central Highlands 0.1 0.5 0.0 3.5 3.7 9.5 7.9 0.0 0.0 13.2 35.1 0.0 0.6 25.8 0.0 100.0 25.3 3,449 East 6.5 5.3 4.2 8.9 8.8 26.0 2.8 0.0 0.0 9.1 23.6 0.0 0.2 4.5 0.3 100.0 62.4 11,335 North 0.8 3.0 0.5 17.7 9.6 12.5 1.1 0.1 0.0 15.6 10.8 0.1 0.3 27.2 0.7 100.0 45.3 14,055 North East 0.7 6.7 1.2 1.4 23.1 8.9 2.2 0.0 0.0 15.6 4.0 0.2 2.3 32.8 0.9 100.0 44.2 16,557 South 4.2 1.3 1.3 0.1 32.4 15.5 4.7 0.2 0.0 26.6 3.7 0.5 0.9 7.7 1.0 100.0 59.7 13,825 South East 3.4 4.8 1.3 3.5 26.8 24.0 3.0 0.2 0.0 12.2 6.7 1.2 4.3 5.2 3.4 100.0 67.0 12,867 West 8.0 12.4 1.3 8.9 16.6 8.9 2.0 1.4 0.0 15.8 13.0 0.0 0.0 11.0 0.8 100.0 59.3 13,393 Residence Urban 13.0 18.2 3.8 7.9 29.1 9.7 0.4 0.0 0.2 7.3 1.3 2.3 0.6 5.1 1.1 100.0 82.3 18,000 Rural 1.9 3.4 0.9 6.0 19.6 16.0 3.1 0.3 0.0 15.9 11.5 0.3 1.3 18.7 1.1 100.0 51.2 83,713 Education of household head None 2.6 4.9 1.1 6.3 20.3 14.0 2.9 0.3 0.0 16.1 10.7 0.4 1.4 17.7 1.1 100.0 52.5 69,034 Primary 4.0 6.8 1.4 7.0 19.3 18.1 1.7 0.2 0.0 13.4 8.8 0.5 0.5 17.5 0.7 100.0 58.5 11,529 Secondary + 7.6 9.4 2.2 6.3 25.6 15.9 2.2 0.0 0.2 9.2 6.7 1.3 0.9 11.1 1.3 100.0 69.5 21,099 Wealth index quintile Poorest 0.0 0.2 0.3 6.7 8.3 8.9 5.3 0.6 0.0 17.1 27.2 0.0 0.6 24.0 0.6 100.0 30.5 20,338 Second 0.6 0.8 0.5 6.9 15.6 15.3 3.4 0.4 0.0 18.5 12.8 0.2 1.2 22.8 1.1 100.0 43.5 20,340 Middle 1.5 3.9 0.9 5.7 23.4 18.9 2.1 0.1 0.0 15.8 5.0 0.2 1.6 19.5 1.3 100.0 56.4 20,344 Fourth 3.6 5.3 2.0 6.2 26.9 20.8 1.8 0.1 0.0 14.1 2.9 0.6 1.9 12.4 1.5 100.0 66.6 20,345 Richest 13.4 20.2 3.2 6.3 32.4 10.3 0.6 0.0 0.2 6.5 0.5 2.2 0.6 2.8 1.0 100.0 86.6 20,347 Total 3.8 6.1 1.4 6.4 21.3 14.9 2.6 0.2 0.0 14.4 9.7 0.6 1.2 16.3 1.1 100.0 56.7 101,713 * Surface water includes river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, or irrigation channel. MICS Indicator 4.1 69 Overall, 57% of the Afghan population is using an improved source of drinking water (Table 7.1), including 82% in urban areas and 51% in rural areas. The situation in the Central Highlands region is considerably worse than in other regions, with only 25% of the population drinking water from an improved source (Table 7.1). Tube wells or boreholes (improved sources) are the most common water source used for drinking (21%), and surface water (an unimproved source) is the second most common source (16%) in Afghanistan. The population s drinking water source varies strongly by region. The first and second most commonly used source for drinking water are improved sources in the South Eastern region, while they are unimproved sources in the Central Highlands region. In Afghanistan, the second most important source of drinking water is surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, or irrigation channel), considered to be an unimproved source of drinking water. Surface water is used particularly in the North Eastern region, where 33% of the population relies on this source. In the Southern region, 27% of the population uses unprotected wells and/or kariaz for drinking water, as unimproved sources. Unprotected springs, a source that may be responsible for causing water-related diseases, are used by 35% of the population in the Central Highlands Region. In the Western region, 20% of the population uses drinking water that is piped into their dwelling or into their yard or plot. In the Central and Eastern regions, 5% and 7% respectively use water that is piped into their dwellings. In contrast, only about 3% of those residing in the Southern region and less than 1% of those in the Central Highlands, Northern and North Eastern regions have water that is piped into their dwelling. Nationally, there is wide variation in the types of sources used for drinking water (Figure 7.1). 70 Use of Adequate Water Treatment Methods Use of in-house water treatment is presented in Table 7.2. Households were asked of ways they may be treating water at home to make it safer to drink. Boiling, adding bleach or chlorine, using a water filter, and/or using solar disinfection were considered appropriate means for the proper treatment of drinking water.15 The table shows water treatment by all households and the percentage of those living in households using unimproved water sources but using appropriate water treatment methods. 15 WHO and UNICEF (2006), Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenge of the Decade. 71 Table 7.2: Household water treatment Percentage of household population by drinking water treatment method used in the household, and for household members living in households where an unimproved drinking water source is used, the percentage who are using an appropriate treatment method, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Water treatment method used in the household Number of household members Percentage of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources and using an appropriate water treatment method1 Number of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources None Boil Add bleach/ chlorine Strain through a cloth Use water filter Solar dis- infection Let it stand and settle Other Missing/DK Region Central 74.8 17.8 10.8 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.7 0.4 0.0 16,232 21.4 4,981 Central Highlands 62.6 36.8 1.4 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 3,449 36.1 2,577 East 93.6 2.5 2.9 1.0 0.2 1.3 1.6 0.3 0.0 11,335 3.9 4,266 North 85.1 11.5 5.1 0.5 0.1 0.7 3.4 0.3 0.0 14,055 8.4 7,689 North East 75.0 23.6 2.7 2.0 0.1 0.2 2.5 0.0 0.1 16,557 26.7 9,242 South 88.8 5.8 3.1 1.4 0.6 3.7 6.6 0.0 0.0 13,825 4.8 5,577 South East 82.6 11.5 6.0 0.9 0.6 4.3 6.2 0.1 0.0 12,867 19.4 4,248 West 91.5 6.4 1.6 1.1 0.0 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.0 13,393 3.5 5,447 Residence Urban 70.0 22.2 12.8 1.8 0.2 1.4 3.1 0.4 0.0 18,000 36.6 3,191 Rural 85.8 10.9 2.8 0.8 0.3 1.4 2.9 0.1 0.0 83,713 13.2 40,837 Education of household head None 85.4 11.3 2.8 0.9 0.2 1.1 2.8 0.1 0.0 69,034 13.4 32,799 Primary 82.4 13.6 4.7 1.0 0.3 1.0 1.9 0.3 0.0 11,529 15.5 4,784 Secondary + 75.6 17.7 10.6 1.3 0.6 2.4 4.1 0.4 0.0 21,099 22.2 6,432 Wealth index quintile Poorest 91.9 5.4 0.5 0.9 0.2 0.7 1.9 0.1 0.0 20,338 6.8 14,140 Second 87.7 9.3 1.1 1.0 0.2 1.3 2.9 0.0 0.0 20,340 12.7 11,502 Middle 83.7 13.3 3.0 0.8 0.3 1.9 3.6 0.1 0.0 20,344 19.5 8,861 Fourth 78.3 17.2 6.5 0.9 0.4 1.7 4.2 0.3 0.0 20,345 23.4 6,789 Richest 73.5 19.1 12.0 1.4 0.4 1.4 2.0 0.4 0.0 20,347 30.3 2,736 Total 83.0 12.9 4.6 1.0 0.3 1.4 2.9 0.2 0.0 101,713 14.9 44,028 1 MICS indicator 4.2 72 In Afghanistan, only 20% of household members are using an appropriate treatment for drinking water. Of those who treat their drinking water, 13% boil the water, 5% add bleach or chlorine, 1% strain the water through a cloth, and 1% use solar disinfection. In urban areas, 30% of household members and 14% of household members in rural areas apply any form of treatment to their drinking water. The proportion of household members using appropriate treatment for drinking water is positively associated with socio-economic background characteristics. Among households using unimproved drinking water sources, only 15% of household members apply an appropriate treatment to drinking water, and significant differences were found across household members background characteristics. A higher percentage of those treating unimproved drinking water sources was found in urban areas, among the educated population, and among the population living in wealthier households. The population in the Central Highlands region has the highest proportion of people who appropriately treat their drinking water collected from unimproved sources (36%), compared to their counterparts in the Western region, where it is only 4%, the lowest among all the regions. Time to Source of Drinking Water The amount of time it takes to obtain water is presented in Table 7.3 and the person from the household who usually collects the water is shown in Table 7.4. Note that these results refer to one round trip from the home to the drinking water source. Information on the number of trips made in one day was not collected. Table 7.3: Time to source of drinking water Percent distribution of household population according to time to go to source of drinking water, get water and return, for users of improved and unimproved drinking water sources, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Time to source of drinking water Total Users of improved drinking water sources Users of unimproved drinking water sources Number of household members Water on premises Less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Missing/DK Water on premises Less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Missing/DK Region Central 47.1 17.9 3.9 0.4 6.8 20.0 3.1 0.8 100.0 16,232 Central Highlands 2.9 18.0 4.3 0.1 3.1 47.2 24.2 0.2 100.0 3,449 East 32.0 23.7 6.4 0.3 6.6 16.3 13.5 1.3 100.0 11,335 North 13.2 26.8 5.2 0.1 8.9 32.2 13.5 0.1 100.0 14,055 North East 15.3 19.8 9.0 0.1 9.4 23.2 22.9 0.3 100.0 16,557 South 46.3 7.1 4.2 2.0 25.5 9.3 3.5 2.0 100.0 13,825 South East 49.6 13.7 3.2 0.6 9.2 13.9 5.2 4.7 100.0 12,867 West 33.6 17.4 6.6 1.7 12.5 15.4 10.3 2.6 100.0 13,393 Residence Urban 66.5 11.3 4.2 0.3 7.7 5.6 3.7 0.7 100.0 18,000 Rural 25.2 19.5 5.8 0.8 11.7 22.9 12.4 1.7 100.0 83,713 Education of household head None 27.8 17.9 6.0 0.8 12.2 21.4 12.3 1.5 100.0 69,034 Primary 30.2 21.8 6.1 0.4 8.6 20.8 11.7 0.5 100.0 11,529 Secondary + 49.0 16.2 3.7 0.6 8.2 14.3 5.8 2.2 100.0 21,099 Wealth index quintile Poorest 7.4 13.8 7.9 1.4 10.7 31.8 23.9 3.1 100.0 20,338 73 Percent distribution of household population according to time to go to source of drinking water, get water and return, for users of improved and unimproved drinking water sources, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Time to source of drinking water Total Users of improved drinking water sources Users of unimproved drinking water sources Number of household members Water on premises Less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Missing/DK Water on premises Less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Missing/DK Second 14.3 21.6 6.5 1.0 11.7 26.0 16.6 2.2 100.0 20,340 Middle 29.6 21.4 4.8 0.7 13.4 21.5 7.8 0.9 100.0 20,344 Fourth 38.9 22.3 5.1 0.3 12.3 15.7 4.6 0.8 100.0 20,345 Richest 72.2 11.0 3.2 0.2 6.8 4.3 1.7 0.7 100.0 20,347 Total 32.5 18.0 5.5 0.7 11.0 19.9 10.9 1.5 100.0 101,713 Table 7.3 shows that for 32% of household members, the improved drinking water source is located on the premises. Slightly less than 6% of household members spend 30 minutes or longer getting to the improved drinking water source. Among the household members using an unimproved source of drinking water, only 11% have water on their premises. It takes 30 minutes or more to fetch water for 11% of household members. For those household members with improved drinking water sources, the water source is more likely to be located on the household premises when the head of household is educated: 49% of households where the head of household had a secondary education had a source of improved drinking water located on the premises of the home, compared to 28% of households where the household head had no education. Further, the wealthiest quintile of households were the most likely (72%) to have an improved drinking water source on the household premises, while for the poorest quintile only 7% of households had an improved drinking water source on the household premises. Improved drinking water sources are found on the premises of urban households (67%) more often than in rural households (25%). Person Collecting Drinking Water Table 7.4 shows the percentage of households without drinking water on the premises, and the person who usually collects drinking water used in such households. Table 7.4: Person collecting water Percentage of households without drinking water on premises, and percent distribution of households without drinking water on premises according to the person usually collecting drinking water used in the household, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of households without drinking water on premises Number of households Person usually collecting drinking water Number of households without drinking water on premises Adult woman Adult man Female child under age 15 Male child under age 15 Missing/DK Total Region Central 46.2 2,159 31.4 34.2 14.3 19.8 0.3 100.0 997 Central Highlands 94.7 432 63.9 13.1 13.7 9.3 0.0 100.0 409 East 60.6 1,520 64.9 12.6 13.5 8.2 0.8 100.0 921 North 80.1 1,913 27.2 43.1 11.0 18.7 0.0 100.0 1,532 North East 75.1 2,091 19.9 59.1 6.7 14.1 0.3 100.0 1,570 South 29.7 1,584 17.5 26.5 15.8 37.5 2.7 100.0 470 74 Percentage of households without drinking water on premises, and percent distribution of households without drinking water on premises according to the person usually collecting drinking water used in the household, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of households without drinking water on premises Number of households Person usually collecting drinking water Number of households without drinking water on premises Adult woman Adult man Female child under age 15 Male child under age 15 Missing/DK Total South East 42.8 1,263 63.7 11.8 10.8 10.8 2.9 100.0 541 West 56.0 2,155 56.5 24.7 8.9 9.8 0.1 100.0 1,206 Residence Urban 25.8 2,427 12.8 51.9 10.7 24.0 0.5 100.0 625 Rural 65.7 10,689 41.7 32.2 11.0 14.5 0.6 100.0 7,021 Education of household head None 62.5 8,922 41.1 34.1 10.0 14.2 0.6 100.0 5,573 Primary 60.4 1,498 37.7 31.2 13.8 16.8 0.5 100.0 905 Secondary + 43.3 2,689 32.5 34.3 13.1 19.4 0.7 100.0 1,163 Wealth index quintile Poorest 84.1 2,809 49.8 26.2 11.7 11.8 0.6 100.0 2,363 Second 74.8 2,721 43.5 33.4 9.7 12.9 0.5 100.0 2,036 Middle 58.7 2,524 36.7 35.8 11.3 15.5 0.7 100.0 1,480 Fourth 50.8 2,419 27.4 40.4 10.5 21.2 0.6 100.0 1,229 Richest 20.4 2,643 12.3 48.1 12.7 26.4 0.6 100.0 538 Total 58.3 13,116 39.4 33.8 10.9 15.3 0.6 100.0 7,647 Table 7.4 shows that for 39% of households, an adult female is usually the person collecting the water, when the source of drinking water is not located on the premises. Adult men collect water in 34% of cases, while for the rest of the households, female (11%) or male (15%) children under the age of 15 collect water. However, the distribution of persons who usually collect drinking water among households without drinking water on their premises varies considerably by region. In the Central Highlands, Eastern and South Eastern regions, more than 60% of adult women are the drinking water carriers for their households. In the Central Highlands and Eastern regions, more girls under age 15 collect water than boys. In terms of gender differences, while more men are in charge of collecting water than women in urban areas (52% versus 13%), more adult females over the age of 15 collect drinking water for their households than do adult males in rural areas (42% versus 32%). Use of Improved Sanitation Facilities Inadequate disposal of human excreta and inadequate personal hygiene are associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio. An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. Improved sanitation can reduce diarrheal disease by more than a third, and can significantly lessen the adverse health impacts of other disorders responsible for death and disease among millions of children in developing countries. Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal include flushing or pouring flush into a piped sewer system, septic tank, or latrine; ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet. 75 Table 7.5: Types of sanitation facilities Percent distribution of household population according to type of toilet facility used by the household, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Type of toilet facility used by household Total Number of household members Improved sanitation facility Unimproved sanitation facility Flush/pour flush to: Ventilated improved pit latrine Pit latrine with slab Compos- ting toilet Flush/ pour flush to somewhere else Unknown place/not sure/DK where Pit latrine without slab/ open pit Bucket Double vault Eco sanitation Single vault Other Missing Open defecation (no facility, bush, field) Piped sewer system Septic tank Pit latrine Region Central 1.2 12.2 2.1 2.8 17.2 0.1 0.4 0.2 31.9 0.0 1.9 2.5 26.5 0.1 0.0 0.9 100.0 16,232 Central Highlands 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.2 5.9 13.8 2.9 0.0 12.6 0.0 2.7 0.1 10.7 0.3 0.1 50.2 100.0 3,449 East 4.4 4.7 4.2 3.8 24.4 0.5 0.6 0.0 15.3 0.4 4.4 0.0 9.0 0.7 0.0 27.5 100.0 11,335 North 0.2 2.8 2.6 0.6 26.9 2.1 0.4 0.0 12.2 1.4 0.5 0.1 31.1 3.6 0.0 15.5 100.0 14,055 North East 0.6 5.9 3.0 0.3 9.1 0.1 0.4 0.0 23.4 0.1 6.2 0.1 47.0 0.6 0.3 3.1 100.0 16,557 South 11.2 4.0 4.0 4.6 6.3 0.0 4.4 0.5 21.0 0.1 10.5 1.0 8.5 0.0 0.2 23.7 100.0 13,825 South East 0.6 0.3 0.7 21.0 7.9 0.5 0.8 0.1 13.1 0.0 22.0 2.4 7.7 0.7 0.1 22.1 100.0 12,867 West 1.5 3.6 6.2 1.4 19.0 1.3 1.1 0.1 18.5 6.7 0.5 0.2 8.1 0.6 0.2 31.1 100.0 13,393 Residence Urban 4.5 22.8 10.3 4.1 18.2 0.5 1.3 0.1 19.2 0.7 0.8 2.7 13.8 0.2 0.0 0.6 100.0 18,000 Rural 2.2 1.0 1.6 4.5 14.6 1.2 1.2 0.1 19.8 1.2 7.4 0.5 22.2 1.0 0.1 21.3 100.0 83,713 Education of household head None 2.4 2.6 2.5 4.0 15.0 1.0 1.3 0.1 19.1 1.4 6.3 0.7 21.1 1.0 0.2 21.3 100.0 69,034 Primary 2.1 4.3 3.6 2.1 15.4 1.2 0.4 0.2 22.8 0.6 6.2 1.2 25.0 0.9 0.0 14.3 100.0 11,529 Secondary + 3.4 12.7 4.7 7.5 15.9 1.2 1.3 0.0 19.7 0.6 6.0 1.6 17.3 0.3 0.0 7.8 100.0 21,099 Wealth index quintile Poorest 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.0 6.6 0.4 1.0 0.3 13.2 2.8 4.8 0.3 11.3 1.0 0.0 57.3 100.0 20,338 Second 0.5 0.1 0.9 2.6 14.5 1.3 1.0 0.1 21.1 1.3 7.8 0.4 27.8 1.6 0.2 18.9 100.0 20,340 Middle 3.8 0.8 1.4 5.6 15.2 1.6 1.9 0.1 21.6 0.8 7.6 0.5 28.2 1.1 0.2 9.6 100.0 20,344 Fourth 4.0 1.0 2.8 8.0 21.1 1.5 1.1 0.0 23.5 0.5 7.8 1.0 24.9 0.3 0.0 2.4 100.0 20,345 Richest 4.8 22.6 10.3 5.2 18.8 0.5 1.0 0.1 18.8 0.3 3.2 2.4 11.4 0.3 0.1 0.2 100.0 20,347 Total 2.6 4.9 3.1 4.5 15.2 1.1 1.2 0.1 19.7 1.1 6.2 0.9 20.7 0.9 0.1 17.7 100.0 101,713 76 In Afghanistan, 31% of the population live in households using improved sanitation facilities (Table 7.5), with a significant divide by residence: 60% in urban areas and 25% in rural areas. In rural areas, the most common type of improved sanitation facility is a pit latrine with slab (14%). Residents of the Central and North Eastern regions are more likely than others to use improved sanitation facilities. The highest proportion of use of piped sewer systems is found in the South region (11%), while 12% of households in the Central region are using a septic tank. In the South Eastern region, more than 20% of the population uses VIP latrines. In urban areas, for those using improved sanitation facilities, the most common facilities are flush toilets with a connection to a septic tank (23%), followed by pit latrine with a slab (18%). Still, both urban and rural populations frequently use open pits or pit latrines without slabs (20%). The distribution of sanitation facilities is markedly correlated to the wealth index quintile. For instance, 62% of households in the wealthiest quintile use improved sanitation facilities, compared to 8% in the poorest households, and 57% in the poorest quintile do not have any sanitation facility. With high regional, wealth and other variations, overall, there is a wide range of practices in the disposal of human excreta in use in Afghanistan. Use and Sharing of Sanitation Facilities Access to safe drinking water and to basic sanitation is measured by the proportion of the population using an improved sanitation facility. The MDGs and the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation classify households as using an unimproved sanitation facility if they are using otherwise acceptable sanitation facilities but sharing a facility between two or more households or using a public toilet facility. Table 7.6 shows the percentage of households using private and public sanitation facilities, the percentage using shared facilities, and the percentage using improved and unimproved sanitation facilities. 77 Table 7.6: Use and sharing of sanitation facilities Percent distribution of household population by use of private and public sanitation facilities and use of shared facilities, by users of improved and unimproved sanitation facilities, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Users of improved sanitation facilities Users of unimproved sanitation facilities Open defecation (no facility, bush, field) Total Number of household members Not shared 1 Public facility Shared by Missing/DK Not shared Public facility Shared by Missing/DK 5 households or less More than 5 households 5 households or less More than 5 households Region Central 27.4 1.4 5.5 1.4 0.0 52.4 2.4 7.0 1.6 0.0 0.9 100.0 16,232 Central Highlands 18.1 1.2 0.9 0.1 0.0 24.5 3.9 0.5 0.5 0.0 50.2 100.0 3,449 East 39.6 0.3 2.0 0.2 0.0 27.7 0.5 1.9 0.3 0.0 27.5 100.0 11,335 North 34.6 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.0 46.7 0.5 1.7 0.4 0.0 15.5 100.0 14,055 North East 16.5 0.4 1.5 0.5 0.1 71.0 1.3 4.5 1.0 0.1 3.1 100.0 16,557 South 29.1 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.0 44.7 0.7 0.1 0.3 0.0 23.7 100.0 13,825 South East 29.0 0.7 1.3 0.0 0.0 44.5 0.6 1.2 0.6 0.0 22.1 100.0 12,867 West 30.1 0.2 2.6 0.2 0.0 30.8 0.8 3.9 0.3 0.1 31.1 100.0 13,393 Residence Urban 51.2 1.5 6.1 1.7 0.1 29.5 2.0 5.9 1.4 0.1 0.6 100.0 18,000 Rural 23.6 0.3 1.1 0.2 0.0 49.6 0.9 2.3 0.5 0.0 21.3 100.0 83,713 Education of household head None 25.6 0.4 1.4 0.3 0.0 46.6 1.2 2.7 0.6 0.0 21.3 100.0 69,034 Primary 24.1 0.6 3.2 0.9 0.0 50.5 0.8 4.6 1.0 0.0 14.3 100.0 11,529 Secondary + 40.2 1.0 3.4 0.7 0.1 42.0 0.9 3.1 0.8 0.0 7.8 100.0 21,099 Wealth index quintile Poorest 7.9 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 31.6 1.2 1.1 0.3 0.0 57.3 100.0 20,338 Second 18.5 0.3 0.9 0.2 0.0 57.0 1.2 2.6 0.4 0.0 18.9 100.0 20,340 Middle 27.2 0.3 0.9 0.0 0.0 57.6 1.1 2.7 0.7 0.0 9.6 100.0 20,344 Fourth 35.0 0.5 2.3 0.5 0.0 53.7 1.0 3.7 0.9 0.0 2.4 100.0 20,345 Richest 53.6 1.4 5.5 1.6 0.1 30.4 1.2 4.8 1.2 0.1 0.2 100.0 20,347 Total 28.5 0.5 2.0 0.5 0.0 46.1 1.1 3.0 0.7 0.0 17.7 100.0 101,713 1 MICS Indicator 4.3; MDG Indicator 7.9 78 As shown in Table 7.6, 29% of the household population is using an improved sanitation facility that is not shared. Use of a shared facility is more common among households using an unimproved facility. Only 3% of households use an improved toilet facility that is shared with other households, compared with nearly 4% among households using an unimproved facility. Rural households are less likely than urban households to use a shared improved toilet facility (1% and 8%, respectively). In terms of improved sanitation facilities, the percentage for the use of unshared sanitation facilities is significantly higher in urban areas (51%) than in rural areas (24%). As for unimproved sanitation facilities, the results are opposite in that almost 30% of urban households who are using unimproved sanitation facilities do not share their toilets or latrines, compared with those living in rural areas (50%). In the Eastern region, almost 40% of households using improved sanitation facilities do not share their toilets with other households. The use and sharing of sanitation facilities is correlated with wealth index quintiles. The use of improved unshared sanitation facilities is highest among the wealthiest households, at 54% of the wealthiest households, compared with less than 8% of the poorest households using unshared facilities. Instead, open defecation is common among the poorest households (57%), and among only 0.2% of the wealthiest households. A correlation is also found with the education level of the head of household. For instance, the greatest proportion of households with access to an improved water source are those where the head of household has attained secondary level education or higher (40%). Disposal of Child s Faeces Safe disposal of a child s faeces is disposing of the stool produced by the child by using a toilet or by rinsing the stool into a toilet or latrine. Table 7.7 shows the percentage of the distribution of children aged 0-2 years according to the place of disposal of the child's faeces, and the percentage of children aged 0-2 years whose stools were disposed of safely the last time the child passed stools. Table 7.7: Disposal of child's faeces Percent distribution of children age 0-2 years according to place of disposal of child's faeces, and the percentage of children age 0-2 years whose stools were disposed of safely the last time the child passed stools, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Place of disposal of child's faeces Percen- tage of children whose last stools were disposed of safely1 Number of children age 0-2 years Child used toilet/latrine Put/ rinsed into toilet or latrine Put/ rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into garbage (Solid waste) Buried Left in the open Other DK Missing Total Type of sanitation facility in dwelling Improved 7.3 45.2 21.3 12.4 3.8 8.0 0.4 0.5 1.0 100.0 52.5 2,454 Unimproved 5.3 47.1 17.1 6.1 6.8 15.4 0.5 0.7 1.0 100.0 52.5 4,050 Open defecation 0.0 0.0 26.7 9.5 6.2 40.2 16.5 0.5 0.4 100.0 15.7 1,445 Region Central 13.4 60.7 7.5 9.9 3.5 4.1 0.2 0.5 0.2 100.0 74.1 1,262 Central Highlands 0.9 9.9 42.9 0.8 5.9 32.9 4.1 1.3 1.3 100.0 10.8 293 East 5.2 23.3 27.0 16.7 1.8 25.0 0.2 0.3 0.6 100.0 28.4 846 North 5.8 47.9 11.0 7.0 6.2 19.6 1.1 0.8 0.5 100.0 53.7 1,133 North East 2.5 64.7 7.7 2.2 8.9 11.6 0.0 0.3 2.1 100.0 67.3 1,331 79 Percent distribution of children age 0-2 years according to place of disposal of child's faeces, and the percentage of children age 0-2 years whose stools were disposed of safely the last time the child passed stools, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Place of disposal of child's faeces Percen- tage of children whose last stools were disposed of safely1 Number of children age 0-2 years Child used toilet/latrine Put/ rinsed into toilet or latrine Put/ rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into garbage (Solid waste) Buried Left in the open Other DK Missing Total South 2.3 31.7 15.3 18.8 4.1 25.4 0.6 1.0 0.9 100.0 34.0 752 South East 4.0 17.9 53.4 8.1 0.6 14.2 0.1 0.6 1.0 100.0 21.9 1,292 West 3.4 34.0 11.8 6.3 14.8 28.0 0.8 0.4 0.4 100.0 37.4 1,041 Residence Urban 12.3 61.8 6.0 12.8 3.0 2.2 0.7 0.6 0.6 100.0 74.1 1,387 Rural 3.8 36.0 23.2 7.8 6.4 20.9 0.5 0.6 1.0 100.0 39.8 6,563 Mother s education None 4.5 38.9 21.2 8.5 6.0 18.9 0.5 0.5 1.0 100.0 43.5 7,115 Primary 8.9 52.9 15.4 7.7 4.8 8.8 0.6 0.6 0.3 100.0 61.7 429 Secondary 14.5 55.1 7.3 13.2 3.4 4.3 0.7 1.2 0.1 100.0 69.6 402 Wealth index quintile Poorest 1.3 25.4 22.7 9.8 6.3 33.0 0.5 0.4 0.8 100.0 26.6 1,566 Second 2.2 33.7 22.7 7.4 8.5 22.7 1.0 0.8 1.0 100.0 35.9 1,694 Middle 3.5 38.1 24.8 6.7 7.4 17.2 0.3 0.6 1.4 100.0 41.6 1,590 Fourth 7.2 45.4 22.4 7.8 4.0 11.3 0.4 0.6 0.9 100.0 52.6 1,604 Richest 12.8 61.3 7.3 11.9 2.3 3.0 0.4 0.6 0.3 100.0 74.1 1,496 Total 5.3 40.5 20.2 8.7 5.8 17.6 0.5 0.6 0.9 100.0 45.8 7,950 1 MICS indicator 4.4 Overall, 46% of children 0-2 years of age had their last stools disposed of safely. The table shows that there is no difference in the pattern of disposal of child s faeces between the households who have an improved sanitation facility and those with an unimproved facility (both are at 53%). However, even among the households with an improved sanitation facility, 21% of children had their last stools put into the drain or ditch, and 12% had their last stools thrown into garbage as solid waste. More than 65% of households using the practice of open defecation leave the child s faeces in the open or put them into a drain or ditch. Only 16% of households that practice open defecation practice safe disposal of the child s faeces. At the regional level, the pattern of disposal of a child s faeces varies. In the Central region, almost 74% of children had safe stool disposal. In the Central Highlands region, only 10% of households treat child s faeces in an appropriately hygienic manner. In general, there is a marked disparity between urban and rural areas: 74% of households living in urban areas correctly dispose of the child s faeces, compared to rural areas where only 40% practice correct disposal. The percentage of households who practice appropriate disposal of the child s faeces is highest among households whose mothers have attained secondary education or higher (70%) compared with those who have attained only primary education (62%) and to those without any education (43%). As for the pattern by wealth quintile, households at the wealthiest quintile are likely to practice proper disposal (74%), while only 27% of the poorest households practice proper disposal. 80 Drinking Water and Sanitation Ladders In its 2008 report16, the JMP developed a new way of presenting water and sanitation access figures, by disaggregating and refining the data on drinking-water and sanitation and reflecting them in a ladder format. This ladder allows a disaggregated analysis of trends in a three-rung ladder for drinking water and a four-rung ladder for sanitation. For sanitation, this provides an understanding of the proportion of the population with no sanitation facilities at all, of those reliant on technologies defined by JMP as "unimproved," of those sharing sanitation facilities of otherwise acceptable technology, and of those using "improved" sanitation facilities. Table 7.8 presents the percentages of household population by drinking water and sanitation ladders. The table also shows the percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water and using sanitary means of excreta disposal. 16 WHO/UNICEF JMP (2008), MDG Assessment Report http://www.wssinfo.org/download?id_document=1279 81 Table 7.8: Drinking water and sanitation ladders Percentage of household population by drinking water and sanitation ladders, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of household population using: Number of household members Improved drinking water Unimproved drinking water Total Improved sanitation2 Unimproved sanitation Total Improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation Piped into dwelling, plot or yard Other improved Shared improved facilities Unimproved facilities Open defecation Region Central 14.8 54.5 30.7 100.0 27.4 8.4 63.4 0.9 100.0 23.4 16,232 Central Highlands 0.6 24.6 74.8 100.0 18.1 2.3 29.4 50.2 100.0 6.9 3,449 East 11.8 50.7 37.5 100.0 39.6 2.5 30.4 27.5 100.0 28.5 11,335 North 3.8 41.5 54.7 100.0 34.6 0.7 49.3 15.5 100.0 18.4 14,055 North East 7.4 36.8 55.8 100.0 16.5 2.5 77.9 3.1 100.0 11.5 16,557 South 5.5 54.2 40.3 100.0 29.1 1.3 45.8 23.7 100.0 22.0 13,825 South East 8.2 58.8 33.0 100.0 29.0 2.1 46.8 22.1 100.0 23.9 12,867 West 20.4 39.1 40.5 100.0 30.1 3.0 35.8 31.1 100.0 26.4 13,393 Residence Urban 31.2 51.1 17.7 100.0 51.2 9.4 38.8 0.6 100.0 45.0 18,000 Rural 5.3 45.9 48.8 100.0 23.6 1.6 53.5 21.3 100.0 15.9 83,713 Education of household head None 7.5 44.9 47.6 100.0 25.6 2.1 51.1 21.3 100.0 17.8 69,034 Primary 10.8 47.7 41.5 100.0 24.1 4.8 56.9 14.3 100.0 18.7 11,529 Secondary+ 17.0 52.4 30.6 100.0 40.2 5.2 46.9 7.8 100.0 32.7 21,099 Wealth index quintile Poorest 0.2 30.1 69.7 100.0 7.9 0.6 34.3 57.3 100.0 2.2 20,338 Second 1.4 42.1 56.5 100.0 18.5 1.4 61.2 18.9 100.0 9.2 20,340 Middle 5.4 51.1 43.5 100.0 27.2 1.2 62.0 9.6 100.0 19.0 20,344 Fourth 8.9 57.8 33.3 100.0 35.0 3.3 59.2 2.4 100.0 26.4 20,345 Richest 33.6 53.0 13.4 100.0 53.6 8.6 37.6 0.2 100.0 48.3 20,347 Total 9.9 46.8 43.3 100.0 28.5 3.0 50.9 17.7 100.0 21.0 101,713 1 MICS indicator 4.3; MDG indicator 7.9 82 Overall, 21% of households reported that they use both an improved source of drinking water and improved sanitation (Table 7.8). Urban households (45%) are almost three times more likely to use improved drinking water and improved sanitation facilities than rural households (16%). An extreme difference by wealth quintile can be observed: 48% of households in the richest quintile report using improved facilities for both water and sanitation, compared with the poorest households, at 2%. In terms of the educational level of the head of household, there is a significant difference in the use of an improved drinking water source and improved sanitation between households whose heads have no education (18%) and those who have secondary education or higher (33%). The table shows the most serious situation to be in the Central Highlands region, where barely 7% of the household population have access to both improved water and to improved sanitation facilities. The percentage of households living in the Eastern region (29%) shows the most improved situation among the eight regions in Afghanistan. Hand Washing Hand washing with water and soap is the most cost effective health intervention to reduce the incidence of diarrhoea as well as pneumonia in children under five. It is most effective when done using water and soap after visiting a toilet or cleaning a child, before eating or handling food, and before feeding a child. Monitoring correct hand washing behaviour at these critical times is challenging. A reliable alternative to observations or self-reported behaviour is assessing the likelihood that correct hand washing behaviour takes place by observing if a household has a specific place where people most often wash their hands and observing if water and soap (or other local cleansing materials) are present at a specific place designated for hand washing. 83 Table 7.9: Water and soap at place for hand washing Percentage of households where place for hand washing was observed and percent distribution of households by availability of water and soap at place for hand washing, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of households where place for hand washing was observed Percentage of households where place for hand washing was not observed Total Number of households Percent distribution of households where place for hand washing was observed, and: Total Number of households where place for hand washing was observed Not in dwelling/plot/yard No permission to see Other reasons Missing Water and soap are available1 Water is available, soap is not available Water is not available, soap is available Water and soap are not available Missing Region Central 87.9 9.3 2.4 0.2 0.1 100.0 2,159 70.8 2.9 19.7 6.6 0.1 100.0 1,898 Central Highlands 13.8 84.4 1.0 0.8 0.0 100.0 432 43.9 11.6 22.6 22.0 0.0 100.0 60 East 67.6 24.5 6.6 1.2 0.0 100.0 1,520 61.3 18.1 7.2 13.1 0.2 100.0 1,028 North 45.8 48.1 5.3 0.3 0.6 100.0 1,913 73.5 16.3 7.1 3.2 0.0 100.0 875 North East 37.9 58.4 3.3 0.3 0.1 100.0 2,091 84.7 6.9 5.4 2.7 0.2 100.0 792 South 73.5 18.6 6.7 1.1 0.1 100.0 1,584 66.5 18.0 4.2 11.3 0.0 100.0 1,164 South East 65.7 7.6 8.7 17.9 0.1 100.0 1,263 65.7 19.2 10.6 4.5 0.1 100.0 830 West 57.8 41.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,155 76.6 14.1 2.2 7.1 0.0 100.0 1,245 Residence Urban 82.9 14.3 2.3 0.5 0.0 100.0 2,427 82.2 5.5 8.3 3.9 0.0 100.0 2,012 Rural 55.0 37.6 4.7 2.5 0.2 100.0 10,689 66.9 14.9 9.6 8.5 0.1 100.0 5,881 Education of household head None 55.3 37.8 4.5 2.2 0.2 100.0 8,922 67.7 15.0 8.5 8.8 0.1 100.0 4,931 Primary 60.5 34.1 3.7 1.8 0.0 100.0 1,498 68.2 12.3 12.8 6.7 0.0 100.0 906 Secondary + 76.4 17.7 3.7 2.1 0.1 100.0 2,689 79.4 6.9 9.4 4.2 0.1 100.0 2,053 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 45.4 47.5 5.1 2.1 0.0 100.0 2,809 60.9 17.9 6.3 14.8 0.1 100.0 1,274 Second 46.5 46.3 4.1 2.7 0.4 100.0 2,721 59.8 20.2 9.9 9.9 0.2 100.0 1,264 Middle 59.1 32.3 5.5 3.0 0.2 100.0 2,524 67.9 13.4 10.4 8.2 0.1 100.0 1,491 Fourth 69.0 24.8 4.1 2.0 0.1 100.0 2,419 72.6 10.9 12.0 4.4 0.0 100.0 1,669 Richest 83.1 13.4 2.6 0.9 0.0 100.0 2,643 83.4 5.7 7.6 3.3 0.0 100.0 2,195 Total 60.2 33.3 4.3 2.1 0.1 100.0 13,116 70.8 12.5 9.2 7.4 0.1 100.0 7,893 1 MICS indicator 4.5 84 Nationally, it was observed that 60% of households use a specific place for hand washing; 83% in urban areas and 55% in rural areas (Table 7.9). Of those households where a designated place for hand washing was observed, 71% had both water and soap present at the designated place. In 12% of the households, only water was available at the designated place, while in 9% of the households the designated place had soap but no water. The remaining 7% of households had neither water nor soap available at the designated place. Where the place for hand washing was observed, there was both water and soap in 85% of the households in the North Eastern region, compared to only 44% in the Central Highlands region. There is no significant difference found in the use of soap and water between households where the head of household has primary education and where the head of household has no education; however, in almost 80% of households whose head has attained secondary education, both water and soap are available at the place for hand washing. Table 7.10: Availability of soap Percent distribution of households by availability of soap in the dwelling, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Place for hand washing observed Place for hand washing not observed Percentage of households with soap anywhere in the dwelling1 Number of households Soap observed Soap not observed at place for hand washing Miss- ing Total Soap shown No soap in household Not able/ Does not want to show soap Miss- ing Total Soap shown No soap in household Not able/ Does not want to show soap Region Central 90.4 6.6 2.7 0.1 0.1 100.0 71.4 24.2 4.5 0.0 100.0 94.0 2,159 Central Highlands 66.5 21.7 11.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 32.8 67.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 40.4 432 East 68.5 21.2 9.5 0.7 0.2 100.0 66.3 32.4 1.0 0.3 100.0 82.1 1,520 North 80.6 4.6 14.4 0.3 0.1 100.0 75.4 24.3 0.3 0.0 100.0 79.9 1,913 North East 90.2 3.0 6.4 0.3 0.2 100.0 66.1 33.2 0.4 0.2 100.0 76.4 2,091 South 70.7 4.1 24.9 0.3 0.0 100.0 21.0 75.9 3.1 0.0 100.0 60.5 1,584 South East 76.2 8.6 10.7 4.2 0.3 100.0 47.2 49.3 3.5 0.0 100.0 72.0 1,263 West 78.8 6.4 14.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 27.7 71.4 0.9 0.0 100.0 60.9 2,155 Residence Urban 90.5 5.9 3.3 0.2 0.0 100.0 71.1 27.1 1.6 0.2 100.0 92.1 2,427 Rural 76.4 8.5 14.1 0.8 0.1 100.0 52.5 46.3 1.1 0.1 100.0 70.4 10,689 Education of household head None 76.2 8.3 14.7 0.8 0.1 100.0 51.2 47.8 1.1 0.0 100.0 69.6 8,922 Primary 81.0 9.8 8.6 0.3 0.3 100.0 59.8 38.7 1.5 0.0 100.0 78.6 1,498 Secondary + 88.9 5.9 4.6 0.5 0.1 100.0 66.3 31.6 1.5 0.5 100.0 88.1 2,689 Wealth index quintile Poorest 67.2 12.9 19.1 0.7 0.1 100.0 39.0 59.8 1.1 0.1 100.0 57.7 2,809 Second 69.8 10.2 18.5 1.4 0.2 100.0 53.5 46.1 0.4 0.1 100.0 65.8 2,721 Middle 78.3 8.0 12.5 1.0 0.2 100.0 59.9 38.1 1.8 0.1 100.0 75.5 2,524 Fourth 84.7 5.4 9.5 0.4 0.1 100.0 66.6 31.7 1.5 0.1 100.0 82.8 2,419 Richest 91.0 5.3 3.4 0.2 0.0 100.0 72.0 26.2 1.9 0.0 100.0 92.2 2,643 Total 80.0 7.9 11.3 0.7 0.1 100.0 54.0 44.8 1.2 0.1 100.0 74.4 13,116 1 MICS indicator 4.6 85 According to Table 7.10, nationally, most households had soap somewhere in the household (74%). In urban areas, 92% of households had soap in the dwelling, while 70% of households in rural areas had soap. Availability of soap in the household is highest in the Central region (94%) and lowest in the Central Highlands region (40%). The availability of soap in the household was found to be strongly associated to the wealth status and educational level of the head of household. When the head of household had no education, soap was found in the household in 70% of cases, while soap was available in the dwelling in 88% of cases where the head of household had secondary education or higher. In the poorest quintile, soap was available in 58% of cases, while in the wealthiest quintile it was available in 92% of cases. Water and Sanitation Practices in Afghanistan The survey findings show improved access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities for many households in Afghanistan, particularly for households in urban areas and for wealthier households. Yet there is evidence of a wide range of practices in effect in the treatment of water for drinking, including continued widespread unsafe practices, and varied practice in the disposal of human excreta. There is considerable potential impact from expanding the adoption of several key basic hygiene practices for the prevention of disease and death. Changing unsafe practices related to water and sanitation access will be imperative for improving health outcomes among the Afghan population. Education and economic status appear to be inherently tied to the likelihood of improved access. Further, targeted interventions should address regional disparities, as well as disparities much more pronounced in rural areas. 86 87 Early Childbearing Sexual activity and childbearing early in life carry significant risks for young people all around the world. For girls in particular, early marriage and early childbearing often lead to declining school enrolment among females beginning around age 12. More gravely, the single biggest killer of adolescent girls is pregnancy, according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), with the youngest first-time mothers bearing the highest risks of maternal morbidity and mortality. Yet half of all first births in the developing world are to adolescent girls. Early pregnancy also entails significant risk for the infants born to mothers whose bodies are not yet physically mature, with resulting high child morbidity and mortality. Early pregnancy limits girls opportunities as economic actors, and marginalizes girls and young women from social and political participation. Early childbearing is also a significant contributor to unsustainable population growth. Table 8.1 presents some early childbearing indicators for women in Afghanistan aged 15-19 and aged 20-24, while Table 8.2 presents the trends for early childbearing. Having begun childbearing is defined as the number of women pregnant with their first child combined with the number of women who have had a live birth. Table 8.1: Early childbearing Percentage of women age 15-19 years who have had a live birth or who are pregnant with their first child and percentage of women age 15-19 years who have begun childbearing, percentage of women who have had a live birth before age 15, and percentage of women age 20-24 who have had a live birth before age 18, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of women age 15-19 who: Number of women age 15-19 Percentage of women age 20-24 who have had a live birth before age 181 Number of women age 20-24 Have had a live birth Are pregnant with first child Have begun childbearing Have had a live birth before age 15 Region Central 5.7 2.1 7.8 0.3 1,015 17.4 747 Central Highlands 12.9 2.5 15.5 2.5 202 31.2 142 East 11.7 6.0 17.8 1.8 494 28.6 372 North 9.0 3.2 12.3 0.5 737 27.1 520 North East 8.7 3.9 12.6 1.3 1,035 21.2 765 South 8.9 5.3 14.2 1.5 799 32.7 459 South East 10.0 5.0 15.0 0.7 548 13.5 572 West 16.6 6.1 22.7 5.5 680 45.5 532 Residence Urban 5.9 2.4 8.3 0.2 1,071 18.4 797 Rural 10.7 4.6 15.3 1.9 4,439 27.4 3,313 Education None 12.9 5.5 18.3 2.3 3,455 28.8 3,294 Primary 6.7 2.5 9.2 0.8 830 20.0 306 Secondary + 3.0 1.8 4.9 0.2 1,225 8.4 508 Wealth index quintile Poorest 13.2 4.8 18.0 3.7 950 37.1 723 Second 11.2 4.4 15.6 1.7 1,024 28.6 773 Middle 10.1 5.1 15.2 1.6 1,092 24.5 783 Fourth 9.5 3.6 13.2 1.1 1,147 21.4 882 Richest 6.0 3.3 9.3 0.4 1,296 19.4 949 Total 9.7 4.2 13.9 1.6 5,510 25.6 4,110 1 MICS indicator 5.2 88 As shown in Table 8.1, 10% of women aged 15-19 have already had a birth, 4% are pregnant with their first child, 14% have begun childbearing and nearly 2% have had a live birth before the age of 15. One in four women aged 20-24 years have already had a live birth before reaching age 18. Notable differences by residence and region are evident. For instance, in urban areas 6% of women aged 15-19 had had a live birth, compared to rural areas, where 11% of women aged 15-19 had had a live birth, and 27% of women aged 20- 24 have had a birth before the age of 18. The Western region has the highest early child bearing rate, at 45%, followed by the Southern region (33%), and the Central Highlands region (31%). Women aged 15-19 in the Western region are almost three times more likely (17%) to have had a live birth than their counterparts in the Central region (6%). Strong associations between early childbearing and women s education level can be read. As the education level and wealth index quintile increase, fewer women give birth before the age of 15 or before the age of 18. Women aged 15-19 without any education who had a live birth numbered 13%, while only 3% of women aged 15-19 with secondary education or higher have delivered a child. Of women aged 20-24, 29% have had a child before age of 18, while 8% of women with secondary education or higher had a child before age 18. Women aged 20-24 who live in the wealthiest households (19%) are less likely to have a live birth before age 18 than their counterparts who live in the poorest households (37%). Table 8.2: Trends in early childbearing Percentage of women who have had a live birth, by age 15 and 18, by residence and age group, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Urban Rural All Percen tage of wome n with a live birth before age 15 Num- ber of wom- en age 15-49 Percen- tage of women with a live birth before age 18 Number of women age 20-49 Percen- tage of women with a live birth before age 15 Num- ber of women age 15-49 Percen- tage of women with a live birth before age 18 Number of women Age 20-49 Percen -tage of women with a live birth before age 15 Number of women age 15-49 Percentage of women with a live birth before age 18 Number of women age 20-49 Age 15-19 0.2 1,071 n/a n/a 1.9 4,439 n/a n/a 1.6 5,510 n/a n/a 20-24 4.7 797 18.4 797 7.2 3,313 27.4 3,313 6.7 4,110 25.6 4,110 25-29 8.8 658 29.0 658 8.7 2,920 30.7 2,920 8.7 3,579 30.4 3,579 30-34 10.9 440 37.6 440 12.1 2,020 37.9 2,020 11.9 2,460 37.8 2,460 35-39 7.3 471 34.2 471 6.0 1,918 30.3 1,918 6.3 2,389 31.0 2,389 40-44 8.2 332 23.9 332 5.7 1,474 23.2 1,474 6.2 1,805 23.3 1,805 45-49 8.9 263 26.4 263 5.3 1,175 18.0 1,175 5.9 1,438 19.6 1,438 Total 5.7 4,031 27.5 2,960 6.3 17,259 28.9 12,820 6.2 21,290 28.6 15,780 Table 8.2 shows early childbearing among women of different age groups. Overall, 6% of women aged 15-49 have had a child before age 15 and 29% of have had a child before age 18. Women aged 15-19 were the least likely to have had a live birth before age 15 (2%) at the time of the survey. The rate increases alongside age, and it peaks for women aged 30-34 (12%), and then drops. The drop might be due to the longer period of recall, and resulting errors in recall. A similar pattern is observed for women who have had a live birth before age 18. It increases from 26% for women aged 20-24 to 38% for women aged 30-34, then drops. There are some differences found in early childbearing trends between urban and rural areas across age groups in the percentage of women who had a live birth before age 15. Among women who have had a live birth before age 18, there is some difference for women aged 20-24 in urban areas (18%) compared to women in rural areas (27%), as well as among women aged 45-49 in urban areas (26%) compared to women 89 in that age group in rural areas (18%). There is no significant difference found for other age groups by residence. Contraception Appropriate family planning is important to the health of women and children by: 1) preventing pregnancies that are too early or too late; 2) extending the period between births (birth spacing); and 3) limiting the number of children. Access by all couples to information and services to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late, or too many is critical. Table 8.3 shows the use of contraception among women surveyed. 90 Table 8.3: Use of contraception Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Number of women currently married Not using any method Percent of women (currently married) who are using: Female sterili- zation Male sterili- zation IUD Injectables Implants Pill Male condom Female condom Diaphragm/ Foam/ Jelly Lactational amenorrhoea method (LAM) Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Any modern method Any tradi- tional method Any method1 Region Central 65.3 0.7 0.3 3.6 11.2 0.3 9.0 2.7 0.8 0.2 2.5 1.1 2.0 0.3 28.9 5.9 34.7 2,250 Central Highlands 84.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 10.1 0.2 4.1 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.0 0.0 16.0 504 East 83.5 0.3 0.0 0.3 9.9 0.0 3.3 0.7 0.1 0.0 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.0 14.7 1.8 16.5 1,583 North 86.2 0.1 0.0 0.3 7.8 0.0 4.2 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 13.4 0.5 13.8 2,001 North East 87.1 0.3 0.0 0.5 4.0 0.1 5.3 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.1 11.5 1.4 12.9 2,459 South 67.5 0.7 1.0 0.9 20.4 0.5 7.5 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 31.7 0.8 32.5 1,800 South East 82.2 1.5 0.2 2.1 7.5 0.1 3.9 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.8 0.4 0.1 16.5 1.3 17.8 2,117 West 77.8 0.6 0.1 0.7 8.5 4.5 5.4 1.6 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.0 21.6 0.6 22.2 2,043 Residence Urban 62.0 1.1 0.3 2.9 12.0 1.7 10.4 3.8 0.6 0.3 1.7 1.1 1.7 0.3 33.2 4.8 38.0 2,503 Rural 82.2 0.5 0.2 0.9 9.1 0.6 4.5 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.0 16.7 1.1 17.8 12,254 Age 15-19 92.9 0.2 0.0 0.1 2.5 0.2 2.6 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.4 0.0 6.0 1.1 7.1 1,088 20-24 85.5 0.2 0.4 0.8 5.5 0.9 3.9 1.2 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.0 12.8 1.7 14.5 2,755 25-29 81.4 0.2 0.2 1.3 7.6 0.7 5.1 1.4 0.1 0.1 1.2 0.2 0.5 0.1 16.7 1.9 18.6 3,235 30-34 75.9 0.3 0.1 1.4 10.7 0.7 6.7 2.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.0 22.6 1.5 24.1 2,347 35-39 70.4 1.0 0.4 1.6 14.7 0.8 7.7 1.1 0.4 0.1 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.1 27.8 1.8 29.6 2,325 40-44 70.5 1.7 0.1 1.5 14.8 0.9 7.1 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.0 27.1 2.4 29.5 1,701 45-49 77.1 1.3 0.1 1.6 11.3 1.0 4.4 1.0 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.4 21.3 1.6 22.9 1,306 Number of living children 0 98.7 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 1.0 0.3 1.3 1,522 1 89.1 0.3 0.2 0.5 3.2 0.5 3.3 1.5 0.0 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.3 0.0 9.5 1.4 10.9 1,738 2 84.2 0.2 0.4 0.8 6.1 0.7 4.8 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.1 13.9 1.9 15.8 2,023 3 79.1 0.3 0.3 2.0 8.3 1.0 5.7 1.6 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.1 19.2 1.7 20.9 2,010 91 Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Number of women currently married Not using any method Percent of women (currently married) who are using: Female sterili- zation Male sterili- zation IUD Injectables Implants Pill Male condom Female condom Diaphragm/ Foam/ Jelly Lactational amenorrhoea method (LAM) Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Any modern method Any tradi- tional method Any method1 4+ 70.7 0.9 0.2 1.6 14.3 0.9 7.3 1.5 0.3 0.1 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.1 27.2 2.1 29.3 7,463 Education None 80.1 0.6 0.2 1.0 9.8 0.7 5.0 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.1 18.4 1.5 19.9 13,244 Primary 72.8 0.1 0.1 2.2 7.5 1.6 9.0 3.3 0.6 0.0 1.1 0.7 0.9 0.0 24.5 2.7 27.2 714 Secondary + 62.3 0.9 0.6 4.1 8.7 1.0 11.7 4.9 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.7 1.9 0.2 33.0 4.7 37.7 793 Wealth index quintile Poorest 84.8 0.3 0.2 0.3 8.9 0.3 3.9 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 14.2 1.1 15.2 3,001 Second 86.4 0.5 0.1 0.7 6.3 0.5 3.7 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.1 12.4 1.2 13.6 3,000 Middle 81.4 0.2 0.1 1.0 10.1 0.4 4.6 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.4 0.1 0.0 17.5 1.1 18.6 2,993 Fourth 77.4 0.8 0.1 1.2 10.5 0.8 6.1 1.1 0.2 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.0 21.0 1.6 22.6 2,949 Richest 62.8 1.2 0.6 3.1 12.4 1.9 9.6 3.7 0.5 0.3 1.2 1.0 1.5 0.3 33.3 3.9 37.2 2,813 Total 78.8 0.6 0.2 1.2 9.6 0.8 5.5 1.3 0.2 0.1 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.1 19.5 1.8 21.2 14,757 1 MICS indicator 5.3; MDG indicator 5.3 Current use of any method of contraception was reported by 21% of women currently married (Table 8.3). The most popular method is the injectable form of contraception, which is used by almost one in ten women who are married. The next most popular method is the pill, which is used among 6% of married women. Contraceptive prevalence is highest in the Central region at 35% and lowest in North East region at 13%. The highest prevalence of contraception use is observed among married women aged 35-44 (about 30%), compared to 7% of married women aged 15-19 years. Most women who reported using contraception are using modern methods (92%) as opposed to traditional methods. Women s education level is strongly associated with contraceptive prevalence. The percentage of women using any method of contraception rises from nearly 20% among those with no education to 27% among women with primary education, and to nearly 38% among women with secondary education or higher. Women who live in the wealthiest households are more likely use contraception (37%) than their counterparts who live in poorest households (15%). 92 Antenatal Care The antenatal period presents important opportunities for reaching pregnant women with a number of interventions that may be vital to their health and wellbeing and that of their infants. Better understanding of foetal growth and development, and its relationship to the mother's health has resulted in increased attention to the potential of antenatal care as an intervention to improve both maternal and newborn health. For example, if the antenatal period is used to inform women and families of the danger signs and symptoms, and about the risks of labour and delivery, it may provide the route for ensuring that pregnant women do, in practice, deliver with the assistance of a skilled healthcare provider. The antenatal period also provides an opportunity to supply information on birth spacing, which is recognized as an important factor in improving infant survival. Tetanus immunization during pregnancy can be life saving for both the mother and infant. The prevention and treatment of malaria among pregnant women, management of anaemia during pregnancy and the treatment of STIs can significantly improve foetal outcomes and improve maternal health. Adverse outcomes such as low birth weight can be reduced through a combination of interventions to improve women's nutritional status and to prevent infections such as malaria and STIs during pregnancy. More recently, the potential of the antenatal period as an entry point for HIV prevention and care, in particular for the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child, has led to renewed interest in and access to antenatal services. WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal visits based on a review of the effectiveness of different models of antenatal care. WHO guidelines are specific on the content of antenatal care visits, which should include: Blood pressure measurement Urine testing for bateriuria and proteinuria Blood testing to detect syphilis and severe anaemia Weight/height measurement (optional) The type of personnel providing antenatal care to women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey is presented in Table 8.4. Table 8.4: Antenatal care coverage Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey by type of personnel providing antenatal care, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Person providing antenatal care No antenatal care received Total Any skilled personnel1 Number of women who gave birth in the preceding two years Doctor Nurse/ Midwife Auxiliary midwife Traditional birth attendant Community health worker Region Central 51.1 22.7 0.4 1.4 0.5 23.6 100 74.2 824 Central Highlands 26.1 17.2 1.3 1.2 0.4 53.5 100 44.7 196 East 36.6 6.2 0.5 4 0.6 51.6 100 43.3 491 North 18.1 22.2 2.6 2.4 0.9 53.1 100 42.9 743 North East 24.6 23.2 5.1 3.9 0.7 42.4 100 52.9 869 South 24.7 4.6 1.7 36 0 32.4 100 31.1 353 South East 22.9 13.2 1.8 3.7 0.3 57.1 100 38 726 West 21.5 13.3 3.4 11 0.2 50.2 100 38.2 662 Residence 93 Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey by type of personnel providing antenatal care, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Person providing antenatal care No antenatal care received Total Any skilled personnel1 Number of women who gave birth in the preceding two years Doctor Nurse/ Midwife Auxiliary midwife Traditional birth attendant Community health worker Urban 54.1 19.6 3.4 0.8 0.2 21.7 100 77.1 903 Rural 22.9 16.2 2.1 7.7 0.6 50 100 41.2 3,962 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 30.5 17.3 1.9 8.2 0.6 41.3 100 49.7 747 20-34 29 16.3 2.4 6.2 0.3 45.1 100 47.8 3,463 35-49 25.3 18.8 2.5 5.3 1.3 46.7 100 46.6 652 Education None 25.5 16 2.2 7.1 0.6 48.1 100 43.8 4,311 Primary 45.7 26.1 4.3 1.8 0 22 100 76.1 286 Secondary + 62 19.1 2.5 0.9 0 15.2 100 83.6 268 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 16.7 7.9 1.3 15.9 0.5 57.2 100 25.8 933 Second 18.1 17.6 2 7.8 0.3 53.9 100 37.7 1,029 Middle 22.4 17.2 2.7 4.7 0.6 51.9 100 42.3 993 Fourth 31.6 21.3 3.3 2.6 0.5 39.8 100 56.2 967 Richest 55.9 19.8 2.4 1.3 0.6 20 100 78.1 944 Total 28.7 16.8 2.3 6.4 0.5 44.7 100 47.9 4,865 1 MICS indicator 5.5a; MDG indicator 5.5 Coverage of antenatal care (by a doctor, nurse, or midwife) is low in Afghanistan, with 48% of women receiving antenatal care at least once during the pregnancy. There is a considerable disparity in antenatal care services by region. The lowest level of antenatal care is found in the Southern region (31%), while the highest is found in the Central region (74%). Antenatal care coverage is some 36% higher in urban areas (77%) compared to rural areas (41%). The education level of the woman influences the rate of antenatal care. Among women who gave birth in the last two years, women with secondary education or higher (84%) reported receiving antenatal care almost twice as often as women with no education (44%). Simultaneously, women living in the households of the wealthiest quintile (78%) receive antenatal care three times more often than women in the poorest quintile (26%). UNICEF and WHO recommend a minimum of at least four antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Table 8.5 shows the number of antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy during the two years preceding the survey, regardless of the provider, by selected characteristics. 94 Table 8.5: Number of antenatal care visits Percent distribution of women who had a live birth during the two years preceding the survey by number of antenatal care visits by any provider, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percent distribution of women who had: Total Number of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years No antenatal care visits One visit Two visits Three visits Four or more visits1 Missing/ DK Region Central 24.0 8.6 15.7 15.5 33.6 2.6 100.0 824 Central Highlands 53.5 7.0 14.4 9.3 13.2 2.6 100.0 196 East 51.7 5.7 14.4 12.2 10.8 5.1 100.0 491 North 53.4 7.8 13.0 11.5 12.5 1.9 100.0 743 North East 42.5 6.2 13.8 15.2 13.7 8.7 100.0 869 South 32.7 6.4 17.6 11.0 11.6 20.7 100.0 353 South East 57.1 8.4 12.8 11.6 3.6 6.5 100.0 726 West 50.3 11.3 15.7 8.6 11.5 2.6 100.0 662 Residence Urban 22.0 8.4 15.9 16.2 32.8 4.6 100.0 903 Rural 50.2 7.8 14.1 11.5 10.5 6.0 100.0 3,962 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 41.6 9.5 16.4 13.9 12.5 6.1 100.0 747 20-34 45.3 7.6 14.7 11.7 14.8 5.9 100.0 3,463 35-49 47.0 7.4 11.1 14.3 15.8 4.3 100.0 652 Education None 48.2 7.9 14.5 11.6 11.8 6.0 100.0 4,311 Primary 23.6 8.1 16.5 20.4 28.1 3.3 100.0 286 Secondary + 15.5 6.6 12.3 15.6 45.5 4.5 100.0 268 Wealth index quintile Poorest 57.6 6.3 14.5 9.2 5.8 6.7 100 933 Second 54.0 8.9 13.3 9.4 7.8 6.6 100 1,029 Middle 52.1 8.1 13.2 10.3 10.7 5.5 100 993 Fourth 39.9 8.0 14.5 15.8 17.0 4.7 100 967 Richest 20.1 7.9 17.1 17.4 32.3 5.1 100 944 Total 44.9 7.9 14.5 12.4 14.6 5.7 100 4,865 1 MICS indicator 5.5b; MDG indicator 5.5 One in six mothers received antenatal care at least four times (15%), while 41% received antenatal care more than once. Mothers from the poorest households and those with primary education are less likely than more educated and wealthier mothers to receive antenatal care four or more times. For example, less than 6% of women living in the poorest households reported four or more antenatal care visits compared with 32% of those living in the wealthiest households. 95 Table 8.6: Content of antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had their blood pressure measured, urine sample taken, and blood sample taken as part of antenatal care, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of pregnant women who had: Number of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years Blood pressure measured Urine sample taken Blood sample taken Blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken1 Region Central 46.6 47.5 36.5 26.7 824 Central Highlands 30.3 14.8 12.8 7.0 196 East 36.9 27.2 26.1 19.1 491 North 27.5 14.7 10.5 5.4 743 North East 44.3 19.5 17.4 10.5 869 South 31.5 18.0 13.6 9.9 353 South East 28.9 21.6 19.4 7.5 726 West 23.5 14.6 11.5 6.5 662 Residence Urban 53.6 43.6 34.7 25.0 903 Rural 30.5 19.1 16.0 9.2 3,962 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 36.4 24.3 19.0 12.2 747 20-34 34.7 23.9 19.7 11.9 3,463 35-49 33.5 21.6 19.2 13.2 652 Education None 31.6 20.3 16.6 9.7 4,311 Primary 50.5 39.8 28.0 18.4 286 Secondary + 69.4 60.9 56.7 43.9 268 Wealth index quintile Poorest 22.9 11.0 10.0 5.9 933 Second 27.4 14.3 13.2 5.9 1,029 Middle 31.1 20.5 18.1 11.1 993 Fourth 39.2 28.3 19.2 12.7 967 Richest 53.7 44.9 37.6 25.5 944 Total 34.7 23.6 19.5 12.1 4,865 1 MICS indicator 5.6 The types of services pregnant women received are shown in Table 8.6. Among those women who had given birth to a child during the two years preceding the survey, 20% reported that a blood sample was taken during antenatal care visits, 35% reported that their blood pressure was checked, and 24% reported that a urine specimen was taken. Overall, only 12% of pregnant women had antenatal care visits where their blood pressure was measured, and urine and blood tested. Pregnant women living in urban areas are more likely to receive the standard recommended antenatal care (25%) than those living in rural areas (9%). In the Central region, one in four pregnant women is likely to receive standard antenatal care, while women living in the Northern region receive the standard recommended antenatal care the least (5%). The percentage who received standard care is lowest among pregnant women in the poorest wealth quintile (6%) and among those without education (10%). Assistance at Delivery Three quarters of all maternal deaths occur during delivery and the immediate post-partum period. The single most critical intervention for safe motherhood is to ensure a competent health worker with 96 midwifery skills is present at every birth, and that transport is available to a referral facility for obstetric care in case of emergency. The goal of A World Fit for Children is to ensure that women have ready and affordable access to skilled attendants at delivery. The indicators used related to assistance at delivery are the proportion of births with a skilled attendant and the proportion of institutional deliveries. The skilled attendant at delivery indicator is also used to track progress toward the MDG target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. The AMICS included a number of questions to assess the proportion of births attended by a skilled attendant. A skilled attendant includes a doctor, nurse, midwife or auxiliary midwife. Table 8.7 shows the percentage of women with assistance at delivery and the type of person assisting. 97 Table 8.7: Assistance during delivery Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by person assisting at delivery and percentage of births delivered by C-section, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Person assisting at delivery No attendant Total Delivery assisted by any skilled attendant1 Percent delivered by C- section2 Number of women who had a live birth in preceding two years Doctor Nurse/ Midwife Auxiliary midwife Traditional birth attendant Community health worker Relative/Friend Other/Missing Region Central 51.3 15.9 0.4 9.4 0.9 19.6 1.4 1.0 100.0 67.6 7.6 824 Central Highlands 14.4 11.6 1.2 46.8 0.9 22.2 1.3 1.6 100.0 27.2 2.0 196 East 30.9 6.1 0.7 16.1 2.0 32.7 11.3 0.2 100.0 37.7 1.6 491 North 7.2 16.1 1.9 27.2 1.1 44.1 2.0 0.6 100.0 25.1 2.6 743 North East 14.1 23.6 5.3 37.6 1.1 17.4 0.8 0.2 100.0 42.9 2.9 869 South 14.8 4.7 1.7 66.9 0.0 10.1 1.3 0.5 100.0 21.2 0.7 353 South East 12.4 22.2 3.2 15.5 3.1 30.8 7.3 5.4 100.0 37.8 4.9 726 West 9.0 15.0 2.4 50.9 1.2 18.4 2.4 0.6 100.0 26.5 2.6 662 Residence Urban 48.2 21.8 4.4 13.1 0.2 10.2 1.3 0.8 100.0 74.3 8.7 903 Rural 13.8 14.9 1.9 33.9 1.7 28.6 3.8 1.4 100.0 30.5 2.4 3,962 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 22.0 15.3 2.0 34.1 1.5 22.0 2.8 0.4 100.0 39.2 2.9 747 20-34 20.3 16.2 2.4 29.1 1.3 25.8 3.4 1.5 100.0 38.9 3.6 3,463 35-49 17.4 17.1 2.5 30.6 1.8 25.5 3.7 1.4 100.0 37.0 4.3 652 Place of delivery Public sector health facility 52.3 39.5 4.9 0.7 0.6 1.8 0.1 0.0 100.0 96.7 11.0 1,363 Private sector health facility 64.7 28.8 3.1 0.6 0.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.6 10.1 237 Home 3.4 5.6 1.2 46.1 1.8 37.8 2.0 2.0 100.0 10.3 0.0 3,149 Other 26.4 11.6 11.9 0.0 24.2 25.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 (*) (*) 12 Education None 16.6 15.3 2.3 32.3 1.5 26.8 3.7 1.5 100.0 34.2 3.0 4,311 Primary 35.5 24.8 3.6 17.2 0.4 17.1 1.3 0.1 100.0 63.9 6.8 286 Secondary + 60.7 20.5 1.8 7.8 0.2 8.4 0.3 0.2 100.0 83.0 8.8 268 Wealth index 98 Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by person assisting at delivery and percentage of births delivered by C-section, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Person assisting at delivery No attendant Total Delivery assisted by any skilled attendant1 Percent delivered by C- section2 Number of women who had a live birth in preceding two years Doctor Nurse/ Midwife Auxiliary midwife Traditional birth attendant Community health worker Relative/Friend Other/Missing quintiles Poorest 8.4 6.6 0.5 44.7 3.3 30.8 4.7 1.0 100.0 15.6 0.9 933 Second 7.9 14.3 2.8 37.9 1.0 30.9 4.3 1.0 100.0 24.9 1.5 1,029 Middle 14.8 14.8 1.5 31.3 1.0 30.5 4.2 2.0 100.0 31.0 2.6 993 Fourth 20.9 22.1 3.5 25.2 1.0 22.5 2.6 2.2 100.0 46.6 4.2 967 Richest 50.1 22.9 3.4 10.7 0.8 10.7 1.1 0.4 100.0 76.3 9.0 944 Total 20.2 16.1 2.3 30.1 1.4 25.2 3.4 1.3 100.0 38.6 3.6 4,865 1 MICS indicator 5.7; MDG indicator 5.2; 2 MICS indicator 5.9 (*) Indicates that the percentage is calculated on fewer than 25 unweighted cases. Of births occurring in the last two years preceding the AMICS survey, 39% were delivered by skilled personnel (Table 8.7). This percentage is highest in the Central region, at 68%, and lowest in the Southern region, at 21%. The more educated a woman is, the more likely she is to have delivered with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Doctors assisted with the delivery of 20% of births, nurses or midwives assisted with 16% of births, and auxiliary midwives assisted with 2% of births. Births attended by skilled personnel are more common in urban areas than in rural areas. Overall, more than 60% of the births in the two years preceding the AMICS survey were delivered with the assistance of non-skilled personnel. The main personnel for non-skilled birth attendance are traditional birth attendants (30%) or relatives/friends (25%). In the Northern region, 44% of births were attended by relatives or friends, and in the Eastern region, 33% of births were attended by relatives or friends. The use of non-skilled birth attendants is far more frequent in rural areas (29%) than in urban areas (10%), most likely attributable to the limited health facilities and shortage of female health workers in rural areas. In Afghanistan, delivery through Caesarean section (C-section) is considerably low at less than 4%, compared to the global standard range of 5- 15% of births. A strong correlation by region, residence, education and wealth is evident. For instance, delivery by C-section was 8% in the Central region, compared to less than 1% in the South region. In urban areas, 9% of deliveries were by C-section, compared to 2% in rural areas. 99 For mothers with secondary education or higher, C-section deliveries occurred in 9% of cases; while they occurred in only 3% of deliveries where the mother had no education. For deliveries that took place in a private sector health facility, C-sections occurred in 11% of cases, and in 10% of cases occurring in private sector health facilities. Place of Delivery Increasing the proportion of births that are delivered in health facilities is an important factor in reducing the health risks to both the mother and the baby. Proper medical attention and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risks of complications and infection that can cause morbidity and mortality to either the mother or the baby. Table 8.8 presents the percent distribution of women aged 15-49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by place of delivery and the percentage of births delivered in a health facility, according to background characteristics. Table 8.8: Place of delivery Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in two years preceding the survey by place of delivery, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Place of delivery Total Delivered in health facility1 Number of women who had a live birth in preceding two years Public sector health facility Private sector health facility Home Other Missing/DK Region Central 53.0 10.5 35.2 0.2 1.0 100.0 63.6 824 Central Highlands 22.7 1.2 74.6 0.4 1.2 100.0 23.9 196 East 32.2 2.0 54.8 0.0 11.0 100.0 34.2 491 North 18.4 2.3 78.0 0.5 0.9 100.0 20.7 743 North East 27.8 3.8 66.9 0.6 0.8 100.0 31.6 869 South 7.8 6.0 85.4 0.0 0.8 100.0 13.8 353 South East 23.9 6.8 67.9 0.0 1.4 100.0 30.8 726 West 21.8 2.6 73.7 0.1 1.9 100.0 24.3 662 Residence Urban 53.2 13.0 32.9 0.2 0.7 100.0 66.2 903 Rural 22.3 3.0 72.0 0.2 2.5 100.0 25.3 3,962 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 29.3 4.5 64.3 0.1 1.9 100.0 33.7 747 20-34 28.1 5.0 64.4 0.3 2.2 100.0 33.1 3,463 35-49 26.3 4.6 66.7 0.3 2.0 100.0 30.9 652 Percent of women who had None 13.9 2.2 79.1 0.1 4.7 100.0 16.1 2,186 1-3 visits 35.6 5.0 59.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 40.6 1,690 4+ visits 50.9 12.9 35.5 0.5 0.1 100.0 63.8 711 Missing/DK 34.4 4.9 60.3 0.5 0.0 100.0 39.2 279 Education* None 24.6 4.0 68.8 0.2 2.3 100.0 28.6 4,311 Primary 51.0 7.5 40.3 0.3 0.9 100.0 58.5 286 Secondary + 57.7 16.6 24.6 0.4 0.7 100.0 74.3 268 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 10.5 2.0 84.7 0.0 2.9 100.0 12.5 933 Second 19.5 1.1 76.1 0.4 2.9 100.0 20.6 1,029 Middle 23.4 3.4 70.7 0.0 2.5 100.0 26.8 993 Fourth 33.1 5.2 59.5 0.5 1.7 100.0 38.3 967 Richest 54.3 13.0 31.8 0.3 0.6 100.0 67.4 944 Total 28.0 4.9 64.7 0.2 2.1 100.0 32.9 4,865 1 MICS indicator 5.8 100 Almost 33% of births in Afghanistan are delivered in a health facility, including 28% of deliveries which occur in public sector facilities and 5% which occur in private sector facilities. Well over half of births (65%) occur at home. By age group, women less than age 20 (34%) and women aged 20-34 (33%) are more likely to deliver in a health facility. Women in urban areas (66%) are more than twice as likely to deliver in a health facility as their rural counterparts (25%). The Central region has the highest proportion of institutional deliveries (64%), while the Southern region has the lowest proportion (14%). Women with higher levels of educational attainment are more likely to deliver in a health facility than women with less education or with no education. The proportion of births occurring in a health facility increases steadily with increasing wealth quintiles, from 12% of births in the lowest wealth quintile to 67% in the highest quintile. The majority of women who received no antenatal care services delivered at home (79%). The State of Reproductive Health in Afghanistan For many years, Afghanistan was known for having had the highest maternal mortality rate in the world. While this has changed over the past decade, with a much higher number of women able to access skilled birth attendants, there remains much that must be done to give more Afghan women a better chance at surviving childbirth, and enjoying safe motherhood. Safe practices in reproductive health are closely tied to a range of other human development indicators, such as child morbidity and female school enrolment. Thus, investing in women s reproductive health is an investment in Afghanistan s human development at large. The potential impact of delaying childbearing by just five years has been shown to lead to stabilizing population growth and to rising GDPs in poor countries, adding trillions of dollars to struggling economies17. Yet more importantly, safer reproductive health and motherhood practices help women survive childbirth, and live longer, to raise healthier children. 17 UN, 2009; Bruce, Judith and Bongaarts, John. The New Population Challenge. From Laurie Mazur (Ed.), A Pivotal Moment: Population, Justice, and the Environmental Challenge. Washington, DC: Island Press. 101 102 Early Childhood Education and Learning Progress in schooling is often associated with cognitive abilities acquired at a young age. Prior participation in early childhood education and learning programmes can play an important role in a child s future education, because they shape the attitudes towards learning and help children to develop basic social skills. Those children who have access to early childhood education and learning programmes are also more likely to go on to have access to primary schooling. Table 9.1: Early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an organized early childhood education programme, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 36-59 months currently attending early childhood education1 Number of children age 36-59 months Sex Male 1.0 3,547 Female 1.1 3,364 Region Central 3.3 961 Central Highlands 1.8 223 East 1.0 820 North 0.6 948 North East 0.9 1,132 South 0.5 1,023 South East 0.1 1,018 West 0.8 785 Residence Urban 4.0 1,007 Rural 0.5 5,904 Age of child 36-47 months 0.7 3,438 48-59 months 1.4 3,474 Mother's education* None 0.7 6,407 Primary 0.9 269 Secondary + 9.4 232 Wealth index quintile Poorest 0.2 1,535 Second 0.6 1,493 Middle 0.6 1,427 Fourth 0.5 1,375 Richest 3.9 1,081 Total 1.0 6,911 1 MICS indicator 6.7 Only 1% of children aged 36-59 months are attending pre-school in Afghanistan (Table 9.1). Urban-rural and regional variances are significant. The attendance figure is eight times higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Among children aged 36-59 months, pre-school attendance is more prevalent in the Central region (3%), and lowest in the South East region (almost 0%). No gender differential exists, but differentials by socioeconomic status are 103 significant. Almost 4% of children living in the wealthiest households attend pre-school, while the figure drops to 0.2% in the poorest households. The most significant background characteristics determining difference in children attending early childhood education is found in the mother s education level. For instance, pre-school attendance is 9% among the children of mothers with secondary education or higher, compared with less than 1% for the children of mothers with no education. Adults Engaging in Activities with Children It is well recognized that a period of rapid brain development occurs in the first three to four years of life, and the quality of home care is the major determinant of the child s development during this period. In this context, adult activities with children, the presence of books in the home for the child, and the conditions of care are important indicators of the quality of home care. Children should be physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally secure, socially competent and ready to learn. Information on a number of activities that support early learning was collected in the survey. These included the involvement of adults with children in the following activities: reading books or looking at picture books; telling stories; singing songs; taking children outside the home, compound or yard; playing with children; and spending time with children naming, counting, or drawing things. Table 9.2: Support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult household member engaged in activities that promote learning and school readiness during the last three days, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 36-59 months Mean number of activities Percentage of children not living with their biological father Number of children age 36-59 months With whom adult household members engaged in four or more activities1 With whom the father engaged in one or more activities2 Any adult household member engaged with the child The father engaged with the child Sex Male 73.6 63.3 4.2 1.1 2.1 3,547 Female 72.7 60.2 4.2 1.1 1.9 3,364 Region Central 75.6 58.2 4.4 1.0 2.4 961 Central Highlands 80.6 46.2 4.6 0.8 6.0 223 East 77.3 67.2 4.4 1.1 1.2 820 North 77.4 57.2 4.3 0.9 2.2 948 North East 69.3 54.3 4.1 0.8 3.0 1,132 South 75.5 74.3 4.3 1.8 1.3 1,023 South East 61.5 73.8 3.7 1.3 1.1 1,018 West 75.9 49.4 4.1 0.8 1.4 785 Residence Urban 80.1 61.7 4.7 1.1 3.1 1,007 Rural 71.9 61.8 4.1 1.1 1.8 5,904 Age 36-47 months 71.8 61.1 4.1 1.0 1.6 3,438 48-59 months 74.5 62.5 4.3 1.2 2.4 3,474 Mother's education* None 72.0 61.7 4.2 1.1 1.9 6,407 104 Percentage of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult household member engaged in activities that promote learning and school readiness during the last three days, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 36-59 months Mean number of activities Percentage of children not living with their biological father Number of children age 36-59 months With whom adult household members engaged in four or more activities1 With whom the father engaged in one or more activities2 Any adult household member engaged with the child The father engaged with the child Primary 82.9 58.0 4.6 1.1 3.4 269 Secondary + 91.7 67.8 5.2 1.2 2.2 232 Father s education None 70.4 59.3 4.1 1.0 n/a 4,540 Primary 75.5 59.3 4.3 1.0 n/a 816 Secondary+ 80.8 73.4 4.6 1.4 n/a 1,431 Father not at home 68.8 0.0 4.2 n/a n/a 120 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 72.3 60.8 4.1 1.0 2.8 1,535 Second 72.1 60.3 4.1 1.1 2.0 1,493 Middle 69.7 64.6 4.1 1.2 1.8 1,427 Fourth 73.2 62.9 4.3 1.2 1.1 1,375 Richest 80.2 60.0 4.6 1.1 2.3 1,081 Total 73.1 61.8 4.2 1.1 2.0 6,911 1 MICS indicator 6.1; 2 MICS Indicator 6.2 For more than two-thirds (73%) of under-five children, an adult household member engaged in more than four activities that promote learning and school readiness during the three days preceding the survey (Table 9.2). The average number of activities that adults engaged in with children was four. The table also indicates that the fathers involvement in one or more activities was 62%. Fathers support to their children s learning is highest in the South region (74%) while it is lowest in the Central Highlands region (46%). Interestingly, children living in households with middle level socio-economic status have the highest rate of support from the father for the child s learning, while children living in households with the wealthiest socio-economic status have the lowest rate of support from the father towards the child s learning. Variances were also found by the father s educational level, in that fathers with secondary education or higher participated in one or more activities with the child more often (73%) than did fathers with no education (59%). Fathers engaged in activities with boys (63%) only slightly more than with girls (60%). Higher proportions of adults engaged in learning and school readiness activities with children in urban areas (80%) than in rural areas (72%). Strong differentials by region and socio- economic status are also observed: adult engagement in activities with children was greatest in the Central Highlands region (81%) and lowest in the South East region (62%), while the proportion was 80% for children living in the wealthiest households, as opposed to those living in the poorest households (72%). Children s Exposure to Reading Material and Play Items Exposure to books during a child s early years not only provides the child with greater understanding of the nature and purpose of print literacy, but may also give the child opportunities to see others reading, such as older siblings doing school work. The presence 105 of books in the household is important for later school performance and literacy development. In the AMICS, the mothers/caretakers of all children under age five were asked about the number of children s books or picture books they have for the child, household objects or outside objects, and homemade toys, or toys in the home that came from a shop. Table 9.3: Learning materials Percentage of children under age 5 by numbers of children's books present in the household, and by playthings that child plays with, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Household has for the child: Child plays with: Two or more types of playthings2 Number of children under age 5 3 or more children' s books1 10 or more children's books Homemade toys Toys from a shop/manufac tured toys Household objects/objects found outside Sex Male 2.1 0.4 61.4 48.5 43.9 53.6 7,653 Female 2.3 0.4 60.8 46.5 43.2 51.6 7,218 Region Central 3.9 0.8 55.8 62.0 31.6 51.1 2,230 Central Highlands 1.9 0.5 26.2 25.9 39.9 27.9 517 East 2.8 0.2 70.8 48.8 65.4 66.8 1,667 North 1.4 0.3 63.3 42.0 39.5 52.3 2,087 North East 0.5 0.1 60.0 43.1 43.0 52.4 2,464 South 1.6 0.8 71.9 50.2 44.6 52.1 1,774 South East 3.1 0.2 58.8 51.9 39.7 52.3 2,308 West 2.3 0.2 60.0 38.8 48.6 50.1 1,825 Residence Urban 5.0 1.4 55.5 66.5 34.9 55.9 2,398 Rural 1.7 0.2 62.2 43.9 45.2 52.0 12,474 Age 0-23 months 0.4 0.1 38.9 32.7 23.1 29.0 4,741 24-59 months 3.0 0.5 71.5 54.4 53.1 63.7 10,131 Mother s education* None 1.8 0.3 61.6 45.4 44.3 52.1 13,532 Primary 2.4 0.3 51.1 60.6 36.7 53.2 698 Secondary + 10.7 2.4 60.0 77.9 36.0 63.6 634 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 1.4 0.0 66.5 35.0 47.7 52.2 3,101 Second 1.2 0.1 61.5 38.4 44.2 48.9 3,190 Middle 1.0 0.2 62.2 45.4 45.6 53.6 3,015 Fourth 2.7 0.2 58.3 54.4 41.6 52.4 2,983 Richest 5.2 1.4 56.2 68.2 37.6 56.8 2,583 Total 2.2 0.4 61.1 47.5 43.6 52.6 14,872 1 MICS indicator 6.3; 2 MICS indicator 6.4 In Afghanistan, only 2% of children aged 0-59 months are living in households where at least three children s books are present (Table 9.3). The proportion of children with 10 or more books declines to almost 0%. While no gender variances are observed, urban children (5%) appear to have more access to children s books than children living in rural households (2%). 106 The presence of children s books is positively correlated with the child s age; in the homes of 3% of children aged 24-59 months, there are three or more children s books, while the figure is only slightly more than 0% for children aged 0-23 months. The presence of children s books is positively correlated with the mother s education level: 11% of children whose mother has attained secondary education or higher have three or more children s books, while the figure drops to 2% for children whose mothers have no education. There are notable variances found in the presence of children s books by region and by household social-economic status. Table 9.3 also shows that 53% of children aged 0-59 months had two or more play items to play with in their homes. The play items surveyed in the AMICS included homemade toys (such as dolls and cars, or other toys made at home), toys that came from a store, and household objects (such as pots and bowls) or objects and materials found outside the home (such as sticks, rocks, animal shells, or leaves). It was found that 48% of children play with toys that come from a store; and the percentage of homemade toys in the home is 61%. The proportion of children who have two or more play items is 54% among male children and 52% among female children. Slight variances were found between urban (56%) and rural (52%) populations; however, more pronounced differences are found in terms of the mother s education level: 64% of children whose mothers have attained secondary education or higher have two or more play items, while the proportion is 52% for children whose mothers have no education. Differentials are also observed by the socioeconomic status of households, and by regions. Almost 57% of children living in the wealthiest households have two or more play items, while the figure is 49% for children living in the second poorest quintile. About 67% of children who are living in the Eastern region have two or more play items compared with 28% of children who are living in the Central Highlands region. Care of Children Leaving children alone or in the presence of other young children without adults present is known to increase the risk of accidents to children. In the AMICS, two questions were posed to respondents to find out whether children aged 0-59 months were left alone during the week preceding the interview, and whether children were left in the care of other children under 10 years of age. Table 9.4: Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once during the past week, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children under age 5 Number of children under age 5 Left alone in the past week Left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week Left with inadequate care in the past week1 Sex Male 32.1 35.0 41.5 7,653 Female 30.6 32.8 38.8 7,218 Region Central 17.1 13.3 20.5 2,230 Central Highlands 36.2 37.8 46.6 517 East 26.3 26.9 33.4 1,667 107 Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once during the past week, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children under age 5 Number of children under age 5 Left alone in the past week Left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week Left with inadequate care in the past week1 North 24.4 38.0 42.3 2,087 North East 23.3 29.6 33.8 2,464 South 34.8 30.1 38.2 1,774 South East 64.8 67.5 75.3 2,308 West 25.2 26.9 32.6 1,825 Residence Urban 18.9 19.7 25.7 2,398 Rural 33.7 36.7 43.0 12,474 Age 0-23 months 20.4 23.2 28.5 4,741 24-59 months 36.5 39.0 45.7 10,131 Mother s education* None 32.5 35.3 41.6 13,532 Primary 19.5 20.7 26.6 698 Secondary + 20.6 18.0 26.4 634 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 34.1 36.6 43.3 3,101 Second 34.1 35.9 42.4 3,190 Middle 35.6 39.1 45.5 3,015 Fourth 30.3 35.3 40.5 2,983 Richest 20.9 20.7 27.3 2,583 Total 31.4 33.9 40.2 14,872 * MICS indicator 6.5 Table 9.4 shows that 34% of children aged 0-59 months were left in the care of other children, while 31% were left alone during the week preceding the interview. Combining the two care indicators, it is calculated that 40% of children were left with inadequate care during the week preceding the survey, either by being left alone or in the care of another child. Some differences were observed by the sex of the child (42% for boys and 39% for girls), and greater differences are found between urban (26%) and rural areas (43%). Inadequate care was found to be most prevalent among children whose mothers had no education (42%), compared to mothers with at least primary education (27%). Children aged 24-59 months were left with inadequate care more frequently (46%) than children who were aged 0-23 months (29%). Major variances can be found in regard to the socioeconomic status of the household and by region. More than 27% of children living in the wealthiest households were left with inadequate care, while the figure is highest among children living in the middle socio-economic level of households (46%). Children under the age of five years were left with inadequate care most frequently in the South Eastern region (75%), as compared to the lowest figure, which was in the Central region (21%). Assessing Early Child Development in Afghanistan Within households, a majority of children have adults engaging in activities with them, and most households have play items in the home, conditions that help stimulate cognitive development and social interactions. However, access to books in the home is extremely 108 low throughout the country. Children s access to books from an early age is a proven means of providing a solid foundation for literacy development and school learning later on. Early childhood education attendance is very low in Afghanistan, with implications for successful transitions to primary school. These findings highlight specific aspects of child development in Afghanistan where intervention is warranted to help children maximize opportunities for healthy growth and for building social competencies. 109 110 Literacy Among Young Women One of the World Fit for Children goals is to assure adult literacy. Adult literacy is also an MDG indicator for both men and women. In the AMICS, since only a women s questionnaire was administered to adults, the results are based only on responses from females aged 15-24. Literacy was assessed based on the ability of women to read a short simple statement, or based on her highest school level attained. In the AMICS, a woman who attended secondary school or higher was counted as literate. A woman who did not attend secondary school or higher was given a sentence to read. She was counted as literate if she could read the entire sentence. The literate rate of young women aged 15-24 is presented in Table 10.1. Table 10.1: Literacy among young women Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are literate, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage literate1 Percentage not known Number of women age 15-24 years Region Central 40.5 0.3 1,762 Central Highlands 34.6 0.1 343 East 16.4 0.1 866 North 24.2 0.5 1,257 North East 20.8 0.0 1,799 South 2.7 0.0 1,259 South East 16.1 0.1 1,121 West 21.9 0.6 1,213 Residence Urban 51.6 0.6 1,868 Rural 15.1 0.1 7,752 Education None 1.1 0.1 6,749 Primary 28.9 1.1 1,135 Secondary + 100.0 0.0 1,733 Age 15-19 27.7 0.3 5,510 20-24 14.8 0.2 4,110 Wealth index quintile Poorest 5.1 0.1 1,673 Second 10.6 0.1 1,797 Middle 13.0 0.0 1,875 Fourth 23.8 0.3 2,029 Richest 50.3 0.4 2,245 Total 22.2 0.2 9,620 1 MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3 Table 10.1 indicates that less than one in five women in Afghanistan are literate and that the women s literacy rate in rural areas is more than three times lower than in urban areas. Of women who stated that primary school was their highest level of education attained, only 29% were actually able to read the sentence shown to them. Literacy among women living in the poorest households is 10 times lower than their counterparts in the wealthiest quintile. 111 School Readiness Progress in schooling is often associated with cognitive abilities acquired at a young age. Prior participation in integrated early childhood development programmes can play an important role in a child s future education, because they shape children s attitudes towards learning and help children to develop basic social skills. Attendance in pre-school education in an organized learning or child education programme is important for achieving children s school readiness. Table 10.2 shows the proportion of children in the first grade of primary school in the 2010/2011 school year, who attended pre-school the previous school year. Table 10.2: School readiness Percentage of children attending first grade of primary school who attended pre- school the previous year, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children attending first grade who attended preschool in previous year1 Number of children attending first grade of primary school Sex Male 12.3 684 Female 13.1 525 Region Central 19.1 255 Central Highlands 4.9 92 East 30.7 161 North 6.1 159 North East 6.7 217 South 9.7 36 South East 10.0 118 West 6.2 170 Residence Urban 19.8 280 Rural 10.5 928 Mother's education None 11.1 1,063 Primary 19.4 83 Secondary + 31.0 61 Wealth index quintile Poorest 11.9 224 Second 10.1 200 Middle 8.2 220 Fourth 9.6 247 Richest 20.3 317 Total 12.7 1,208 1 MICS indicator 7.2 Overall, only 13% of children who were attending the first grade of primary school in the 2010/2011 school year were attending pre-school the previous school year. The proportion of children in rural areas (11%) who had attended pre-school the previous year is almost twice as low as children living in urban areas (20%). Regional differentials are also very significant. First graders in the Central Highlands region are six times less likely (5%) to attend pre-school than their counterparts living in the Eastern region (31%). 112 Primary and Secondary School Participation Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world s children is one of the Millennium Development Goals as well as one of the goals of A World Fit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labour, and from sexual exploitation, and for promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. The indicators for primary and secondary school attendance include: Net intake rate in primary education Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Female to male education ratio (or gender parity index [GPI]) in primary and secondary school The indicators of school progression include: Children reaching the last grade of primary school Primary school completion rate Transition rate to secondary school In Afghanistan, age 7 was the primary school entry age until the start of the July 2008 school year, when the school entry age became age 6 for primary school. Age 7 is considered as the primary school entry age in this report. Table 10.3: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11 Number of children of primary school entry age Sex Male 31.8 1,913 Female 26.1 1,824 Region Central 45.1 502 Central Highlands 43.1 126 East 25.2 534 North 27.1 499 North East 33.4 598 South 11.7 504 South East 26.1 462 West 30.0 511 Residence Urban 42.7 599 Rural 26.4 3,138 Mother's education None 27.5 3,471 Primary 47.8 134 Secondary + 48.9 131 113 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11 Number of children of primary school entry age Wealth index quintile Poorest 21.8 842 Second 25.5 749 Middle 24.6 744 Fourth 31.5 773 Richest 44.9 629 Total 29.0 3,737 1 MICS indicator 7.3 In 2010/2011, 29% of school eligible children were attending the first grade of primary school (Table 10.3). Gender differentials exist, with attendance at 26% for girls and 32% for boys; however, significant differentials are present by region and in urban versus rural areas. In the Southern region, for instance, the school attendance indicator is 12%, while it reaches 45% in the Central region. Children s entry into primary school is timelier in urban areas (43%) than in rural areas (26%). A positive correlation exists between the mother s education level and the household socioeconomic status. Of children aged 7 whose mothers have at least secondary education, 49% were attending the first grade. In wealthy households, the proportion is around 45%, while it is 22% among children living in the poorest households. Table 10.4 provides the percentage of children of primary school age (7-12 years) who are attending primary or secondary school18. Table 10.4: Primary school attendance Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary or secondary school (adjusted net attendance ratio), Afghanistan, 2010/11 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1 Number of children Region Central 87.6 1,361 67.4 1,278 77.9 2,639 Central Highlands 83.1 302 71.8 312 77.4 614 East 67.2 1,221 41.8 1,040 55.5 2,261 North 65.0 1,269 56.8 1,229 60.9 2,499 North East 65.5 1,380 51.0 1,328 58.4 2,708 South 28.6 1,496 13.5 1,215 21.9 2,710 South East 66.1 1,138 30.4 857 50.8 1,996 West 60.2 1,306 50.8 1,165 55.8 2,471 Residence Urban 82.5 1,605 72.8 1,527 77.8 3,133 Rural 58.9 7,868 40.6 6,897 50.4 14,766 Age at beginning of school year 7 50.8 1,913 41.4 1,824 46.2 3,737 8 55.4 1,430 48.3 1,259 52.1 2,690 18 Ratios presented in this table are adjusted since they include not only primary school attendance, but also secondary school attendance in the numerator. 114 Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary or secondary school (adjusted net attendance ratio), Afghanistan, 2010/11 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1 Number of children 9 67.9 1,878 47.8 1,639 58.5 3,516 10 66.0 1,178 48.5 924 58.3 2,102 11 72.8 1,707 50.3 1,480 62.3 3,187 12 65.7 1,367 44.3 1,298 55.3 2,665 Mother's education None 60.8 8,807 43.2 7,766 52.6 16,572 Primary 88.8 311 79.7 319 84.2 630 Secondary + 93.7 349 90.6 336 92.2 685 Wealth index quintile Poorest 48.3 2,065 30.1 1,750 40.0 3,815 Second 55.2 1,900 37.5 1,620 47.0 3,521 Middle 59.8 1,927 39.4 1,663 50.4 3,589 Fourth 69.5 1,812 52.5 1,701 61.2 3,513 Richest 84.8 1,769 72.8 1,690 79.0 3,459 Total 62.9 9,474 46.4 8,424 55.2 17,898 1 MICS indicator 7.4; MDG indicator 2.1 Only 55% of children of primary school age (7-12) are attending school (Table 10.4). In urban areas, 78% of children attend school while in rural areas attendance is only 50%. The proportion of children attending primary or secondary school increases with the child s age up to the age of 11. Attendance starts to decrease from age 12. Primary school attendance shows significant variance between children living in the poorest households (40% attendance) and those living in the wealthiest households (79% attendance). Table 10.5 shows secondary school attendance rates. 115 Table 10.5: Secondary school attendance Percentage of children of secondary school age attending secondary school or higher (adjusted net attendance ratio) and percentage of children attending primary school, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1 Percent attending primary school Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1 Percent attending primary school Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1 Percent attending primary school Number of children Region Central 65.8 6.6 1,272 36.0 6.6 1,337 50.5 6.6 2,609 Central Highlands 54.1 16.3 232 33.8 15.2 256 43.4 15.8 488 East 49.5 13.4 842 13.0 4.3 697 33.0 9.3 1,539 North 42.9 12.4 1,083 27.0 6.6 1,011 35.2 9.6 2,094 North East 40.4 12.6 1,177 23.7 6.2 1,256 31.8 9.3 2,433 South 19.0 3.2 1,477 3.0 1.1 1,123 12.1 2.3 2,600 South East 57.4 12.7 916 15.3 3.6 721 38.8 8.7 1,637 West 29.7 17.1 989 18.5 13.8 943 24.2 15.5 1,932 Residence Urban 61.8 8.9 1,469 48.6 5.8 1,407 55.3 7.4 2,876 Rural 38.5 11.0 6,519 14.5 6.6 5,937 27.1 8.9 12,456 Age at beginning of school year 13 35.3 28.6 1,308 24.0 15.3 1,482 29.3 21.5 2,790 14 42.8 17.6 1,480 22.5 9.8 1,103 34.2 14.2 2,582 15 48.4 7.6 1,485 24.0 4.6 1,317 36.9 6.2 2,802 16 47.6 4.1 979 22.1 3.2 976 34.9 3.6 1,955 17 44.0 2.4 1,799 18.0 1.7 1,590 31.8 2.1 3,390 18 36.8 2.1 938 14.2 2.1 875 25.9 2.1 1,814 Mother's education None 40.9 15.1 4,895 20.1 8.9 4,319 31.2 12.2 9,214 Primary 67.1 12.5 166 49.6 13.1 186 57.9 12.8 353 Secondary + 83.5 9.5 204 79.0 5.2 192 81.3 7.4 396 Cannot be determined 47.1 4.5 218 8.1 1.7 358 22.8 2.8 575 Wealth index quintile Poorest 24.0 11.7 1,543 5.5 5.7 1,294 15.6 9.0 2,837 Second 32.6 10.2 1,496 10.9 5.6 1,350 22.3 8.0 2,846 Middle 37.8 11.4 1,589 13.8 6.0 1,452 26.4 8.8 3,041 Fourth 50.9 10.8 1,589 22.6 8.0 1,585 36.8 9.4 3,174 Richest 64.9 9.2 1,772 46.3 6.4 1,663 55.9 7.9 3,434 Total 42.8 10.6 7,988 21.1 6.4 7,343 32.4 8.6 15,332 1 MICS indicator 7.5 116 The secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR) is presented in Table 10.519. About 32% of secondary school age children are attending school. The secondary school NAR for girls (21%) is more than two times lower than that of boys (43%). The secondary NAR of rural secondary school age children is two times lower than their counterparts in urban areas. The attendance of secondary school children living in the poorest households is about four times lower than their counterparts living in the wealthiest households. Regional disparities in secondary NAR are significant. Attendance in the Southern region (12%) is the lowest among all eight regions and about five times lower than attendance in the Central region (51%), where it is the highest. About one in ten (9%) children of secondary school age are attending primary school when they should be attending secondary school. Table 10.6 shows the percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (the survival rate to last grade of primary school). 19 Ratios presented in this table are adjusted since they include not only secondary school attendance, but also attendance to higher levels in the numerator. 117 Table 10.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (Survival rate to last grade of primary school), Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percent attending grade 1 last school year who are in grade 2 this school year Percent attending grade 2 last school year who are attending grade 3 this school year Percent attending grade 3 last school year who are attending grade 4 this school year Percent attending grade 4 last school year who are attending grade 5 this school year Percent attending grade 5 last school year who are attending grade 6 this school year Percent who reach grade 6 of those who enter grade 11 Sex Male 94.3 97.6 96.8 96.6 98.5 84.7 Female 94.4 97.6 98.1 95.9 97.2 84.2 Region Central 95.3 98.0 96.7 96.6 98.0 85.5 Central Highlands 91.2 94.2 96.1 97.2 97.0 77.8 East 95.3 99.3 98.6 97.9 97.8 89.3 North 90.2 98.9 97.1 97.7 99.2 83.9 North East 95.7 98.2 97.1 98.1 96.8 86.6 South 100.0 98.3 96.2 92.7 99.2 86.9 South East 94.7 98.1 98.3 96.1 98.0 86.1 West 93.1 93.7 97.6 93.1 98.5 78.1 Residence Urban 95.1 96.1 96.0 96.4 98.1 83.0 Rural 94.1 97.9 97.7 96.3 98.1 85.0 Mother's education None 94.1 97.6 97.3 96.6 98.7 85.2 Primary 95.2 98.8 98.7 97.5 99.4 89.9 Secondary + 97.1 97.4 97.6 99.1 98.8 90.4 Wealth index quintile Poorest 92.4 97.4 96.4 97.2 98.5 83.0 Second 95.8 97.0 96.9 97.7 98.0 86.3 Middle 93.2 98.5 98.1 95.8 98.1 84.6 Fourth 95.0 98.5 98.2 94.3 97.7 84.7 Richest 95.0 96.4 96.8 96.9 98.2 84.3 Total 95.0 94.5 97.1 93.0 97.8 84.1 1 MICS indicator 7.6; MDG indicator 2.2 The percentage of children entering first grade who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (primary survival rate) is presented in Table 10.6. The last grade of primary school in Afghanistan is Grade Six. Of all children starting Grade One, more than four in five (84%) eventually reach the last grade. Note that this number includes children that repeat grades and that eventually move up to reach the last grade. Compared with primary NAR, it can be concluded that the majority of primary school age children who enrol in primary school are likely to remain in school until the last grade of primary school. There are no dramatic differences in the survival rates among girls and boys, or between rural (85%) and urban areas (83%). There is, however, some difference in the survival rate among children whose mothers have no education (85%) compared to the children of mothers with primary education (90%) or secondary education (90%). 118 Some differences among regions are found. The Central Highlands region (78%) and the Western region (78%) have the lowest survival rates while the Eastern region has highest survival rate (89%). The primary school completion rate and the transition rate to secondary school are presented in Table 10.7. The primary completion rate is the ratio of the total number of students, regardless of age, entering the last grade of primary school for the first time, to the number of children of the primary graduation age at the beginning of the current (or most recent) school year. Age 13 is used as the primary school graduation age in Afghanistan in this report. Table 10.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school Primary school completion rates and transition rate to secondary school, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Primary school completion rate1 Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary school2 Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Sex Male 40.0 1,367 92.6 1,011 Female 20.8 1,298 93.5 516 Region Central 45.7 436 96.8 323 Central Highlands 43.8 81 93.8 72 East 40.2 264 87.5 160 North 40.8 386 93.9 250 North East 21.0 486 93.0 241 South 17.0 424 97.5 94 South East 27.7 232 93.2 196 West 22.7 356 86.7 190 Residence Urban 42.1 513 95.3 412 Rural 28.0 2,153 92.0 1,115 Mother's education None 28.9 2,446 93.2 1,179 Primary 44.1 100 91.7 73 Secondary + 56.8 117 98.9 98 Wealth index quintile Poorest 21.1 526 93.2 212 Second 25.9 521 94.2 230 Middle 26.2 527 92.6 243 Fourth 37.8 498 90.4 355 Richest 41.4 593 94.2 487 Total 30.7 2,665 92.9 1,527 1 MICS indicator 7.7; 2 MICS indicator 7.8 As shown in Table 10.7, at the time of the survey, the primary school completion rate was 31%. The primary school completion rate for girls (21%) is almost twice as low as that for boys (40%). The table points to a significant difference in the primary school completion rate in rural areas (28%) compared to urban areas (42%). Striking disparities are seen in the rates by region. 119 The primary school completion rate in Southern region is the lowest (17%), while the highest is found in the Central region (46%). Children living in the poorest households are more than twice as likely to not complete their primary education (21%) by the appropriate age than their counterparts living in the wealthiest households (41%). The mother s education level also seems to impact this indicator. Only 29% of children aged 13 years whose mother has no education had completed primary education, in comparison with 57% of those children whose mother has secondary education or higher. The majority of the children (93%) who successfully completed the last grade of primary school were attending the first grade of secondary school at the time of the survey. There are no significant differences found in the transition from primary to secondary school between girls (94%) and boys (93%), and only minor differences in rural areas (92%) from urban areas (95%). Table 10.8: Education gender parity Ratio of adjusted net attendance ratios of girls to boys, in primary and secondary school, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school adjusted NAR1 Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school adjusted NAR2 Region Central 67.4 87.6 0.77 36.0 65.8 0.55 Central Highlands 71.8 83.1 0.86 33.8 54.1 0.62 East 41.8 67.2 0.62 13.0 49.5 0.26 North 56.8 65.0 0.88 27.0 42.9 0.63 North East 51.0 65.5 0.78 23.7 40.4 0.59 South 13.5 28.6 0.47 3.0 19.0 0.16 South East 30.4 66.1 0.46 15.3 57.4 0.27 West 50.8 60.2 0.84 18.5 29.7 0.62 Residence Urban 72.8 82.5 0.88 48.6 61.8 0.79 Rural 40.6 58.9 0.69 14.5 38.5 0.38 Mother's education None 43.2 60.8 0.71 20.1 40.9 0.49 Primary 79.7 88.8 0.90 49.6 67.1 0.74 Secondary + 90.6 93.7 0.97 79.0 83.5 0.95 Wealth index quintile Poorest 30.1 48.3 0.62 5.5 24.0 0.23 Second 37.5 55.2 0.68 10.9 32.6 0.33 Middle 39.4 59.8 0.66 13.8 37.8 0.36 Fourth 52.5 69.5 0.76 22.6 50.9 0.44 Richest 72.8 84.8 0.86 46.3 64.9 0.71 Total 46.4 62.9 0.74 21.1 42.8 0.49 1 MICS indicator 7.9; MDG indicator 3.1; 2 MICS indicator 7.10; MDG indicator 3.1 120 The ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education is provided in Table 10.8. These ratios are better known as the Gender Parity Index (GPI). Note that the ratios included here are obtained from net attendance ratios rather than gross attendance ratios.20 Table 10.8 shows that gender parity for primary school is 0.74, indicating a difference in the primary school attendance between girls and boys, with 74 girls attending primary school for every 100 boys. The indicator drops significantly by the secondary level, to 0.49. The disadvantage to girls is particularly pronounced in the Southern region (0.47 for primary education and 0.16 for secondary education), as well as among children living in the poorest households (0.62 for primary education and 0.23 for secondary education) and in rural areas (0.69 for primary education and 0.39 for secondary education). The School Experience of Children in Afghanistan Afghanistan has made steady progress in reconstituting the education sector over the past decade. Most students who begin primary school complete primary school. The challenge lies in raising primary attendance rates beyond the rate of 55%, and in ensuring a far greater proportion of primary graduates go on to start and complete a secondary level education. In particular, there is a sharp drop in girls school attendance after primary school. Afghanistan s achievement of all of the MDGs rests on the human capital that it can bring to bear to reach its development objectives. Thus improving education indicators, including gender equity in education, in particular must be of paramount priority. 20 The last ratios provide an erroneous description of the GPI mainly because in most of the cases, the majority of over-aged children attending primary education tend to be boys. 121 122 Birth Registration The International Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality, and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. A World Fit for Children has the goal of developing systems to ensure the registration of every child at or shortly after birth, and of fulfilling his or her right to acquire a name and a nationality, in accordance with national laws and relevant international instruments. The AMICS indicator related to birth registration is the percentage of children under five years of age whose birth is registered. Table 11.1 shows birth registration of children under five years of age in Afghanistan, and the percentage of children whose mother/caretaker knows to how to register a birth. Table 11.1: Birth registration Percentage of children under age 5 by whether birth is registered and percentage of children not registered whose mothers/caretakers know how to register birth, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Children under age 5 whose birth is registered with civil authorities Number of children Children under age 5 whose birth is not registered Has birth certificate No birth certificate Total registered1 Percent of children whose mother/caretaker knows how to register birth Number of children without birth registration Seen Not seen Sex Male 9.9 25.5 2.9 38.3 7,653 5.6 4,723 Female 9.6 24.2 2.7 36.5 7,218 5.3 4,580 Region Central 21.8 31.5 6.9 60.2 2,230 5.6 887 Central Highlands 9.7 20.3 0.9 30.9 517 2.1 357 East 9.6 44.8 3.1 57.6 1,667 12.3 707 North 10.0 13.6 4.2 27.8 2,087 3.2 1,506 North East 13.3 26.3 1.6 41.2 2,464 3.5 1,450 South 1.4 29.5 0.5 31.5 1,774 0.6 1,215 South East 1.6 17.0 0.3 18.9 2,308 10.4 1,872 West 8.5 16.6 3.2 28.3 1,825 4.8 1,308 Residence Urban 19.7 33.9 6.4 60.0 2,398 4.2 959 Rural 7.9 23.2 2.1 33.1 12,474 5.6 8,344 Age 0-11 months 15.5 20.5 2.8 38.8 2,244 5.0 1,373 12-23 months 13.4 25.5 3.3 42.2 2,497 5.6 1,443 24-35 months 9.8 24.7 2.6 37.1 3,220 5.3 2,027 36-47 months 7.2 26.4 2.6 36.2 3,438 6.1 2,192 48-59 months 5.9 26.0 2.7 34.7 3,474 5.1 2,268 Mother s education None 8.6 24.4 2.5 35.5 13,532 5.2 8,727 Primary 16.9 26.7 4.5 48.1 698 8.1 362 Secondary + 26.8 33.0 7.2 66.9 634 11.7 210 Wealth index quintile Poorest 6.5 22.4 2.5 31.4 3,101 6.6 2,128 Second 8.1 23.8 1.7 33.6 3,190 4.4 2,119 Middle 7.0 21.2 1.9 30.1 3,015 5.4 2,108 Fourth 9.8 25.3 2.3 37.4 2,983 5.4 1,867 Richest 19.0 33.1 6.0 58.1 2,583 5.3 1,081 Total 9.8 24.9 2.8 37.4 14,872 5.5 9,303 1 MICS indicator 8.1 123 The births of 37% of children under five years of age in Afghanistan have been registered (Table 11.1). There are no significant variations in birth registration between boys (38%) and girls (37%), however there are significant variances observed by the age of the child, the mother s education level, residence, region and household socio-economic status. Children aged four years (35%) have the lowest rate of registered births, while children aged one year have the highest registration rate. About 67% of children whose mother has secondary education or higher had their children s births registered, almost double that of mothers with no education, wherein only 36% of births were registered. Children living in rural areas (33%) are about two times less likely to have their births registered than their counterparts in urban areas (60%). Children in the South East region (19%) are more than three times less likely to have their births registered than children in the Central region (60%). There are also regional disparities in the percentage of mothers/caretakers who know how to register a birth. For instance, 12% of mothers/caretakers in the East region know how to register a birth, while it is less than 1% in the South region. For mothers/caretakers with no education, 5% know how to register a birth, compared to 12% of mothers with secondary education or higher. Children living in the poorest households (31%) are significantly less likely to have their births registered than their counterparts living in the wealthiest households (58%). Child Labour Article 32 of the CRC states that States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Further, the MDGs call for the protection of children against exploitation. In the AMICS questionnaire, a number of questions addressed the issue of child labour, that is, of children 5-14 years of age involved in labour activities. A child is considered to be involved in child labour activities at the time of the survey if during the week preceding the survey: A child aged 5-11 engaged in at least one hour of economic activity or 28 or more hours of domestic work per week. A child aged 12-14 engaged in at least 14 hours of economic activity or 28 hours or more of domestic work per week. This definition is based on the International Labour Organization s definition of child labour. The term child labour is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to children s physical and mental development. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; obliging them to leave school prematurely; or requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work. The estimate provided below is a minimum of the prevalence of child labour since some children may be involved in hazardous labour activities for a number of hours that could be less 124 than the numbers specified in the criteria explained above. Table 11.2 presents the results of child labour by the type of work performed by child labourers, among children aged 5-11. Percentages do not add up to the total number of child labourers, as children may be involved in more than one type of work. Table 11.2: Child labour, ages 5-11 Percentage of children by involvement in economic activity and household chores during the past week, according to age groups, and percentage of children age 5-11 involved in child labour, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 5-11 involved in Number of children age 5-11 Economic activity Economic activity for at least one hour Household chores less than 28 hours Household chores for 28 hours or more Child labour Working outside household Working for family business Paid work Unpaid work Sex Male 1.7 1.6 27.3 28.4 30.1 0.4 28.5 11,954 Female 0.6 1.3 23.2 23.8 38.7 1.2 24.5 10,745 Region Central 0.9 1.8 17.2 18.5 29.9 1.3 19.1 3,259 Central Highlands 0.5 1.8 30.8 32.1 23.7 0.9 32.5 804 East 1.0 1.4 31.4 32.1 39.7 0.8 32.2 2,948 North 0.8 1.5 33.0 33.7 37.3 0.5 33.9 3,033 North East 0.9 0.9 31.1 31.6 46.5 0.5 32.0 3,344 South 3.1 1.6 28.5 29.4 39.7 1.4 30.5 3,260 South East 0.9 1.3 22.9 24.0 30.8 0.2 24.2 2,786 West 0.6 1.7 12.4 13.3 17.8 0.5 13.6 3,264 Residence Urban 1.3 2.4 13.0 14.7 32.2 0.9 15.3 3,761 Rural 1.1 1.3 27.8 28.5 34.5 0.7 28.9 18,937 School participation Yes 1.2 2.2 35.3 36.4 45.7 0.8 36.8 8,238 No 1.1 1.1 19.7 20.4 27.6 0.7 20.9 14,461 Mother s education None 1.2 1.4 26.1 27.0 34.3 0.8 27.4 21,068 Primary 0.9 1.8 19.4 20.4 33.1 0.3 20.6 826 Secondary + 0.7 2.0 10.7 12.0 32.9 1.3 12.5 792 Wealth index quintile Poorest 1.1 1.3 29.4 30.2 33.5 0.8 30.7 4,976 Second 1.2 1.6 30.0 31.1 35.1 0.5 31.4 4,587 Middle 1.2 1.1 29.5 29.9 37.1 0.7 30.3 4,632 Fourth 1.2 1.1 22.3 22.9 33.3 1.0 23.5 4,407 Richest 1.1 2.3 13.7 15.2 31.5 0.7 15.5 4,096 Total 1.1 1.5 25.3 26.2 34.2 0.8 26.6 22,699 MICS Indicator 8.2 Table 11.3 presents the results of child labour by the type of work performed by child labourers, among children aged 12-14, and among children aged 5-14. 125 Table 11.3: Child labour, ages 12-14 and ages 5-14 Percentage of children by involvement in economic activity and household chores during the past week, according to age group 12-14, and percentage of children age 5-14 involved in child labour, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 12-14 involved in Number of children age 12- 14 Total child labour1 Number of children age 5-14 years Economic activity Economic activity less than 14 hours Economic activity for 14 hours or more Household chores less than 28 hours Household chores for 28 hours or more Child labour Working outside household Working for family business Paid work Unpaid work Sex Male 10.0 3.8 54.5 32.9 25.0 54.2 1.1 25.5 4,474 27.7 16,428 Female 1.3 2.3 40.8 28.8 13.1 74.3 6.2 18.1 4,421 22.7 15,166 Region Central 3.8 3.0 35.6 21.3 17.4 58.3 6.4 22.3 1,396 20.1 4,655 Central Highlands 2.4 2.2 67.2 33.6 34.4 52.4 2.2 35.3 303 33.2 1,107 East 3.9 2.8 55.9 41.6 16.0 75.9 3.2 17.2 1,059 28.3 4,008 North 5.3 3.1 60.6 41.6 20.7 70.3 0.8 21.3 1,340 30.1 4,373 North East 4.9 4.3 54.2 35.6 21.4 74.8 3.3 23.7 1,349 29.6 4,693 South 9.3 2.6 44.9 26.2 20.9 60.2 5.6 26.0 1,417 29.1 4,677 South East 12.3 3.2 53.4 30.9 25.3 67.9 1.5 25.8 834 24.6 3,620 West 2.8 2.3 27.2 19.8 9.0 47.0 3.9 12.7 1,197 13.4 4,461 Residence Urban 4.4 4.7 23.3 18.6 9.2 60.5 4.5 12.9 1,642 14.6 5,404 Rural 6.0 2.6 53.2 33.6 21.3 65.0 3.4 23.8 7,252 27.5 26,190 School participation Yes 4.6 3.4 48.3 31.3 18.9 63.6 3.1 21.0 4,914 30.9 13,152 No 7.0 2.5 47.0 30.3 19.4 64.9 4.3 22.8 3,981 21.3 18,441 Mother s education None 5.8 2.9 49.1 31.6 19.7 64.2 3.5 22.3 8,228 26.0 29,296 Primary 5.2 3.1 38.2 26.0 15.1 64.1 4.7 18.4 312 20.0 1,138 Secondary + 2.9 4.7 23.5 18.7 8.4 63.7 5.6 13.0 350 12.7 1,142 Wealth index quintile Poorest 5.6 2.8 56.5 33.3 24.5 60.6 4.3 27.8 1,779 30.0 6,755 Second 6.4 3.1 58.5 36.4 24.0 66.5 2.6 25.5 1,688 29.8 6,276 Middle 6.7 2.8 52.1 35.1 19.3 67.7 2.7 21.6 1,765 27.9 6,397 Fourth 5.7 2.5 47.2 30.8 18.1 65.8 4.3 20.8 1,800 22.7 6,208 Richest 4.2 3.8 25.8 19.4 10.2 60.6 4.2 13.9 1,862 15.0 5,958 Total 5.7 3.0 47.7 30.8 19.1 64.2 3.6 21.8 8,895 25.3 31,593 MICS Indicator 8.2 In Afghanistan, 27% of children aged 5-11 years were involved in child labour activities, while the figure is 22% for children aged 12-14 years (Tables 11.2 and 11.3). The prevalence of total child labour (aged 5-14 years) is 25%. Table 11.2 shows somewhat of a variance of total child labour between girls (23%) and boys (28%). Major variances are observed across residence, the mother s education level, household socio-economic status, and region. Almost twice as many children in rural areas (28%) are involved in child labour than their counterparts in urban areas (15%). Children living in the Central Highlands region (33%) are more involved in child labour than their counterparts living in the Western region (13%). Children whose mothers have no 126 education (26%) are twice as likely to be involved in child labour than children whose mothers have attained secondary education or higher (13%). Children living in the poorest households (30%) are twice as likely to be involved in child labour than children living in the wealthiest households (15%). Table 11.4: Child labour and school attendance Percentage of children age 5-14 years involved in child labour who are attending school, and percentage of children age 5-14 years attending school who are involved in child labour, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children involved in child labour Percentage of children attending school Number of children age 5-14 years Percentage of child labourers who are attending school1 Number of children age 5-14 years involved in child labour Percentage of children attending school who are involved in child labour2 Number of children age 5-14 years attending school Sex Male 27.7 48.0 16,428 57.8 4,551 33.4 7,878 Female 22.7 34.8 15,166 41.7 3,436 27.2 5,274 Region Central 20.1 59.1 4,655 71.1 934 24.1 2,750 Central Highlands 33.2 57.3 1,107 75.0 368 43.5 635 East 28.3 41.9 4,008 50.8 1,133 34.2 1,681 North 30.1 46.8 4,373 54.6 1,315 35.0 2,047 North East 29.6 44.1 4,693 51.6 1,388 34.6 2,069 South 29.1 17.2 4,677 21.9 1,363 37.1 805 South East 24.6 38.6 3,620 57.4 890 36.6 1,397 West 13.4 39.7 4,461 51.0 597 17.2 1,769 Residence Urban 14.6 60.0 5,404 68.9 787 16.7 3,243 Rural 27.5 37.8 26,190 48.9 7,200 35.5 9,909 Age 5-11 26.6 36.3 22,699 50.1 6,048 36.8 8,238 12-14 21.8 55.2 8,895 53.3 1,939 21.0 4,914 Mother s education None 26.0 39.6 29,296 49.4 7,614 32.5 11,588 Primary 20.0 63.3 1,138 75.6 228 23.9 721 Secondary + 12.7 73.9 1,142 88.4 145 15.1 843 Wealth index quintile Poorest 30.0 30.1 6,755 37.9 2,024 37.7 2,032 Second 29.8 34.9 6,276 47.7 1,873 40.8 2,189 Middle 27.9 37.9 6,397 49.5 1,786 36.5 2,426 Fourth 22.7 46.0 6,208 61.9 1,409 30.6 2,855 Richest 15.0 61.3 5,958 72.2 895 17.7 3,651 Total 25.3 41.6 31,593 50.9 7,987 30.9 13,152 1 MICS indicator 8.3; 2 MICS indicator 8.4 Table 11.4 presents the percentage of children aged 5-14 years involved in child labour who are attending school and the percentage of children aged 5-14 years attending school who are involved in child labour. Of the 42% of children aged 5-14 attending school, more than half of them (51%) are also involved in child labour activities. Of the 25% of children involved in child labour, less than one third of them are also attending school (31%). Of children involved in child 127 labour who are attending school, there are significant differentials by gender, residence, region, mother s education level and household socio-economic status. Table 11.4 shows 16 percentage points difference for school-attending girls involved in child labour (42%) than for school-attending boys (58%) involved in child labour. Children living in rural areas are significantly less likely to be in school if they are participating in labour activities (49%) than children living in urban areas who participate in labour activities (69%). The rate of children involved in child labour who are attending school is almost three and a half times higher for children in the Central Highlands region (75%) than for children in the Southern region (22%). Children involved in child labour whose mothers have no education (49%) are less likely to attend school compared with their counterparts whose mothers have attained secondary education or higher (88%). Children involved in child labour who live in the poorest households (38%) are less likely to attend school compared with children living in the wealthiest households. Child Discipline As stated in A World Fit for Children, children must be protected against any acts of violence. In addition, the Millennium Declaration calls for the protection of children against abuse, exploitation and violence. In the AMICS, mothers/caretakers of children aged 2-14 years were asked a series of questions on the ways parents tend to discipline their children when they misbehave. Note that for the child discipline module, one child aged 2-14 per household was randomly selected during fieldwork. Out of these questions, the two indicators used to describe aspects of child discipline are: 1) the number of children aged 2-14 years who experience psychological aggression as punishment or minor physical punishment or severe physical punishment; and 2) the number of parents/caretakers of children aged 2-14 years of age who believe that in order to raise their children properly, they need to physically punish them. Table 11.5 shows the percentage of children aged 2-14 years according to the method of discipline used with the child. Table 11.5: Child discipline Percentage of children age 2-14 years according to method of disciplining the child, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 2-14 years who experienced: Number of children age 2-14 years Respondent believes that the child needs to be physically punished Respondents to the child discipline module Only non- violent discipline Psychological aggression Physical punishment Any violent discipline method1 Any Severe Sex Male 12.0 61.7 69.2 39.7 74.8 24,197 41.3 6,076 Female 13.5 61.4 67.6 37.0 74.1 22,040 40.4 5,476 Region Central 17.9 59.7 67.0 34.5 75.6 7,247 36.9 1,818 Central Highlands 25.8 44.7 50.3 27.1 59.6 1,693 37.7 397 East 7.7 73.9 78.5 53.3 83.9 5,887 58.6 1,358 North 20.1 60.2 65.2 34.8 72.2 6,447 48.1 1,665 128 Percentage of children age 2-14 years according to method of disciplining the child, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children age 2-14 years who experienced: Number of children age 2-14 years Respondent believes that the child needs to be physically punished Respondents to the child discipline module Only non- violent discipline Psychological aggression Physical punishment Any violent discipline method1 Any Severe North East 14.3 58.8 69.2 36.9 73.8 7,091 38.6 1,808 South 7.7 52.7 63.3 34.9 65.1 6,215 32.5 1,489 South East 5.3 65.4 66.3 40.3 73.7 5,655 29.7 1,203 West 9.8 66.7 75.7 39.0 81.4 6,003 42.2 1,813 Residence Urban 15.6 62.5 70.3 38.8 77.5 7,907 33.4 2,053 Rural 12.1 61.3 68.1 38.3 73.8 38,331 42.5 9,499 Age 2-4 years 13.5 50.2 56.4 30.1 63.2 11,647 39.0 3,224 5-9 years 11.3 65.7 73.2 41.8 78.4 18,312 41.2 4,325 10-14 years 13.7 65.0 71.8 40.5 78.0 16,278 42.0 4,003 Education of household head None 11.6 62.4 69.4 39.9 75.0 31,459 n/a n/a Primary 13.4 64.1 73.1 39.6 78.3 5,404 n/a n/a Secondary 16.0 57.2 62.9 32.8 70.3 9,350 n/a n/a Respondent's education None n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 41.3 8,081 Primary n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 44.6 1,265 Secondary+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 37.4 2,204 Wealth index quintile Poorest 8.4 60.5 69.8 40.5 73.9 9,733 45.0 2,495 Second 14.0 62.1 67.5 39.4 73.5 9,302 44.4 2,407 Middle 13.4 63.9 68.6 38.8 74.8 9,351 40.1 2,251 Fourth 12.3 60.1 67.5 36.0 74.0 9,151 40.8 2,147 Richest 15.7 61.1 69.0 37.0 76.2 8,701 33.3 2,252 Total 12.7 61.5 68.5 38.4 74.4 46,237 40.9 11,552 1 MICS indicator 8.5 In Afghanistan overall, 74% of children aged 2-14 years were subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by their mothers/caretakers or other household members (Table 11.5), and critically, 38% of children were subjected to severe physical punishment. It is important to indicate that while only 41% of household members believe that in order to raise their children properly, they need to physically punish them, in practice 69% of household members used physical punishment to discipline their children. There was no variance found between rural and urban areas in the percentage of children subjected to severe physical punishment. However, some minor variance was found with respect to gender: 40% of boys and 37% of girls were subjected to severe physical punishment. Minor differentials were also found by household socio-economic status, with 40% of the poorest quintile using severe physical punishment, compared to 36% in the fourth quintile. Table 11.5 shows significant variance by region in terms of the use of severe physical punishment, with the highest incidence found in the Eastern region (53%) and the lowest in the Central Highlands region (27%). Older children experience severe physical punishment to a 129 greater degree (42% for children 5-9 years old, and 41% for children 10-14 years old) than do children less than five years old (30%). Orphans Children who are orphaned or from vulnerable households may be at increased risk of neglect or exploitation if parents are not available to assist and protect them. Monitoring the variations in different outcomes for orphans and other vulnerable children, and comparing them to their peers gives a measure of how well communities and governments are responding to their needs. In Afghanistan, orphanhood is not always defined in the same way as elsewhere in the world. Yateem is the term used to refer to a child whose father is dead, and this term is also usually used to describe a child considered to be an orphan, while the term yasir is used to refer to a child whose mother is dead, and such children are often not considered to be orphans. A common definition used more broadly in Muslim societies is any child who is bereft of parental care due to the death or disappearance of a mother or a father, or due to abandonment. In this report, an orphan is defined as any child who has lost one parent. 130 Table 11.6: Children's living arrangements and orphanhood Percent distribution of children age 0-17 years according to living arrangements, percentage of children age 0-17 years in households not living with a biological parent and percentage of children who have one or both parents dead, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Living with both parents Living with neither parent Living with mother only Living with father only Impossible to determine Total Not living with a biological parent1 One or both parents dead 2 Number of children age 0-17 years Only father alive Only mother alive Both alive Both dead Father alive Father dead Mother alive Mother dead Sex Male 94.4 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.5 2.5 0.0 1.1 0.4 100.0 1.1 4.5 28,304 Female 93.4 0.1 0.2 0.8 1.1 0.5 2.5 0.1 0.9 0.4 100.0 2.3 4.9 25,988 Region Central 93.9 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.7 3.0 0.1 1.0 0.2 100.0 1.2 4.8 8,196 Central Highlands 88.6 0.3 0.2 0.9 0.5 3.4 4.2 0.0 1.4 0.4 100.0 1.9 6.6 1,873 East 96.7 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.1 1.2 0.0 0.5 0.8 100.0 0.8 2.3 6,403 North 92.7 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.4 3.5 0.0 1.7 0.4 100.0 1.3 6.0 7,528 North East 93.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.9 0.7 3.3 0.0 1.0 0.4 100.0 1.5 5.3 8,461 South 95.4 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.6 0.0 1.3 0.1 0.3 0.5 100.0 2.3 3.4 7,759 South East 93.8 0.1 0.1 0.3 2.0 0.2 1.8 0.0 1.5 0.3 100.0 2.4 5.5 6,812 West 93.6 0.1 0.4 1.0 0.6 0.6 2.6 0.0 0.9 0.3 100.0 2.1 4.6 7,260 Residence Urban 93.8 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.4 3.4 0.0 0.7 0.4 100.0 1.2 4.8 9,267 Rural 93.9 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.1 0.5 2.3 0.0 1.1 0.4 100.0 1.8 4.6 45,025 Age 0-4 97.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.2 100.0 0.1 1.4 15,475 5-9 96.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.5 1.6 0.0 0.8 0.2 100.0 0.7 2.9 17,195 10-14 92.3 0.0 0.2 0.4 1.2 0.4 3.7 0.0 1.5 0.2 100.0 1.8 6.7 14,399 15-17 83.6 0.3 0.5 2.6 3.7 0.3 5.4 0.1 1.8 1.7 100.0 7.1 11.7 7,223 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 92.8 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.6 0.5 2.7 0.0 1.1 0.5 100.0 2.3 5.7 11,328 Second 94.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.7 2.5 0.1 1.0 0.3 100.0 1.5 4.6 10,948 Middle 94.5 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.4 2.1 0.0 1.0 0.5 100.0 1.4 4.1 10,927 Fourth 93.9 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.5 2.4 0.0 1.0 0.3 100.0 1.8 4.6 10,763 Richest 94.5 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.3 2.7 0.0 0.8 0.3 100.0 1.3 4.3 10,326 Total 93.9 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.0 0.5 2.5 0.0 1.0 0.4 100.0 1.7 4.7 54,292 1 MICS indicator 9.17; 2 MICS indicator 9.18 131 The frequency of children living with neither parent, with the mother only, and with the father only is presented in Table 11.6. The majority (94%) of children aged 0-17 years in Afghanistan live with both of their parents. However, around 2% of children are living with neither parent. There are no significant differentials of children living with both the parents by gender, area, or household socio-economic status. However, there is notable variance by region, as well as among different age groups. The Central Highlands region has the lowest rate (89%) of children who live with both parents, while the Eastern region has highest rate (97%), and other regions have a figure ranging from 93% to 95%. The percentage of children living with both parents declines as children s ages increase. It is not surprising that the highest percentage of children living with both parents is found among children aged 0-4 years (98%), while it is lowest for children aged 15-17 years (84%). One of the measures developed for assessing the status of orphaned children relative to their non-orphaned peers looks at the school attendance of children aged 10-14 for children who have lost both parents versus children whose parents are alive (and who live with at least one of these parents). If children whose parents have died do not have the same access to school as their peers, then families, then schools and other stakeholders are not ensuring that these children s rights are being met. Table 11.7 shows the school attendance of children age 10-14 years by orphanhood. Table 11.7: School attendance of orphans and non-orphans School attendance of children age 10-14 years by orphanhood, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of children whose mother and father have died (orphans) Percentage of children of whom both parents are alive and child is living with at least one parent (non- orphans) Number of children age 10-14 years Percentage of children who are orphans and are attending school1 Total number of orphan children age 10-14 years Percentage of children who are non-orphans and are attending school2 Total number of non-orphan children age 10-14 years Orphans to non- orphans school attendance ratio Sex Male 1.0 93.1 7,500 53.0 78 67.7 6,985 0.78 Female 1.4 92.4 6,899 19.1 93 46.1 6,373 0.41 Residence Urban 0.6 92.7 2,621 (*) 16 79.8 2,430 0.61 Rural 1.3 92.8 11,778 33.0 156 52.4 10,929 0.63 Total 1.2 92.8 14,399 34.4 171 57.4 13,358 0.60 1 MICS indicator 9.19; MDG indicator 6.4; 2 MICS indicator 9.20; MDG indicator 6.4 Note: (*) indicates that the percentage is calculated on fewer than 25 unweighted cases In Afghanistan, 1% of children aged 10-14 have lost both parents (Table 11.7). Among those, only 34% are currently attending school. Among the children aged 10-14 who have not lost a parent and who live with at least one parent, 57% are attending school. This would suggest that orphans are found to be out of school at nearly double the rate than non-orphaned children. The school attendance ratio of orphans to non-orphans is 0.60.21 21 Further disaggregation on the indicator is deemed unnecessary since the number of orphans aged 10-14 found in the survey is fairly small in total (171 orphans). 132 Early Marriage and Polygamy According to international human rights law, persons under the age of 18 are considered to be children. Yet marriage before the age of 18 is a reality for many young people, and for girls in particular. According to UNICEF's worldwide estimates, over 64 million women aged 20-24 were married or in union before the age of 18. Factors that influence child marriage rates include: the state of the country's civil registration system, which provides proof of age for children; the existence of an adequate legislative framework with an accompanying enforcement mechanism to address cases of child marriage; and the existence of customary practices and norms, or religious laws, that condone the practice. In many parts of the world parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children in hopes that the marriage will benefit them both financially (such as through the payment of a bride price) and socially, while also relieving financial burdens on the family. In reality, child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising both the mental and physical development of girls and often resulting in early pregnancy, social isolation, a lack of education, skills and employability among girls who marry young. These resulting conditions keep girls marginalized economically, socially and politically, reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty. The right to free and full consent to a marriage is recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with the recognition that consent cannot be free and full when one of the parties involved is not sufficiently mature to make an informed decision about choosing a life partner. CEDAW mentions the right to protection from child marriage in Article 16, which states: The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage. While marriage is not considered directly in the CRC, child marriage is linked to other rights, such as the right to express views freely, the right to protection from all forms of abuse, and the right to be protected from harmful traditional practices. Child marriage is also frequently addressed by the Committee on the Rights of the Child as a major human rights concern. Another international agreement related to child marriage is the Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages. Young married girls are a unique, though often invisible group. Required to perform heavy amounts of domestic work, under pressure to demonstrate fertility, and responsible for raising children while still children themselves, married girls and child mothers face constrained decision-making and reduced life choices. Boys are also affected by child marriage, but the issue impacts girls in far greater numbers and with more intensity. Research suggests that many factors interact to place a child at risk of marriage. Poverty, protection over girls, cultural notions of family honour, and the perception of marriage providing stability during unstable social periods are considered factors determining a girl's risk of becoming married while still a child. Women who married at younger ages have been found to be more likely to believe that it is sometimes acceptable for a husband to beat his wife and 133 were also more likely to experience domestic violence. The age gap between partners is thought to further contribute to these abusive power dynamics. Closely related to the issue of child marriage is the age at which girls become sexually active. Women who are married before the age of 18 tend to have more children than those who marry later in life. Pregnancy related deaths are known to be a leading cause of mortality for both married girls between the ages of 15 and 19, particularly among the youngest of this cohort. There is evidence to suggest that girls who marry at young ages are more likely to marry older men. The demand for young wives to reproduce and the power imbalance resulting from the age difference typically leads to very low condom use among such couples. Two of the indicators on child marriage are an estimate of the percentage of girls and women married before 15 years of age and the percentage of those married before 18 years of age. The percentage of women married at various ages is provided in Table 11.8. Table 11.8: Early marriage and polygyny Percentage of women age 15-49 years who first married before their 15th birthday, percentages of women age 20-49 years who first married before their 15th and 18th birthdays, percentage of women age 15-19 years currently married, and the percentage of women currently married who are in a polygamous marriage, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage married before age 151 Number of women age 15- 49 years Percentage married before age 15 Percentag e married before age 182 Number of women age 20- 49 years Percentage of women 15-19 years currently married/in union3 Number of women age 15- 19 years Percentage of women age 15-49 years in polygynous marriage/ union4 Number of women age 15-49 years currently married/in union Region Central 12.4 3,696 16.5 39.8 2,681 11.5 1,015 4.8 2,250 Central Highlands 23.8 714 29.4 58.3 513 25.7 202 8.1 504 East 15.1 2,153 17.7 44.4 1,659 23.7 494 8.1 1,583 North 13.8 2,876 17.2 49.2 2,139 20.0 737 7.6 2,001 North East 13.0 3,752 15.9 42.3 2,717 17.2 1,035 8.3 2,459 South 14.1 2,672 18.3 52.2 1,873 17.0 799 5.8 1,800 South East 8.0 2,731 9.2 31.6 2,183 21.0 548 8.0 2,117 West 29.8 2,695 35.0 66.3 2,015 33.2 680 7.2 2,043 Residence Urban 13.8 4,031 18.0 43.0 2,960 12.6 1,071 6.7 2,503 Rural 15.5 17,259 18.8 47.1 12,820 21.5 4,439 7.2 12,254 Age 15-19 5.4 5,510 n/a n/a n/a 19.8 5,510 2.4 1,088 20-24 15.0 4,110 15.0 40.4 4,110 n/a n/a 3.7 2,755 25-29 20.2 3,579 20.2 47.2 3,579 n/a n/a 4.9 3,235 30-34 25.3 2,460 25.3 55.3 2,460 n/a n/a 9.4 2,347 35-39 18.5 2,389 18.5 51.1 2,389 n/a n/a 8.8 2,325 40-44 17.6 1,805 17.6 45.0 1,805 n/a n/a 11.5 1,701 45-49 14.9 1,438 14.9 39.4 1,438 n/a n/a 11.3 1,306 Education None 17.0 17,359 19.5 48.0 13,903 24.9 3,455 7.5 13,244 Primary 9.9 1,595 16.3 44.5 766 15.3 830 3.7 714 Secondary 5.3 2,330 9.3 26.3 1,105 8.2 1,225 4.4 793 134 Wealth index quintile Poorest 19.2 3,989 22.4 53.9 3,039 26.8 950 7.3 3,001 Second 15.6 4,143 18.4 47.8 3,119 20.2 1,024 7.1 3,000 Middle 14.6 4,227 17.8 45.1 3,135 21.6 1,092 7.7 2,993 Fourth 13.6 4,333 16.8 42.2 3,186 18.7 1,147 7.4 2,949 Richest 13.4 4,598 17.8 43.1 3,302 13.6 1,296 6.3 2,813 Total 15.2 21,290 18.6 46.3 15,780 19.8 5,510 7.1 14,757 1 MICS indicator 8.6; 2 MICS indicator 8.7; 3 MICS indicator 8.8; 4 MICS indicator 8.9 Table 11.8 shows that about one in five young women aged 15-19 years is currently married (20%). Overall, 15% of women aged 15-49 years were married before the age of 15, while 46% were married before the age of 18. Urban girls and women (13%) are less likely to marry early than rural girls and women (22%). Early marriage is also strongly related to the level of education of the girl or woman. Young women without education are more than three times as likely to be married before the age of 18 than are their counterparts who have secondary education or higher. Significant differences among the regions were also found. The Western region has the highest marriage rate (33%) of young women aged 15-19 years, while the Central region has the lowest rate (12%). The same trend was found among women first married before the age of 18 for the 20-49 years age group. Significant variances are found across all background characteristics. For instance, incidence was found to be lowest in the South East region (32%) and highest in the Central Highlands region (58%). Of those women with no education, 48% were married before age 18; 45% of women with primary education only were married before age 18; while only 26% of women with secondary education or higher were married before age 18. Looking at household socio-economic status, 54% of those living in the poorest households were married before age 18, while the figure is 43% for those living in the wealthiest households. In urban areas, 43% were married before age 18, while the rate is 47% in rural areas. The percentage of women in a polygamous marriage is also provided in Table 11.8. Countrywide, about 7% of women aged 15-49 years are in a polygamous marriage. No significant variances of polygamous marriage were found between urban and rural areas, or by household socio-economic status. Table 11.8 shows, however, that there are some differences by region: the incidence of polygamous marriage is highest in the North Eastern region (8%) and lowest in the Central region (5%). The incidence of polygamous marriage is almost twice as high among women with no education (8%) than among women who have secondary education or higher (4%). It was also found that young women are less likely to be in a polygamous marriage than are older women. For instance, 2% of women aged 15-19 years are in a polygamous marriage, while it is 11% for women aged 40-49 years. Table 11.9 presents the proportion of women who were first married before age 15 and before age 18 by residence and age groups. Examining the percentage of women married before age 15 and before age 18 by different age groups allows the trends in early marriage to be observed over time. 135 Table 11.9: Trends in early marriage Percentage of women who were first married before age 15 and 18, by residence and age groups, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Urban Rural All Percentage of women married before age 15 Number of women age 15- 49 Percentage of women married before age 18 Number of women age 20- 49 Percentage of women married before age 15 Number of women age 15- 49 Percentage of women married before age 18 Number of women age 20- 49 Percentage of women married before age 15 Number of women age 15- 49 Percentage of women married before age 18 Number of women age 20- 49 Age 15-19 2.3 1,071 n/a n/a 6.1 4,439 n/a n/a 5.4 5,510 n/a n/a 20-24 11.4 797 29.9 797 15.9 3,313 42.9 3,313 15.0 4,110 40.4 4,110 25-29 19.9 658 45.2 658 20.2 2,920 47.6 2,920 20.2 3,579 47.2 3,579 30-34 23.1 440 54.6 440 25.8 2,020 55.4 2,020 25.3 2,460 55.3 2,460 35-39 20.6 471 52.8 471 18.0 1,918 50.7 1,918 18.5 2,389 51.1 2,389 40-44 18.4 332 43.4 332 17.4 1,474 45.4 1,474 17.6 1,805 45.0 1,805 45-49 18.9 263 39.4 263 14.0 1,175 39.4 1,175 14.9 1,438 39.4 1,438 Total 13.8 4,031 43.0 2,960 15.5 17,259 47.1 12,820 15.2 21,290 46.3 15,780 Looking at those women aged 15-49 years (Table 11.9), the lowest incidence of those who were married before age 15 is among the age group 15-19 years (5%). Incidence rises along with the age of women, up to age 34: 25% of women aged 30-34 years were married before age 15, the highest level of incidence, and from there the incidence decreases. This trend suggests that early marriage is on the decrease, while still high overall. The figure again starts to decrease for the age group of 35-39 (19%) up to the age group of 45-49 (15%); however, the reason for this may be that too much time has passed and accurate recall on age at marriage from respondents in this age group is not always possible. Spousal Age Difference Another component considered in child protection in the AMICS is spousal age difference, with an important indicator being the percentage of married women with a difference of 10 or more years (younger) than their current spouse. Table 11.10 presents the results of the age differences found between husbands and wives in Afghanistan. 136 Table 11.10: Spousal age difference Percent distribution of women currently married age 15-19 and 20-24 years according to the age difference with their husband or partner, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of currently married/in union women age 15-19 years whose husband or partner is: Number of women age 15-19 years currently married/ in union Percentage of currently married/in union women age 20-24 years whose husband or partner is: Number of women age 20-24 years currently married/ in union Younger 0-4 years older 5-9 years older 10+ years older1 Husband/partner's age unknown Total Younger 0-4 years older 5-9 years older 10+ years older2 Husband/partner's age unknown Total Region Central 1.0 45.3 38.1 13.2 2.4 100.0 116 3.3 47.9 28.9 16.4 3.5 100.0 420 Central Highlands 2.9 42.7 26.0 17.8 10.6 100.0 52 2.4 51.8 26.3 15.8 3.7 100.0 106 East 1.5 59.2 16.7 8.5 14.1 100.0 117 3.0 54.4 21.7 8.7 12.2 100.0 253 North 1.2 30.6 45.5 19.3 3.4 100.0 148 2.7 42.5 37.6 14.6 2.6 100.0 333 North East 2.1 47.4 32.5 16.9 1.2 100.0 178 3.8 44.1 30.0 20.3 1.7 100.0 488 South 3.8 39.3 16.8 5.1 35.0 100.0 136 1.9 38.3 26.4 16.0 17.4 100.0 310 South East 1.3 23.3 5.2 1.4 68.9 100.0 115 5.1 17.7 7.6 0.8 68.7 100.0 434 West 1.2 47.9 31.9 8.2 10.9 100.0 226 2.5 38.3 29.7 18.8 10.7 100.0 411 Residence Urban 0.1 43.4 37.6 16.4 2.5 100.0 135 4.1 40.4 31.9 19.1 4.4 100.0 436 Rural 2.0 42.3 26.5 10.3 18.9 100.0 953 3.1 40.0 24.7 13.0 19.1 100.0 2,319 Education None 1.9 42.5 25.4 10.7 19.5 100.0 861 3.4 39.5 24.9 13.6 18.5 100.0 2,367 Primary 2.2 38.5 38.8 10.0 10.4 100.0 127 2.0 44.1 32.0 15.0 6.9 100.0 181 Secondary + 0.0 46.9 35.4 15.7 2.1 100.0 100 2.5 42.3 31.8 17.3 6.1 100.0 205 Wealth index quintile Poorest 3.0 52.2 22.8 9.0 13.0 100.0 255 2.8 38.8 31.1 11.5 15.8 100.0 539 Second 1.3 35.6 27.9 14.1 21.1 100.0 207 2.6 42.0 24.4 14.2 16.9 100.0 564 Middle 2.0 39.3 28.7 6.5 23.6 100.0 236 3.3 38.0 25.1 13.8 19.8 100.0 557 Fourth 1.9 40.5 27.9 12.4 17.3 100.0 215 4.1 41.5 20.7 13.9 19.8 100.0 558 Richest 0.1 42.8 34.2 14.9 8.0 100.0 176 3.4 39.9 28.5 16.6 11.5 100.0 538 Total 1.8 42.5 27.9 11.0 16.9 100.0 1,088 3.3 40.1 25.9 14.0 16.8 100.0 2,755 1 MICS indicator 8.10a; 2 MICS indicator 8.10b 137 The results shown in Table 11.10 demonstrate that there are spousal age differences in Afghanistan. About 14% of women aged 20-24 are currently married to men who are older by ten years or more. For young women aged 15-19, 11% are married to men at least ten years their senior. Interestingly, the figure is higher for both of these age groups among women living in urban areas (16% for those aged 15-19, and 19% for those aged 20-24), than for their counterparts who live in rural areas (10% for those aged 15-19, and 13% for women aged 20- 24). Also of note is that the findings in Table 11.10 indicates that women who live in the wealthiest households are more likely to have a spousal age difference of 10 or more years (15% for those aged 15-19, and 17% for those aged 20-24 years), compared to their counterparts in the poorest households (9% of those aged 15-19 and 12% of those aged 20-24). Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence A number of questions were asked of women aged 15-49 years to assess their attitudes towards whether husbands are justified to hit or beat their wives for a variety of reasons or scenarios22. These questions were asked in order to gather an indication of cultural beliefs that tend to be associated with the prevalence of violence against women by their husbands. The main assumption is that women who agree with the statements indicating that husbands are justified to beat their wives under the situations described are also those women who tend to be abused by their own husbands. The responses to these questions can be found in Table 11.11. Table 11.11: Attitudes toward domestic violence Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife in various circumstances, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is Number of women age 15-49 years If goes out without telling him If she neglects the children If she argues with him If she refuses sex with him If she burns the food For any of these 5 reasons If she wears inappropriate clothes For any of the listed 6 reasons Region Central 71.3 65.1 74.0 41.5 28.7 87.4 63.9 89.7 3,696 Central Highlands 73.0 75.9 75.8 67.9 58.1 90.4 71.0 90.8 714 East 89.1 79.7 87.8 62.6 29.4 97.0 78.2 97.4 2,153 North 86.4 62.1 82.9 55.3 40.3 94.5 75.8 94.9 2,876 North East 77.9 57.0 72.4 44.8 30.3 88.0 51.9 89.2 3,752 South 79.5 59.5 77.1 38.8 37.5 88.0 59.6 88.7 2,672 South East 80.0 41.0 69.6 32.0 17.4 93.4 63.4 95.3 2,731 West 70.1 60.3 73.7 47.9 28.6 86.3 50.7 87.7 2,695 Residence Urban 66.9 54.7 67.9 40.0 25.0 82.7 56.2 84.8 4,031 Rural 81.0 62.1 78.1 47.7 32.7 92.0 64.4 93.0 17,259 Age 15-19 72.3 54.2 67.0 33.2 27.2 83.7 55.1 85.1 5,510 22 For the Afghanistan MICS, an additional statement was added to address local context: If a wife wears inappropriate clothes . 138 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife in various circumstances, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is Number of women age 15-49 years If goes out without telling him If she neglects the children If she argues with him If she refuses sex with him If she burns the food For any of these 5 reasons If she wears inappropriate clothes For any of the listed 6 reasons 20-24 76.7 59.3 74.8 44.2 30.5 89.7 62.3 91.3 4,110 25-29 80.7 64.0 80.0 52.0 34.0 93.8 66.0 94.5 3,579 30-34 82.8 62.6 80.7 53.1 30.5 94.3 65.6 95.2 2,460 35-39 81.8 65.2 81.9 54.8 35.6 93.4 67.6 94.7 2,389 40-44 81.7 64.8 81.0 51.8 33.3 92.7 66.4 94.0 1,805 45-49 82.9 65.8 82.2 54.5 33.8 92.7 68.6 93.8 1,438 Marital status Currently married 82.1 64.3 81.2 53.7 33.7 94.0 66.8 95.0 14,757 Formerly married 80.9 62.2 74.9 45.1 33.0 88.9 67.6 91.3 340 Never married 69.3 52.0 64.2 28.5 25.3 81.5 53.0 83.1 6,186 Education None 81.3 62.3 78.6 48.5 33.0 92.4 64.9 93.5 17,359 Primary 71.9 59.3 71.3 42.3 27.9 86.0 57.4 87.7 1,595 Secondary + 60.6 49.7 61.3 31.9 20.4 77.0 50.7 79.1 2,330 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 80.4 65.1 79.2 51.4 34.2 91.2 63.7 92.1 3,989 Second 83.8 64.3 78.9 50.0 36.5 93.7 65.4 94.5 4,143 Middle 81.7 62.4 78.3 48.2 34.5 92.2 66.9 93.2 4,227 Fourth 79.5 58.4 77.9 43.7 28.5 91.8 64.6 92.9 4,333 Richest 67.5 54.3 67.4 38.9 23.6 82.9 54.3 85.3 4,598 Total 78.4 60.7 76.2 46.2 31.2 90.2 62.8 91.5 21,290 1 MICS Indicator 8.14 Overall, 92% of women in Afghanistan feel that their husband has a right to hit or beat them for at least one of a variety of reasons, an alarming statistic. Women who approve of their husband s violence in most cases agree and justify violence in instances when women neglect the children (61%), if they demonstrate their autonomy such as going out without telling their husbands (78%), or argue with their husbands (76%). Almost two thirds of women accept their husband s violence for the reason of wearing inappropriate clothing (63%). Almost half of women believe that their husbands have a right to hit or beat them if they refuse to have sex with their husband (46%) or if they burn the food (31%). Acceptance is more widespread among those women living in the poorest households, who are less educated, and also among women who are married. Protecting Children s Interests in Afghanistan Afghanistan faces numerous challenges related to child protection. Birth registration remains low fewer than 40% of births are registered which has implications for children as they grow up and seek to access government services such as school enrolment or identity cards, as well as having implications for the effort to document population information in Afghanistan. A quarter of Afghan children participate in labour activities. A majority of households use physical 139 punishment against children, and a high number of children have been subjected to severe forms of violence by their caregivers. Of great concern is that the majority of women believe their husbands are justified in using physical violence against them. These findings make it clear that child protection must be given a priority action agenda in Afghanistan, so that society s most vulnerable members can enjoy childhoods where their rights are upheld. 140 141 Knowledge About HIV Transmission and Misconceptions About HIV and AIDS One of the most important prerequisites for reducing the rate of HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and awareness of strategies for preventing transmission. Correct information is the first step toward raising awareness and giving young people the tools to protect themselves from infection. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can confuse young people and hinder prevention efforts. Different regions are likely to have variations in misconceptions although some misconceptions appear to be universally widespread (for example that sharing food can transmit HIV, or that mosquito bites can transmit HIV). The UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) called on governments to improve the knowledge and skills of young people so as to protect themselves from HIV. The indicators to measure this goal as well as the MDG of reducing HIV infections by half include improving levels of knowledge of HIV and its prevention, and changing behaviours to prevent further spread of the disease. The questions on knowledge of HIV were asked to women 15-49 years of age. One indicator, which is both an MDG and UNGASS indicator, is the percentage of young women who have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission. The comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission include being able to: correctly identify two ways of preventing HIV infection (having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time one has sex); know that a healthy looking person can have HIV, and reject at least two of the most common misconceptions about HIV transmission (transmission via mosquito bites, sharing food with someone with AIDS, or by supernatural means). In the AMICS, all women who had heard of AIDS were asked questions about HIV prevention and transmission. The results are presented in Table 12.1. Table 12.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission Percentage of women age 15-49 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus, percentage who reject common misconceptions, and percentage who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percen -tage who have heard of AIDS Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by: Per- centage of women who know both ways Percentage who know a healthy looking person can have AIDS Percentage who know that HIV cannot be transmitted by: Percentage who reject two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have AIDS Percentage with comprehensive knowledge1 Number of women Having only one faithful uninfect ed sex partner Using a condom every time Mosquito bites Super- natural means Sharing food with someone with AIDS Region Central 43.3 21.1 20.7 13.0 24.2 19.7 35.7 26.6 7.4 3.2 3,696 Central Highlands 9.5 4.5 4.6 2.8 5.7 3.4 5.5 4.3 0.6 0.3 714 East 26.8 18.8 16.7 11.9 17.6 9.0 19.7 12.5 2.5 1.3 2,153 North 17.6 9.3 9.4 5.8 11.9 5.4 12.9 8.8 2.7 1.0 2,876 North East 14.7 7.8 7.2 4.5 7.9 5.6 11.7 7.5 1.6 0.2 3,752 142 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus, percentage who reject common misconceptions, and percentage who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percen -tage who have heard of AIDS Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by: Per- centage of women who know both ways Percentage who know a healthy looking person can have AIDS Percentage who know that HIV cannot be transmitted by: Percentage who reject two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have AIDS Percentage with comprehensive knowledge1 Number of women Having only one faithful uninfect ed sex partner Using a condom every time Mosquito bites Super- natural means Sharing food with someone with AIDS South 24.8 15.1 14.1 9.8 10.4 12.7 12.4 13.1 2.5 0.8 2,672 South East 29.6 16.0 20.3 11.5 10.4 15.6 22.6 10.4 3.0 2.0 2,731 West 24.0 11.6 12.1 7.5 12.9 10.0 16.6 14.3 4.5 2.2 2,695 Residence Urban 52.9 29.5 27.9 19.0 30.0 24.6 41.7 31.7 9.9 4.4 4,031 Rural 19.1 10.1 10.6 6.4 9.6 7.8 13.4 9.0 2.0 0.8 17,259 Age 15-24 27.7 15.1 13.8 8.9 15.4 12.2 21.0 15.6 4.3 1.8 9,620 25-29 25.5 13.3 15.7 9.0 13.1 10.7 19.2 12.9 3.6 1.5 3,579 30-39 23.4 12.4 13.3 8.4 11.3 9.6 16.2 10.8 2.2 1.0 4,848 40-49 22.0 12.6 13.0 8.8 11.4 9.8 15.3 10.9 3.0 1.4 3,243 Marital status Ever married 22.8 12.1 13.5 8.2 11.5 9.7 16.4 11.1 2.8 1.2 15,097 Never married 31.9 17.9 14.9 10.3 18.2 14.2 24.5 18.8 5.1 2.2 6,186 W omen s education None 18.5 9.5 10.2 5.9 8.7 7.7 12.4 8.5 1.9 0.7 17,359 Primary 38.7 20.6 19.2 12.5 20.3 14.4 30.2 21.0 4.2 1.6 1,595 Secondary + 68.4 40.9 37.2 27.4 43.7 33.6 58.3 43.7 14.4 7.1 2,330 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 10.8 5.8 5.4 3.1 6.2 4.8 7.8 6.4 1.7 0.4 3,989 Second 12.4 7.0 6.8 4.5 6.0 5.1 8.4 6.0 1.1 0.5 4,143 Middle 18.9 10.2 10.6 6.6 8.9 7.9 12.8 8.5 1.6 0.7 4,227 Fourth 29.2 15.0 16.8 9.7 14.4 11.0 20.8 12.8 2.7 1.4 4,333 Richest 52.5 28.9 27.8 18.7 29.7 24.5 41.0 31.0 9.7 4.2 4,598 Total 25.5 13.8 13.9 8.8 13.4 11.0 18.7 13.3 3.5 1.5 21,290 1MICS indicator 9.1 One in four women aged 15-49 (26%) had heard of AIDS. However, only 2% of them have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission. About 9% of them know two main ways of preventing HIV infection, and only 4% reject common misconceptions, and know that healthy looking people can have HIV. The two most common misconceptions about HIV/AIDS in the case of Afghanistan are that mosquito bites can transmit the virus and sharing food with someone with AIDS can transmit the virus. Background variances in AIDS knowledge and awareness are evident. For instance, 68% of women with secondary education or higher had heard of AIDS, compared to 19% of women with no education. 143 Table 12.2: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young women Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus, percentage who reject common misconceptions, and percentage who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage who have heard of AIDS Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by: Percentage of women who know both ways Percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus Percentage who know that HIV cannot be transmitted by: Percentage who reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus Percentage with comprehensive knowledge1 Number of women age 15- 24 Having only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Mosquito bites Supernatural means Sharing food with someone with AIDS Region Central 45.3 22.2 19.5 12.2 25.5 21.9 37.9 29.2 8.4 3.5 1,762 Central Highlands 13.5 6.8 6.8 4.4 8.8 4.9 8.0 6.6 0.9 0.3 343 East 30.9 22.1 17.6 12.0 20.0 8.9 23.5 14.8 2.0 0.5 866 North 22.7 12.0 12.5 8.0 16.7 7.5 16.8 11.9 4.0 1.4 1,257 North East 16.2 8.3 6.5 4.2 8.6 6.3 13.8 8.6 1.5 0.2 1,799 South 21.1 12.3 11.3 7.1 9.1 9.7 9.2 10.7 2.2 0.4 1,259 South East 32.3 19.2 19.8 13.8 13.0 17.7 26.2 14.9 5.0 3.6 1,121 West 28.5 14.2 13.8 8.4 16.7 13.7 20.8 18.8 6.7 3.3 1,213 Residence Urban 54.8 29.8 26.2 18.0 31.8 28.0 43.8 33.6 11.8 4.9 1,868 Rural 21.1 11.5 10.8 6.7 11.4 8.4 15.5 11.3 2.4 1.0 7,752 Age 15-19 28.5 15.7 13.4 9.1 16.2 12.3 21.7 16.5 4.4 1.9 5,510 20-24 26.6 14.2 14.2 8.6 14.3 12.1 20.1 14.4 4.0 1.7 4,110 Marital status Ever married 22.2 11.4 12.8 7.4 11.9 9.7 16.5 11.7 3.3 1.3 3,880 Never married 31.4 17.5 14.4 9.9 17.7 14.0 24.0 18.3 4.9 2.1 5,737 W omen s education None 16.8 8.6 8.3 4.6 7.9 7.2 11.4 8.6 1.9 0.7 6,749 Primary 36.0 19.0 17.3 11.3 19.8 13.3 27.4 19.8 3.7 1.6 1,135 Secondary + 64.7 37.6 32.9 24.0 41.7 31.2 54.1 40.1 13.8 6.4 1,733 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 12.3 6.6 5.9 3.3 7.1 5.1 8.1 7.9 1.9 0.2 1,673 Second 13.3 8.2 7.4 5.0 6.7 6.4 9.6 7.2 1.3 0.7 1,797 144 Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus, percentage who reject common misconceptions, and percentage who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage who have heard of AIDS Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by: Percentage of women who know both ways Percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus Percentage who know that HIV cannot be transmitted by: Percentage who reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus Percentage with comprehensive knowledge1 Number of women age 15- 24 Having only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Mosquito bites Supernatural means Sharing food with someone with AIDS Middle 20.1 10.7 10.0 6.6 10.2 7.6 14.4 10.3 2.0 0.8 1,875 Fourth 31.1 16.4 16.4 10.0 16.3 11.5 23.7 14.9 3.2 1.9 2,029 Richest 53.9 29.2 25.6 17.2 32.0 26.8 42.7 33.1 11.3 4.6 2,245 Total 27.7 15.1 13.8 8.9 15.4 12.2 21.0 15.6 4.3 1.8 9,620 1MICS indicator 9.2; MDG indicator 6.3 The results for the same questions but asked of women aged 15-24 are shown separately in Table 12.2. About 28% of young women had heard of AIDS. Table 12.2 shows that the levels and patterns of knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission among young women are similar to women in the broader age 15-49 category. Variances by background characteristics can also be observed. For instance, nearly half of women living in the Central region had heard of AIDS, compared to 14% in the Central Highlands region. More than half (55%) of urban dwelling women had heard of AIDS, compared to only 21% of rural women. Awareness of AIDS was strongly correlated to socio-economic status, with 12% of women in the poorest households having heard of AIDS, compared to 54% of women in the wealthiest households. In urban areas, 5% of women have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS, while in rural areas it is only 1%. Of women with secondary education or higher, 6% have comprehensive knowledge, while less than 1% of women with no education do (Figure 12.1). Younger women, aged 15-19, demonstrated slightly more awareness on all indicators, than their counterparts aged 20-24. 145 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is also an important first step for women to seek HIV testing when they are pregnant to avoid transmitting the infection to the baby. Women should know that HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, delivery, and through breastfeeding. Table 12.3 shows knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Afghanistan. Table 12.3: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission Percentage of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted from mother to child Percent who know HIV can be transmitted: Does not know any of the specific means Number of women During pregnancy During delivery By breastfeeding All three means1 Region Central 37.8 28.9 30.6 23.3 15.7 5.5 3,696 Central Highlands 9.1 7.2 7.4 7.6 5.2 0.4 714 East 24.3 19.3 18.6 17.7 12.3 2.5 2,153 North 14.9 10.2 11.8 10.0 6.9 2.8 2,876 North East 12.7 8.7 9.7 8.2 4.9 2.0 3,752 South 16.5 9.9 12.4 8.3 4.8 8.3 2,672 South East 23.9 15.0 18.5 9.3 5.0 5.7 2,731 West 21.2 17.3 15.7 12.4 9.4 2.8 2,695 Residence 146 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted from mother to child Percent who know HIV can be transmitted: Does not know any of the specific means Number of women During pregnancy During delivery By breastfeeding All three means1 Urban 45.6 34.9 35.4 26.4 18.0 7.3 4,031 Rural 15.7 10.9 12.3 9.5 6.1 3.3 17,259 Age group 15-24 22.9 16.4 17.7 13.7 8.9 4.7 9,620 25+ 20.1 14.7 15.8 11.8 8.0 3.5 11,670 Age group 15-19 22.9 16.4 17.5 14.2 9.1 5.5 5,510 20-24 23.0 16.5 18.1 13.2 8.5 3.7 4,110 25-29 22.3 15.4 17.3 12.5 7.8 3.2 3,579 30-39 19.4 14.1 15.3 11.4 7.6 4.0 4,848 40-49 18.8 14.8 14.9 11.7 8.7 3.2 3,243 Marital status Ever married 19.7 14.2 15.3 11.5 7.6 3.1 15,097 Never married 25.5 18.6 19.9 15.6 10.4 6.3 6,186 Education None 15.1 10.3 11.6 9.0 5.7 3.4 17,359 Primary 34.2 26.0 26.4 21.9 15.0 4.5 1,595 Secondary + 59.6 46.8 47.5 34.1 24.2 8.8 2,330 Wealth index Quintiles Poorest 9.2 6.3 6.4 5.8 3.4 1.6 3,989 Second 9.8 6.7 7.9 5.9 4.0 2.5 4,143 Middle 14.4 9.7 11.0 8.9 5.6 4.5 4,227 Fourth 24.7 16.7 20.1 15.3 9.8 4.5 4,333 Richest 45.7 35.5 35.3 25.9 17.7 6.8 4,598 Total 21.4 15.5 16.7 12.7 8.4 4.1 21,290 1 MICS indicator 9.3 The level of knowledge among women aged 15-49 years concerning mother-to-child transmission is presented in Table 12.3. Overall, one in five women (21%) know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. The percentage of women who know all three ways of mother-to-child transmission is 8%, while 4% of women did not know of any specific way. Significant differences are observed in the knowledge of mother-to-children transmission of HIV and in all three ways of mother-to-child transmission across all background characteristics except age. More women who have never been married can demonstrate correct knowledge of all three ways of mother-to-child HIV transmission than do women who are married. Major regional divergences are observed. For example, 38% of women in the Central region know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child, compared to 24% in the Eastern region, and to 9% in the Central Highlands region. Women in urban areas (46%) are three times more likely to know of mother-to-child transmission than their counterparts in rural areas (16%). Of women with secondary education or higher, 24% know all three means of mother-to-child transmission, while the figure is 6% for women with no education. 147 Accepting Attitudes Toward People Living with HIV/AIDS The indicators on attitudes toward people living with HIV measure stigma and discrimination in the community. Stigma and discrimination are low if respondents report an accepting attitude on the following four questions: 1) would care for family member sick with AIDS; 2) would buy fresh vegetables from a vendor who was HIV positive; 3) thinks that a female teacher who is HIV positive should be allowed to teach in school; and 4) would not want to keep the HIV status of a family member a secret. Table 12.4: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS who express an accepting attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of women who: Number of women who have heard of AIDS Are willing to care for a family member with the AIDS virus in own home Would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who has the AIDS virus Believe that a female teacher with the AIDS virus and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching Would not want to keep secret that a family member got infected with the AIDS virus Agree with at least one accepting attitude Express accepting attitudes on all four indicators1 Region Central 46.1 49.5 48.6 84.0 97.1 13.1 1,600 Central Highlands 43.5 35.8 42.4 75.6 98.1 6.6 68 East 88.7 53.8 53.5 39.9 97.8 13.6 577 North 64.0 36.2 46.8 70.8 93.1 14.5 507 North East 94.1 38.3 42.1 83.3 97.9 26.2 552 South 78.5 38.8 39.6 53.0 97.3 11.5 662 South East 69.6 37.9 35.6 45.9 93.1 11.5 809 West 83.7 47.9 53.1 72.3 96.3 28.8 647 Residence Urban 59.3 51.0 53.0 79.5 97.4 18.5 2,131 Rural 75.5 39.8 41.0 59.0 95.4 14.3 3,290 Age group 15-24 68.4 47.5 49.8 69.6 96.5 17.7 2,663 25+ 69.8 40.9 41.7 64.5 96.0 14.3 2,759 Age group 15-19 69.5 48.5 51.5 70.1 96.8 18.1 1,568 20-24 66.9 46.1 47.5 68.9 96.1 17.1 1,095 25-29 68.3 41.7 42.2 63.3 95.0 14.7 912 30-39 69.7 39.0 41.5 64.0 96.8 12.7 1,134 40-49 72.0 43.1 41.5 67.0 96.0 16.2 713 Marital status Ever married 69.9 40.9 41.6 64.2 95.7 13.9 3,448 Never married 67.8 50.0 53.0 71.9 97.1 19.6 1,972 Education None 72.6 37.5 37.8 59.1 95.0 11.9 3,207 Primary 67.2 43.9 51.0 73.7 97.3 17.1 618 Secondary + 62.9 57.8 59.6 80.4 98.2 23.8 1,594 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 80.0 41.3 47.8 67.2 96.8 16.3 431 148 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS who express an accepting attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percentage of women who: Number of women who have heard of AIDS Are willing to care for a family member with the AIDS virus in own home Would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who has the AIDS virus Believe that a female teacher with the AIDS virus and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching Would not want to keep secret that a family member got infected with the AIDS virus Agree with at least one accepting attitude Express accepting attitudes on all four indicators1 Second 74.0 41.4 39.5 53.9 93.4 13.9 512 Middle 74.4 34.3 34.7 54.3 94.7 10.3 798 Fourth 75.5 38.6 41.2 60.3 96.2 14.1 1,267 Richest 61.1 51.5 52.7 77.5 97.3 19.2 2,413 Total 69.1 44.2 45.7 67.0 96.2 16.0 5,421 1 MICS indicator 9.4 Table 12.4 presents the attitudes of women towards people living with HIV/AIDS. In Afghanistan, a majority of women who have heard of AIDS (96%) agree with at least one accepting attitude. The most common discriminative attitude is rejection of buying fresh vegetables from a person who has AIDS (56%). Only 16% of women expressed accepting attitudes on all four indicators. More educated women (24%) and those from the wealthiest households (19%) have more accepting attitudes than those with no education (12%) and those in the middle wealth status (10%). Urban women (19%) have more accepting attitudes than do their counterparts in rural areas (14%). Significant variances exist among regions. Measuring HIV/AIDS Awareness Among Afghan Women The extent of HIV/AIDS infection in Afghanistan is unclear given a lack of surveillance and reporting; however, Afghanistan is believed to have low HIV prevalence while being at high risk for the spread of HIV. The poor status of women in Afghanistan plays a role in the country s high risk factor.23 Addressing significant knowledge gaps among women will be an essential component to curbing the threat of a serious outbreak of HIV/AIDS, which would be accelerated greatly by the low awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the country. As Afghanistan faces risk factors such as the spread of intravenous drug use, low awareness and knowledge of HIV among sex workers, and a high rate of migration in and out of the country, empowered, knowledgeable women will be critical assets in any effort to stem a serious HIV outbreak. 23 Afghanistan National Strategic Framework for HIV/AIDS (2006-2010), published 2008. 149 Appendix A. Sample Design for Afghanistan MICS4 This appendix describes the major features of the sample design. Sample design features include target sample size, sample allocation, sampling frame and listing, choice of domains, sampling stages, stratification, and the calculation of sample weights. The primary objective of the sample design for the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (AMICS4) was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the following eight regions of the country: (1) Central, (2) Central Highlands, (3) East, (4) North, (5) North East, (6) South, (7) South East and (8) West. The Central region was further divided into the sub-regions of (1a) Kabul and (1b) Central Region without Kabul, so there was a total of nine regional domains. The urban and rural areas in each of the regions were defined as the sampling strata. A stratified two-stage sample design was used for the selection of the survey sample. Sample Size and Sample Allocation The final sample size for the Afghanistan MICS4 was calculated as including 15,480 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was the rate of fully immunized children aged 12 to 23 months. The following formula was used to estimate the required sample size for this indicator: )])(()12.0[( )]1.1)()(1)((4[ _ 2 npr frr n where: n is the required sample size, expressed as number of households 4 is a factor to achieve the 95% level of confidence r is the predicted or anticipated value of the indicator, expressed in the form of a proportion 1.1 is the factor necessary to raise the sample size by 10 per cent for the expected non-response f is the shortened symbol for deff (design effect) 0.12r is the margin of error to be tolerated at the 95% level of confidence, defined as 12 per cent of r (relative margin of error of r) p is the proportion of the total population upon which the indicator, r, is based _ n is the average household size (number of persons per household). For the initial calculation of the sample size, r (child immunization rate) was assumed to be 40%. The value of deff (design effect) was assumed to be 1.5 based on estimates from previous surveys, p (proportion of children aged 12 to 23 months in the total population) was taken as 0.038, _ n (average household size) was assumed to be 6.2 persons per household, and the response rate is assumed to be 90%. 150 The initial estimated required the sample size to have a relative margin of error (RME) of 12% for the estimate of the child immunization rate at the regional level, which was 2,918 households for each of the nine regional domains, or 26,263 households at the national level. Given the high costs and quality control challenges of conducting the survey with such a large sample size, it is reasonable to relax the precision requirements for the sub-national domains. Therefore, it was decided to limit the total sample size to 15,480 households and to concentrate additional resources on the operational and quality control of the data collection and other survey activities. The average number of households selected per cluster for the Afghanistan MICS4 was determined as 30 households, based on a number of considerations, including the design effect, the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. Dividing the total number of households by the number of sample households per cluster, the total number of sample enumerations areas (EAs) to be selected was 516. Given the variability in the population by region, the final allocation of the sample by region provided a minimum of 1,440 sample households for the smallest regions and a maximum of 1,920 sample households for the largest regions. Using the child immunization rate indicator, this sample size will result in an RME of about 17.1% for the immunization indicator of the smallest regions and 14.8% for the largest regions, which is a reasonable level of precision for these sub-national domains. Table A.1 presents the final allocation of the sample EAs and households by region, urban and rural strata. Table A.1: Allocation of Sample Clusters (Primary Sampling Units) and Households by Region, Urban and Rural Strata Region Households in Sampling Frame Number of Sample Clusters Number of Sample Households Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural 1-Central 916,151 86,817 829,334 106 52 54 3,180 1,560 1,620 2-Central Highlands 145,030 4,485 140,545 48 4 44 1,440 120 1,320 3-East 592,289 88,312 503,977 54 8 46 1,620 240 1,380 4- North 540,367 125,608 414,759 64 16 48 1,920 480 1,440 5-North East 544,140 94,317 449,823 64 14 50 1,920 420 1,500 6-South 461,127 369,219 91,908 58 12 46 1,740 360 1,380 7-South East 291,784 26,217 265,567 58 4 54 1,740 120 1,620 8-West 430,813 43,740 387,073 64 12 52 1,920 360 1,560 AFGHANISTAN 3,921,701 838,715 3,082,986 516 122 394 15,480 3,660 11,820 Sampling Frame and Selection of Clusters The sampling frame for the Afghanistan MICS4 is based on the data and cartographic materials for the frame of EAs that the CSO developed in preparation for the next census. The EAs are segments with well-defined boundaries that will be used as operational areas for the census enumeration. The CSO had previously conducted a quick count of the households and population in each EA in preparation for the census. The EAs have an average of about 185 households, which is a reasonable size for conducting a new listing of households. The sampling frame has a total of 21,194 EAs covering the territory of Afghanistan. The EAs were defined as the primary sampling units (PSUs) to be selected at the first sampling stage for the MICS4. 151 Within each region, urban and rural stratum, the EAs in the frame were ordered by province, district, controller code and EA code, in order to provide implicit stratification by province and lower levels of geography. The specified number of sample EAs was selected from each sampling stratum systematically with probability proportional to size (PPS), where the measure of size was based on the estimated number of households in the frame. A reserve sample of EAs was also selected within each stratum (using the same type of systematic PPS selection) to be used as possible replacements in extreme cases when the security situation for an original sample EA made it difficult to enumerate. A total of 102 sample EAs were selected as possible replacements. During the MICS4 fieldwork, 423 of the original 516 sample EAs were enumerated, and 26 replacement EAs were enumerated; and the remaining 67 sample EAs were not replaced. Therefore the final sample in the Afghanistan MICS4 data file includes 449 sample EAs, so there was an overall reduction in the effective sample size. Listing Activities In order to update the second stage sampling frame, a new listing of households was conducted in each sample EA prior to the selection of households. The enumerators were provided with EA maps, and they were instructed to list all the households within the EA boundaries. Selection of Households Following the listing in each sample EA, the households were sequentially numbered from 1 to n (the total number of households in each EA). A household selection table was used to select the random systematic sample of 30 households in the field soon after the listing was completed. Based on the total number of households listed, the household selection table specified the serial numbers of the 30 households to be selected. Calculation of Sample Weights The Afghanistan MICS4 sample is not self-weighting, given that the sampling rates vary by stratum. Therefore sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data. The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction used in selecting the sample households in that particular sampling stratum (h) and PSU (i): hi hi fW 1 The term fhi, the sampling fraction for the i-th sample PSU in the h-th stratum, is the product of probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum: hihihi ppf 21 where pshi is the probability of selection of the sampling unit at stage s for the i-th sample PSU in the h- th sampling stratum. 152 Since the estimated number of households in each EA in the sampling frame used for the first stage selection and the updated number of households in the EA from the listing were different, individual sampling fractions for households in each sample EA (cluster) were calculated. The sampling fractions for households in each EA therefore included a first stage probability of selection of the EA in that particular sampling stratum and a second stage probability of selection of a household within the sample EA. Based on the sample design for the Afghanistan MICS4, the resulting basic weight for the sample households can be expressed as follows: , m M Mn M = W hi hi hih h hi ' where: Whi = basic weight for the sample households in the i-th sample EA in stratum h Mh = total number of households in the sampling frame of EAs for stratum h nh = number of sample EAs selected in stratum h for MICS 4 Mhi = total population in the frame for the i-th sample EA in stratum h M'hi = total number of households listed in the i-th sample EA in stratum h mhi = 30 = number of sample households selected in the i-th sample EA in stratum h Another component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The response rate for sample households in stratum h is defined as follows: RRh = Number of interviewed households in stratum h/ Number of occupied households listed in stratum h The weight adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse of this response rate. After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster. Response rates for the Afghanistan MICS4 are shown in Table 3.1 in this report. Similarly, the adjustment for non-response at the individual level (women and under-5 children) for each stratum is equal to the inverse value of: RRh = Completed womens (or under-5 s) questionnaires in statum h / Eligible women (or under-5s) in stratum h The non-response adjustment factors for women's and under-5's questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed. 153 The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each sample cluster. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is performed by dividing the aforementioned design weights by the average design weight at the national level. The average design weight is calculated as the sum of the design weights divided by the unweighted total. A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the women s and under-5 s questionnaires. Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting the data for each household, woman, or under-5 record with the corresponding sample weights. A subsample of the households was selected for the AMICS in order to collect data for a hemoglobin test. In order to reduce the costs of this additional data collection and to facilitate field operations, a subsample of a 50% households of the AMICS EAs was selected for the test. It was decided to select an odd number of clusters for the hemoglobin test. This results in a total sample size of 7,740 households in 258 sample EAs. The sample size varies by region from 720 to 960 households, which should provide a reasonable reliability for anaemia estimates at the regional level. All children under age 5 and women aged 15-49 in the households of selected clusters were administered a blood test. The distribution of the subsample EAs and households by region is presented in Table A.2. Table A.2: Subsample selection for a Hemoglobin Test Region Number of EAs and HHs selected for hemoglobin test No. of EAs No. of Hhs. Central 53 1,590 Central Highlands 24 720 East 27 810 North 32 960 North East 32 960 South 29 870 South East 29 870 West 32 960 Afghanistan 258 7,740 Since the results are based on a subsample of the EAs selected for the AMICS, the weighting procedures for the subsample are similar to the overall survey. The only difference is that the term nh in the formula for the weight refers to the number of sample EAs in stratum h selected for the hemoglobin test, which is generally one half the number of EAs in the AMICS sample. As a result, the weights for the subsample households are about twice the corresponding weights for the AMICS sample households in the same EAs. 154 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey 1. Technical Committee Members Esmatullah Ramzi, Advisor, CSO Mohammad Sami Nabi, Head of Field Operations and Sampling Department, CSO Rahila Arif, Head of Social Statistics and Demography Department, CSO Sayed Ali Aqa Hashimi, Data Processing Officer, CSO Karin Takeuchi, M&E Specialist (former), UNICEF Arif Saba, Programme Assistant, UNICEF 2. List of Key Personnel from the CSO Abdul Rahman Ghafoori, President General of CSO Esmatullah Ramzi, CSO Statistical Adviser Mohammad Sami Nabi, Field Operations and Sampling Director Rahila Arif, Socio Statistics and Demography Director Ghulam Mustafa Zurmati, Planning & Policy Director Sayed Ali Aqa Hashimi, Deputy Director of Field Operations and Sampling Department M. Anwar Arjumand, Head of Donor Relations of Planning and Policy Department Abdullah Samad Rasooli, Resource Generation & Proposal Working Division Niek Mohammad Yousif Zai, Demography Head Officer Mohammad Wahid Ibrahimi, Head of Database Khalid Ahmad Omerkhil, NRVA Assistant 3. List of Key Personnel from UNICEF Peter Crowley, UNICEF Representative Siping Wang, Chief, Planing, Monitoring & Evaluation Section, UNICEF Karin Takeuchi, M&E Specialist (former), Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation Section, UNICEF Maimuna Ginwalla, Programme Officer, Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation Section, UNICEF Etsuko Matsunaga, M&E Specialist (current), Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation Section, UNICEF Maryam Warzi, Programme Assistant, Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation Section, UNICEF Arif Saba, MICS Programme Assistant, UNICEF David Megill, MICS Sampling Design Consultant, UNICEF Ikhtier Kholmatov, MICS Data Processing Consultant, UNICEF Lauryn Oates, MICS Reporting Consultant, UNICEF 4. List of Cartographers, AMICS4 S/N Name Province 1 Sayed Aqa Daykundy 2 Mir Hesamuddin Daykundy 3 Abdul Qadir Nangarhar 4 Mo Karim Nangarhar 5 Sayed Azim Parwan 6 Mohammad Aman Badakhshan 7 Mohammad Hamid Badakhshan 8 Haj Habibullah Kandahar 9 Abdul Moshtaq Balkh 10 Abdul Rahim Balkh 11 Firaidon Faryab 12 Mo Haron Samangan 155 13 Mutiullah Kundoz 14 Hamidullah Baghlan 15 Wahidullah Farah 16 Habibul Rahaman Jawzjan 17 Mojebul Rahman Sar-i-Pul 18 Abdul Sattar Panjsher 19 Aminullah Kapisa 20 Sayed Abdullah Bamyan 21 Atiqullah Logar 22 Shirin Aqa Ghor 23 Sayed Najeebullah Khost 24 Safiullah Herat 25 Abdul Rashid Herat 26 Hakimullah Takhar 27 Ajmal Paktia 28 Shakib Laghman 29 Ghulam Mo Kabul 30 Ghulam Hazrat Kabul 31 Haj Abdul Razaq Badghis 32 Norallah Kunar 33 Wahidullah Nimroz 34 Abdul Ghafoor Wardak 35 Asadullah Ghazni 36 Zabiullah Helmand 37 Mirwas Urozgan 38 Shafiq Zabul 39 Ghulam Moh Paktika 40 Eltaf Husain Nooristan 5. List of Trainers for Regional Fieldwork Training Name Position Training Region 1 Farid Noori Trainer Kandahar 2 Sheren Aqa Trainer Kandahar 3 Habibula Musae Trainer Kandahar 4 Mo. Waise Trainer Kandahar 5 Mo. Rasul Assistant Kandahar 6 Sayed Faqir Trainer Nangarhar 7 Ataullah Sa'adat Trainer Nangarhar 8 Abdul Ghani Trainer Nangarhar 9 Ajmal Assistant Nangarhar 10 Ali Aqa Trainer Herat 11 Habiburahman Tanha Trainer Herat 12 Enayatullah Trainer Herat 13 Nek Mohammad Formuly Trainer Herat 14 Arif Saba Assistant Herat 15 Mohammad Rahim Trainer Balkh 16 Ghulam Hazrat Trainer Balkh 17 Shafi Sediqi Trainer Balkh 156 18 Abdul Baser Assistant Balkh 19 Rahila Trainer Balkh 20 Nek Mohammad Trainer Kabul 21 Saleha Trainer Kabul 22 Farida Trainer Kabul 23 Assadula Khyali Trainer Kabul 24 Khaja Rohullah Assistant Kabul 6. Afghanistan MICS4 Fieldwork Team Kabul (Team #1) Kabul (Team #2) Dawod Mohammad Ali, Supervisor Nasratulla Abdul Ghafor, Supervisor Mir Abdul Tahir, Editor Mahboob Shah, Editor Sakina Amer, Measurer/Editor Jamila Hafizulla, Measurer/Editor Habibula s/o Mo. Hassan, Interviewer Faraidon, Interviewer Humaira Quraishi, Interviewer Leda Din Mohammad, Interviewer Esmatulla, Interviewer Sayed Abul Hasan, Interviewer Parwin, Interviewer Laila Serahat, Interviewer Mir Amanulla, Interviewer Mohammad Rabbi, Interviewer Shekiba, Interviewer Rahima, Interviewer Kabul (Team #3) Kabul (Team #4) Jamal Naser, Supervisor Gul Ahmad Najit, Supervisor Kanishka, Editor Dawood, Editor Dunya, Measurer/Editor Lema, Measurer/Editor Mohammad Tamim, Interviewer Abdul Wasi, Interviewer Anisa Taj Mohammad, Interviewer Rona, Interviewer Zekrulla, Interviewer Sayed Rahmatulla, Interviewer Sediqa Safi, Interviewer Rahila, Interviewer Qais, Interviewer Atefa, Interviewer Kabul (Team #5) Kabul (Team #6) Mohammad Sadiq, Supervisor Mohammad Razeq, Supervisor Mohammad Islam, Editor Mirwaise Latif, Editor Anisa Muhibulla, Measurer/Editor Rukhshana, Measurer/Editor Nesar Ahmad, Interviewer Sayed Jan Aqa, Interviewer Sharifa, Interviewer Shamsia, Interviewer Abdul Hamid, Interviewer Noor Ahmad, Interviewer Torpekai, Interviewer Jamila, Interviewer Masehulla, Interviewer Ghulam Qader, Interviewer Fawzia, Interviewer Farida, Interviewer Kabul (Team #7) Kapisa (Team #8) Sayed Malang, Supervisor Mohammad Hamid Shamal, Supervisor Dawod Karimi, Editor Mer Safiaullah Merzada, Editor Nazifa, Measurer/Editor Nabila Merzada, Measurer/Editor Sakhi Mohammad Ahmadi, Interviewer Manizha Ulfat Seddiqi, Interviewer Mari, Interviewer Edress Ulfat, Interviewer Ahmad Farid, Interviewer Shabana, Interviewer Humaira Barat Ali, Interviewer Jalaluddin, Interviewer Mo. Shafi, Interviewer Khaja Abdul Wahid, Interviewer Rahila Razaq, Interviewer Marzia Hamidi, Interviewer Ismael Haqjo, Reserve Shabin, Reserve Pashaee, Reserve Panjshir (Team #9) Parwan (Team #10) Amruddin, Supervisor Ghulam Mustafa, Supervisor Baryalai Sultani, Editor Murtaza Mahmood, Editor Farzana Shahimi, Measurer/Editor Nadia, Measurer/Editor Shapoor, Interviewer Navid, Interviewer Nazifa Naseri, Interviewer Hashmatuallah, Interviewer Najibullah Nori, Interviewer Najia, Interviewer Nargis, Interviewer Mohammad Shaker, Interviewer Hangama Nadimi, Interviewer Humaira Rahimi, Interviewer Abdullah Nadimi, Interviewer Parwan (Team #11) Logar (Team #12) Said Ghulam Hazrat, Supervisor Mohammad Sharif, Supervisor 157 Nayebullah, Editor Ahmadullah, Editor Nazia Khawari, Measurer/Editor Najba Sadat, Measurer/Editor Mohammad Hanif, Interviewer Mohammad Mansur, Interviewer Sadia, Interviewer Meena Bahar, Interviewer Mohammad Tahir Anwari, Interviewer Jalaluldeen, Interviewer Mohammad Shahim, Interviewer Lamiah, Interviewer Farida, Interviewer Abdullah Nasir, Interviewer Marghalai Saleem, Interviewer Wardak (Team #13) Wardak (Team #14) M. Gul, Supervisor Habibullah, Supervisor M. Alam, Interviewer Wadeedullah, Editor Juma Khan, Interviewer M. Jawad Behzad, Interviewer M. Saleem, Reserve Bamiyan (Team #15) Bamiyan (Team #16) Abdul Hamid Haidari, Supervisor Mohammad Kazim Rezayee, Supervisor Amer Khan, Editor Najibullah Sultani, Editor Sakina Ibrahimi, Measurer/Editor Fatima Rezayee, Measurer/Editor Zarghona Anwari, Interviewer Zahra Rezayee, Interviewer Zainuddin Rahimi, Interviewer Khudadad Ibrahimi, Interviewer Fawzia Afzali, Interviewer Rahima Bakhtyari, Interviewer Eltaf Hussain Haidari, Interviewer M. Ishaq Faraz, Interviewer Safia Hasani, Interviewer Fatima Mohammadi, Interviewer Mohammad Reza Fakoor, Interviewer Mohammad Nabi Ibrahimi, Interviewer Bamiyan (Team #17) Daikundi (Team #18) Asmatullah, Supervisor Musa Sharifi, Supervisor Ghulam Abas, Editor Tahir Husaini, Editor Shakila Naeemi, Measurer/Editor Taj Sultan, Measurer/Editor Husain, Interviewer Momina, Interviewer Adela, Interviewer Sher Mohammad, Interviewer Muzafar, Interviewer Ibrahim Hazara, Interviewer Shakiba, Interviewer Habiba Husaini, Interviewer Razia Hussaini, Interviewer Hassan Temori, Interviewer Kemya Gul, Reserve Arefa, Interviewer Daikundi (Team #19) Daikundi (Team #20) Qasem, Supervisor Reza, Supervisor Husain Bakhsh Ali Poor, Editor Arif, Editor Gulsom, Measurer/Editor Naseeba Ifat, Measurer/Editor Pari Gul Rad Mehr, Interviewer Said Reza, Interviewer Hassan Rezayee, Interviewer Sakina Hashimi, Interviewer Qasim Hussaini, Interviewer Qamar Gul, Interviewer Kazim Husaini, Interviewer Taj Mohammad Rahmati, Interviewer Khadija, Interviewer Paktya (Team #21) Khost (Team #22) Khyal Wazeer, Supervisor Ameer Khan, Supervisor Rasoul Jan, Editor Najeebullah, Editor Zarmeena, Measurer/Editor Nafisa, Measurer/Editor Shogofa, Interviewer Gulab Jan, Interviewer Anzer Gul, Interviewer Khadija, Interviewer Muslima, Interviewer M. Hassan, Interviewer Saima, Interviewer Anisa Khalil, Interviewer Paktika (Team #23) Rozuldeen, Supervisor Meer Hassan, Editor Tabasum Sultana, Measurer/Editor M. Naeem, Interviewer Saliha, Interviewer M. Taher, Interviewer Salma, Interviewer M. Nasir, Interviewer Maryam, Interviewer Rozi Khan, Reserve Baryalai Sediqi, REserve M. Yaqub, Reserve Ghazni (Team #24) Ghazni (Team #25) M. Reza, Supervisor Hashmatullah, Supervisor 158 Hameed, Editor Jalil Bakhshi, Editor Bakhtawar, Editor/Measurer Masuma Rozi, Editor/Measurer Saifullah, Interviewer Said Ab. Ghafoor, Interviewer Zia Gul, Interviewer Muzhgan, Interviewer Hekmatullah, Interviewer Khatera, Interviewer Gul Afshan, Interviewer Said Gul, Interviewer Mohammad Asif, Interviewer Ah. Zekria, Interviewer Khatema Qasimi, Interviewer Masuma Noorulhaq, Interviewer Ghazni (Team #26) Saripul (Team#27) M. Mehdi, Supervisor Abdul Baser, Supervisor Bunyad Ali, Editor Tajuddin, Editor Aaqila, Editor/Measurer Mehr Jan, Editor/Measurer Khalilulrahman, Interviewer Mo. Noor, Interviewer Masuma Ibrahimi, Interviewer Ghotai, Interviewer Assadullah, Interviewer Abdul Khalid, Interviewer Jamila Hassani, Interviewer Gul Jan, Interviewer Nasratullah, Interviewer Najibulla, Interviewer Frozan Sakhi Anwari, Interviewer Mehr Mah, Interviewer Khalil, Reserve Esmatullah, Reserve Ma'suma, Reserve Asefa, Reserve Samangan (Team #28) Jawzjan (Team #29) Haji Fazl Ahmad, Supervisor Haji Kabir, Supervisor Haji Ab. Rahman, Editor Jamshid, Editor Hamida, Measurer/editor Mahnaz, Measurer/editor Ahmad Walid, Interviewer Khujasta, Interviewer Pari Gul, Interviewer Raz Mohammad, Interviewer Ezzatulla, Interviewer Mahbooba, Interviewer Roya, Interviewer Yasin, Reserve Fatima, Interviewer Maulooda, Reserve Hamidulla, Interviewer Feroz, Reserve Safora, Reserve Mohammad Ismael, Reserve Shakila, Reserve Faryab (Team #30) Faryab (Team #31) Ghulam Sarwar, Supervisor Mohammad Ayub, Supervisor Dost Mohammad, Editor Khal Mohammad, Editor Hamida, Measurer/Editor Karima Zaki, Measurer/Editor Mutahar, Interviewer Ayatullah, Interviewer Laila, Interviewer Habibulla, Interviewer Ahmad Farid, Interviewer Najia, Interviewer Munera, Interviewer Maulooda, Interviewer Asef, Interviewer Nader, Interviewer Mena, Interviewer Uzra, Interviewer Faraidoon, Reserve Ahmad Jawed, Reserve Balkh (Team #32) Balkh (Team #33) Mohammad Haidar, Supervisor Mohammad Naem, Supervisor Qurban Ali, Editor Mohammad Tamim, Editor Nazila, Measurer/editor Shekiba, Measurer/editor Ghulam Nabi, Interviewer Faziulla, Interviewer Suraya, Interviewer Sohaila, Interviewer Mo. Reza, Interviewer Abdul Wahid, Interviewer Rahila Huda, Interviewer Zarghuna, Interviewer Mohammad Sharif, Interviewer Hashmatullah, Interviewer Sima Hakimi, Interviewer Benafsha, Interviewer Balkh (Team #34) Kunduz (Team #35) Abdul Ghani, Supervisor Kefayatulla, Supervisor Naqibulla, Editor Sadiq, Editor Sharifa, Measurer/editor Jeena, Measurer/editor Abdulla, Interviewer Shegofa, Interviewer Hafiza, Interviewer Zalmai, Interviewer Jamaluddin, Interviewer Bopaye, Interviewer Fahima Haidari, Interviewer Gul Ahmad, Interviewer Mo. Rafi, Interviewer Masuma, Interviewer Zia Uddin, Reserve 159 Muska, Reserve Abdul Matin, Reserve Gul Sher, Reserve Zarghuna, Reserve Norullah, Reserve Ma'sum, Reserve Kunduz (Team #36) Kunduz (Team #37) Mohammad Rahim, Supervisor Mohammad Fawad, Supervisor Farooq, Editor Abdul Samad, Editor Roya, Measurer/editor Parwen, Measurer/editor Assadullah, Interviewer Ehsanulla, Interviewer Zarghuna, Interviewer Bibi Gul, Interviewer Ahmad Fawad Sultani, Interviewer Mohammad Khan, Interviewer Yasamin, Interviewer Mah Gul, Interviewer Abdul Jalil, Interviewer Roshan, Interviewer Takhar (Team #38) Takhar (Team #39) Abdullah Baser, Supervisor Mohammad Saber, Supervisor Abdullah Sattar, Editor Abdul Hannan, Editor Hassina, Measurer/Editor Faranges, Measurer/Editor Ahmad Mured, Interviewer Hayatulla, Interviewer Parisa, Interviewer Pashtoon, Interviewer Ghulam Nabi, Interviewer Abdul Salam, Interviewer Shukria, Interviewer Razia, Interviewer Sayed Naser, Interviewer Abdul Khair, Interviewer Jamila, Interviewer Dil Aram, Interviewer Humaira, Reserve Tareq, Reserve Badakhshan (Team #40) Badakhshan (Team #41) Mawlawi Abdullah Hakim, Supervisor Payenda Mohammad Khan, Supervisor Hedayatullah, Editor Noorullah, Editor Aziza, Editor/Measurer Khatima, Measurer/Editor Zeba, Interviewer Amina, Interviewer Burhanuddin, Interviewer Azimulla, Interviewer Nasera, Interviewer Sakina, Interviewer Abdul Baqi, Interviewer Gulabuddin, Interviewer Mo. Shafi, Interviewer Sayed Anwar, Interviewer Fahima, Interviewer Sina, Interviewer Maleka, Reserve Abdul Roauf, Reserve Freha, Reserve Baghlan (Team #42) Baghlan (Team #43) Shafi Sediqi, Supervisor Abdul Khalil, Supervisor Farshid, Editor Azim, Editor Lyluma, Measurer/editor Sohaila, Measurer/editor Nafisa, Interviewer Abdul Raqib Mirwais, Interviewer Marena, Interviewer Mo. Ibrahim, Interviewer Hamid, Interviewer Amina, Interviewer Najiba, Interviewer Najibulla, Interviewer Merajuddin, Interviewer Fatima, Interviewer Yasamin, Interviewer Abdul Kabir, Reserve Munera, Reserve Roza Mah, Reserve Ahmad Zubair, Reserve Ab. Saboor, Reserve Zia Jan, Reserve Nooristan (Team #44) Nangarhar (Team #45) Mahtabuddin, Supervisor Abdul Ghani, Supervisor Fahimullah, Editor Mohammad Saber, Editor Marena, Measurer/Editor Yasamin, Measurer/Editor Ehsanullah, Interviewer Barakatullah, Interviewer Bibi Ayesha, Interviewer Fazela, Interviewer Abdul Latif, Interviewer Arsala, Interviewer Waheda, Interviewer Nasren, Interviewer Ghulam Hazrat, Interviewer Nasrat, Interviewer Sajeda, Interviewer Ataullah, Reserve Jannat Mawa, Reserve Frishta, Reserve 160 Nangarhar (Team #46) Nangarhar (Team #47) Ajmal, Supervisor Kabir Khan, Supervisor Bakhiar Ahmad, Editor Merwais, Editor Humaira, Measurer/Editor Shaima, Measurer/Editor Rahmatullah, Interviewer Ghulam Nabi, Interviewer Freba, Interviewer Zarghuna, Interviewer Abdul Hadi, Interviewer Jawhar, Interviewer Lailuma, Interviewer Aziza, Interviewer Noor Mohammad, Interviewer Baryalai, Interviewer Gull Taha, Interviewer Roshan Gul, Interviewer Nangarhar (Team #48) Kunar (Team #49) Omid, Supervisor Noorulhuda, Supervisor Jan Agha, Editor Shah Hussain, Editor Shekiba, Measurer/Editor Basmina, Measurer/Editor Wares, Interviewer Rohul Amin, Interviewer Nooria, Interviewer Nargis, Interviewer Naqibullah, Interviewer Abdul Baser, Interviewer Shekiba, Interviewer Najiba, Interviewer Assadullah, Interviewer Abdul Wares, Interviewer Asma, Interviewer Uzra, Interviewer Kunar, Interviewer Mohammad Rafiq, Interviewer Attaullah, Interviewer Mah Gul, Interviewer Noorulhaq, Interviewer Atiqullah, Interviewer Maryam, Interviewer Zahida, Interviewer Naser Ahmad, Reserve Nadia, Interviewer Sayema, Reserve Mateullah, Reserve Salma, Reserve Mateullah Hayat, Reserve Sharifa, Reserve Laghman (Team #50) Herat (Team #51) Rafiquddin, Supervisor Khyber, Supervisor Abdullah Qahar, Editor Parwaiz, Editor Nazifa, Measurer/Editor Sajida, Measurer/Editor Mo. Mukhtar, Interviewer Sayed Arif, Interviewer Mahtab Gul, Interviewer Sadat, Interviewer Breshna, Interviewer Mohammad Samim, Interviewer Mo. Rafi, Interviewer Zainab, Interviewer Breshna Safi, Interviewer Basira, Interviewer Mo. Hanif, Interviewer Mohammad, Interviewer Mo. Hanif, Reserve Mujaheda, Reserve Herat (Team #52) Herat (Team #53) Samiullah, Supervisor Sher Ahmad, Supervisor Shafiullah, Editor Asef, Editor Maryam, Measurer/Editor Elaha, Measurer/Editor Sultan Mohammad, Interviewer Khalil Ahmad, Interviewer Atifa, Interviewer Shahnaz, Interviewer Farid, Interviewer Jalil Ahmad, Interviewer Fariha, Interviewer Elhama, Interviewer Sayed Aqa, Interviewer Amanullah, Interviewer Arfia, Interviewer Shaima, Interviewer Herat (Team #54) Baghdis (Team #55) Habibullah, Supervisor Ahmad Arfan, Supervisor Nafisa, Editor Shafiqa, Editor Waheda, Measurer/Editor Hamidullah, Measurer/Editor Abdullah, Interviewer Frishta, Interviewer Zia Gul, Interviewer Mohmmad Fazil, Interviewer Wazer Mohammad, Interviewer Bilqis, Interviewer Mahbooba, Interviewer Akhter Mohammad, Interviewer Abdullah, Interviewer Monisa, Interviewer Shaima, Interviewer Farah (Team #56) Ghor (Team #57) Mohammad Fahim, Supervisor Abdul Qasim, Supervisor Fahima, Editor Nazer Ahmad, Editor Nazanin, Measurer/Editor Farzana, Measurer/Editor Humaira, Interviewer Abdul Jalil, Interviewer 161 Abdulla Razaq, Interviewer Sabzgul, Interviewer Zulaikha, Interviewer Ahmad Shah, Interviewer Farid Ahmad, Interviewer Farzana, Interviewer Humaira, Interviewer Abdul Saboor, Interviewer Zahra, Interviewer Ghor (Team #58) Kandahar (Team #59) Mohammad Qasim, Supervisor Farid Noori, Supervisor Ahmad, Editor Sara, Editor Shamael, Measurer/Editor Huma, Measurer/Editor Omid, Interviewer Fazl Mohammad, Interviewer Najiba, Interviewer Masoda, Interviewer Mohammad Gul, Interviewer Khalid Ahmad, Interviewer Nazifa, Interviewer Farishta, Interviewer Mohammad Nader, Interviewer M. Sharif, Interviewer Eidmah, Interviewer Latifa, Interviewer Kandahar (Team #60) Kandahar (Team #61) Saed Ahmad Sha, Supervisor Sayed Mukhtar, Supervisor Huma, Editor Baz Mohammad, Editor Noorea, Measurer/Editor Rahima, Measurer/Editor Hekmatullah, Interviewer Abdul Baqi, Interviewer Jamila, Interviewer Zarghona, Interviewer Namatulla, Interviewer Siddiqullah, Interviewer Najeba, Interviewer Saeda, Interviewer Mirafghan, Interviewer Nisan, Interviewer Najeba, Interviewer Jamila, Interviewer Helmand (Team #62) Helmand (Team #63) Mohammad Naem, Supervisor Mohammad Akbar, Supervisor Mer Ahmad Shah, Editor Mohammad Jawed, Editor Roya, Measurer/Editor Basira, Measurer/Editor Mohammad Sadiq, Interviewer Abdul Baqi, Interviewer Zarlasht, Interviewer Lailuma, Interviewer Asadullah, Interviewer Wahedullah, Interviewer Nasren, Interviewer Lailuma Abdullah Majid, Interviewer Mohammad Shah, Interviewer Mirwais, Interviewer Karima, Interviewer Shahnaz, Interviewer Nimruz (Team #64) Uruzgan (Team #65) Mujtaba, Supervisor Eng. Wahab, Supervisor Salima, Editor Anisgul, Editor Najeba, Measurer/Editor Nasrin, Measurer/Editor Haji Dawod, Interviewer Wali Mohamad, Interviewer Aziza, Interviewer Haroon, Interviewer Esmatullah, Interviewer Sima Gul, Interviewer Nooria, Interviewer Najebullah, Interviewer Roya, Interviewer Arifa, Interviewer Wahedullah, Interviewer Zabul (Team #66) Mohammad Omar, Supervisor Abdul Ghani, Editor Nargis, Measurer/Editor Enayatullah, Interviewer 7. List of Data Processors, Afghanistan MICS4 Haji Waheed Ibrahimi Zabihullah Omari Nasratullah Ramzi Fazilat Miri Mohammad Anwar Zahiri Sohila Haidari Fatema Shirzada Sayyed Yousuf Hashimi Farhad Sahil Ahmad Zubair Sarwari Qamar Momand Zarifi 162 Fahima Haidari Zarmina Mahbob Hashimi Farahdiba Yosof Zai Humaira Quraishi Hawa Akbari Mahbooba Hakimi Aalema Faryor Najla Nabi Zada Mahnaz Mohammadi Suhrab Wali Zada Abdullah Malik Rang bar Toorpekai Wahidi Fazel Rahman Qanoni Hashmatulla Nori Mohammad Shah Abadi Baktash Kamandi Ahmad Shekib Popul Zai Shekiba Raofi Shahla Nawab Zada Habibulla Ahmad Zai Farida Safi Noorya Haydari Farida Omar Zada Nak Mohammad Formoli Enayatullah Mehr Assadullah Khiali Saliha Farhad Mohammad Adel Wardak Mohammad Wais Noori Sayed Nasruddin Hashimi Shakeeba Rahimi Farid Noori 163 Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors Table C.1: Sampling Errors Total Samples Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS 2010-2011 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.204 0.009 0.042 5.73 2.39 12956 12899 0.187 0.221 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.708 0.012 0.017 5.61 2.37 7893 7834 0.684 0.732 Availability of soap 7.10 0.744 0.010 0.013 6.69 2.59 13116 13116 0.724 0.764 Child discipline 11.5 0.744 0.011 0.014 7.02 2.65 46730 11720 0.723 0.766 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.565 0.016 0.028 13.56 3.68 101713 13116 0.533 0.597 Water treatment 7.2 0.149 0.011 0.076 5.50 2.35 44028 5670 0.127 0.171 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.315 0.014 0.045 12.37 3.52 101713 13116 0.286 0.343 School readiness 10.2 0.127 0.019 0.147 4.25 2.06 1208 1363 0.089 0.164 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.290 0.013 0.046 2.99 1.73 3578 3553 0.264 0.316 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.552 0.012 0.022 10.85 3.29 17642 17815 0.527 0.576 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.324 0.010 0.030 6.82 2.61 15242 15206 0.304 0.344 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.307 0.015 0.043 2.49 1.58 2533 2587 0.277 0.336 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.929 0.011 0.011 2.84 1.68 1527 1678 0.908 0.950 Child labour 11.2 0.253 0.008 0.032 10.65 3.26 31593 31611 0.237 0.269 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.017 0.001 0.084 6.58 2.56 54292 54214 0.014 0.020 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.047 0.002 0.053 7.42 2.72 54292 54214 0.042 0.052 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.344 0.043 0.126 1.28 1.13 171 155 0.258 0.431 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.574 0.013 0.023 9.33 3.05 13358 13495 0.548 0.600 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.479 0.013 0.027 3.38 1.84 4865 4962 0.453 0.505 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.386 0.014 0.036 4.11 2.03 4865 4962 0.358 0.415 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.329 0.013 0.040 3.92 1.98 4865 4962 0.303 0.355 Caesarean section 8.8 0.036 0.004 0.098 1.76 1.33 4865 4962 0.029 0.043 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.121 0.006 0.053 1.92 1.38 4865 4962 0.109 0.134 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.934 0.006 0.006 2.89 1.70 4865 4962 0.922 0.946 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.536 0.015 0.029 4.72 2.17 4865 4962 0.505 0.567 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.212 0.006 0.030 3.51 1.87 14757 14521 0.200 0.225 Young adult literacy 10.1 0.222 0.010 0.043 5.11 2.26 9620 9718 0.203 0.241 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.463 0.011 0.024 7.68 2.77 15780 15711 0.441 0.485 Polygamy 11.8 0.071 0.003 0.046 2.33 1.53 14757 14521 0.065 0.078 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.015 0.001 0.097 3.05 1.75 21290 21290 0.012 0.018 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.018 0.002 0.114 2.30 1.52 9620 9718 0.014 0.022 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.160 0.012 0.075 6.23 2.50 5421 5840 0.136 0.184 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.084 0.005 0.055 5.80 2.41 21290 21290 0.075 0.093 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence 0.250 0.008 0.030 3.94 1.98 12704 12790 0.235 0.265 Stunting prevalence 0.516 0.010 0.020 5.05 2.25 12266 12404 0.496 0.536 Wasting prevalence 0.139 0.005 0.038 2.91 1.71 12239 12399 0.128 0.149 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.543 0.018 0.033 1.62 1.27 1201 1270 0.507 0.579 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.692 0.017 0.024 1.66 1.29 1201 1270 0.659 0.726 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.878 0.012 0.014 1.42 1.19 1011 1031 0.853 0.902 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.694 0.024 0.034 1.51 1.23 563 558 0.646 0.742 164 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.367 0.010 0.028 2.17 1.47 4740 4905 0.347 0.388 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.282 0.011 0.039 2.96 1.72 4740 4905 0.260 0.305 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.506 0.012 0.023 7.56 2.75 13666 13602 0.483 0.530 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.642 0.017 0.026 3.12 1.77 2447 2492 0.608 0.675 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.480 0.016 0.033 2.47 1.57 2485 2521 0.449 0.512 DPT immunization coverage 6.3 0.402 0.015 0.038 2.40 1.55 2379 2433 0.372 0.432 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.555 0.017 0.031 3.00 1.73 2438 2474 0.522 0.588 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.300 0.013 0.099 3.70 1.92 2465 2507 0.274 0.326 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.229 0.007 0.030 3.89 1.97 14868 14872 0.215 0.242 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.475 0.021 0.433 6.27 2.50 3402 3440 0.432 0.518 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.186 0.008 0.042 6.11 2.47 14868 14872 0.170 0.202 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.639 0.015 0.023 2.86 1.69 2762 2949 0.609 0.669 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.605 0.015 0.025 2.94 1.71 2762 2949 0.574 0.636 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.010 0.001 0.131 1.22 1.11 6909 6782 0.008 0.013 Support for learning 9.2 0.731 0.014 0.019 6.80 2.61 6909 6782 0.703 0.760 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.618 0.012 0.019 4.12 2.03 6909 6782 0.594 0.642 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.022 0.002 0.089 2.65 1.63 14868 14872 0.018 0.026 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.526 0.010 0.018 5.42 2.33 14868 14872 0.507 0.545 Inadequate care 9.4 0.402 0.014 0.035 12.09 3.48 14868 14872 0.374 0.430 Birth registration 11.1 0.374 0.013 0.035 11.13 3.34 14868 14872 0.348 0.401 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.458 0.016 0.036 8.68 2.95 7947 8080 0.425 0.491 Table C.2: Sampling Errors Urban Areas Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS 2010-2011 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.412 0.020 0.049 3.97 1.99 2404 3511 0.372 0.452 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.822 0.017 0.021 4.02 2.01 2012 2923 0.788 0.857 Availability of soap 7.10 0.921 0.012 0.013 5.11 2.26 2427 3545 0.896 0.946 Child discipline 11.5 0.775 0.012 0.015 1.63 1.28 8012 3045 0.751 0.799 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.823 0.025 0.030 9.76 3.12 18000 3545 0.773 0.872 Water treatment 7.2 0.366 0.063 0.173 7.05 2.66 3191 636 0.240 0.492 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.606 0.024 0.040 5.66 2.38 18000 3545 0.558 0.654 School readiness 10.2 0.198 0.030 0.151 1.77 1.33 280 395 0.138 0.258 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.427 0.023 0.056 1.22 1.10 554 809 0.381 0.473 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.778 0.015 0.019 4.05 2.01 3132 4574 0.748 0.808 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.553 0.016 0.029 3.03 1.74 2876 4129 0.521 0.586 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.421 0.024 0.042 1.28 1.13 513 737 0.372 0.469 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.953 0.014 0.015 2.08 1.44 412 590 0.925 0.982 Child labour 11.2 0.146 0.009 0.062 3.54 1.88 5404 7911 0.128 0.164 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.012 0.001 0.102 1.17 1.08 9267 13526 0.010 0.014 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.048 0.004 0.073 2.52 1.59 9267 13526 0.041 0.055 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.485 0.132 0.272 0.97 0.99 16 21 0.221 0.748 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.798 0.014 0.018 3.07 1.75 2430 3534 0.770 0.827 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.771 0.018 0.023 1.61 1.27 903 1275 0.735 0.806 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.743 0.019 0.026 1.76 1.33 903 1275 0.705 0.782 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.662 0.020 0.031 1.73 1.31 903 1275 0.621 0.703 Caesarean section 8.8 0.087 0.011 0.123 1.33 1.15 903 1275 0.066 0.108 165 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.250 0.015 0.060 1.09 1.04 903 1275 0.220 0.280 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.946 0.008 0.008 1.08 1.04 903 1275 0.931 0.962 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.585 0.021 0.036 1.70 1.31 903 1275 0.542 0.627 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.380 0.014 0.038 2.19 1.48 2503 3601 0.351 0.409 Young adult literacy 10.1 0.516 0.018 0.035 2.50 1.58 1868 2638 0.479 0.552 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.430 0.010 0.022 1.09 1.04 2960 4219 0.411 0.449 Polygamy 11.8 0.067 0.005 0.081 1.16 1.08 2503 3601 0.056 0.078 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.044 0.005 0.114 2.39 1.55 4031 5740 0.034 0.053 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.049 0.006 0.125 1.51 1.23 1868 2638 0.037 0.061 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.185 0.017 0.091 4.35 2.09 2131 2965 0.152 0.219 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.180 0.014 0.076 5.12 2.26 4031 5740 0.152 0.207 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.509 0.031 0.061 1.03 1.01 248 357 0.447 0.572 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.644 0.025 0.039 0.72 0.85 248 357 0.594 0.694 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.783 0.031 0.039 0.91 0.95 162 237 0.722 0.844 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.558 0.045 0.080 0.81 0.90 100 135 0.469 0.648 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.378 0.020 0.053 1.59 1.26 900 1286 0.338 0.418 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.319 0.015 0.046 0.94 0.97 900 1286 0.289 0.349 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.639 0.020 0.032 3.83 1.96 2151 3172 0.599 0.680 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.792 0.019 0.024 1.30 1.14 426 614 0.754 0.829 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.584 0.023 0.040 1.35 1.16 434 620 0.538 0.630 DPT immunization coverage 6.3 0.532 0.023 0.044 1.30 1.14 423 606 0.487 0.577 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.700 0.020 0.429 1.20 1.09 429 615 0.660 0.740 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.370 0.020 0.127 1.29 1.14 429 616 0.330 0.409 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.212 0.012 0.056 1.99 1.41 2399 3529 0.188 0.235 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.395 0.023 0.058 1.14 1.07 508 766 0.349 0.441 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.191 0.013 0.067 2.54 1.59 2399 3529 0.165 0.216 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.703 0.029 0.041 1.94 1.39 458 688 0.645 0.760 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.673 0.021 0.032 1.02 1.01 458 688 0.630 0.716 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.040 0.006 0.160 1.05 1.03 1008 1500 0.027 0.053 Support for learning 9.2 0.801 0.015 0.019 1.38 1.17 1008 1500 0.772 0.831 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.617 0.020 0.032 1.62 1.27 1008 1500 0.578 0.657 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.050 0.006 0.118 1.78 1.33 2399 3529 0.038 0.062 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.559 0.019 0.035 3.62 1.90 2399 3529 0.520 0.597 Inadequate care 9.4 0.257 0.016 0.064 3.42 1.85 2399 3529 0.224 0.290 Birth registration 11.1 0.600 0.018 0.031 3.37 1.84 2399 3529 0.563 0.637 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.741 0.018 0.024 2.28 1.51 1387 2025 0.706 0.776 Table C.3: Sampling Errors Rural Areas Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS 2010-2011 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.157 0.009 0.056 6.17 2.48 10552 9388 0.140 0.175 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.669 0.016 0.023 6.36 2.52 5881 4911 0.638 0.700 Availability of soap 7.10 0.704 0.012 0.017 7.28 2.70 10689 9571 0.680 0.728 Child discipline 11.5 0.738 0.013 0.017 7.92 2.81 38718 8675 0.713 0.763 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.509 0.019 0.037 15.42 3.93 83713 9571 0.472 0.547 Water treatment 7.2 0.132 0.010 0.082 5.05 2.25 40837 5034 0.112 0.153 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.252 0.017 0.068 17.04 4.13 83713 9571 0.218 0.287 166 School readiness 10.2 0.105 0.023 0.217 5.77 2.40 928 968 0.060 0.151 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.264 0.015 0.055 3.30 1.82 3023 2744 0.234 0.293 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.504 0.014 0.028 12.02 3.47 14509 13241 0.475 0.532 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.271 0.012 0.042 8.25 2.87 12366 11077 0.248 0.294 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.280 0.017 0.059 2.89 1.70 2021 1850 0.246 0.313 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.920 0.013 0.015 2.99 1.73 1115 1088 0.893 0.947 Child labour 11.2 0.275 0.010 0.035 11.88 3.45 26190 23700 0.256 0.294 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.018 0.002 0.095 7.31 2.70 45025 40688 0.014 0.021 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.046 0.003 0.062 8.46 2.91 45025 40688 0.041 0.052 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.330 0.045 0.135 1.27 1.13 156 134 0.241 0.420 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.524 0.015 0.029 10.45 3.23 10929 9961 0.493 0.555 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.412 0.015 0.035 3.54 1.88 3962 3687 0.383 0.441 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.305 0.015 0.050 4.46 2.11 3962 3687 0.275 0.336 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.253 0.014 0.057 4.45 2.11 3962 3687 0.224 0.282 Caesarean section 8.8 0.024 0.003 0.143 2.04 1.43 3962 3687 0.017 0.031 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.092 0.007 0.072 2.14 1.46 3962 3687 0.079 0.105 Children ever breastfed 5.2 0.932 0.007 0.008 3.24 1.80 3962 3687 0.917 0.946 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.2 0.525 0.018 0.035 5.34 2.31 3962 3687 0.489 0.561 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.178 0.007 0.037 3.63 1.91 12254 10920 0.165 0.191 Young adult literacy 10.1 0.151 0.010 0.069 6.61 2.57 7752 7080 0.130 0.172 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.471 0.014 0.029 9.41 3.07 12820 11492 0.444 0.498 Polygamy 11.8 0.072 0.004 0.052 2.55 1.60 12254 10920 0.065 0.080 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.008 0.001 0.148 3.19 1.79 17259 15550 0.006 0.011 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.010 0.002 0.186 2.86 1.69 7752 7080 0.007 0.014 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.143 0.016 0.110 7.14 2.67 3290 2875 0.111 0.174 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.061 0.004 0.072 5.82 2.41 17259 15550 0.053 0.070 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.552 0.021 0.038 1.80 1.34 953 913 0.510 0.594 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.705 0.020 0.028 1.94 1.39 953 913 0.665 0.745 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.896 0.013 0.015 1.57 1.25 849 794 0.870 0.922 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.724 0.027 0.037 1.65 1.28 463 423 0.670 0.777 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.365 0.012 0.032 2.30 1.52 3840 3619 0.342 0.388 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.274 0.013 0.048 3.46 1.86 3840 3619 0.248 0.300 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.481 0.014 0.028 8.42 2.90 11516 10430 0.454 0.508 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.610 0.020 0.033 3.15 1.78 2020 1878 0.571 0.649 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.458 0.018 0.040 2.54 1.59 2051 1901 0.423 0.494 DPT immunization coverage 6.3 0.375 0.018 0.049 2.57 1.60 1956 1827 0.339 0.410 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.524 0.020 0.040 3.19 1.79 2009 1859 0.483 0.565 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.285 0.015 0.120 4.31 2.07 2035 1891 0.255 0.316 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.232 0.008 0.033 4.22 2.05 12469 11343 0.217 0.248 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.489 0.024 0.050 6.91 2.63 2894 2674 0.441 0.538 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.185 0.009 0.049 6.78 2.60 12469 11343 0.167 0.203 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.626 0.017 0.027 3.04 1.74 2304 2261 0.592 0.660 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.592 0.018 0.030 3.27 1.81 2304 2261 0.556 0.628 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.005 0.001 0.211 1.40 1.18 5902 5282 0.003 0.008 Support for learning 9.2 0.720 0.016 0.022 7.38 2.72 5902 5282 0.687 0.752 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.618 0.014 0.022 4.55 2.13 5902 5282 0.591 0.645 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.017 0.002 0.126 3.36 1.83 12469 11343 0.012 0.021 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.520 0.011 0.021 5.78 2.40 12469 11343 0.498 0.541 Inadequate care 9.4 0.430 0.016 0.037 12.55 3.54 12469 11343 0.399 0.461 Birth registration 11.1 0.331 0.015 0.044 12.06 3.47 12469 11343 0.302 0.360 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.398 0.018 0.046 9.32 3.05 6560 6055 0.362 0.435 167 Table C.4: Sampling Errors - Central Region Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS4 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.522 0.022 0.041 3.96 1.99 2145 2611 0.479 0.565 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.708 0.023 0.032 4.68 2.16 1898 2328 0.662 0.753 Availability of soap 7.10 0.940 0.010 0.011 3.87 1.97 2159 2626 0.920 0.960 Child discipline 11.5 0.756 0.016 0.022 2.69 1.64 7334 2221 0.723 0.789 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.693 0.029 0.042 8.17 2.86 16232 2626 0.636 0.751 Water treatment 7.2 0.214 0.031 0.143 3.60 1.90 4981 747 0.153 0.276 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.358 0.025 0.069 5.57 2.36 16232 2626 0.308 0.407 School readiness 10.2 0.191 0.032 0.167 1.90 1.38 255 320 0.127 0.255 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.451 0.022 0.057 1.06 1.03 518 610 0.407 0.495 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.779 0.016 0.021 4.05 2.01 2636 3194 0.747 0.812 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.505 0.021 0.042 4.80 2.19 2607 3152 0.462 0.548 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.457 0.025 0.045 1.15 1.07 430 525 0.406 0.508 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.968 0.015 0.015 2.45 1.56 323 400 0.938 0.997 Child labour 11.2 0.201 0.015 0.077 6.94 2.63 4655 5584 0.170 0.232 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.012 0.002 0.162 2.53 1.59 8196 9892 0.008 0.015 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.048 0.005 0.106 4.69 2.17 8196 9892 0.038 0.058 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.322 0.185 0.574 2.59 1.61 18 19 0.000 0.692 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.776 0.019 0.024 4.12 2.03 2057 2484 0.739 0.813 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.742 0.022 0.029 2.07 1.44 824 980 0.698 0.785 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.676 0.024 0.036 2.26 1.50 824 980 0.628 0.725 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.636 0.025 0.040 2.34 1.53 824 980 0.585 0.687 Caesarean section 8.8 0.076 0.011 0.150 1.57 1.25 824 980 0.053 0.099 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.267 0.019 0.073 1.62 1.27 824 980 0.228 0.305 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.939 0.008 0.009 0.96 0.98 824 980 0.923 0.956 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.572 0.025 0.044 2.18 1.48 824 980 0.522 0.623 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.347 0.016 0.047 2.55 1.60 2250 2659 0.315 0.380 Adult literacy 10.1 0.405 0.023 0.057 3.95 1.99 1762 2142 0.359 0.451 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.398 0.013 0.032 1.79 1.34 2681 3186 0.372 0.423 Polygamy 11.8 0.048 0.005 0.106 1.24 1.11 2250 2659 0.038 0.058 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.032 0.005 0.161 3.20 1.79 3696 4423 0.022 0.043 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.035 0.006 0.175 1.99 1.41 1762 2142 0.023 0.048 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.131 0.012 0.095 2.33 1.53 1600 2014 0.106 0.156 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.157 0.012 0.077 4.06 2.02 3696 4423 0.132 0.181 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.541 0.036 0.067 1.12 1.06 204 255 0.469 0.613 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.680 0.028 0.041 0.77 0.88 204 255 0.624 0.735 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.725 0.038 0.053 1.29 1.14 171 207 0.648 0.802 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.541 0.054 0.100 1.07 1.04 92 111 0.433 0.649 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.330 0.021 0.063 1.62 1.27 799 989 0.288 0.371 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.309 0.016 0.053 1.02 1.01 799 989 0.276 0.341 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.758 0.016 0.022 2.97 1.72 2027 2448 0.725 0.790 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.790 0.022 0.028 1.46 1.21 403 496 0.746 0.835 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.565 0.023 0.041 1.07 1.04 402 494 0.519 0.611 Immunization coverage for DPT 6.3 0.500 0.026 0.051 1.28 1.13 399 492 0.449 0.552 168 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.704 0.025 0.036 1.48 1.22 401 493 0.654 0.754 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.348 0.019 0.156 1.40 1.19 402 496 0.309 0.387 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.250 0.012 0.047 1.62 1.27 2230 2703 0.227 0.273 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.419 0.025 0.059 1.43 1.20 558 644 0.370 0.469 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.250 0.015 0.061 2.80 1.67 2230 2703 0.220 0.281 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.602 0.036 0.060 3.26 1.81 558 656 0.529 0.674 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.653 0.023 0.035 1.36 1.17 558 656 0.607 0.699 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.033 0.006 0.185 1.09 1.05 961 1155 0.021 0.045 Support for learning 9.2 0.756 0.023 0.030 2.62 1.62 961 1155 0.711 0.802 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.582 0.021 0.037 1.77 1.33 961 1155 0.539 0.624 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.039 0.005 0.132 1.56 1.25 2230 2703 0.029 0.049 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.511 0.020 0.040 3.71 1.93 2230 2703 0.470 0.552 Inadequate care 9.4 0.205 0.016 0.078 3.53 1.88 2230 2703 0.173 0.237 Birth registration 11.1 0.602 0.019 0.031 3.29 1.81 2230 2703 0.564 0.640 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.741 0.021 0.029 3.08 1.76 1263 1543 0.698 0.784 Table C.5: Sampling Errors - Central Highlands Region Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS4 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.270 0.031 0.116 1.99 1.41 402 1073 0.208 0.333 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.439 0.044 0.100 0.47 0.68 60 161 0.351 0.527 Availability of soap 7.10 0.404 0.037 0.092 2.47 1.57 432 1164 0.330 0.478 Child discipline 11.5 0.596 0.027 0.045 1.27 1.13 1707 1077 0.542 0.649 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.253 0.031 0.122 2.23 1.49 3449 1164 0.191 0.314 Water treatment 7.2 0.361 0.037 0.103 1.99 1.41 2577 877 0.287 0.436 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.204 0.047 0.231 6.09 2.47 3449 1164 0.110 0.298 School readiness 10.2 0.049 0.017 0.348 0.64 0.80 92 249 0.015 0.083 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.431 0.033 0.077 0.64 0.80 144 386 0.365 0.497 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.774 0.031 0.040 3.40 1.84 614 1607 0.712 0.836 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.434 0.036 0.083 2.57 1.60 488 1249 0.362 0.506 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.438 0.049 0.096 0.79 0.89 81 218 0.340 0.536 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.938 0.026 0.027 0.91 0.96 72 192 0.887 0.990 Child labour 11.2 0.332 0.019 0.057 1.80 1.34 1107 2923 0.294 0.370 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.019 0.003 0.166 0.98 0.99 1873 4928 0.012 0.025 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.066 0.009 0.130 2.23 1.49 1873 4928 0.049 0.084 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.804 0.186 0.232 0.46 0.68 2 7 0.431 1.000 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.779 0.032 0.041 2.68 1.64 441 1150 0.715 0.844 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.447 0.038 0.085 1.17 1.08 196 498 0.371 0.522 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.272 0.029 0.106 0.85 0.92 196 498 0.214 0.330 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.239 0.029 0.123 0.96 0.98 196 498 0.180 0.298 Caesarean section 8.8 0.020 0.006 0.321 0.43 0.65 196 498 0.007 0.033 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.070 0.015 0.210 0.66 0.81 196 498 0.040 0.099 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.964 0.008 0.008 0.35 0.59 196 498 0.948 0.979 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.455 0.046 0.100 1.68 1.30 196 498 0.364 0.547 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.160 0.020 0.127 1.52 1.23 504 1274 0.119 0.200 Adult literacy 10.1 0.346 0.043 0.125 2.87 1.69 343 834 0.260 0.432 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.583 0.020 0.034 0.85 0.92 513 1303 0.543 0.623 169 Polygamy 11.8 0.081 0.011 0.131 0.75 0.87 504 1274 0.060 0.102 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.003 0.001 0.480 0.42 0.65 714 1781 0.000 0.005 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.003 0.002 0.571 0.37 0.61 343 834 0.000 0.007 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.066 0.027 0.407 0.85 0.92 68 171 0.012 0.119 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.052 0.009 0.164 1.06 1.03 714 1781 0.035 0.069 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.650 0.041 0.063 0.35 0.59 46 120 0.569 0.731 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.772 0.037 0.048 0.38 0.61 46 120 0.698 0.846 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.944 0.022 0.023 0.42 0.65 48 124 0.901 0.988 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.747 0.055 0.074 0.28 0.53 18 46 0.637 0.858 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.521 0.035 0.067 0.95 0.97 186 478 0.451 0.591 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.171 0.026 0.154 0.93 0.97 186 478 0.118 0.223 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.534 0.036 0.068 2.47 1.57 470 1201 0.461 0.606 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.575 0.048 0.083 2.45 1.57 103 264 0.480 0.671 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.533 0.049 0.092 2.55 1.60 104 266 0.434 0.631 Immunization coverage for DPT 6.3 0.426 0.037 0.086 1.41 1.19 102 260 0.353 0.499 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.538 0.038 0.070 1.47 1.21 101 258 0.462 0.613 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.296 0.033 0.195 0.82 0.91 104 265 0.229 0.362 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.334 0.024 0.073 1.39 1.18 516 1321 0.285 0.383 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.305 0.018 0.060 0.28 0.53 172 443 0.269 0.342 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.302 0.029 0.095 2.00 1.41 516 1321 0.245 0.359 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.379 0.042 0.110 1.22 1.11 156 388 0.296 0.462 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.407 0.041 0.102 1.18 1.09 156 388 0.324 0.490 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.018 0.009 0.506 1.05 1.03 223 565 0.000 0.037 Support for learning 9.2 0.805 0.032 0.040 1.44 1.20 223 565 0.741 0.870 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.462 0.039 0.084 1.32 1.15 223 565 0.385 0.540 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.019 0.005 0.291 0.83 0.91 516 1321 0.008 0.030 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.279 0.029 0.104 2.18 1.48 516 1321 0.221 0.337 Inadequate care 9.4 0.467 0.026 0.055 1.37 1.17 516 1321 0.415 0.518 Birth registration 11.1 0.308 0.043 0.140 4.50 2.12 516 1321 0.222 0.395 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.109 0.019 0.176 1.13 1.06 292 754 0.070 0.147 Table C.6: Sampling Errors - East Region Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS4 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.246 0.027 0.111 5.96 2.44 1488 1534 0.191 0.300 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.613 0.034 0.056 5.12 2.26 1028 1053 0.544 0.682 Availability of soap 7.10 0.821 0.021 0.026 4.78 2.19 1520 1571 0.778 0.864 Child discipline 11.5 0.839 0.018 0.022 3.63 1.91 5943 1433 0.802 0.875 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.624 0.058 0.093 21.15 4.60 11335 1571 0.507 0.740 Water treatment 7.2 0.039 0.010 0.292 1.59 1.26 4266 586 0.020 0.058 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.420 0.044 0.105 11.74 3.43 11335 1571 0.332 0.509 School readiness 10.2 0.307 0.102 0.333 8.98 3.00 161 160 0.102 0.512 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.252 0.034 0.110 2.22 1.49 418 436 0.185 0.320 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.555 0.032 0.057 9.32 3.05 2256 2329 0.491 0.618 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.402 0.034 0.104 8.12 2.85 1535 1591 0.334 0.471 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.286 0.047 0.163 2.87 1.70 263 277 0.193 0.380 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.875 0.056 0.064 5.07 2.25 160 168 0.763 0.988 Child labour 11.2 0.283 0.027 0.095 14.37 3.79 4008 4135 0.229 0.336 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.008 0.002 0.238 2.92 1.71 6403 6660 0.004 0.012 170 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.023 0.004 0.195 5.63 2.37 6403 6660 0.014 0.031 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.853 0.076 0.088 0.49 0.70 12 12 0.702 1.000 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.566 0.034 0.060 7.89 2.81 1665 1739 0.498 0.634 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.433 0.042 0.098 3.66 1.91 491 535 0.348 0.518 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.377 0.045 0.120 4.34 2.08 491 535 0.286 0.467 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.342 0.047 0.136 4.83 2.20 491 535 0.249 0.435 Caesarean section 8.8 0.016 0.006 0.375 1.13 1.07 491 535 0.004 0.028 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.191 0.028 0.144 2.46 1.57 491 535 0.136 0.246 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.847 0.037 0.044 5.25 2.29 491 535 0.773 0.921 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.525 0.034 0.065 2.37 1.54 491 535 0.457 0.594 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.165 0.017 0.102 3.23 1.80 1583 1661 0.131 0.199 Adult literacy 10.1 0.164 0.039 0.239 9.79 3.13 866 913 0.086 0.242 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.444 0.024 0.054 3.85 1.96 1659 1749 0.396 0.492 Polygamy 11.8 0.081 0.010 0.127 2.23 1.49 1583 1661 0.060 0.102 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.013 0.003 0.234 1.55 1.25 2153 2276 0.007 0.019 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.005 0.002 0.428 0.86 0.93 866 913 0.001 0.010 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.136 0.040 0.291 8.27 2.88 577 621 0.057 0.215 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.123 0.016 0.128 4.92 2.22 2153 2276 0.092 0.154 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.623 0.047 0.076 1.14 1.07 113 129 0.528 0.718 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.795 0.036 0.046 0.97 0.98 113 129 0.722 0.868 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.941 0.023 0.025 0.87 0.93 89 95 0.895 0.987 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.795 0.060 0.079 0.99 1.00 52 54 0.676 0.914 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.398 0.024 0.061 1.19 1.09 475 521 0.350 0.446 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.214 0.022 0.105 1.47 1.21 475 521 0.169 0.259 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.490 0.034 0.069 7.13 2.67 1554 1685 0.422 0.557 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.765 0.034 0.044 1.68 1.30 245 265 0.698 0.833 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.527 0.046 0.086 2.20 1.48 247 267 0.436 0.618 Immunization coverage for DPT 6.3 0.460 0.049 0.108 2.60 1.61 245 265 0.362 0.559 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.596 0.038 0.054 1.75 1.32 244 263 0.520 0.671 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.387 0.034 0.231 2.27 1.51 246 265 0.320 0.455 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.214 0.016 0.075 2.58 1.61 1667 1814 0.182 0.246 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.473 0.032 0.068 1.50 1.23 357 392 0.409 0.538 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.236 0.026 0.109 6.11 2.47 1667 1814 0.185 0.288 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.689 0.032 0.046 1.96 1.40 394 421 0.625 0.752 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.722 0.032 0.045 2.18 1.48 394 421 0.658 0.787 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.010 0.003 0.311 0.79 0.89 821 894 0.004 0.016 Support for learning 9.2 0.773 0.025 0.033 2.92 1.71 821 894 0.722 0.823 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.672 0.027 0.040 2.70 1.64 821 894 0.617 0.726 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.028 0.006 0.226 2.47 1.57 1667 1814 0.015 0.041 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.668 0.023 0.035 4.12 2.03 1667 1814 0.621 0.715 Inadequate care 9.4 0.334 0.026 0.078 5.07 2.25 1667 1814 0.282 0.386 Birth registration 11.1 0.576 0.035 0.061 8.42 2.90 1667 1814 0.506 0.646 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.284 0.031 0.111 4.19 2.05 846 920 0.221 0.347 171 Table C.7: Sampling Errors - North Region Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS4 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.109 0.015 0.142 4.69 2.16 1907 1915 0.078 0.140 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.735 0.038 0.052 6.50 2.55 875 960 0.658 0.811 Availability of soap 7.10 0.799 0.021 0.026 5.26 2.29 1913 1922 0.757 0.841 Child discipline 11.5 0.722 0.020 0.028 3.23 1.80 6532 1700 0.683 0.762 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.452 0.042 0.093 12.90 3.59 14055 1922 0.368 0.536 Water treatment 7.2 0.084 0.018 0.219 4.34 2.08 7689 1031 0.047 0.120 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.353 0.041 0.115 13.14 3.62 14055 1922 0.271 0.434 School readiness 10.2 0.061 0.029 0.479 2.67 1.64 159 163 0.003 0.119 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.271 0.029 0.096 2.10 1.45 520 514 0.212 0.330 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.609 0.022 0.035 4.91 2.22 2482 2521 0.566 0.652 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.352 0.020 0.055 3.50 1.87 2089 2081 0.313 0.391 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.408 0.028 0.077 1.36 1.17 388 386 0.351 0.464 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.939 0.019 0.020 1.71 1.31 250 276 0.901 0.977 Child labour 11.2 0.301 0.018 0.060 6.70 2.59 4373 4437 0.265 0.336 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.013 0.002 0.157 2.42 1.56 7528 7530 0.009 0.017 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.060 0.006 0.094 4.23 2.06 7528 7530 0.049 0.071 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.482 0.171 0.355 1.52 1.23 14 15 0.140 0.824 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.637 0.022 0.034 4.05 2.01 1931 1952 0.593 0.681 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.429 0.028 0.066 2.45 1.56 743 736 0.373 0.485 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.251 0.024 0.097 2.37 1.54 743 736 0.203 0.300 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.207 0.021 0.102 2.07 1.44 743 736 0.164 0.249 Caesarean section 8.8 0.026 0.009 0.348 2.45 1.57 743 736 0.008 0.044 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.054 0.011 0.203 1.77 1.33 743 736 0.032 0.075 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.966 0.008 0.008 1.46 1.21 743 736 0.951 0.982 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.533 0.027 0.050 2.20 1.48 743 736 0.479 0.587 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.138 0.011 0.079 1.97 1.40 2001 2018 0.116 0.160 Adult literacy 10.1 0.242 0.020 0.082 2.74 1.65 1257 1253 0.202 0.282 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.492 0.014 0.028 1.57 1.25 2139 2181 0.465 0.519 Polygamy 11.8 0.076 0.008 0.109 1.92 1.39 2001 2018 0.059 0.092 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.010 0.002 0.237 1.60 1.26 2876 2904 0.005 0.014 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.014 0.004 0.307 1.66 1.29 1257 1253 0.005 0.022 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.145 0.026 0.179 2.95 1.72 507 631 0.093 0.196 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.069 0.012 0.178 6.76 2.60 2876 2904 0.045 0.094 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.565 0.048 0.084 1.82 1.35 186 177 0.470 0.661 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.714 0.032 0.044 0.95 0.98 186 177 0.651 0.777 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.894 0.024 0.026 1.02 1.01 172 164 0.847 0.941 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.714 0.041 0.053 0.82 0.90 87 86 0.632 0.796 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.362 0.024 0.067 1.90 1.38 721 725 0.313 0.410 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.228 0.024 0.104 2.37 1.54 721 725 0.180 0.275 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.545 0.036 0.066 10.00 3.16 1902 1927 0.472 0.617 172 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.606 0.036 0.059 2.06 1.43 376 384 0.534 0.677 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.479 0.029 0.062 1.32 1.15 374 382 0.420 0.538 Immunization coverage for DPT 6.3 0.336 0.029 0.085 1.37 1.17 362 374 0.278 0.393 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.499 0.035 0.069 1.80 1.34 368 377 0.429 0.568 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.236 0.018 0.226 1.73 1.32 377 385 0.199 0.272 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.259 0.017 0.066 3.15 1.77 2087 2104 0.225 0.293 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.392 0.033 0.084 2.51 1.58 541 528 0.326 0.458 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.203 0.014 0.068 2.49 1.58 2087 2104 0.175 0.231 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.632 0.037 0.058 2.65 1.63 424 416 0.559 0.706 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.546 0.034 0.062 2.09 1.45 424 416 0.478 0.613 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.006 0.003 0.472 1.25 1.12 949 949 0.000 0.012 Support for learning 9.2 0.774 0.020 0.026 2.12 1.46 949 949 0.735 0.814 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.572 0.031 0.054 3.57 1.89 949 949 0.511 0.634 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.014 0.004 0.277 2.24 1.50 2087 2104 0.006 0.021 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.523 0.017 0.033 2.45 1.57 2087 2104 0.489 0.557 Inadequate care 9.4 0.423 0.025 0.060 5.45 2.34 2087 2104 0.372 0.473 Birth registration 11.1 0.278 0.023 0.081 5.29 2.30 2087 2104 0.233 0.323 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.537 0.036 0.067 6.05 2.46 1133 1152 0.465 0.609 Table C.8: Sampling Errors - North East Region Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS4 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.149 0.022 0.148 7.97 2.82 2080 1802 0.105 0.193 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.847 0.024 0.029 3.63 1.91 792 727 0.798 0.896 Availability of soap 7.10 0.764 0.021 0.028 5.13 2.26 2091 1811 0.721 0.806 Child discipline 11.5 0.738 0.027 0.036 6.57 2.56 7176 1591 0.684 0.791 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.441 0.049 0.111 20.79 4.56 16557 1811 0.343 0.539 Water treatment 7.2 0.267 0.032 0.118 6.06 2.46 9242 983 0.204 0.330 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.190 0.023 0.121 7.29 2.70 16557 1811 0.144 0.236 School readiness 10.2 0.067 0.019 0.289 1.47 1.21 217 192 0.028 0.106 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.334 0.032 0.104 2.63 1.62 543 465 0.270 0.399 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.584 0.041 0.068 18.14 4.26 2621 2275 0.503 0.666 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.318 0.024 0.077 6.73 2.59 2438 2066 0.269 0.367 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.210 0.039 0.136 3.22 1.79 424 365 0.132 0.288 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.930 0.020 0.022 1.65 1.28 241 227 0.890 0.970 Child labour 11.2 0.296 0.016 0.055 5.92 2.43 4693 4050 0.263 0.328 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.015 0.002 0.143 2.71 1.65 8461 7243 0.011 0.020 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.053 0.005 0.101 4.85 2.20 8461 7243 0.042 0.064 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.371 0.079 0.212 0.48 0.70 20 17 0.213 0.528 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.622 0.039 0.063 12.76 3.57 1921 1679 0.543 0.700 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.529 0.034 0.064 4.09 2.02 869 766 0.461 0.597 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.429 0.025 0.059 2.29 1.51 869 766 0.379 0.480 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.316 0.031 0.097 3.88 1.97 869 766 0.254 0.377 Caesarean section 8.8 0.029 0.006 0.224 1.32 1.15 869 766 0.016 0.042 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.105 0.014 0.135 1.90 1.38 869 766 0.077 0.133 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.957 0.008 0.009 1.48 1.22 869 766 0.940 0.974 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.708 0.023 0.032 2.21 1.49 869 766 0.662 0.753 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.129 0.008 0.064 1.47 1.21 2459 2106 0.113 0.146 173 Adult literacy 10.1 0.208 0.022 0.104 5.16 2.27 1799 1533 0.165 0.252 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.423 0.013 0.032 2.01 1.42 2717 2348 0.396 0.450 Polygamy 11.8 0.083 0.010 0.124 3.40 1.84 2459 2106 0.062 0.104 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.002 0.001 0.352 1.08 1.04 3752 3222 0.001 0.004 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.002 0.001 0.552 1.10 1.05 1799 1533 0.000 0.004 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.262 0.037 0.139 4.10 2.03 552 530 0.189 0.335 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.049 0.010 0.193 7.23 2.69 3752 3222 0.030 0.068 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.490 0.045 0.092 2.01 1.42 234 202 0.400 0.580 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.700 0.051 0.073 3.09 1.76 234 202 0.597 0.802 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.939 0.021 0.023 1.79 1.34 220 190 0.897 0.982 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.594 0.087 0.147 1.75 1.32 56 49 0.420 0.768 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.426 0.028 0.066 2.87 1.70 862 766 0.370 0.482 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.260 0.025 0.098 2.99 1.73 862 766 0.209 0.310 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.593 0.031 0.052 8.84 2.97 2229 1932 0.531 0.655 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.708 0.044 0.063 3.52 1.88 420 369 0.619 0.797 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.579 0.042 0.072 2.70 1.64 427 377 0.495 0.662 Immunization coverage for DPT 6.3 0.526 0.041 0.078 2.43 1.56 409 362 0.444 0.608 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.620 0.044 0.070 2.96 1.72 416 367 0.533 0.707 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.415 0.052 0.201 6.10 2.47 423 372 0.311 0.519 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.193 0.014 0.072 3.05 1.75 2463 2134 0.166 0.221 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.352 0.034 0.095 2.37 1.54 476 424 0.285 0.419 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.130 0.013 0.097 3.47 1.86 2463 2134 0.105 0.155 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.582 0.048 0.082 3.18 1.78 320 284 0.487 0.677 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.529 0.052 0.098 3.70 1.92 320 284 0.425 0.633 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.009 0.003 0.317 1.00 1.00 1132 963 0.003 0.014 Support for learning 9.2 0.694 0.027 0.039 3.80 1.95 1132 963 0.640 0.748 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.543 0.028 0.052 3.54 1.88 1132 963 0.487 0.599 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.005 0.002 0.441 2.61 1.61 2463 2134 0.001 0.010 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.524 0.028 0.054 7.79 2.79 2463 2134 0.468 0.580 Inadequate care 9.4 0.338 0.028 0.083 8.59 2.93 2463 2134 0.282 0.394 Birth registration 11.1 0.412 0.036 0.087 12.94 3.60 2463 2134 0.340 0.483 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.672 0.028 0.041 4.69 2.17 1330 1169 0.617 0.728 Table C.9: Sampling Errors - South Region Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS4 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.140 0.020 0.141 5.06 2.25 1566 1296 0.101 0.180 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.665 0.038 0.057 7.40 2.72 1164 986 0.590 0.741 Availability of soap 7.10 0.605 0.033 0.055 7.22 2.69 1584 1309 0.539 0.671 Child discipline 11.5 0.651 0.029 0.045 5.84 2.42 6291 1241 0.593 0.709 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.595 0.029 0.049 6.31 2.51 13825 1309 0.536 0.653 Water treatment 7.2 0.048 0.014 0.411 4.13 2.03 5577 437 0.021 0.075 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.305 0.029 0.097 7.28 2.70 13825 1309 0.246 0.364 School readiness 10.2 0.097 0.042 0.428 0.80 0.89 36 29 0.014 0.181 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.117 0.037 0.245 4.52 2.13 426 338 0.043 0.191 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.219 0.035 0.158 19.50 4.42 2679 2218 0.149 0.290 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.121 0.021 0.179 10.93 3.31 2560 2052 0.079 0.163 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.171 0.045 0.311 5.96 2.44 360 303 0.081 0.260 174 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.975 0.016 0.016 1.10 1.05 94 83 0.943 1.000 Child labour 11.2 0.291 0.026 0.088 14.83 3.85 4677 3833 0.240 0.343 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.023 0.008 0.331 20.27 4.50 7759 6307 0.008 0.039 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.034 0.011 0.319 27.82 5.27 7759 6307 0.012 0.056 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.143 0.031 0.216 0.32 0.56 45 32 0.082 0.205 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.218 0.037 0.172 18.40 4.29 2211 1823 0.143 0.293 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.311 0.039 0.127 2.62 1.62 353 294 0.232 0.389 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.212 0.038 0.179 3.11 1.76 353 294 0.136 0.288 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.138 0.033 0.242 3.36 1.83 353 294 0.071 0.205 Caesarean section 8.8 0.007 0.005 0.642 1.11 1.05 353 294 0.000 0.017 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.099 0.025 0.254 2.55 1.60 353 294 0.048 0.149 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.918 0.019 0.021 1.76 1.33 353 294 0.880 0.957 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.241 0.042 0.176 3.52 1.88 353 294 0.157 0.326 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.325 0.026 0.079 5.27 2.30 1800 1492 0.274 0.377 Adult literacy 10.1 0.027 0.007 0.253 2.25 1.50 1259 1038 0.013 0.040 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.522 0.017 0.032 2.06 1.44 1873 1566 0.489 0.555 Polygamy 11.8 0.058 0.008 0.140 2.14 1.46 1800 1492 0.042 0.075 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.008 0.003 0.333 2.31 1.52 2672 2228 0.003 0.013 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.004 0.002 0.568 1.45 1.20 1259 1038 0.000 0.008 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.115 0.021 0.185 3.18 1.78 662 669 0.073 0.158 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.048 0.007 0.153 3.16 1.78 2672 2228 0.034 0.063 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.481 0.098 0.203 1.87 1.37 46 37 0.286 0.677 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.481 0.098 0.203 1.87 1.37 46 37 0.286 0.677 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.953 0.014 0.015 0.44 0.66 101 81 0.925 0.981 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.896 0.031 0.035 0.89 0.94 87 70 0.834 0.958 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.226 0.033 0.145 2.23 1.49 350 294 0.161 0.292 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.538 0.053 0.098 4.03 2.01 350 294 0.433 0.643 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.193 0.026 0.132 7.23 2.69 1728 1413 0.142 0.245 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.348 0.057 0.163 2.95 1.72 250 210 0.235 0.461 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.084 0.021 0.249 1.17 1.08 254 212 0.042 0.126 Immunization coverage for DPT 6.3 0.046 0.016 0.343 1.14 1.07 243 204 0.015 0.077 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.194 0.058 0.300 4.47 2.12 249 208 0.078 0.311 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.015 0.006 0.689 1.07 1.04 254 213 0.003 0.027 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.200 0.028 0.138 8.41 2.90 1774 1450 0.145 0.255 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.679 0.052 0.077 4.49 2.12 355 305 0.575 0.783 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.100 0.017 0.170 5.71 2.39 1774 1450 0.066 0.134 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.834 0.036 0.043 1.79 1.34 178 163 0.762 0.906 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.633 0.079 0.124 5.06 2.25 178 163 0.476 0.791 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.005 0.003 0.672 2.14 1.46 1024 830 0.000 0.011 Support for learning 9.2 0.755 0.033 0.044 6.08 2.47 1024 830 0.688 0.822 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.743 0.035 0.047 6.29 2.51 1024 830 0.673 0.812 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.016 0.005 0.292 2.53 1.59 1774 1450 0.007 0.026 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.521 0.033 0.063 7.74 2.78 1774 1450 0.455 0.587 Inadequate care 9.4 0.382 0.035 0.091 9.12 3.02 1774 1450 0.313 0.452 Birth registration 11.1 0.315 0.046 0.146 17.39 4.17 1774 1450 0.223 0.407 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.340 0.039 0.116 5.29 2.30 753 621 0.261 0.419 175 Table C.10: Sampling Errors - South East Region Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS4 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.109 0.027 0.245 8.99 3.00 1226 1247 0.056 0.163 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.657 0.038 0.057 5.15 2.27 830 790 0.582 0.732 Availability of soap 7.10 0.720 0.040 0.055 9.94 3.15 1263 1280 0.640 0.799 Child discipline 11.5 0.737 0.060 0.081 26.26 5.12 5672 1220 0.617 0.857 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.668 0.052 0.078 20.34 4.51 12867 1280 0.564 0.772 Water treatment 7.2 0.194 0.038 0.247 6.05 2.46 4248 451 0.118 0.270 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.311 0.071 0.230 39.49 6.28 12867 1280 0.168 0.454 School readiness 10.2 0.100 0.051 0.513 3.89 1.97 118 133 0.000 0.202 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.261 0.055 0.206 7.49 2.74 488 470 0.151 0.371 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.508 0.030 0.054 6.75 2.60 1889 1983 0.449 0.567 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.388 0.026 0.065 4.50 2.12 1607 1665 0.336 0.440 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.277 0.042 0.111 1.87 1.37 242 265 0.192 0.361 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.932 0.025 0.027 2.12 1.45 196 193 0.882 0.982 Child labour 11.2 0.246 0.033 0.133 20.92 4.57 3620 3646 0.180 0.311 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.024 0.004 0.157 4.15 2.04 6812 6762 0.017 0.032 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.055 0.007 0.132 6.82 2.61 6812 6762 0.040 0.069 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.280 0.101 0.359 2.07 1.44 46 45 0.079 0.482 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.626 0.030 0.047 4.94 2.22 1310 1392 0.567 0.685 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.380 0.041 0.107 5.19 2.28 726 711 0.299 0.461 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.378 0.057 0.150 10.07 3.17 726 711 0.265 0.491 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.308 0.047 0.154 7.81 2.79 726 711 0.213 0.402 Caesarean section 8.8 0.049 0.011 0.225 1.94 1.39 726 711 0.027 0.071 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.075 0.012 0.160 1.54 1.24 726 711 0.051 0.099 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.936 0.017 0.018 3.44 1.85 726 711 0.902 0.969 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.374 0.069 0.183 14.88 3.86 726 711 0.237 0.511 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.178 0.016 0.092 3.85 1.96 2117 1943 0.145 0.211 Adult literacy 10.1 0.161 0.029 0.178 6.83 2.61 1121 1141 0.104 0.218 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.316 0.050 0.158 25.20 5.02 2183 2016 0.216 0.416 Polygamy 11.8 0.080 0.009 0.113 2.31 1.52 2117 1943 0.062 0.098 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.020 0.006 0.312 5.32 2.31 2731 2597 0.007 0.032 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.036 0.011 0.300 3.80 1.95 1121 1141 0.014 0.057 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.115 0.043 0.375 15.88 3.98 809 670 0.029 0.200 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.050 0.010 0.207 6.09 2.47 2731 2597 0.029 0.070 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.575 0.038 0.066 1.40 1.18 223 245 0.499 0.652 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.660 0.042 0.064 1.87 1.37 223 245 0.576 0.744 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.783 0.057 0.073 1.73 1.32 90 89 0.669 0.896 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.544 0.076 0.139 2.16 1.47 94 91 0.393 0.696 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.304 0.029 0.096 3.02 1.74 719 702 0.246 0.363 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.269 0.037 0.137 5.16 2.27 719 702 0.195 0.343 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.528 0.036 0.069 10.99 3.32 2080 1886 0.455 0.600 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.632 0.064 0.102 5.30 2.30 340 298 0.503 0.761 176 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.449 0.052 0.115 3.25 1.80 347 302 0.346 0.553 Immunization coverage for DPT 6.3 0.401 0.046 0.115 2.50 1.58 328 282 0.308 0.493 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.577 0.059 0.103 4.21 2.05 338 294 0.459 0.695 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.333 0.037 0.292 4.37 2.09 350 304 0.260 0.407 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.242 0.021 0.087 5.59 2.36 2303 2131 0.200 0.285 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.595 0.086 0.144 17.20 4.15 558 460 0.423 0.766 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.187 0.034 0.180 17.22 4.15 2303 2131 0.120 0.255 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.744 0.038 0.051 3.48 1.86 431 428 0.668 0.820 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.720 0.044 0.061 4.42 2.10 431 428 0.632 0.808 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.001 0.001 0.695 0.46 0.68 1016 907 0.000 0.002 Support for learning 9.2 0.615 0.056 0.092 13.44 3.67 1016 907 0.502 0.728 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.738 0.029 0.039 4.37 2.09 1016 907 0.680 0.796 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.031 0.007 0.229 3.90 1.98 2303 2131 0.017 0.046 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.523 0.018 0.035 3.10 1.76 2303 2131 0.486 0.559 Inadequate care 9.4 0.753 0.019 0.025 4.31 2.08 2303 2131 0.716 0.790 Birth registration 11.1 0.189 0.021 0.111 6.58 2.56 2303 2131 0.147 0.231 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.220 0.039 0.179 11.79 3.43 1289 1225 0.141 0.298 Table C.11: Sampling Errors - West Region Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Afghanistan MICS4 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Iodized salt consumption 5.8 0.086 0.013 0.155 4.77 2.19 2141 1421 0.059 0.112 Place for hand washing 7.9 0.766 0.035 0.046 8.65 2.94 1245 829 0.695 0.837 Availability of soap 7.10 0.609 0.038 0.063 13.40 3.66 2155 1433 0.532 0.686 Child discipline 11.5 0.814 0.016 0.020 2.66 1.63 6075 1237 0.782 0.847 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 7.1 0.593 0.031 0.053 7.01 2.65 13393 1433 0.518 0.656 Water treatment 7.2 0.035 0.010 0.282 2.03 1.43 5447 558 0.015 0.055 Use of improved sanitation facilities 7.5 0.330 0.031 0.093 7.37 2.71 13393 1433 0.268 0.391 School readiness 10.2 0.062 0.025 0.404 2.05 1.43 170 117 0.012 0.112 Net intake rate in primary education 10.3 0.300 0.028 0.123 2.32 1.52 521 334 0.243 0.356 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.4 0.558 0.036 0.065 13.22 3.64 2466 1688 0.486 0.631 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 10.5 0.242 0.027 0.112 7.67 2.77 1920 1350 0.188 0.296 Primary completion rate 10.7 0.227 0.048 0.153 3.73 1.93 345 248 0.131 0.322 Transition rate to secondary school 10.7 0.867 0.045 0.052 3.71 1.92 190 139 0.776 0.957 Child labour 11.2 0.134 0.013 0.098 6.64 2.58 4461 3003 0.108 0.160 Children s living arrangements 11.6 0.021 0.003 0.141 3.07 1.75 7260 4892 0.015 0.027 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 11.6 0.046 0.006 0.130 5.82 2.41 7260 4892 0.034 0.057 School attendance of orphans 11.7 0.571 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 13 8 0.571 0.571 School attendance of non-orphans 11.7 0.580 0.039 0.068 11.72 3.42 1824 1276 0.502 0.659 WOMEN Antenatal care coverage 8.4 0.382 0.032 0.084 2.95 1.72 662 442 0.318 0.446 Skilled attendant at delivery 8.7 0.265 0.038 0.144 5.01 2.24 662 442 0.189 0.341 Institutional deliveries 8.8 0.243 0.033 0.137 4.09 2.02 662 442 0.176 0.310 Caesarean section 8.8 0.026 0.010 0.393 2.76 1.66 662 442 0.006 0.046 Content of antenatal care 8.6 0.065 0.010 0.147 1.02 1.01 662 442 0.046 0.084 Children ever breastfed 5.1 0.925 0.022 0.024 4.77 2.18 662 442 0.881 0.969 Early initiation of breastfeeding 5.1 0.635 0.033 0.052 3.16 1.78 662 442 0.569 0.701 Contraceptive prevalence 8.3 0.222 0.019 0.085 4.17 2.04 2043 1368 0.184 0.259 177 Adult literacy 10.1 0.219 0.030 0.138 6.54 2.56 1213 864 0.159 0.280 Marriage before age 18 11.8 0.663 0.014 0.021 1.78 1.34 2015 1362 0.635 0.691 Polygamy 11.8 0.072 0.009 0.123 2.39 1.54 2043 1368 0.054 0.090 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 12.1 0.022 0.004 0.189 2.17 1.47 2695 1859 0.014 0.030 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 12.2 0.033 0.006 0.195 1.56 1.25 1213 864 0.020 0.045 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 12.4 0.288 0.035 0.122 4.17 2.04 647 534 0.218 0.358 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 12.3 0.094 0.016 0.174 8.46 2.91 2695 1859 0.061 0.126 UNDER-5s Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.478 0.060 0.125 2.28 1.51 150 105 0.358 0.598 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 5.2 0.682 0.051 0.075 1.89 1.38 150 105 0.580 0.783 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 5.2 0.892 0.041 0.045 2.09 1.45 120 81 0.811 0.973 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 5.2 0.774 0.065 0.084 1.86 1.36 77 51 0.644 0.905 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 5.4 0.423 0.032 0.077 2.79 1.67 627 430 0.358 0.488 Bottle feeding 5.7 0.301 0.034 0.114 3.65 1.91 627 430 0.232 0.370 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 5.9 0.347 0.026 0.075 4.97 2.23 1676 1110 0.295 0.399 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 6.3 0.574 0.055 0.095 2.51 1.58 311 206 0.465 0.684 Polio immunization coverage 6.3 0.534 0.047 0.089 1.97 1.40 330 221 0.440 0.629 Immunization coverage for DPT 6.3 0.419 0.059 0.141 2.74 1.66 291 194 0.302 0.537 Measles immunization coverage 6.3 0.502 0.062 0.123 3.28 1.81 321 214 0.378 0.626 Fully immunized children 6.3 0.287 0.024 0.213 1.79 1.34 309 207 0.240 0.334 Diarrhoea in last two weeks 6.5 0.210 0.017 0.083 3.33 1.82 1826 1215 0.176 0.245 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 6.7 0.542 0.048 0.089 3.62 1.90 384 244 0.445 0.638 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks 6.8 0.165 0.020 0.120 5.20 2.28 1826 1215 0.125 0.205 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.581 0.035 0.060 1.59 1.26 301 193 0.512 0.651 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 6.8 0.450 0.040 0.088 2.06 1.43 301 193 0.371 0.530 Attendance to early childhood education 9.1 0.008 0.004 0.500 1.59 1.26 785 519 0.000 0.016 Support for learning 9.2 0.759 0.027 0.036 3.17 1.78 785 519 0.704 0.814 Father s support for learning 9.2 0.494 0.033 0.066 3.29 1.81 785 519 0.429 0.560 Learning materials: children s books 9.3 0.023 0.005 0.226 2.17 1.47 1826 1215 0.012 0.033 Learning materials: playthings 9.3 0.501 0.037 0.073 9.82 3.13 1826 1215 0.427 0.574 Inadequate care 9.4 0.326 0.037 0.115 11.66 3.41 1826 1215 0.251 0.401 Birth registration 11.1 0.283 0.031 0.109 8.55 2.92 1826 1215 0.222 0.345 Safe disposal of child s faeces 7.7 0.374 0.037 0.099 6.15 2.48 1041 696 0.300 0.448 178 Appendix D. Data Quality Tables Table D.1: Age distribution of household population Single-year age distribution of household population by sex, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Sex Male Female Number Percent Number Percent Age 0 1,193 2.2 1,148 2.4 1 1,325 2.5 1,295 2.7 2 1,766 3.3 1,590 3.3 3 1,792 3.4 1,778 3.7 4 1,895 3.6 1,693 3.5 5 1,901 3.6 1,722 3.5 6 2,000 3.8 1,836 3.8 7 1,806 3.4 1,772 3.6 8 1,980 3.7 1,777 3.7 9 1,241 2.3 1,160 2.4 10 2,093 3.9 1,720 3.5 11 933 1.8 758 1.6 12 1,864 3.5 1,581 3.3 13 1,255 2.4 1,278 2.6 14 1,354 2.5 1,562 3.2 15 1,522 2.9 1,058 2.2 16 1,442 2.7 1,355 2.8 17 941 1.8 906 1.9 18 1,903 3.6 1,698 3.5 19 771 1.5 731 1.5 20 1,878 3.5 1,809 3.7 21 531 1.0 479 1.0 22 1,093 2.1 940 1.9 23 657 1.2 544 1.1 24 591 1.1 499 1.0 25 1,518 2.9 1,583 3.3 26 546 1.0 504 1.0 27 528 1.0 515 1.1 28 732 1.4 759 1.6 29 265 0.5 312 0.6 30 1,669 3.1 1,496 3.1 31 176 0.3 148 0.3 32 484 0.9 415 0.9 33 231 0.4 231 0.5 34 187 0.4 204 0.4 179 35 1,200 2.3 1,222 2.5 36 264 0.5 285 0.6 37 235 0.4 272 0.6 38 368 0.7 429 0.9 39 170 0.3 219 0.5 40 1,293 2.4 1,173 2.4 41 127 0.2 103 0.2 42 277 0.5 257 0.5 43 142 0.3 184 0.4 44 125 0.2 130 0.3 45 921 1.7 811 1.7 46 138 0.3 153 0.3 47 146 0.3 130 0.3 48 235 0.4 253 0.5 49 123 0.2 126 0.3 50 968 1.8 1093 2.3 51 74 0.1 160 0.3 52 190 0.4 225 0.5 53 75 0.1 89 0.2 54 79 0.1 80 0.2 55 530 1.0 555 1.1 56 108 0.2 68 0.1 57 103 0.2 54 0.1 58 140 0.3 70 0.1 59 75 0.1 41 0.1 60 973 1.8 535 1.1 61 46 0.1 33 0.1 62 94 0.2 61 0.1 63 51 0.1 32 0.1 64 48 0.1 27 0.1 65 384 0.7 225 0.5 66 41 0.1 25 0.1 67 59 0.1 26 0.1 68 44 0.1 34 0.1 69 27 0.1 17 0.0 70 546 1.0 247 0.5 71 27 0.1 8 0.0 72 42 0.1 17 0.0 73 34 0.1 14 0.0 74 13 0.0 4 0.0 75 146 0.3 69 0.1 76 22 0.0 5 0.0 77 18 0.0 4 0.0 180 78 25 0.0 9 0.0 79 4 0.0 4 0.0 80+ 327 0.6 137 0.3 DK/missing 0.0 2 0.0 Total 53140 100.0 48573 100.0 Table D.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women Household population of women age 10-54, interviewed women age 15-49, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed, by five-year age groups, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Household population of women age 10- 54 Interviewed women age 15-49 Percentage of eligible women interviewed (Completion rate) Number Number Percent Age 10-14 6,899 15-19 5,748 5,514 26.0 95.9 20-24 4,271 4,092 19.3 95.8 25-29 3,673 3,559 16.8 96.9 30-34 2,494 2,447 11.5 98.1 35-39 2,427 2,379 11.2 98.0 40-44 1,846 1,792 8.4 97.1 45-49 1,474 1,435 6.8 97.4 50-54 1,648 Total (15-49) 21,933 21,219 100.0 96.7 Ratio of 50-54 to 45-49 1.12 Table D.3: Age distribution of under-5s in household and under-5 questionnaires Household population of children age 0-7, children age 0-4 whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed, and percentage of under-5 children whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed, by single ages, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Household population of children 0-7 years Interviewed under-5 children Percentage of eligible under-5s interviewed (Completion rate) Number Number Percent Age 0 2,341 2,227 14.9 95.1 1 2,620 2,532 16.9 96.6 2 3,356 3,238 21.6 96.5 3 3,571 3,461 23.1 96.9 4 3,588 3,501 23.4 97.6 5 3,622 6 3,836 7 3,578 Total (0-4) 15,475 14,959 100.0 96.7 Ratio of 5 to 4 1.01 181 Table D.4: Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households Household population of women age 15-49, interviewed women age 15-49, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed, by selected social and economic characteristics of the household, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Household population of women age 15-49 years Interviewed women age 15-49 years Percent of eligible women interviewed (Completion rates) Number Percent Number Percent Region Central 3,806 17.4 3,610 17.0 94.9 Central Highlands 736 3.4 688 3.2 93.5 East 2,216 10.1 2,174 10.2 98.1 North 2,965 13.5 2,928 13.8 98.9 North East 3,866 17.6 3,817 18.0 98.8 South 2,757 12.6 2,724 12.8 99.0 South East 2,813 12.8 2,596 12.2 92.3 West 2,774 12.6 2,683 12.6 96.7 Residence Urban 4,152 18.9 4,003 18.9 96.4 Rural 17,782 81.1 17,217 81.1 96.9 Household size 1-3 8,045 36.7 815 3.8 98.0 4-6 6,075 27.7 4,632 21.8 97.4 7+ 7,813 35.6 15,773 74.3 96.6 Education of household head None 14,530 66.2 14,079 66.4 96.9 Primary 2,513 11.5 2,429 11.4 96.8 Secondary + 4,880 22.3 4,702 22.2 96.4 Missing/DK 10 0.0 0.9 0.0 86.5 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 4,097 18.7 4,000 18.9 97.7 Second 4,277 19.5 4,139 19.5 96.8 Middle 4,327 19.7 4,213 19.9 97.5 Fourth 4,479 20.4 4,302 20.3 96.1 Richest 4,753 21.7 4,565 21.5 96.1 Total 21,933 100.0 21,219 100.0 96.8 Table D.5: Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households Household population of under-5 children, under-5 questionnaires completed, and percentage of under-5 children for whom interviews were completed, by selected socio-economic characteristics of the household, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Household population of under-5 children Interviewed under-5 children Percent of eligible under- 5s with completed under- 5 questionnaires (Completion rates) Number Percent Number Percent Region Central 2,314 15.0 2,227 14.9 96.4 Central Highlands 539 3.5 504 3.4 94.2 East 1,732 11.2 1,709 11.4 99.0 North 2,170 14.0 2,153 14.4 99.6 North East 2,558 16.5 2,519 16.8 98.7 182 South 1,866 12.1 1,815 12.1 98.8 South East 2,404 15.5 2,202 14.7 92.3 West 1,891 12.2 1,830 12.2 96.8 Residence Urban 2,500 16.2 2,417 16.2 97.3 Rural 12,975 83.8 12,543 83.8 97.1 Household size 1-3 510 3.3 310 2.1 98.7 4-6 4,509 29.1 3,607 24.1 98.2 7+ 10,456 67.6 11,042 73.8 96.8 Education of household head None 10,554 68.2 10,221 68.3 97.3 Primary 1,841 11.9 1,788 12.0 97.3 Secondary + 3,069 19.8 2,941 19.7 96.6 Missing/DK 11 0.1 8.0 0.1 77.4 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 3,216 20.8 3,123 20.9 97.5 Second 3,315 21.4 3,213 21.5 97.3 Middle 3,126 20.2 3,029 20.3 97.4 Fourth 3,086 19.9 2,994 20.0 97.4 Richest 2,731 17.7 2,600 17.4 95.9 Total 15,475 100.0 14,959 100.0 97.2 Table D.6: Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations that are missing information for selected questions and indicators, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percent with missing/incomplete information* Number of cases Age 0.0 101,671 Starting time of interview 1.2 13,116 Ending time of interview 1.6 13,116 Table D.6: Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations that are missing information for selected questions and indicators, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percent with missing/incomplete information* Number of cases Woman's date of birth: Only month 56.5 21,290 Woman's date of birth: Both month and year 13.5 21,290 Date of first birth: Only month 27.0 13,640 Date of first birth: Both month and year 9.2 13,640 Completed years since first birth 0.0 1,292 Date of last birth: Only month 6.1 13,640 Date of last birth: Both month and year 0.1 13,640 Date of first marriage/union: Only month 41.9 15,105 Date of first marriage/union: Both month and year 20.6 15,105 Age at first marriage/union 0.5 15,105 Starting time of interview 1.2 21,290 Ending time of interview 1.4 21,290 183 Table D.6: Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations that are missing information for selected questions and indicators, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Percent with missing/incomplete information* Number of cases Date of birth: Only month 4.4 14,872 Date of birth: Both month and year 0.0 14,872 Anthropometric measurements: Weight 10.3 14,872 Anthropometric measurements: Height 13.3 14,872 Anthropometric measurements: Both weight and height 9.8 14,872 Starting time of interview 1.3 14,872 Ending time of interview 1.4 14,872 184 Table D.7: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators Weight - Distribution of children under 5 by completeness of information for anthropometric indicators, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Valid weight and date of birth Reason for exclusion from analysis Total Percent of children excluded from analysis Number of children under 5 Weight not measured Incomplete date of birth Weight not measured, incomplete date of birth Flagged cases (outliers) Weight by age <6 months 72.6 24.8 0.7 0.5 1.4 100.0 27.4 1,270 6-11 months 84.0 12.7 1.5 .0.3 1.5 100.0 16.0 1,100 12-23 months 88.9 7.5 1.9 0.6 1.1 100.0 11.1 2,535 24-35 months 88.6 6.0 4.1 0.7 0.7 100.0 11.4 3,185 36-47 months 87.3 7.4 4.2 0.8 0.3 100.0 12.7 3,379 48-59 months 86.0 8.3 4.5 1.0 0.2 100.0 14.0 3,403 Total 86.1 9.2 3.4 0.7 0.7 100.0 13.9 14,872 Table D.7: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators Height - Distribution of children under 5 by completeness of information for anthropometric indicators, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Valid height and date of birth Reason for exclusion from analysis Total Percent of children excluded from analysis Number of children under 5 Height not measured Incomplete date of birth Height not measured, incomplete date of birth Flagged cases (outliers) Height by age <6 months 63.8 31.0 0.3 0.9 4.0 100.0 36.2 1,270 6-11 months 80.1 14.5 0.5 1.4 3.5 100.0 19.9 1,100 12-23 months 84.1 9.3 0.8 1.6 4.1 100.0 15.9 2,535 24-35 months 86.1 6.5 1.9 2.8 2.6 100.0 13.9 3,185 36-47 months 86.7 7.3 2.2 2.8 0.9 100.0 13.3 3,379 48-59 months 85.6 8.8 3.0 2.5 0.1 100.0 14.4 3,403 Total 83.4 10.4 1.8 2.3 2.1 100.0 16.6 14,872 185 Table D.7: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators Weight by Height - Distribution of children under 5 by completeness of information for anthropometric indicators, Afghanistan, 2011 Valid weight and height Reason for exclusion from analysis Total Percent of children excluded from analysis Number of children under 5 Weight not measured Height not measured Weight and height not measured, Flagged cases (outliers) Weight by height <6 months 61.1 0.4 6.6 24.4 7.2 100.0 38.9 1,270 6-11 months 80.1 0.6 2.5 12.1 4.3 100.0 19.9 1,100 12-23 months 85.2 0.4 2.2 7.1 4.2 100.0 14.8 2,535 24-35 months 86.0 0.4 0.9 5.6 5.3 100.0 14.0 3,185 36-47 months 84.1 0.6 0.5 6.8 6.1 100.0 15.9 3,379 48-59 months 81.4 0.6 1.1 7.7 6.5 100.0 18.6 3,403 Total 81.8 0.5 1.7 8.7 5.7 100.0 18.2 14,872 186 Table D.8: Heaping in anthropometric measurements Distribution of weight and height/length measurements by digits reported for decimals, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Weight Height Number Percent Number Percent Digits 0 1,496 11.2 2,481 18.4 1 1,333 9.9 917 6.8 2 1,660 12.4 1,185 8.8 3 1,582 11.8 1,059 7.9 4 1,357 10.1 931 6.9 5 1,312 9.8 1,786 13.3 6 1,188 8.9 1,076 8.0 7 1,009 7.5 1,202 8.9 8 1,235 9.2 1,469 10.9 9 1,227 9.2 1,371 10.2 0 or 5 2,808 21.0 4,267 31.7 Total 13,399 100.0 13,477 100.0 Table D9: Observation of places for hand washing Percentage of places for hand washing observed by the interviewer in all interviewed households, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Observation of places for hand washing: Observed Place for hand washing not in dwelling No permission to see Other Total Number of households interviewed Region Central 88.7 9.2 1.9 0.2 100.0 2,626 Central Highlands 13.8 84.5 0.9 0.8 100.0 1,164 East 67.0 24.9 6.6 1.5 100.0 1,571 North 49.9 44.4 4.9 0.3 100.0 1,922 North East 40.1 55.9 3.8 0.2 100.0 1,811 South 75.3 15.7 7.6 1.2 100.0 1,309 South East 61.7 10.2 8.4 19.5 100.0 1,280 West 57.9 41.4 0.8 0.0 100.0 1,433 Residence Urban 82.5 13.9 2.9 0.7 100.0 3,545 Rural 51.3 40.9 4.6 3.0 100.0 9,571 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 39.1 53.7 5.0 2.2 100.0 2,423 Second 43.2 49.2 4.0 3.2 100.0 2,525 Middle 55.8 35.2 5.1 3.8 100.0 2,427 Fourth 67.6 26.1 4.0 2.3 100.0 2,398 Richest 84.4 11.6 3.1 0.9 100.0 3,343 Total 59.7 33.6 4.1 2.4 100.0 13,116 187 Table D.10: Observation of under-5s birth certificates Percent distribution of children under 5 by presence of birth certificates, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Child does not have birth certificate Child has birth certificate Missing/DK Total Percent of birth certificates seen by the interviewer (1)/(1+2)*100 Number of children under age 5 Seen by the interviewer (1) Not seen by the interviewer (2) Region Central 45.2 22.2 31.8 0.8 100.0 41.1 2,703 Central Highlands 68.1 9.8 21.5 0.5 100.0 31.4 1,321 East 44.8 10.5 43.4 1.3 100.0 19.4 1,814 North 66.9 12.5 16.6 4.0 100.0 42.8 2,104 North East 60.4 13.8 24.8 0.9 100.0 35.7 2,134 South 63.3 2.3 33.5 0.9 100.0 6.4 1,450 South East 74.4 2.5 16.0 7.2 100.0 13.5 2,131 West 67.2 9.0 17.3 6.5 100.0 34.2 1,215 Area Urban 45.2 19.0 34.5 1.3 100.0 35.5 3,529 Rural 64.9 8.8 23.2 3.1 100.0 27.6 11,343 Child's age 0 59.1 17.7 21.0 2.2 100.0 45.7 2,350 1 57.1 14.7 26.1 2.1 100.0 36.0 2,545 2 59.9 10.9 26.0 3.2 100.0 29.5 3,185 3 60.9 8.5 27.7 2.8 100.0 23.5 3,382 4 62.8 7.2 27.1 2.9 100.0 21.0 3,410 Missing 0 Total 60.2 11.2 25.9 2.7 100.0 30.3 14,872 188 Table D.11: Observation of women's health cards Percent distribution of women with a live birth in the last 2 years by presence of a health card, and the percentage of health cards seen by the interviewers, Afghanistan, 2010- 2011 Woman does not have health card Woman has health card Missing/DK Total Percent of health cards seen by the interviewer (1)/(1+2)*100 Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Seen by the interviewer (1) Not seen by the interviewer (2) Region Central 38.0 28.2 32.9 1.0 100.0 46.2 980 Central Highlands 30.3 29.7 38.4 1.6 100.0 43.7 498 East 52.7 13.1 23.4 10.8 100.0 35.9 535 North 51.8 20.2 25.4 2.6 100.0 44.3 736 North East 39.9 29.1 29.5 1.4 100.0 49.7 766 South 72.4 3.7 21.1 2.7 100.0 15.1 294 South East 51.9 18.8 25.5 3.8 100.0 42.5 711 West 60.9 15.8 18.6 4.8 100.0 46.1 442 Residence Urban 41.6 24.4 32.5 1.6 100.0 42.9 1,275 Rural 49.2 20.9 26.1 3.9 100.0 44.5 3,687 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 58.3 15.7 22.5 3.6 100.0 41.1 868 Second 51.2 21.3 23.7 3.9 100.0 47.3 987 Middle 47.4 20.9 27.2 4.5 100.0 43.5 956 Fourth 43.1 23.7 29.5 3.7 100.0 44.5 989 Richest 39.0 25.9 34.0 1.1 100.0 43.2 1,162 Total 47.2 21.8 27.7 3.3 100.0 44.0 4,962 189 Table D.12: Observation of vaccination cards Percent distribution of children under 5 by presence of a vaccination card, and the percentage of vaccination cards seen by the interviewers, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Child does not have vaccination card Child has vaccination card Missing/DK Total Percent of vaccination cards seen by the interviewer (1)/(1+2)*100 Number of children under age 5 Had vaccination card previously Never had vaccination card Seen by the interviewer (1) Not seen by the interviewer (2) Region Central 3.1 16.3 27.7 52.8 .1 100.0 34.5 2703 Central Highlands 3.3 32.8 22.2 41.6 .2 100.0 34.8 1321 East 7.6 24.5 22.3 45.5 .1 100.0 32.8 1814 North 2.5 35.7 19.7 42.0 .1 100.0 32.0 2104 North East 2.6 27.4 29.5 40.5 0.0 100.0 42.1 2134 South 2.8 64.1 1.2 31.9 0.0 100.0 3.7 1450 South East 19.2 33.1 23.0 24.7 .0 100.0 48.2 2131 West 3.9 37.4 19.9 38.8 0.0 100.0 33.9 1215 Area Urban 4.2 17.0 26.6 52.2 .0 100.0 33.7 3529 Rural 6.3 36.5 20.3 36.8 .1 100.0 35.6 11343 Child's age 0 1.5 30.0 43.7 24.8 .1 100.0 63.8 2350 1 3.8 29.0 31.4 35.8 .1 100.0 46.8 2545 2 7.0 30.5 21.0 41.4 .1 100.0 33.7 3185 3 6.7 33.1 13.1 47.0 .1 100.0 21.8 3382 4 8.4 35.5 8.9 47.2 .1 100.0 15.8 3410 Missing 0 Total 5.8 31.9 21.8 40.4 .1 100.0 35.0 14872 190 Table D.13: Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire Distribution of children under five by whether the mother lives in the same household, and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Mother in the household Mother not in the household Total Number of children under 5 Mother interviewed Father interviewed Other adult female interviewed Other person interviewed Age 0 99.6 0.0 0.4 0.0 100.0 2,341 1 99.4 0.0 0.6 0.0 100.0 2,620 2 99.2 0.0 0.8 0.0 100.0 3,356 3 99.1 0.1 0.8 0.0 100.0 3,571 4 99.1 0.0 0.9 0.0 100.0 3,588 Total 99.3 0.0 0.7 0.0 100.0 15,475 Table D.14: Selection of children age 2-14 years for the child discipline module Percent of households with at least two children age 2-14 years where correct selection of one child for the child discipline module was performed, Afghanistan, 2011 Percent of households where correct selection was performed Number of households with 2 or more children age 2- 14 years Region Central 44.2 2,040 Central Highlands 46.6 1,001 East 47.7 1,326 North 51.0 1,546 North East 49.4 1,446 South 44.5 1,159 South East 48.9 1,153 West 55.8 1,054 Residence Urban 48.2 2,773 Rural 48.2 7,952 Number of households by number of children 2-14 2 66.7 1,903 3 58.6 2,229 4 52.4 2,257 5+ 32.6 4,336 Total 48.2 10,725 191 Table D.15: School attendance by single age Distribution of household population age 5-24 by educational level and educational level and grade attended in the current (or most recent) school year, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Not attend- ing school Pre- school Primary Secondary Higher Education Total Number of household members 1 2 3 4 5 6 DK 7 8 9 10 11 12 DK Higher DK Age 5 88.9 0.5 5.0 4.9 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3,840 6 68.2 0.1 11.7 14.7 4.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3,572 7 53.4 0.2 8.7 20.4 12.6 4.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3,737 8 47.8 0.0 3.4 16.9 17.4 10.3 3.1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,690 9 41.3 0.1 1.8 9.0 17.3 15.7 9.4 4.3 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 3,516 10 41.6 0.0 0.7 4.9 12.2 15.6 14.0 8.4 0.0 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,102 11 37.7 0.0 0.8 2.7 6.8 12.4 15.1 14.0 0.0 6.9 2.5 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 3,187 12 44.6 0.0 0.3 1.3 3.6 7.5 10.4 12.3 0.0 9.5 7.5 2.4 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,665 13 49.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.5 3.0 6.4 9.9 0.0 10.8 10.7 5.0 2.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 2,790 14 51.4 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.1 1.7 3.7 7.6 0.0 8.1 12.0 8.5 3.6 1.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,582 15 56.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.9 1.5 3.3 0.0 6.3 9.4 9.7 6.3 3.8 1.3 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 2,802 16 61.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.7 1.0 1.7 0.0 2.9 6.0 7.2 8.6 6.6 2.8 0.0 0.8 0.0 100.0 1,955 17 66.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.9 0.0 2.5 3.6 6.2 7.1 6.0 5.1 0.0 1.2 0.1 100.0 3,390 18 72.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.7 1.0 0.0 0.9 2.1 3.4 5.5 4.9 6.5 0.0 2.7 0.0 100.0 1,814 19 82.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.6 1.5 2.0 2.3 3.8 3.9 0.0 2.5 0.0 100.0 3,300 20 84.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.7 0.5 1.2 1.5 3.0 3.4 0.0 4.3 0.0 100.0 1,528 21 84.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.3 1.0 1.3 3.3 4.0 0.0 4.2 0.0 100.0 1,880 22 90.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.5 1.0 0.9 2.0 0.0 3.4 0.0 100.0 1,318 23 90.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.2 1.9 0.0 4.2 0.0 100.0 1,034 24 99.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 2889 192 Table D.16: Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living Sex ratio (number of males per 100 females) among children ever born (at birth), children living, and deceased children, by age of women, Afghanistan, 2010-2011 Children Ever Born Children Living Children Deceased Number of women Number of sons ever born Number of daughters ever born Sex ratio Number of sons living Number of daughters living Sex ratio Number of deceased sons Number of deceased daughters Sex ratio Age 15-19 377 311 1.21 344 289 1.19 33 22 1.50 5,579 20-24 2,609 2,266 1.15 2,388 2,083 1.15 221 183 1.21 4,139 25-29 5,641 5,026 1.12 5,136 4,616 1.11 505 410 1.23 3,546 30-34 6,066 5,419 1.12 5,405 4,906 1.10 661 513 1.29 2,434 35-39 7,787 6,959 1.12 6,891 6,182 1.11 896 777 1.15 2,420 40-44 6,351 5,630 1.13 5,447 4,896 1.11 904 734 1.23 1,759 45-49 5,568 4,650 1.20 4,733 3,986 1.19 835 664 1.26 1,413 Total 34,399 30,261 1.15 30,344 26,958 1.14 4,055 3303 1.27 21,290 193 Appendix E. AMICS4 Indicators - Numerators and Denominators MICS4 INDICATOR Module[1] Numerator Denominator MDG [2] 1. MORTALITY 1.1 Under-five mortality rate CM Probability of dying by exact age 5 years MDG 4.1 1.2 Infant mortality rate CM Probability of dying by exact age 1 year MDG 4.2 2. NUTRITION 2.1a Underweight prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who Total number of children under age 5 MDG 1.8 2.1b (a) fall below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) from the median weight for age of the WHO standard 2.2a Stunting prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who Total number of children under age 5 2.2b (a) fall below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) from the median height for age of the WHO standard 2.3a Wasting prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who Total number of children under age 5 2.3b (a) fall below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) from the median weight for height of the WHO standard 2.4 Children ever breastfed MN Number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who breastfed the child at any time Total number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 2.5 Early initiation of breastfeeding MN Number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who put the newborn infant to the breast within 1 hour of birth Total number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months BF Number of infants under 6 months of age who are exclusively breastfed [3] Total number of infants under 6 months of age 2.7 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year BF Number of children age 12-15 months who are currently breastfeeding Total number of children age 12-15 months 194 2.8 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years BF Number of children age 20-23 months who are currently breastfeeding Total number of children age 20-23 months 2.9 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months BF Number of infants under 6 months of age who received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishment [4] during the previous day Total number of infants under 6 months of age 2.10 Duration of breastfeeding BF Duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding among children 0-35 months Total number of children age 0-35 months 2.11 Bottle feeding BF Number of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle during the previous day Total number of children age 0-23 months 2.12 Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods BF Number of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day Total number of infants age 6-8 months 2.13 Minimum meal frequency BF Number of children age 6-23 months receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods (plus milk feeds for non-breastfed children) the minimum times [5] or more, according to breastfeeding status, during the previous day Total number of children age 6-23 months 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding BF Number of children age 0-23 months appropriately fed [6] during the previous day Total number of children age 0-23 months 2.15 Milk feeding frequency for non- breastfed children BF Number of non-breastfed children age 6-23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings during the previous day Total number of non-breastfed children age 6-23 months 2.16 Iodized salt consumption SI Number of households with salt testing 15 parts per million or more of iodide/iodate Total number of households in which salt was tested or with no salt 2.17 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) IM Number of children age 6-59 months who received at least one high- dose vitamin A supplement in the 6 months preceding the survey Total number of children age 6-59 months Child anaemia Number of children under 5 who had blood test and Hb concentration below 11 g/dl Number children under 5 who had blood test Women anaemia Number of non- pregnant women aged 15-49 who had blood test and Hb concentration below 12 g/dl Number of non-pregnant women age 15-49 who had blood test Number of pregnant women aged 15-49 who had blood test and Hb concentration below 11 g/dl for non-pregnant women Number of pregnant women age 15-49 who had blood test 3. CHILD HEALTH 3.1 Tuberculosis immunization coverage [7] IM Number of children age 12-23 months who received BCG vaccine before their first birthday Total number of children age 12-23 months 3.2 Polio immunization coverage IM Number of children age 12-23 months who received OPV3 vaccine before their first birthday Total number of children age 12-23 months 3.3 Immunization coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) IM Number of children age 12-23 months who received DPT3 vaccine before their first birthday Total number of children age 12-23 months 3.4 Measles immunization coverage IM Number of children age 12-23 months who received measles vaccine before their first birthday Total number of children age 12-23 months MDG 4.3 3.7 Neonatal tetanus protection MN Number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who were given at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine within the appropriate interval [8] prior to giving birth Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 3.8 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding CA Number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks who received ORT (ORS packet or recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) and continued feeding during the episode of diarrhoea Total number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks 195 3.9 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia CA Number of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks who were taken to an appropriate health provider Total number of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks 3.10 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CA Number of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks who received antibiotics Total number of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks 3.11 Solid fuels HC Number of household members in households that use solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy to cook Total number of household members 4. WATER AND SANITATION 4.1 Use of improved drinking water sources WS Number of household members using improved sources of drinking water Total number of household members MDG 7.8 4.2 Water treatment WS Number of household members using unimproved drinking water who use an appropriate treatment method Total number of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources 4.3 Use of improved sanitation facilities WS Number of household members using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared Total number of household members MDG 7.9 4.4 Safe disposal of child s faeces CA Number of children age 0-2 years whose last stools were disposed of safely Total number of children age 0-2 years 4.5 Place for hand washing HW Number of households with a specific place for hand washing where water and soap are present Total number of households 4.6 Availability of soap HW Number of households with soap anywhere in the dwelling Total number of households 5. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 5.2 Early childbearing CM Number of women age 20-24 years who had at least one live birth before age 18 Total number of women age 20-24 years 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate CP Number of married women age 15-49 years currently married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a (modern or traditional) contraceptive method Total number of married women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union MDG 5.3 5.5a Antenatal care coverage MN Number of women age 15-49 years who were attended during pregnancy in the 2 years preceding the survey Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey MDG 5.5 5.5b (a) at least once by skilled personnel (b) at least four times by any provider 5.6 Content of antenatal care MN Number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who had their blood pressure measured and gave urine and blood samples during the last pregnancy Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.7 Skilled attendant at delivery MN Number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who were attended during childbirth by skilled health personnel Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey MDG 5.2 5.8 Institutional deliveries MN Number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who delivered in a health facility Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.9 Caesarean section RH Number of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey and delivered by caesarean section Total number of women age 15-49 years who have given birth 2 years preceding the survey 196 6. CHILD DEVELOPMENT 6.1 Support for learning CE Number of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the past 3 days Total number of children age 36-59 months 6.2 Father s support for learning CE Number of children age 36-59 months whose father has engaged in one or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the past 3 days Total number of children age 36-59 months 6.3 Learning materials: children s books CE Number of children under age 5 who have three or more children s books Total number of children under age 5 6.4 Learning materials: playthings CE Number of children under age 5 with two or more playthings Total number of children under age 5 6.5 Inadequate care CE Number of children under age 5 left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once in the past week Total number of children under age 5 6.7 Attendance to early childhood education CE Number of children age 36-59 months who are attending an early childhood education programme Total number of children age 36-59 months 7. LITERACY AND EDUCATION 7.1 Literacy rate among young women WB Number of women age 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education Total number of women age 15-24 years MDG 2.3 7.2 School readiness ED Number of children in first grade of primary school who attended pre-school during the previous school year Total number of children attending the first grade of primary school 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education ED Number of children of school-entry age who enter the first grade of primary school Total number of children of school- entry age 7.4 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ED Number of children of primary school age currently attending primary or secondary school Total number of children of primary school age MDG 2.1 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ED Number of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary school or higher Total number of children of secondary- school age 7.6 Children reaching last grade of primary ED Proportion of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach last grade MDG 2.2 7.7 Primary completion rate ED Number of children (of any age) attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) Total number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school ED Number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year who are in the first grade of secondary school during the current school year Total number of children who are attending the first grade of secondary school 7.9 Gender parity index (primary school) ED Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys MDG 3.1 7.10 Gender parity index (secondary school) ED Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys MDG 3.1 8. CHILD PROTECTION 8.1 Birth registration BR Number of children under age 5 whose births are reported registered Total number of children under age 5 8.2 Child labour CL Number of children age 5-14 years who are involved in child labour Total number of children age 5-14 years 8.3 School attendance among child labourers ED - CL Number of children age 5-14 years who are involved in child labour and are currently attending school Total number of children age 5-14 years involved in child labour 197 8.4 Child labour among students ED - CL Number of children age 5-14 years who are involved in child labour and are currently attending school Total number of children age 5-14 years attending school 8.5 Violent discipline CD Number of children age 2-14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment during the past month Total number of children age 2-14 years 8.6 Marriage before age 15 MA Number of women age 15-49 years who were first married or in union by the exact age of 15 Total number of women age 15-49 years 8.7 Marriage before age 18 MA Number of women age 20-49 years who were first married or in union by the exact age of 18 Total number of women age 20-49 years 8.8 Young women age 15-19 years currently married or in union MA Number of women age 15-19 years who are currently married or in union Total number of women age 15-19 years 8.9 Polygamy MA Number of women age 15-49 years who are in a polygamous union Total number of women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union 8.10a Spousal age difference MA Number of women currently married or in union whose spouse is 10 or more years older, (a) for women age 15-19 years, (b) for women age 20-24 years Total number of women currently married or in union (a) age 15-19 years, (b) age 20-24 years 8.10b 8.14 Attitudes towards domestic violence DV Number of women who state that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the following circumstances: (1) she goes out without telling him, (2) she neglects the children, (3) she argues with him, (4) she refuses sex with him, (5) she burns the food Total number of women age 15-49 years 9.17 Children s living arrangements HL Number of children age 0-17 years not living with a biological parent Total number of children age 0-17 years 9.18 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead HL Number of children age 0-17 years with at least one dead parent Total number of children age 0-17 years 9.19 School attendance of orphans HL - ED Number of children age 10-14 years who have lost both parents and are attending school Total number of children age 10-14 years who have lost both parents MDG 6.4 9.20 School attendance of non- orphans HL - ED Number of children age 10-14 years, whose parents are alive, who are living with at least one parent, and who are attending school Total number of children age 10-14 years, whose parents are alive, and who are living with at least one parent MDG 6.4 9. HIV/AIDS 9.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention HA Number of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify two ways of preventing HIV infection [9], know that a healthy looking person can have HIV, and reject the two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission Total number of women age 15-49 years 9.2 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA Number of women age 15-24 years who correctly identify two ways of preventing HIV infection12, know that a healthy looking person can have HIV, and reject the two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission Total number of women age 15-24 years MDG 6.3 9.3 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA Number of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify all three means [10] of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Total number of women age 15-49 years 9.4 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV HA Number of women age 15-49 years expressing accepting attitudes on all four questions [11] toward people living with HIV Total number of women age 15-49 years who have heard of HIV [1] Some indicators are constructed by using questions in several modules. In such cases, only the module(s) that contain most of the necessary information is indicated. [2] MDG indicators as of February 2010. [3] Infants receiving breast milk, and not receiving any other fluids or foods, with the exception of oral rehydration solution, vitamins, mineral supplements and medicines. [4] Infants who receive breast milk and certain fluids (water and water-based drinks, fruit juice, ritual fluids, oral rehydration solution, drops, vitamins, minerals, and medicines), but do not receive anything else (in particular, non-human milk and food-based fluids). 198 [5] Breastfeeding children: Solid, semi-solid, or soft foods, two times for infants age 6-8 months, 3 times for children 9-23 months; Non-breastfeeding children: Solid, semi-solid, or soft foods, or milk feeds, four times for children age 6-23 months. [6] Infants age 0-5 who are exclusively breastfed, and children age 6-23 months who are breastfed and ate solid, semi-solid or soft foods. [7] Age groups used in indicators 3.1 to 3.6 are applicable when basic immunization schedules are used (with measles administered at 9 months). For the calculation of indicators when different schedules are used, see MICS4 manual for detailed descriptions. [8] See MICS4 manual for a detailed description. [9] Using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner. [10] Transmission during pregnancy, during delivery, and by breastfeeding. [11] Women (1) who think that a female teacher with the AIDS virus should be allowed to teach in school, (2) who would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who has the AIDS virus, (3) who would not want to keep it as a secret if a family member became infected with the AIDS virus, and (4) who would be willing to care for a family member who became sick with the AIDS virus. 199 APPENDIX F. QUESTIONNAIRES HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE [Afghanistan] HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION PANEL HH HH1. Cluster number: ___ ___ ___ HH2. Household number: ___ ___ HH3. Interviewer name and number: HH4. Supervisor name and number: Name ___ ___ Name ___ ___ HH5. Day / Month / Year of interview: ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ HH6. Area: Urban . 1 Rural. 2 HH7. Region: Region C 1 Region NE 5 Region CH 2 Region S 6 Region E 3 Region SE 7 Region N 4 Region W 8 HH7A Is this HH selected for Nutrition Survey sub-sample? Y 1 N 2 WE ARE FROM THE CENTRAL STATISTICS ORGANISATION (CSO). WE ARE WORKING ON A PROJECT CONCERNED WITH FAMILY HEALTH AND EDUCATION. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT THESE SUBJECTS. THE INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT (45) MINUTES. ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND YOUR ANSWERS WILL NEVER BE SHARED WITH ANYONE OTHER THAN OUR PROJECT TEAM. MAY I START NOW? Yes, permission is given Go to HH18 to record the time and then begin the interview. No, permission is not given Complete HH9. Discuss this result with your supervisor. After all questionnaires for the household have been completed, fill in the following information: HH8. Name of head of household: _____________________________________________________ HH9. Result of household interview: Completed . 01 No household member or no competent respondent at home at time of visit . 02 Entire household absent for extended period of time . 03 Refused . 04 Dwelling vacant / Address not a dwelling . 05 Dwelling destroyed . 06 Dwelling not found . 07 Other (specify) . 96 HH10. Respondent to household questionnaire: Name: Line Number: ___ ___ HH11. Total number of household members: ___ ___ HH12. Number of women age 15-49 years: ___ ___ HH13. Number of woman s questionnaires completed: ___ ___ HH14. Number of children under age 5: ___ ___ HH15. Number of under-5 questionnaires completed: ___ ___ HH16. Field edited by (Name and number): Name ___ ___ HH17. Data entry clerk (Name and number): Name ___ ___ 200 HH18. Record the time: Hour . __ __ Minutes . __ __ HOUSEHOLD LISTING FORM FIRST, PLEASE TELL ME THE NAME OF EACH PERSON WHO USUALLY LIVES HERE, STARTING WITH THE HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD. Then ask: ARE THERE ANY OTHERS WHO LIVE HERE, EVEN IF THEY ARE NOT AT HOME NOW? If ye - Use an additional questionnaire if all rows in the household listing form have been used. Eligibility For Woman s Interview Mother or Caretaker Of Child Age 5-14 Eligibility For Under-5 INTERVIEW For all household members For children age 0-17 years ask HL11-HL14 HL1. Line number HL2. Name HL3. WHAT IS THE RELATION- SHIP OF (name) TO THE HEAD OF HOUSE- HOLD? HL4. IS (name) MALE OR FEMALE? 1 Male 2 Female HL6. HOW OLD IS (name)? Probe: HOW OLD WAS (name) ON HIS/HER LAST BIRTHDAY? Record in completed years. If age is 95 or above, record 95 HL7. Circle line number if woman is age 15-49 HL8. For children age 5-14: WHO IS THE MOTHER OR PRIMARY CARETAKER OF THIS CHILD? Record line number of mother/ caretaker HL9. For children under age 5: WHO IS THE MOTHER OR PRIMARY CARETAKER OF THIS CHILD? Record line number of mother/ caretaker HL10. DID (name) STAY HERE LAST NIGHT? 1 Yes 2 No HL11. IS (name) S NATURAL MOTHER ALIVE? 1 Yes 2 No HL13 8 DK HL13 HL12. DOES (name) S NATURAL MOTHER LIVE IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? Record line number of mother or 00 for No HL13. IS (name) S NATURAL FATHER ALIVE? 1 Yes 2 No Next Line 8 DK NEXT LINE HL14. DOES (name) S NATURAL FATHER LIVE IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? Record line number of father or 00 for No Line Name Relation* M F Age 15-49 Mother Mother Y N Y N DK Mother Y N DK Father 01 0 1 1 2 __ __ 01 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 02 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 02 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 03 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 03 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 04 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 04 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 05 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 05 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 06 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 06 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 07 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 07 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 08 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 08 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 09 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 09 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 201 HL1. Line number HL2. Name HL3. WHAT IS THE RELATION- SHIP OF (name) TO THE HEAD OF HOUSE- HOLD? HL4. IS (name) MALE OR FEMALE? 1 Male 2 Female HL6. HOW OLD IS (name)? Probe: HOW OLD WAS (name) ON HIS/HER LAST BIRTHDAY? Record in completed years. If age is 95 or above, record 95 HL7. Circle line number if woman is age 15-49 HL8. For children age 5-14: WHO IS THE MOTHER OR PRIMARY CARETAKER OF THIS CHILD? Record line number of mother/ caretaker HL9. For children under age 5: WHO IS THE MOTHER OR PRIMARY CARETAKER OF THIS CHILD? Record line number of mother/ caretaker HL10. DID (name) STAY HERE LAST NIGHT? 1 Yes 2 No HL11. IS (name) S NATURAL MOTHER ALIVE? 1 Yes 2 No HL13 8 DK HL13 HL12. DOES (name) S NATURAL MOTHER LIVE IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? Record line number of mother or 00 for No HL13. IS (name) S NATURAL FATHER ALIVE? 1 Yes 2 No Next Line 8 DK NEXT LINE HL14. DOES (name) S NATURAL FATHER LIVE IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? Record line number of father or 00 for No Line Name Relation* M F Age 15-49 Mother Mother Y N Y N DK Mother Y N DK Father 10 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 10 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 11 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 11 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 12 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 12 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 13 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 13 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 14 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 14 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ 15 __ __ 1 2 __ __ 15 __ __ __ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ __ 1 2 8 __ __ TICK HERE IF ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE USED Probe for additional household members. Probe especially for any infants or small children not listed, and others who may not be members of the family (such as servants, friends) but who usually live in the household. Insert names of additional members in the household list and complete form accordingly. Now for each woman age 15-49 years, write her name and line number and other identifying information in the information panel of a separate Individual Women s Questionnaire. For each child under age 5, write his/her name and line number AND the line number of his/her mother or caretaker in the information panel of a separate Under-5 Questionnaire. You should now have a separate questionnaire for each eligible woman and each child under five in the household. * Codes for HL3: Relationship to head of household: 01 Head 02 Wife / Husband 03 Son / Daughter 04 Son-In-Law / Daughter-In-Law 05 Grandchild 06 Parent 07 Parent-In-Law 08 Brother / Sister 09 Brother-In-Law / Sister-In-Law 10 Uncle / Aunt 11 Niece / Nephew 12 Other relative 13 Adopted / Foster / Stepchild 14 Not related 98 Don't know 202 EDUCATION ED For household members age 5 and above For household members age 5-24 years ED1. Line number ED2. Name and age Copy from Household Listing Form, HL2 and HL6 ED3. HAS (name) EVER ATTENDED SCHOOL OR PRE- SCHOOL? 1 Yes 2 NO Next Line ED4. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOL (name) ATTENDED? WHAT IS THE HIGHEST GRADE (name) COMPLETED AT THIS LEVEL? ED5. DURING THE 9 (2010- 2011) SCHOOL YEAR, DID (name) ATTEND SCHOOL OR PRESCHOOL AT ANY TIME? 1 Yes 2 No ED7 ED6. DURING THIS/THAT SCHOOL YEAR, WHICH LEVEL AND GRADE IS/WAS (name) ATTENDING? ED7. DURING THE PREVIOUS SCHOOL YEAR 8, THAT IS (2009-2010), DID (name) ATTEND SCHOOL OR PRESCHOOL AT ANY TIME? 1 Yes 2 No Next Line 8 DK Next Line ED8. DURING THAT PREVIOUS SCHOOL YEAR, WHICH LEVEL AND GRADE DID (name) ATTEND? Level: 0 Preschool 1 Primary 2 Secondary 3 Higher 8 DK If level=0, skip to ED5 Grade: 98 DK If less than 1 grade, enter 00. Level: 0 Preschool 1 Primary 2 Secondary 3 Higher 8 DK If level=0, skip to ED7 Grade: 98 DK If less than 1 grade, enter 00. Level: 0 Preschool 1 Primary 2 Secondary 3 Higher 8 DK If level=0, go to next person Grade: 98 DK If less than 1 grade, enter 00. Line Name Age Yes No Level Grade Yes No Level Grade Y N DK Level Grade 01 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 02 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 03 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 04 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 05 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 06 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 07 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 08 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 09 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 10 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 11 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 12 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 13 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 14 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 15 __ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 203 WATER AND SANITATION WS WS1. WHAT IS THE MAIN SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER FOR MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Piped water Piped into dwelling . 11 Piped into compound, yard or plot . 12 Piped to neighbour . 13 Public tap / standpipe . 14 Tube Well, Borehole . 21 Dug well Protected well/Kariaz . 31 Unprotected well/Kariaz . 32 Water from spring Protected spring . 41 Unprotected spring . 42 Rainwater collection . 51 Tanker-truck . 61 Cart with small tank / drum . 71 Surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel,Candas) 81 Bottled water . 91 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 11 WS6 12 WS6 13 WS6 WS3 91 WS2 96 WS3 WS2. WHAT IS THE MAIN SOURCE OF WATER USED BY YOUR HOUSEHOLD FOR OTHER PURPOSES SUCH AS COOKING AND HANDWASHING? Piped water Piped into dwelling . 11 Piped into compound, yard or plot . 12 Piped to neighbour . 13 Public tap / standpipe . 14 Tube Well, Borehole . 21 Dug well Protected well/Kariaz . 31 Unprotected well/Kariaz . 32 Water from spring Protected spring 41 Unprotected spring . 42 Rainwater collection . 51 Tanker-truck . 61 Cart with small tank / drum . 71 Surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel, Candas )81 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 11 WS6 12 WS6 13 WS6 WS3. WHERE IS THAT WATER SOURCE LOCATED? In own dwelling . 1 In own yard / plot . 2 Elsewhere . 3 1 WS6 2 WS6 WS4. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO GO THERE, GET WATER, AND COME BACK? Number of minutes . __ __ __ DK . 998 204 WS5. WHO USUALLY GOES TO THIS SOURCE TO COLLECT THE WATER FOR YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Probe: IS THIS PERSON UNDER AGE 15? WHAT SEX? Adult woman (age 15+ years) . 1 Adult man (age 15+ years) . 2 Female child (under 15) . 3 Male child (under 15) . 4 DK . 8 WS6. DO YOU DO ANYTHING TO THE WATER TO MAKE IT SAFER TO DRINK? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2 WS8 8 WS8 WS7. WHAT DO YOU USUALLY DO TO MAKE THE WATER SAFER TO DRINK? Probe: ANYTHING ELSE? Record all items mentioned Boil . A Add bleach / chlorine . B Strain it through a cloth . C Use water filter (ceramic, sand, composite, etc.) . D Solar disinfection . E Let it stand and settle . F Other (specify) _____________________ X DK . Z WS8. WHAT KIND OF TOILET FACILITY DO MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD USUALLY USE? If flush or pour flush , probe: WHERE DOES IT FLUSH TO? If necessary, ask permission to observe the facility. Flush / Pour flush Flush to piped sewer system . 11 Flush to septic tank . 12 Flush to pit (latrine) . 13 Flush to somewhere else . 14 Flush to unknown place / Not sure / DK where . 15 Pit latrine Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP) . 21 Pit latrine with slab . 22 Pit latrine without slab / Open pit . 23 Composting toilet . 31 Bucket . 41 Double vault . 51 Eco Sanitation 61 Single vault .71 No facility, Bush, Field . 95 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 95 Next Module WS9. DO YOU SHARE THIS FACILITY WITH OTHERS WHO ARE NOT MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 Next Module WS10. DO YOU SHARE THIS FACILITY ONLY WITH MEMBERS OF OTHER HOUSEHOLDS THAT YOU KNOW, OR IS THE FACILITY OPEN TO THE USE OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC? Other households only (not public) . 1 Public facility . 2 2 Next Module WS11. HOW MANY HOUSEHOLDS IN TOTAL USE THIS TOILET FACILITY, INCLUDING YOUR OWN HOUSEHOLD? Number of households (if less than 10) 0 __ Ten or more households . 10 DK . 98 205 HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS HC HC1B. WHAT IS THE MOTHER TONGUE/NATIVE LANGUAGE OF THE HEAD OF THIS HOUSEHOLD? Pashto . 1 Dari . 2 Uzbek . 3 Turkmen . 4 Other language (specify) . 6 HC2. HOW MANY ROOMS IN THIS HOUSEHOLD ARE USED FOR SLEEPING? Number of rooms . __ __ HC3. Main material of the dwelling floor. Record observation. Natural floor Earth / Sand / Mud . 11 Dung . 12 Rudimentary floor Wood planks . 21 Palm / Bamboo . 22 Finished floor Parquet or polished wood . 31 Vinyl or asphalt strips . 32 Ceramic tiles . 33 Cement . 34 Carpet . 35 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 HC4. Main material of the roof. Record observation. Natural roofing No Roof . 11 Thatch / Palm leaf . 12 Sod . 13 Rudimentary Roofing Rustic mat . 21 Palm / Bamboo . 22 Wood planks . 23 Cardboard . 24 Finished roofing Metal . 31 Wood . 32 Calamine / Cement fibre . 33 Ceramic tiles . 34 Cement . 35 Roofing shingles . 36 Other (specify) ______________________ 96 206 HC5. Main material of the exterior walls. Record observation. Natural walls No walls . 11 Cane / Palm / Trunks . 12 Dirt . 13 Rudimentary walls Mud wall/Bamboo with mud. 21 Stone with mud . 22 Uncovered adobe . 23 Plywood . 24 Cardboard . 25 Reused wood . 26 Finished walls Cement . 31 Stone with lime / cement . 32 Bricks . 33 Cement blocks . 34 Covered adobe . 35 Wood planks / shingles . 36 Other (specify) ______________________ 96 HC6. WHAT TYPE OF FUEL DOES YOUR HOUSEHOLD MAINLY USE FOR COOKING? Electricity . 01 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) . 02 Natural gas . 03 Biogas . 04 Kerosene . 05 Coal / Lignite . 06 Charcoal . 07 Wood . 08 Straw / Shrubs / Grass . 09 Animal dung . 10 Agricultural crop residue . 11 No food cooked in household . 95 Other (specify) ______________________ 96 01 HC8 02 HC8 03 HC8 04 HC8 05 HC8 95 HC8 HC7. IS THE COOKING USUALLY DONE IN THE HOUSE, IN A SEPARATE BUILDING, OR OUTDOORS? If In the house , probe: IS IT DONE IN A SEPARATE ROOM USED AS A KITCHEN? In the house In a separate room used as kitchen . 1 Elsewhere in the house . 2 In a separate building . 3 Outdoors . 4 Other (specify) ______________________ 6 HC8. DOES YOUR HOUSEHOLD HAVE: [A] ELECTRICITY? [B] A RADIO? [C] A TELEVISION? [D] A NON-MOBILE TELEPHONE? [E] A REFRIGERATOR? Yes No Electricity . 1 2 Radio . 1 2 Television . 1 2 Non-mobile telephone . 1 2 Refrigerator . 1 2 HC9. DOES ANY MEMBER OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD OWN: Yes No 207 [A] A WATCH? [B] A MOBILE TELEPHONE? [C] A BICYCLE? [D] A MOTORCYCLE OR SCOOTER? [E] AN ANIMAL-DRAWN CART? [F] A CAR OR TRUCK? Watch . 1 2 Mobile telephone . 1 2 Bicycle . 1 2 Motorcycle / Scooter . 1 2 Animal drawn-cart . 1 2 Car / Truck . 1 2 HC10. DO YOU OR SOMEONE LIVING IN THIS HOUSEHOLD OWN THIS DWELLING, OR IS THIS DWELLING RENTED? - If Not Owned , then ask: DO YOU RENT THIS DWELLING FROM SOMEONE NOT LIVING IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? If Rented from someone else , circle 2 . For other responses, circle 6 . Own . 1 Rent . 2 Other (Not owned or rented) . 6 HC11. DOES ANY MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD OWN ANY LAND THAT CAN BE USED FOR AGRICULTURE? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 HC13 HC12. HOW MANY JIRIB OF AGRICULTURAL LAND DO MEMBERS OF THIS HOUSEHOLD OWN? If less than 1, record 00 . If 95 or more, record 95 . If unknown, record 98 . Jirib . ___ ___ HC13. DOES THIS HOUSEHOLD OWN ANY LIVESTOCK, HERDS, OTHER FARM ANIMALS, OR POULTRY? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 HC15 HC14. HOW MANY OF THE FOLLOWING ANIMALS DOES THIS HOUSEHOLD HAVE? [A] CATTLE, MILK COWS, OR BULLS? [B] HORSES, DONKEYS, OR MULES? [C] GOATS? [D] SHEEP? [E] POULTRY? If none, record 00 . If 95 or more, record 95 . If unknown, record 98 . Cattle, milk cows, or bulls . ___ ___ Horses, donkeys, or mules . ___ ___ Goats . ___ ___ Sheep . ___ ___ Poultry . ___ ___ ___ ___ HC15. DOES ANY MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD HAVE A BANK ACCOUNT? Yes . 1 No . 2 208 CHILD LABOUR CL To be administered for children in the household age 5-14 years. For household members below age 5 or above age 14, leave rows blank. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK ABOUT ANY WORK CHILDREN IN THIS HOUSEHOLD MAY DO. CL1. Line number CL2. Name and Age Copy from Household Listing Form, HL2 and HL6 CL3. DURING THE PAST WEEK, DID (name) DO ANY KIND OF WORK FOR SOMEONE WHO IS NOT A MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD? If yes: FOR PAY IN CASH OR KIND? 1 Yes, for pay (cash or kind) 2 Yes, unpaid 3 No CL5 CL4. SINCE LAST (day of the week), ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID HE/SHE DO THIS WORK FOR SOMEONE WHO IS NOT A MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD? If more than one job, include all hours at all jobs. CL5. DURING THE PAST WEEK, DID (name) FETCH WATER OR COLLECT FIREWOOD FOR HOUSEHOLD USE? 1 Yes 2 No CL7 CL6. SINCE LAST (day of the week), ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID HE/SHE FETCH WATER OR COLLECT FIREWOOD FOR HOUSEHOLD USE? CL7. DURING THE PAST WEEK, DID (name) DO ANY PAID OR UNPAID WORK ON A FAMILY FARM OR IN A FAMILY BUSINESS OR SELLING GOODS IN THE STREET? Include work for a business run by the child, alone or with one or more partners. 1 Yes 2 No CL9 CL8. SINCE LAST (day of the week), ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID HE/SHE DO THIS WORK FOR HIS/HER FAMILY OR HIMSELF/ HERSELF? CL9. DURING THE PAST WEEK, DID (name) HELP WITH HOUSEHOLD CHORES SUCH AS SHOPPING, CLEANING, WASHING CLOTHES, COOKING; OR CARING FOR CHILDREN, OLD OR SICK PEOPLE? 1 Yes 2 No Next Line CL10. SINCE LAST (day of the week), ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID HE/SHE SPEND DOING THESE CHORES? Line Yes No Number Number Number Number Name Age Paid Unpaid of hours Yes No of hours Yes No of hours Yes No of hours 01 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 02 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 03 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 04 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 05 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 06 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 07 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 08 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 09 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 10 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 11 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 12 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 13 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 14 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 15 __ __ 1 2 3 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 1 2 ____ ____ 209 CHILD DISCIPLINE CD TABLE 1: CHILDREN AGED 2-14 YEARS ELIGIBLE FOR CHILD DISCIPLINE QUESTIONS o List each of the children aged 2-14 years below in the order they appear in the Household Listing Form. Do not include other household members outside of the age range 2-14 years. o Record the line number, name, sex, and age for each child. o Then record the total number of children aged 2-14 in the box provided (CD6). CD1. Rank number CD2. Line number from HL1 CD3. Name from HL2 CD4. Sex from HL4 CD5. Age from HL6 Rank Line Name M F Age 1 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 2 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 3 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 4 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 5 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 6 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 7 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ CD6. Total children age 2-14 years ___ ___ o If there is only one child age 2-14 years in the household, then skip table 2 and go to CD8; write down 1 and continue with CD9 TABLE 2: SELECTION OF RANDOM CHILD FOR CHILD DISCIPLINE QUESTIONS o Use Table 2 to select one child between the ages of 2 and 14 years, if there is more than one child in that age range in the household. o Check the last digit of the household number (HH2) from the cover page. This is the number of the row you should go to in the table below. o Check the total number of eligible children (2-14) in CD6 above. This is the number of the column you should go to. o Find the box where the row and the column meet and circle the number that appears in the box. This is the rank number of the child (CD1) about whom the questions will be asked. CD7. Total Number Of Eligible Children In The Household (CD6) Last digit of household number (HH2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ 0 1 2 2 4 3 6 5 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 6 5 2 1 2 1 2 5 2 7 6 3 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 7 4 1 2 3 4 2 4 2 8 5 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 1 6 1 2 2 2 4 6 4 2 7 1 1 3 3 5 1 5 3 8 1 2 1 4 1 2 6 4 9 1 1 2 1 2 3 7 5 CD8. Record the rank number of the selected child . ___ 210 CD9. Write name and line number of the child selected for the module from CD3 and CD2, based on the rank number in CD8. Name _____________________________ Line number . __ __ CD10. ADULTS USE CERTAIN WAYS TO TEACH CHILDREN THE RIGHT BEHAVIOUR OR TO ADDRESS A BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM. I WILL READ VARIOUS METHODS THAT ARE USED AND I WANT YOU TO TELL ME IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD HAS USED THIS METHOD WITH (name) IN THE PAST MONTH. CD11. TOOK AWAY PRIVILEGES, FORBADE SOMETHING (name) LIKED OR DID NOT ALLOW HIM/HER TO LEAVE HOUSE. Yes .1 No .2 CD12. EXPLAINED WHY (name) S BEHAVIOR WAS WRONG. Yes .1 No .2 CD13. SHOOK HIM/HER. Yes .1 No .2 CD14. SHOUTED, YELLED AT OR SCREAMED AT HIM/HER. Yes .1 No .2 CD15. GAVE HIM/HER SOMETHING ELSE TO DO. Yes .1 No .2 CD16. SPANKED, HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE BOTTOM WITH BARE HAND. Yes .1 No .2 CD17. HIT HIM/HER ON THE BOTTOM OR ELSEWHERE ON THE BODY WITH SOMETHING LIKE A BELT, HAIRBRUSH, STICK OR OTHER HARD OBJECT. Yes .1 No .2 CD18. CALLED HIM/HER DUMB, LAZY, OR ANOTHER NAME LIKE THAT. Yes .1 No .2 CD19. HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE FACE, HEAD OR EARS. Yes .1 No .2 CD20. HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE HAND, ARM, OR LEG. Yes .1 No .2 CD21. BEAT HIM/HER UP WITH AN IMPLEMENT Probe if necessary: HIT OVER AND OVER AS HARD AS ONE COULD. Yes .1 No .2 CD22. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT IN ORDER TO BRING UP, RAISE, OR EDUCATE A CHILD PROPERLY, THE CHILD NEEDS TO BE PHYSICALLY PUNISHED? Yes .1 No .2 Don t know / No opinion .8 211 HANDWASHING HW HW1. PLEASE SHOW ME WHERE MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD MOST OFTEN WASH THEIR HANDS. Observed .1 Not observed Not in dwelling / plot / yard.2 No permission to see .3 Other reason .6 2 HW4 3 HW4 6 HW4 HW2. Observe presence of water at the specific place for hand washing Verify by checking the tap/pump, or basin, bucket, water container or similar objects for presence of water Water is available .1 Water is not available .2 HW3. Record if soap or detergent is present at the specific place for hand washing. Circle all that apply. Bar soap . A Detergent (Powder / Liquid / Paste) . B Liquid soap . C Ash / Mud / Sand . D None . Y HH19 HW4. DO YOU HAVE ANY SOAP OR DETERGENT IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD FOR WASHING HANDS? Yes .1 No .2 2 HH19 HW5. CAN YOU PLEASE SHOW IT TO ME? Record observation. Circle all that apply Bar soap . A Detergent (Powder / Liquid / Paste) . B Liquid soap . C Ash / Mud / Sand . D Not able / Does not want to show . Y 212 HH19. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ SALT IODIZATION SI SI1. WE WOULD LIKE TO CHECK WHETHER THE SALT USED IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD IS IODIZED. MAY I HAVE A SAMPLE OF THE SALT USED TO COOK MEALS IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Once you have tested the salt, circle number that corresponds to test outcome. Not iodized 0 PPM .1 More than 0 PPM & less than 15 PPM .2 15 PPM or more .3 No salt in the house .6 Salt not tested .7 HH20. Does any eligible woman age 15-49 reside in the household? Check household listing, column HL7 for any eligible woman. You should have a questionnaire with the Information Panel filled in for each eligible woman. Yes. Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAL WOMEN to administer the questionnaire to the first eligible woman. No. Continue. HH21. Does any child under the age of 5 reside in the household? Check household listing, column HL9 for any eligible child under age 5. You should have a questionnaire with the Information Panel filled in for each eligible child. Yes. Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE to administer the questionnaire to mother or caretaker of the first eligible child. No. End the interview by thanking the respondent for his/her cooperation. Gather together all questionnaires for this household and complete the relevant information on the cover page. Interviewer s Observations 213 Field Editor s Observations Supervisor s Observations 214 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE [Afghanistan] UNDER-FIVE CHILD INFORMATION PANEL UF This questionnaire is to be administered to all mothers or caretakers (see Household Listing Form, column HL9) who care for a child that lives with them and is under the age of 5 years (see Household Listing Form, column HL6). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible child. UF1. Cluster number: UF2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ UF3. Child s name: UF4. Child s line number: Name ___ ___ UF5. Mother s / Caretaker s name: UF6. Mother s / Caretaker s line number: Name ___ ___ UF7. Interviewer name and number: UF8. Day / Month / Year of interview: Name ___ ___ ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ UF8A: Is this Child selected for the Nutrition Survey sub-sample? Y 1 N 2 Repeat greeting if not already read to this respondent: WE ARE FROM CENTRAL STATISTICS ORGANISATION (CSO). WE ARE WORKING ON A PROJECT CONCERNED WITH FAMILY HEALTH AND EDUCATION. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT (name) S HEALTH AND WELL-BEING. THE INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT (45) MINUTES. ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND YOUR ANSWERS WILL NEVER BE SHARED WITH ANYONE OTHER THAN OUR PROJECT TEAM. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this woman, then read the following: NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU MORE ABOUT (child s name from UF3) S HEALTH AND OTHER TOPICS. THIS INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT (45) MINUTES. AGAIN, ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND YOUR ANSWERS WILL NEVER BE SHARED WITH ANYONE OTHER THAN OUR PROJECT TEAM. MAY I START NOW? Yes, permission is given Go to UF12 to record the time and then begin the interview. No, permission is not given Complete UF9. Discuss this result with your supervisor UF9. Result of interview for children under 5 Codes refer to mother/caretaker. Completed . 1 Not at home . 2 Refused . 3 Partly completed . 4 Incapacitated . 5 Other (specify) ____________________________ 9 UF10. Field edited by (Name and number): UF11. Data entry clerk (Name and number): 215 Name _________________________ ___ ___ Name ___________________________ ___ ___ AGE AG AG1. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE HEALTH OF (name). IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR WAS (name) BORN? Probe: WHAT IS HIS / HER BIRTHDAY? If the mother/caretaker knows the exact birth date, also enter the day; otherwise, circle 98 for day Month and year must be recorded. Date of birth Day . __ __ DK day .98 Month . __ __ Year . __ __ __ __ AG2. HOW OLD IS (name)? Probe: HOW OLD WAS (name) AT HIS / HER LAST BIRTHDAY? Record age in completed years. Record 0 if less than 1 year. Compare and correct AG1 and/or AG2 if inconsistent. Age (in completed years) . __ UF12. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ 216 BIRTH REGISTRATION BR BR1. DOES (name) HAVE A BIRTH CERTIFICATE? If yes, ask: MAY I SEE IT? Yes, seen . 1 Yes, not seen . 2 No . 3 DK . 8 1 Next Module 2 Next Module BR2. HAS (name) S BIRTH BEEN REGISTERED WITH THE CIVIL AUTHORITIES? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 1 Next Module BR3. DO YOU KNOW HOW TO REGISTER YOUR CHILD S BIRTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 Next Module BR4. WHY IS (name) S BIRTH NOT REGISTERED? Must travel too far . 1 Did not know it should be registered . 2 Did not want to get in trouble . 3 with authorities Does not know where to register . 4 Hospital didn t register the baby . 5 Other (specify) ______________________6 DK . 8 217 EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT EC EC1. HOW MANY CHILDREN S BOOKS OR PICTURE BOOKS DO YOU HAVE FOR (name)? None . 00 Number of children s books . 0 __ Ten or more books . 10 EC2. I AM INTERESTED IN LEARNING ABOUT THE THINGS THAT (name) PLAYS WITH WHEN HE/SHE IS AT HOME. DOES HE/SHE PLAY WITH [A] HOMEMADE TOYS (SUCH AS DOLLS, CARS, OR OTHER TOYS MADE AT HOME)? [B] TOYS FROM A SHOP OR MANUFACTURED TOYS? [C] HOUSEHOLD OBJECTS (SUCH AS BOWLS OR POTS) OR OBJECTS FOUND OUTSIDE (SUCH AS STICKS, ROCKS, ANIMAL SHELLS OR LEAVES)? If the respondent says YES to the categories above, then probe to learn specifically what the child plays with to ascertain the response Y N DK Homemade toys . 1 2 8 Toys from a shop . 1 2 8 Household objects or outside objects . 1 2 8 EC3. SOMETIMES ADULTS TAKING CARE OF CHILDREN HAVE TO LEAVE THE HOUSE TO GO SHOPPING, WASH CLOTHES, OR FOR OTHER REASONS AND HAVE TO LEAVE YOUNG CHILDREN. ON HOW MANY DAYS IN THE PAST WEEK WAS (name): [A] LEFT ALONE FOR MORE THAN AN HOUR? [B] LEFT IN THE CARE OF ANOTHER CHILD (THAT IS, SOMEONE LESS THAN 10 YEARS OLD) FOR MORE THAN AN HOUR? If none enter 0 . If don t know enter 8 Number of days left alone for more than an hour . __ Number of days left with other child for more than an hour . __ EC4. Check AG2: Age of child Child age 3 or 4 Continue with EC5 Child age 0, 1 or 2 Go to Next Module 218 EC5. DOES (name) ATTEND ANY ORGANIZED LEARNING OR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMME, SUCH AS A PRIVATE OR GOVERNMENT FACILITY, INCLUDING KINDERGARTEN OR COMMUNITY CHILD CARE? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2 EC7 8 EC7 EC5A. WHAT TYPE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMME DOES (name) ATTEND? Community . 1 Government . 2 Private . 3 DK . 8 EC6. WITHIN THE LAST SEVEN DAYS, ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID (name) ATTEND? Number of hours . __ __ EC7. IN THE PAST 3 DAYS, DID YOU OR ANY HOUSEHOLD MEMBER OVER 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGE IN ANY OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES WITH (name): If yes, ask: WHO ENGAGED IN THIS ACTIVITY WITH (name)? Circle all that apply. Mother Father Other No one [A] READ BOOKS TO OR LOOKED AT PICTURE BOOKS WITH (name)? Read books A B X Y [B] TOLD STORIES TO (name)? Told stories A B X Y [C] SANG SONGS TO (name) OR WITH (name), INCLUDING LULLABYS? Sang songs A B X Y [D] TOOK (name) OUTSIDE THE HOME, COMPOUND, YARD OR ENCLOSURE? Took outside A B X Y [E] PLAYED WITH (name)? Played with A B X Y [F] NAMED, COUNTED, OR DREW THINGS TO OR WITH (name)? Named/counted A B X Y 219 BREASTFEEDING BF BF1. HAS (name) EVER BEEN BREASTFED? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 BF3 8 BF3 BF2. IS HE/SHE STILL BEING BREASTFED? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 BF3. I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU ABOUT LIQUIDS THAT (name) MAY HAVE HAD YESTERDAY DURING THE DAY OR THE NIGHT. I AM INTERESTED IN WHETHER (name) HAD THE ITEM EVEN IF IT WAS COMBINED WITH OTHER FOODS. DID (name) DRINK PLAIN WATER YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 BF4. DID (name) DRINK INFANT FORMULA YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 BF6 8 BF6 BF5. HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) DRINK INFANT FORMULA? Number of times . __ __ BF6. DID (name) DRINK MILK, SUCH AS TINNED, POWDERED OR FRESH ANIMAL MILK YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 BF8 8 BF8 BF7. HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) DRINK TINNED, POWDERED OR FRESH ANIMAL MILK? Number of times . __ __ BF8. DID (name) DRINK JUICE OR JUICE DRINKS YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 BF9. DID (name) DRINK SOUP YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 BF10. DID (name) DRINK OR EAT VITAMIN OR MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS OR ANY MEDICINES YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 BF11. DID (name) DRINK ORS (ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTION) YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 220 BF12. DID (name) DRINK ANY OTHER LIQUIDS YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 BF13. DID (name) DRINK OR EAT YOGURT YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 BF15 8 BF15 BF14. HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) DRINK OR EAT YOGURT YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Number of times . __ __ BF15. DID (NAME) EAT THIN PORRIDGE YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 BF16. DID (name) EAT SOLID OR SEMI-SOLID (SOFT, MUSHY) FOOD YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 BF18 8 BF18 BF17. HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) EAT SOLID OR SEMI-SOLID (SOFT, MUSHY) FOOD YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Number of times . __ __ BF18. YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT, DID (name) DRINK ANYTHING FROM A BOTTLE WITH A NIPPLE? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 BF19. YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT, WAS (name) GIVEN A PACIFIER? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 221 CARE OF ILLNESS CA CA1. IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, HAS (name) HAD DIARRHOEA? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 CA7 8 CA7 CA2. I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW HOW MUCH (name) WAS GIVEN TO DRINK DURING THE DIARRHOEA (INCLUDING BREASTMILK). DURING THE TIME (name) HAD DIARRHOEA, WAS HE/SHE GIVEN LESS THAN USUAL TO DRINK, ABOUT THE SAME AMOUNT, OR MORE THAN USUAL? If less, probe: WAS HE/SHE GIVEN MUCH LESS THAN USUAL TO DRINK, OR SOMEWHAT LESS? Much less .1 Somewhat less .2 About the same.3 More .4 Nothing to drink .5 DK .8 CA3. DURING THE TIME (name) HAD DIARRHOEA, WAS HE/SHE GIVEN LESS THAN USUAL TO EAT, ABOUT THE SAME AMOUNT, MORE THAN USUAL, OR NOTHING TO EAT? If less , probe: WAS HE/SHE GIVEN MUCH LESS THAN USUAL TO EAT OR SOMEWHAT LESS? Much less .1 Somewhat less .2 About the same.3 More .4 Stopped food .5 Never gave food .6 DK .8 CA4. DURING THE EPISODE OF DIARRHOEA, WAS (name) GIVEN TO DRINK ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: Read each item aloud and record response before proceeding to the next item. [A] A FLUID MADE FROM A SPECIAL PACKET CALLED ORS? [B] A PRE-PACKAGED ORS FLUID FOR DIARRHOEA? [C] GOVERNMENT-RECOMMENDED HOMEMADE FLUID (Wheat Salt Solution WSS)? [D] GOVERNMENT-RECOMMENDED HOMEMADE FLUID (Salt & Sugar Solution SSS)? Y N DK Fluid from ORS packet . 1 2 8 Pre-packaged ORS fluid . 1 2 8 Homemade fluid WSS . 1 2 8 Homemade fluid SSS . 1 2 8 CA5. WAS ANYTHING (ELSE) GIVEN TO TREAT THE DIARRHOEA? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 CA7 8 CA7 222 CA6. WHAT (ELSE) WAS GIVEN TO TREAT THE DIARRHOEA? Probe: ANYTHING ELSE? Record all treatments given. Write brand name(s) of all medicines mentioned. (Name) Pill or Syrup Antibiotic . A Antimotility . B Zinc . C Other (Not antibiotic, antimotility or zinc) . G Unknown pill or syrup . H Injection Antibiotic .L Non-antibiotic .M Unknown injection . N Intravenous . O Home remedy / Herbal medicine . Q Other (specify) ______________________ X CA7. AT ANY TIME IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, HAS (name) HAD AN ILLNESS WITH A COUGH? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 CA14 8 CA14 CA8. WHEN (name) HAD AN ILLNESS WITH A COUGH, DID HE/SHE BREATHE FASTER THAN USUAL WITH SHORT, RAPID BREATHS OR HAVE DIFFICULTY BREATHING? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 CA14 8 CA14 CA9. WAS THE FAST OR DIFFICULT BREATHING DUE TO A PROBLEM IN THE CHEST OR A BLOCKED OR RUNNY NOSE? Problem in chest .1 Blocked or runny nose .2 Both .3 Other (specify) ______________________ 6 DK .8 2 CA14 6 CA14 CA10. DID YOU SEEK ANY ADVICE OR TREATMENT FOR THE ILLNESS FROM ANY SOURCE? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 CA12 8 CA12 CA11. FROM WHERE DID YOU SEEK ADVICE OR TREATMENT? Probe: ANYWHERE ELSE? Circle all providers mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions. Probe to identify each type of source. If unable to determine if public or private sector, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Public sector Govt. hospital . A Govt. health centre . B Govt. health post . C Village health worker . D Mobile / Outreach clinic . E Other public (specify) _______________ H Private medical sector Private hospital / clinic . I Private physician . J Private pharmacy . K Mobile clinic .L Other private medical (specify) ________ O Other source Relative / Friend . P Shop . Q Traditional practitioner . R Other (specify) ______________________ X 223 CA12. WAS (name) GIVEN ANY MEDICINE TO TREAT THIS ILLNESS? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 CA14 8 CA14 CA13. WHAT MEDICINE WAS (name) GIVEN? Probe: ANY OTHER MEDICINE? Circle all medicines given. Write brand name(s) of all medicines mentioned. (Names of medicines) Antibiotic Pill / Syrup . A Injection . B Anti-malarials .M Paracetamol / Panadol / Acetaminophen . P Aspirin . Q Ibuprofen . R Other (specify) ______________________ X DK . Z CA14. Check AG2: Child aged under 3? Yes. Continue with CA15 No. Go to Next Module CA15. THE LAST TIME (name) PASSED STOOLS, WHAT WAS DONE TO DISPOSE OF THE STOOLS? Child used toilet / latrine .01 Put / Rinsed into toilet or latrine .02 Put / Rinsed into drain or ditch .03 Thrown into garbage (solid waste) .04 Buried .05 Left in the open .06 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 DK .98 224 IMMUNIZATION IM If an immunization card is available, copy the dates in IM3-IM8 for each type of immunization recorded on the card. IM6-IM16 are for registering vaccinations that are not recorded on the card. IM6-IM16 will only be asked when a card is not available. IM1. DO YOU HAVE A A CARD WHERE (name) S VACCINATIONS ARE WRITTEN DOWN? (If yes) MAY I SEE IT PLEASE? Yes, seen .1 Yes, not seen .2 No card .3 1 IM3 2 IM6 IM2. DID YOU EVER HAVE A VACCINATION CARD FOR (name)? Yes .1 No .2 1 IM6 2 IM6 IM3. (a) Copy dates for each vaccination from the card. (b) Write 44 in day column if card shows that vaccination was given but no date recorded. Date of Immunization Day Month Year BCG BCG POLIO AT BIRTH OPV0 POLIO 1 OPV1 POLIO 2 OPV2 POLIO 3 OPV3 DPT1 DPT1 DPT2 DPT2 DPT3 DPT3 HEPB1 H1 HEPB2 H2 HEPB3 H3 MEASLES MEASLES VITAMIN A (MOST RECENT) VITA IM4. Check IM3. Are all vaccines (BCG to Yellow Fever) recorded? Yes Continue with IM18 No Continue with IM5 IM5. IN ADDITION TO WHAT IS RECORDED ON THIS CARD, DID (name) RECEIVE ANY OTHER VACCINATIONS INCLUDING VACCINATIONS RECEIVED IN CAMPAIGNS OR IMMUNIZATION Yes .1 (Probe for vaccinations and write 66 in the corresponding day column for each vaccine 225 DAYS? Record Yes only if respondent mentions vaccines shown in the table above. mentioned. Then skip to IM18.) No .2 DK .8 2 IM18 8 IM18 IM6. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED ANY VACCINATIONS TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING DISEASES, INCLUDING VACCINATIONS RECEIVED IN A CAMPAIGN OR IMMUNIZATION DAY? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 IM18 8 IM18 IM7. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED A BCG VACCINATION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE ARM OR SHOULDER THAT USUALLY CAUSES A SCAR? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 IM8. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED ANY VACCINATION DROPS IN THE MOUTH TO PROTECT HIM/HER FROM GETTING DISEASES THAT IS, POLIO? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 IM11 8 IM11 IM9. WAS THE FIRST POLIO VACCINE RECEIVED IN THE FIRST TWO WEEKS AFTER BIRTH OR LATER? First two weeks .1 Later .2 IM10. HOW MANY TIMES WAS THE POLIO VACCINE RECEIVED? Number of times .__ IM11. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED A DPT VACCINATION THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE THIGH OR BUTTOCKS TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING TETANUS, WHOOPING COUGH, DIPHTHERIA? Probe by indicating that DPT vaccination is sometimes given at the same time as Polio Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 IM13 8 IM13 IM12. HOW MANY TIMES WAS A DPT VACCINE RECEIVED? Number of times .__ IM13. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN A HEPATITIS B VACCINATION THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE THIGH OR BUTTOCKS TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING HEPATITIS B Probe by indicating that the Hepatitis B vaccine is sometimes given at the same time as Polio and DPT vaccines Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 2 IM16 8 IM16 IM14. WAS THE FIRST HEPATITIS B VACCINE RECEIVED WITHIN 24 HOURS AFTER BIRTH, OR LATER? Within 24 hours .1 Later .2 IM15. HOW MANY TIMES WAS A HEPATITIS B VACCINE RECEIVED? Number of times .__ IM16. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED A MEASLES INJECTIONS THAT IS, A SHOT IN THE ARM AT THE AGE OF 9 MONTHS OR OLDER - TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING MEASLES? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 226 IM18. HAS (name) RECEIVED A VITAMIN A DOSE LIKE (THIS/ANY OF THESE) WITHIN THE LAST 6 MONTHS? Show 100,000 IU capsule (blue) or dispenser. Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 IM19 Please tell me if (name) has participated in any of the following campaigns, national immunization days and/or vitamin A or child health days: [A] Polio NIDs 2008 [B] Polio NIDs 2009 [c] Tetanus NIDs 2008 [d] Tetanus NIDs 2009 [E] Vit A 2008 [F] Vit a 2009 Y N DK A POLIO NIDS 2008 1 2 8 B POLIO NIDS 2009 . 1 2 8 C TETANUS NIDS 2008 . 1 2 8 D TETANUS NIDS 2009 . 1 2 8 E VIT A 2008 . 1 2 8 F VIT A 2009 . 1 2 8 UF13. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ UF14. Does another eligible child reside in the household for whom this respondent is mother/caretaker? Yes. Indicate to the respondent that you will need to measure the weight and height of the child later. Go to the next QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE to be administered to the same respondent No. End the interview with this respondent by thanking him/her for his/her cooperation and tell her/him that you will need to measure the weight and height of the child. Check to see if there are other woman s or under-5 questionnaires to be administered in this household. Move to another woman s or under-5 questionnaire, or start making arrangements for anthropometric measurements of all eligible children in the household. 227 ANTHROPOMETRY AN After questionnaires for all children are complete, the measurer weighs and measures each child. Record weight and length/height below, taking care to record the measurements on the correct questionnaire for each child. Check the child s name and line number on the household listing before recording measurements. an1. Measurer s name and number: Name ___ ___ an2. Result of height / length and weight measurement Either or both measured .1 Child not present.2 Child or caretaker refused .3 Other (specify) ______________________ 6 2 AN6 3 AN6 6 AN6 an3. Child s weight Kilograms (kg) . __ __ . __ Weight not measured . 99.9 an4. Child s length or height Check age of child in AG2: Child under 2 years old. Measure length (lying down). Child age 2 or more years. Measure height (standing up). Length (cm) Lying down . 1 __ __ __ . __ Height (cm) Standing up . 2 __ __ __ . __ Length / Height not measured . 9999.9 AN5. OEDEMA Observe and record Checked Oedema present .1 Oedema not present .2 Unsure .3 Not checked (specify reason) .7 AN5A Check age of child in AG1: Is the Child under 6 months? Yes. go to AN6 No. Continue with AN5B AN5B MUAC Observe and record Checked MUAC (mm). __ __ __ 1 Not checked (specify reason).7 AN6. Is there another child in the household who is eligible for measurement? Yes. Record measurements for next child. No. Is this child part of the Sub-sample for Nutrition survey? Yes. Collect blood sample for Hemoglobin test for this child. 228 No. End the interview with this household by thanking all participants for their cooperation. Gather together all questionnaires for this household and check that all identification numbers are inserted on each page. Tally on the Household Information Panel the number of interviews completed. Interviewer s Observations Field Editor s Observations Supervisor s Observations 229 UNDER-FIVE CHILD SELECTED FOR BLOOD TEST SCU This questionnaire is to be administered to children under five who are selected for blood test SCU1. Cluster number: SCU2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ SCU3. Child s line number: SCU4. Interviewer name and number: ___ ___ Name ___ ___ SCU5. May I take blood from the child? No . 1 Yes . 2 SCU6: Have you taken sufficient blood? No . 1 Yes . 2 SCU7: Results of the haemoglobin level __ __ . __ (g/dl) 230 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAL WOMEN [Afghanistan] WOMAN S INFORMATION PANEL WM This questionnaire is to be administered to all women age 15 through 49 (see column HL7 of Household Listing Form). Fill in one form for each eligible woman WM1. Cluster number: WM2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ __ WM3. Woman s name: WM4. Woman s line number: Name ___ __ WM5. Interviewer name and number: WM6. Day / Month / Year of interview: Name ___ ___ ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ WM6A: Is this Woman selected for Nutrition Survey sub-sample? Y 1 N 2 Repeat greeting if not already read to this woman: WE ARE FROM THE CENTRAL STATISTICS ORGANISATION (CSO). WE ARE WORKING ON A PROJECT CONCERNED WITH FAMILY HEALTH AND EDUCATION. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT THESE SUBJECTS. THE INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT (30) MINUTES. ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND YOUR ANSWERS WILL NEVER BE SHARED WITH ANYONE OTHER THAN OUR PROJECT TEAM. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this woman, then read the following: NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU MORE ABOUT YOUR HEALTH AND OTHER TOPICS. THIS INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT (30) MINUTES. AGAIN, ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND YOUR ANSWERS WILL NEVER BE SHARED WITH ANYONE OTHER THAN OUR PROJECT TEAM. MAY I START NOW? Yes, permission is given Go to WM10 to record the time and then begin the interview. No, permission is not given Complete WM7. Discuss this result with your supervisor. WM7. Result of woman s interview Completed . 1 Not at home . 2 Refused . 3 Partly completed . 4 Incapacitated . 5 Other (specify) ____________________________ 9 WM8. Field edited by (Name and number): Name _________________________ ___ ___ WM9. Data entry clerk (Name and number): Name ___________________________ ___ ___ 231 WM10. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ WOMAN S BACKGROUND WB WB1. IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR WERE YOU BORN? Date of birth: Month . __ __ DK month . 98 Year . __ __ __ __ DK year . 9998 WB2. HOW OLD ARE YOU? Probe: HOW OLD WERE YOU AT YOUR LAST BIRTHDAY? Compare and correct WB1 and/or WB2 if inconsistent Age (in completed years) . __ __ WB3. HAVE YOU EVER ATTENDED SCHOOL OR PRESCHOOL? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 WB7 WB4. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOL YOU ATTENDED? Preschool . 0 Primary . 1 Secondary . 2 Higher . 3 0 WB7 WB5. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST GRADE YOU COMPLETED AT THAT LEVEL? If less than 1 grade, enter 00 Grade . __ __ WB6. Check WB4: Secondary or higher. Go to Next Module Primary Continue withWB7 WB7. NOW I WOULD LIKE YOU TO READ THIS SENTENCE TO ME. Show sentence on the card to respondent. If respondent cannot read whole sentence, probe: CAN YOU READ PART OF THE SENTENCE TO ME? Cannot read at all . 1 Able to read only parts of sentence . 2 Able to read whole sentence . 3 No sentence in required language __________________ 4 (specify language) Blind / mute, visually / speech impaired . 5 232 CHILD MORTALITY CM All questions refer only to LIVE births. CM1. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK ABOUT ALL THE BIRTHS YOU HAVE HAD DURING YOUR LIFE. HAVE YOU EVER GIVEN BIRTH? Yes .1 No .2 2 CM8 CM2. WHAT WAS THE DATE OF YOUR FIRST BIRTH? I MEAN THE VERY FIRST TIME YOU GAVE BIRTH, EVEN IF THE CHILD IS NO LONGER LIVING, OR WHOSE FATHER IS NOT YOUR CURRENT PARTNER. Skip to CM4 only if year of first birth is given. Otherwise, continue with CM3. Date of first birth Day . __ __ DK day .98 Month . __ __ DK month .98 Year . __ __ __ __ DK year . 9998 CM4 CM3. HOW MANY YEARS AGO DID YOU HAVE YOUR FIRST BIRTH? Completed years since first birth . __ __ CM4. DO YOU HAVE ANY SONS OR DAUGHTERS TO WHOM YOU HAVE GIVEN BIRTH WHO ARE NOW LIVING WITH YOU? Yes .1 No .2 2 CM6 CM5. HOW MANY SONS LIVE WITH YOU? HOW MANY DAUGHTERS LIVE WITH YOU? If none, record 00 . Sons at home . __ __ Daughters at home . __ __ CM6. DO YOU HAVE ANY SONS OR DAUGHTERS TO WHOM YOU HAVE GIVEN BIRTH WHO ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? Yes .1 No .2 2 CM8 CM7. HOW MANY SONS ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? HOW MANY DAUGHTERS ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? If none, record 00 . Sons elsewhere . __ __ Daughters elsewhere . __ __ CM8. HAVE YOU EVER GIVEN BIRTH TO A BOY OR GIRL WHO WAS BORN ALIVE BUT LATER DIED? If No probe by asking: I MEAN, TO A CHILD WHO EVER BREATHED OR CRIED OR SHOWED OTHER SIGNS OF LIFE EVEN IF HE OR SHE LIVED ONLY A FEW MINUTES OR HOURS? Yes .1 No .2 2 CM10 CM9. HOW MANY BOYS HAVE DIED? HOW MANY GIRLS HAVE DIED? If none, record 00 . Boys dead . __ __ Girls dead . __ __ CM10. Sum answers to CM5, CM7, and CM9. Sum . __ __ CM11. JUST TO MAKE SURE THAT I HAVE THIS RIGHT, YOU HAVE HAD IN TOTAL (total number) LIVE BIRTHS DURING YOUR LIFE. IS THIS CORRECT? 233 Yes. Check below: No births Go to ILLNESS SYMPTOMS Module One or more births Continue with CM12 No. Check responses to CM1-CM10 and make corrections as necessary before proceeding to CM12 CM12. OF THESE (total number) BIRTHS YOU HAVE HAD, WHEN DID YOU DELIVER THE LAST ONE (EVEN IF HE OR SHE HAS DIED)? Month and year must be recorded. Date of last birth Day . __ __ DK day .98 Month . __ __ Year . __ __ __ __ CM13. Check CM12: Last birth occurred within the last 2 years, that is, since (day and month of interview) in 2008 No live birth in last 2 years. Go to ILLNESS SYMPTOMS Module. Yes, live birth in last 2 years. Ask for the name of the child Name of child_______________________ If child has died, take special care when referring to this child by name in the following modules. Continue with the next module. 234 DESIRE FOR LAST BIRTH DB This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding date of interview. Check child mortality module CM13 and record name of last-born child here _____________________. Use this child s name in the following questions, where indicated. DB1. WHEN YOU GOT PREGNANT WITH (name), DID YOU WANT TO GET PREGNANT AT THAT TIME? Yes .1 No .2 1 Next Module DB2. DID YOU WANT TO HAVE A BABY LATER ON, OR DID YOU NOT WANT ANY (MORE) CHILDREN? Later .1 No more .2 2 Next Module DB3. HOW MUCH LONGER DID YOU WANT TO WAIT? Months . 1 __ __ Years . 2 __ __ DK . 998 235 MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH MN This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding date of interview. Check child mortality module CM13 and record name of last-born child here _____________________. Use this child s name in the following questions, where indicated. MN1. DID YOU SEE ANYONE FOR ANTENATAL CARE DURING YOUR PREGNANCY WITH (name)? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 MN5 MN2. WHOM DID YOU SEE? Probe: ANYONE ELSE? Probe for the type of person seen and circle all answers given. Health professional: Doctor . A Nurse / Midwife . B Auxiliary midwife . C Other person Traditional birth attendant . F Community health worker . G Other (specify) ______________________ X MN3. HOW MANY TIMES DID YOU RECEIVE ANTENATAL CARE DURING THIS PREGNANCY? Number of times . __ __ DK . 98 MN4. AS PART OF YOUR ANTENATAL CARE DURING THIS PREGNANCY, WERE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING DONE AT LEAST ONCE: [A] WAS YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED? [B] DID YOU GIVE A URINE SAMPLE? [C] DID YOU GIVE A BLOOD SAMPLE? Yes No Blood pressure . 1 2 Urine sample . 1 2 Blood sample . 1 2 MN5. DO YOU HAVE A CARD OR OTHER DOCUMENT WITH YOUR OWN IMMUNIZATIONS LISTED? MAY I SEE IT PLEASE? If a card is presented, use it to assist with answers to the following questions. Yes (card seen) . 1 Yes (card not seen) . 2 No . 3 DK . 8 MN6. WHEN YOU WERE PREGNANT WITH (name), DID YOU RECEIVE ANY INJECTION IN THE ARM OR SHOULDER TO PREVENT THE BABY FROM GETTING TETANUS, THAT IS CONVULSIONS AFTER BIRTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2 MN9 8 MN9 MN7. HOW MANY TIMES DID YOU RECEIVE THIS TETANUS INJECTION DURING YOUR PREGNANCY WITH (name)? If 7 or more times, record 7 . Number of times . __ DK . 8 8 MN9 MN8. How many tetanus injections during last pregnancy were reported in MN7? At least two tetanus injections during last pregnancy. Go to MN17 Fewer than two tetanus injections during last pregnancy. Continue with MN9 236 MN9. DID YOU RECEIVE ANY TETANUS INJECTION AT ANY TIME BEFORE YOUR PREGNANCY WITH (name), EITHER TO PROTECT YOURSELF OR ANOTHER BABY? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2 MN17 8 MN17 MN10. HOW MANY TIMES DID YOU RECEIVE A TETANUS INJECTION BEFORE YOUR PREGNANCY WITH (name)? If 7 or more times, record 7 . Number of times . __ DK . 8 8 MN17 MN11. HOW MANY YEARS AGO DID YOU RECEIVE THE LAST TETANUS INJECTION BEFORE YOUR PREGNANCY WITH (name)? Years ago . __ __ MN17. WHO ASSISTED WITH THE DELIVERY OF (name)? Probe: ANYONE ELSE? Probe for the type of person assisting and circle all answers given. If respondent says no one assisted, probe to determine whether any adults were present at the delivery. Health professional: Doctor . A Nurse / Midwife . B Auxiliary midwife . C Other person Traditional birth attendant . F Community health worker . G Relative / Friend . H Other (specify) ______________________ X No one . Y MN18. WHERE DID YOU GIVE BIRTH TO (name)? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Home Your home .11 Other home .12 Public sector Govt. hospital .21 Govt. clinic / health centre .22 Govt. health post .23 Other public (specify) ______________ 26 Private Medical Sector Private hospital .31 Private clinic .32 Private maternity home .33 Other private medical (specify) _______________ 36 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 11 MN23 12 MN23 96 MN23 MN19. WAS (name) DELIVERED BY CAESEREAN SECTION? THAT IS, DID THEY CUT YOUR BELLY OPEN TO TAKE THE BABY OUT? Yes .1 No .2 MN23. HAS YOUR MENSTRUAL PERIOD RETURNED SINCE THE BIRTH OF (name)? Yes .1 No .2 237 MN24. DID YOU EVER BREASTFEED (name)? Yes .1 No .2 2 Next Module MN25. HOW LONG AFTER BIRTH DID YOU FIRST PUT (name) TO THE BREAST? hours. Otherwise, record days. Immediately . 000 Hours . 1 __ __ Days . 2 __ __ Don t know / remember . 998 MN26. IN THE FIRST THREE DAYS AFTER DELIVERY, WAS (name) GIVEN ANYTHING TO DRINK OTHER THAN BREAST MILK? Yes .1 No .2 2 MN28 MN27. WHAT WAS (name) GIVEN TO DRINK? Probe: ANYTHING ELSE? Milk (other than breast milk) . A Plain water . B Sugar or glucose water . C Gripe water . D Sugar-salt-water solution . E Fruit juice . F Infant formula . G Tea / Infusions . H Honey . I Other (specify) ______________________ X MN28. IN THE FIRST TWO MONTHS AFTER THE BIRTH OF (name), DID YOU RECEIVE A VITAMIN A DOSE LIKE THIS? Show 200,000 IU capsule (red) or dispenser. Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 238 ILLNESS SYMPTOMS IS IS1. Check Household Listing, column HL9 Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of any child under age 5? Yes. Continue with IS2. No. Go to Next Module. IS2. SOMETIMES CHILDREN HAVE SEVERE ILLNESSES AND SHOULD BE TAKEN IMMEDIATELY TO A HEALTH FACILITY. WHAT TYPES OF SYMPTOMS WOULD CAUSE YOU TO TAKE YOUR CHILD TO A HEALTH FACILITY RIGHT AWAY? Probe: ANY OTHER SYMPTOMS? Keep asking for more signs or symptoms until the mother/caretaker cannot recall any additional symptoms. Circle all symptoms mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions Child not able to drink or breastfeed. A Child becomes sicker . B Child develops a fever . C Child has fast breathing . D Child has difficult breathing . E Child has blood in stool . F Child is drinking poorly . G Other (specify) ______________________ X Other (specify) ______________________ Y Other (specify) ______________________ Z 239 CONTRACEPTION CP CP1. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT ANOTHER SUBJECT FAMILY PLANNING. ARE YOU PREGNANT NOW? Yes, currently pregnant . 1 No . 2 Unsure or DK . 8 1 Next Module CP2. COUPLES USE VARIOUS WAYS OR METHODS TO DELAY OR AVOID A PREGNANCY. ARE YOU CURRENTLY DOING SOMETHING OR USING ANY METHOD TO DELAY OR AVOID GETTING PREGNANT? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 Next Module CP3. WHAT ARE YOU DOING TO DELAY OR AVOID A PREGNANCY? Do not prompt. If more than one method is mentioned, circle each one. Female sterilization . A Male sterilization . B IUD . C Injectables. D Implants . E Pill . F Male condom . G Female condom . H Diaphragm . I Foam / Jelly . J Lactational amenorrhoea method (LAM) . K Periodic abstinence/Rhythm . L Withdrawal . M Other (specify) ______________________ X 240 ATTITUDES TOWARD DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DV DV1. SOMETIMES A HUSBAND IS ANNOYED OR ANGERED BY THINGS THAT HIS WIFE DOES. IN YOUR OPINION, IS A HUSBAND JUSTIFIED IN HITTING OR BEATING HIS WIFE IN THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS: [A] IF SHE GOES OUT WITHOUT TELLING HIM? [B] IF SHE NEGLECTS THE CHILDREN? [C] IF SHE ARGUES WITH HIM? [D] IF SHE REFUSES TO HAVE SEX WITH HIM? [E] IF SHE BURNS THE FOOD? [F] IF SHE ISN T WEARING CLOTHING HE CONSIDERS APPROPRIATE? Yes No DK Goes out without telling . 1 2 8 Neglects children . 1 2 8 Argues . 1 2 8 Refuses sex . 1 2 8 Burns food . 1 2 8 Inappropriate clothing . 1 2 8 241 MARRIAGE/UNION MA MA1. ARE YOU CURRENTLY MARRIED OR LIVING TOGETHER WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? Yes, currently married . 1 Yes, living with a man . 2 No, not in union . 3 3 MA5 MA2. HOW OLD WAS YOUR HUSBAND/PARTNER? Probe: HOW OLD WAS YOUR HUSBAND/PARTNER ON HIS LAST BIRTHDAY? Age in years . __ __ DK . 98 MA3. BESIDES YOURSELF, DOES YOUR HUSBAND/PARTNER HAVE ANY OTHER WIVES OR PARTNERS OR DOES HE LIVE WITH OTHER WOMEN AS IF MARRIED? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 MA7 MA4. HOW MANY OTHER WIVES OR PARTNERS DOES HE HAVE? Number . __ __ DK . 98 MA7 98 MA7 MA5. HAVE YOU EVER BEEN MARRIED OR LIVED TOGETHER WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? Yes, formerly married . 1 Yes, formerly lived with a man . 2 No . 3 Next Module MA6. WHAT IS YOUR MARITAL STATUS NOW: ARE YOU WIDOWED, DIVORCED OR SEPARATED? Widowed . 1 Divorced . 2 Separated . 3 MA7. HAVE YOU BEEN MARRIED OR LIVED WITH A MAN ONLY ONCE OR MORE THAN ONCE? Only once . 1 More than once . 2 MA8. IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR DID YOU FIRST MARRY OR START LIVING WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? Date of first marriage Month . __ __ DK month . 98 Year . __ __ __ __ DK year . 9998 Next Module MA9. HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU STARTED LIVING WITH YOUR FIRST HUSBAND/PARTNER? Age in years . __ __ 242 HIV/AIDS HA HA1. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT SOMETHING ELSE. HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF AN ILLNESS CALLED AIDS? Yes .1 No .2 2 WM11 HA2. CAN PEOPLE REDUCE THEIR CHANCE OF GETTING THE AIDS VIRUS BY HAVING JUST ONE UNINFECTED SEX PARTNER WHO HAS NO OTHER SEX PARTNERS? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 HA3. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS BECAUSE OF WITCHCRAFT OR OTHER SUPERNATURAL MEANS? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 HA4. CAN PEOPLE REDUCE THEIR CHANCE OF GETTING THE AIDS VIRUS BY USING A CONDOM EVERY TIME THEY HAVE SEX? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 HA5. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS FROM MOSQUITO BITES? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 HA6. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS BY SHARING FOOD WITH A PERSON WHO HAS AIDS? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 HA7. IS IT POSSIBLE FOR A HEALTHY-LOOKING PERSON TO HAVE THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes .1 No .2 DK .8 HA8. CAN THE VIRUS THAT CAUSES AIDS VIRUS BE TRANSMITTED FROM A MOTHER TO HER BABY: [A] DURING PREGNANCY? [B] DURING DELIVERY? [C] BY BREASTFEEDING? Yes No DK During pregnancy . 1 2 8 During delivery . 1 2 8 By breastfeeding . 1 2 8 HA9. IN YOUR OPINION, IF A FEMALE TEACHER HAS THE AIDS VIRUS BUT IS NOT SICK, SHOULD SHE BE ALLOWED TO CONTINUE TEACHING IN SCHOOL? Yes .1 No .2 DK / Not sure / Depends .8 HA10. WOULD YOU BUY FRESH VEGETABLES FROM A SHOPKEEPER OR VENDOR IF YOU KNEW THAT THIS PERSON HAD THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes .1 No .2 DK / Not sure / Depends .8 HA11. IF A MEMBER OF YOUR FAMILY GOT INFECTED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS, WOULD YOU WANT IT TO REMAIN A SECRET? Yes .1 No .2 DK / Not sure / Depends .8 HA12. IF A MEMBER OF YOUR FAMILY BECAME SICK WITH AIDS, WOULD YOU BE WILLING TO CARE FOR HER OR HIM IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Yes .1 No .2 DK / Not sure / Depends .8 243 WM11. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ WM12. Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of any child age 0-4 living in this household? Check household listing, column HL9. Yes. Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE for that child and start the interview with this respondent. No. End the interview with this respondent by thanking her for her cooperation and; Check WM6A: Is this HH part of NNS subsample? Yes. ask the woman to wait for Anthropometry and check for the presence of any other eligible woman or children under-5 in the household. No. Check for the presence of any other eligible woman or children under-5 in the household. After ALL women questionnaires have been completed, go to ANW1 for Anthropometry module of all women. 244 ANTHROPOMETRY ANW After questionnaires for all Women and Under-5 children in the Household are complete, and the measurer begins the Anthropometry module for Under-5 Children, the measurer weighs and measures ALL WOMAN 15-49. Record weight and height below, taking care to record the measurements on the correct questionnaire for each woman. Check the woman s name and line number on the household listing before recording measurements. Do not measure any woman with casts, heavy bandages, or missing limbs. Do not measure women who are pregnant). ANW1. Is this Woman pregnant? Yes. write your name and number in ANW2 and go straight to ANW6 No. Is this Woman with casts, heavy bandages or missing limbs? Yes. End with this module and go to the Specimen Collection for Haemoglobin No. continue with ANW2 ANW2. Measurer s name and number: ANW3. Result of height and weight measurement Either or both measured . 1 Woman refused . 3 Other (specify) ______________________ 6 ANW4. Woman s weight Kilograms (kg) . __ __ . __ Weight not measured . 99.9 ANW5. Woman s height Height (cm) Standing up . __ __ __ . __ Height not measured . 9999.9 Anw6. Muac Observe and record Checked MUAC (mm). __ __ __ 1 Not checked (specify reason).7 245 Interviewer s Observations Field Editor s Observations Supervisor s Observations 246 - D TEST SCW This questionnaire is to be administered to women aged 15-49 who are selected for blood test SCW1. Cluster number: SCW2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ SCW3. Woman s line number: SCW4. Interviewer name and number: ___ ___ Name ___ ___ SCW5. May I take blood from the child? No . 1 Yes . 2 SCW6: Have you taken sufficient blood? No . 1 Yes . 2 SCW7: Results of the haemoglobin level __ __ . __ (g/dl) This document was created with Win2PDF available at http://www.daneprairie.com. The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only.

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