Adding it up. Investing in Contraception and Maternal and Newborn Health, 2017 - Supplementary Tables

Publication date: 2017

© 2017 Guttmacher Institute Adding It Up: Investing in Contraception and Maternal and Newborn Health, 2017—Supplementary Tables by Jacqueline E. Darroch, Elizabeth Sully and Ann Biddlecom https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/adding-it-up-contraception-mnh-2017 To accompany the fact sheet available at: Suggested citation: Darroch JE et al., Adding It Up: Investing in Contraception and Maternal and Newborn Health, 2017—Supplementary Tables, New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2017, www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/adding-it-up-contraception- mnh-2017. Guttmacher Institute ADDING IT UP APPROACH Adding It Up Methodology Darroch J, Singh S and Weissman E, Adding It Up: The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health 2014—Estimation Methodology , New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2016, https://www.guttmacher.org/report/adding-it- costs-and-benefits-investing-sexual-and-reproductive-health-2014-methodology. DEMOGRAPHICS Population Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations (UN) Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Female Population by Single Age, Major Area, Region and Country, Annually for 1950–2100 , New York: UN Population Division, 2015. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Malaysia Erratum , New York: UN Population Division, 2015. Marital status Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN Population Division, Estimates and Projections of the Number of Women Aged 15–49 Who Are Married or in a Union: 2016 Revision , New York: UN Population Division, 2016, http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/theme/marriage-unions/marriage_estimates.shtml. PREGNANCIES, INTENTION AND OUTCOMES Births Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Births by Five-Year Age Group of Mother, Major Area, Region and Country, 1950–2100 , New York: UN Population Division, 2015. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Malaysia Erratum , New York: UN Population Division, 2015. Intention status of births Bearak J and Sedgh G, Guttmacher Institute, model-based estimates of intention status of births based on data from Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, PMA2020 Surveys and other national survey data files. Abortions Calculations of data from Sedgh G et al., Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends, The Lancet , 2016, 388(10041):258–267. Stillbirths Blencowe H et al., National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications, The Lancet , 2012, 379(9832):2162–2172, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60820-4. Maternal deaths: Numbers World Health Organization (WHO), Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015: Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division , Geneva: WHO, 2015, http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality-2015/en/. Maternal deaths: Causes Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 Results , Seattle, WA: IHME, 2016, http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool. Newborn deaths: Numbers UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, Under-Five Mortality Rate, Infant Mortality Rate, Neonatal Mortality Rate and Number of Deaths , New York: UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2015, http://www.childmortality.org/. Newborn deaths: Causes Liu L et al., Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–2013: an updated systematic analysis; Appendix, The Lancet , 2015, 385(9966):430–440. SERVICE NEEDS AND USE Maternal and newborn health Audam S, Guttmacher Institute, calculations of data from Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, PMA2020 Surveys and other national survey data files. Contraception Audam S, Guttmacher Institute, calculations of data from Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, PMA2020 Surveys and other national survey data files. INTERVENTIONS Contraceptive use–failure rates Bradley S and Polis C, Global contraceptive failure rates: Who is most at risk?, Presented at Population Association of America Annual Meeting, Chicago, April 2017. Trussell J, Contraceptive efficacy, in: Hatcher R et al., eds., Contraceptive Technology , 20th ed., New York: Ardent Media, 2011. WHO guidelines for contraceptive and maternal and newborn health services WHO, WHO Recommendations on Antenatal Care for a Positive Pregnancy Experience , Geneva: WHO, 2016. Task shifting WHO, Optimizing Health Worker Roles to Improve Access to Key Maternal and Newborn Health Interventions through Task Shifting , Geneva: WHO, 2012. Maternal and newborn health intervention effectiveness The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) Visualizer, 2017, http://listvisualizer.org/. COSTS Commodities and supplies Calculations of data on contraceptive commodity and supply costs from UNFPA's Reproductive Health Interchange database, Management Sciences for Health's 2015 international drug price indicator guide and UNICEF's 2016 supply catalog. WHO estimates of health worker salary costs WHO, WHO-CHOICE estimates, 2017 (forthcoming), http://www.who.int/choice/en/. Program and system costs (indirect overheard costs) Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN Population Division, Revised Cost Estimates for the Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: A Methodological Report , New York: UN Population Division, 2009, https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/resource-pdf/Revised_Costing_ICPD.pdf. Darroch J, Singh S and Weissman E, Appendix B: estimating sexual and reproductive health program and systems costs in: Adding It Up: The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Family Planning and Maternal and Newborn Health 2014—Estimation Methodology , New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2016, https://www.guttmacher.org/report/adding-it-costs-and-benefits- investing-sexual-and-reproductive-health-2014-methodology. Adding It Up Fact Sheet Sources 2017 This following are the key sources used for Adding It Up 2017. Data were adjusted from reference years to apply to 2017. Guttmacher Institute Region, subregion and country Low-income countries Lower- middle–income countries Upper- middle–income countries High-income countries AFRICA Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern Africa Burundi X Comoros X Djibouti X Eritrea X Ethiopia X Kenya X Madagascar X Malawi X Mauritius X Mozambique X Réunion (a) X Rwanda X Somalia X South Sudan X Uganda X Tanzania X Zambia X Zimbabwe X Middle Africa Angola X Cameroon X Central African Republic X Chad X Congo X Dem. Rep. of the Congo X Equatorial Guinea X Gabon X Sao Tome and Principe X Southern Africa Botswana X Lesotho X Namibia X South Africa X Swaziland X Western Africa Benin X Burkina Faso X Cabo Verde (b) X Côte d'Ivoire X Gambia X Ghana X Guinea X Guinea-Bissau X Liberia X Mali X Mauritania X Niger X Nigeria X Senegal X Table 1. Developing countries by income category, according to region and subregion, 2017 Guttmacher Institute Region, subregion and country Low-income countries Lower- middle–income countries Upper- middle–income countries High-income countries Table 1. Developing countries by income category, according to region and subregion, 2017 Sierra Leone X Togo X Northern Africa Algeria X Egypt X Libya X Morocco X Sudan X Tunisia X Western Sahara X ASIA Eastern Asia China X Dem. Rep. of Korea (North) X Hong Kong (China) X Macao (China) (c) X Mongolia X Rep. of Korea (South) X Central Asia Kazakhstan X Kyrgyzstan X Tajikistan X Turkmenistan X Uzbekistan X Southern Asia Afghanistan X Bangladesh X Bhutan X India X Iran X Maldives X Nepal X Pakistan X Sri Lanka X Southeast Asia Brunei Darussalam X Cambodia X Indonesia X Laos X Malaysia X Myanmar X Philippines X Singapore X Thailand X Timor-Leste X Viet Nam X Western Asia Armenia X Azerbaijan X Bahrain X Cyprus X Georgia X Guttmacher Institute Region, subregion and country Low-income countries Lower- middle–income countries Upper- middle–income countries High-income countries Table 1. Developing countries by income category, according to region and subregion, 2017 Iraq X Israel X Jordan X Kuwait X Lebanon X Oman X Qatar X Saudi Arabia X State of Palestine X Syria X Turkey X United Arab Emirates X Yemen X OCEANIA Melanesia Fiji X New Caledonia X Papua New Guinea X Solomon Islands X Vanuatu X Micronesia Fed. St. of Micronesia (d) X Guam X Polynesia French Polynesia X Samoa X Tonga (e) X CARIBBEAN Caribbean Bahamas X Barbados X Cuba X Dominican Republic X Guadeloupe X Haiti X Jamaica X Martinique X Puerto Rico X Saint Lucia X St. Vincent & the Grenadines X Trinidad and Tobago X U.S. Virgin Islands (f) X Central America Belize X Costa Rica X El Salvador X Guatemala X Honduras X Mexico X Nicaragua X Panama X South America Guttmacher Institute Region, subregion and country Low-income countries Lower- middle–income countries Upper- middle–income countries High-income countries Table 1. Developing countries by income category, according to region and subregion, 2017 Argentina X Bolivia X Brazil X Chile X Colombia X Ecuador X French Guiana (g) X Guyana X Paraguay X Peru X Suriname X Uruguay X Venezuela X Notes: Per World Bank classifications, low income corresponds to a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less, lower- middle to $1,026–4,035, and upper-middle to $4,036–12,475. Countries with GNI per capita of $12,476 or greater are not included in the income classifications presented here. This analysis covers 96% of all low- and middle-income countries: 100% of those that are low income, 98% of those that are lower-middle income and 93% of those in the upper-middle–income category. Sub-Saharan Africa includes all countries in Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western Africa. (a) Réunion grouped with Mayotte and Seychelles for many of the calculations. (b) Cabo Verde grouped with Saint Helena for many of the calculations. (c) Macao grouped with other unlisted areas of East Asia for many of the calculations. (d) Federated States of Micronesia grouped with Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Northern Mariana Islands and Palau for many of the calculations. (e) Tonga grouped with American Samoa, Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn, Tokelau, Tuvalu, and Wallis and Futuna Islands for many of the calculations. (f) U.S. Virgin Islands grouped with Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Martin (French part), and Turks and Caicos Islands for many of the calculations. (g) French Guiana grouped with Falkland Islands for many of the calculations. Guttmacher Institute Met need Use modern method§ Total Use traditional method** Use no method All developing regions 1,599,515 714,278 885,236 671,000 214,236 59,102 155,135 Country income level* LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES (LMICs) 1,555,493 692,152 863,341 655,393 207,948 56,524 151,424 Low 160,340 91,362 68,978 34,078 34,901 4,828 30,073 Lower-middle 763,200 391,771 371,428 257,602 113,827 34,775 79,052 Upper-middle 631,954 209,019 422,934 363,713 59,221 16,922 42,299 UN Population Division regions and subregions AFRICA 299,292 174,083 125,209 66,915 58,294 10,334 47,960 Sub-Saharan Africa† 239,906 137,607 102,299 50,911 51,388 8,818 42,570 Eastern Africa 99,836 54,073 45,763 26,423 19,340 2,279 17,061 Middle Africa 36,867 21,278 15,589 4,340 11,249 3,193 8,056 Southern Africa 17,136 6,002 11,134 8,699 2,435 16 2,419 Western Africa 86,066 56,254 29,812 11,447 18,365 3,330 15,035 Northern Africa 59,386 36,476 22,910 16,005 6,906 1,516 5,389 ASIA‡ 1,127,708 481,486 646,222 514,618 131,604 42,203 89,401 Eastern Asia 380,312 108,441 271,871 252,524 19,347 1,297 18,050 Central Asia 18,344 9,367 8,977 6,537 2,440 325 2,115 Southern Asia 487,057 240,757 246,300 175,871 70,429 23,599 46,829 Southeast Asia 172,537 83,669 88,868 63,545 25,323 9,139 16,184 Oceania 2,830 1,733 1,097 493 604 162 442 Western Asia 66,628 37,519 29,110 15,649 13,461 7,681 5,780 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 172,514 58,708 113,805 89,467 24,339 6,565 17,774 Caribbean 11,091 3,949 7,142 5,130 2,013 193 1,819 Central America 48,050 18,423 29,626 22,763 6,864 1,098 5,766 South America 113,373 36,336 77,037 61,574 15,462 5,274 10,189 Table 2. Number of women aged 15–49, by desire to avoid a pregnancy and contraceptive use, according to country income level and developing region, 2017 * Per World Bank classifications, low income corresponds to a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less, lower-middle to $1,026–4,035, and upper-middle to $4,036–12,475. Countries with GNI per capita of $12,476 or greater are not included in the income classifications presented here. This analysis covers 96% of all low- and middle-income countries: 100% of those that are low income, 98% of those that are lower-middle income and 93% of those in the upper-middle–income category. †Sub-Saharan Africa includes Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western Africa. ‡Asia total includes Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand; Asia total and Eastern Asia exclude Japan. §Modern methods include female and male sterilization, hormonal methods, IUDs, male and female condoms, modern fertility awareness–based methods, lactational amenorrhea method, emergency contraception and other supply methods. **Traditional methods include periodic abstinence, withdrawl, abstinence/long-term abstinence, breast-feeding/long-term breast-feeding and other nonsupply methods. Notes: Numbers presented in the tables are unrounded to facilitate their use in further calculations, but this does not indicate precision. Calculations of distributions, rates and numbers were made from unrounded data. Total (000s) Not wanting to avoid pregnancy (000s)Country income grouping, region and subregion Unmet need Wanting to avoid pregnancy (000s) Total wanting to avoid pregnancy Guttmacher Institute Use long-acting reversible method and sterilization § Use short-term reversible method** Unmet need (traditional methods)†† Unmet need (no method) Total All developing regions 43 88,954 2 15 10 74 100 Country income level* LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES (LMICs) 43 86,486 2 14 10 74 100 Low 40 13,204 0 7 6 87 100 Lower-middle 39 41,430 1 12 12 75 100 Upper-middle 50 31,851 4 21 9 67 100 UN Population Division regions and subregions AFRICA 39 23,395 0 11 7 82 100 Sub-Saharan Africa† 38 19,680 0 10 7 83 100 Eastern Africa 46 9,519 0 9 5 86 100 Middle Africa 38 3,429 0 7 14 79 100 Southern Africa 66 1,425 0 32 0 68 100 Western Africa 27 5,306 0 8 8 84 100 Northern Africa 40 3,715 2 13 8 77 100 ASIA‡ 41 51,809 2 14 12 72 100 Eastern Asia 41 13,285 8 17 2 74 100 Central Asia 33 865 3 8 4 84 100 Southern Asia 40 24,552 0 11 14 74 100 Southeast Asia 45 8,851 1 18 16 65 100 Oceania 37 150 0 5 13 82 100 Western Asia 46 4,105 1 10 24 64 100 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 69 13,749 1 24 9 66 100 Caribbean 73 1,093 1 19 3 77 100 Central America 60 3,268 2 11 6 81 100 South America 72 9,388 0 29 11 59 100 Table 3. Distribution of unintended pregnancies among women aged 15–49 by contraceptive need and use, according to country income level and developing region, 2017 Country income grouping, region and subregion % of all pregnancies that are unintended No. of pregnancies that are unintended (000s) % distribution of unintended pregnancies by contraceptive need and use *Per World Bank classifications, low income corresponds to a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less, lower-middle to $1,026–4,035, and upper-middle to $4,036–12,475. Countries with GNI per capita of $12,476 or greater are not included in the income classifications presented here. This analysis covers 96% of all low- and middle-income countries: 100% of those that are low income, 98% of those that are lower-middle income and 93% of those in the upper-middle–income category. †Sub-Saharan Africa includes Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western Africa. ‡Asia total includes Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand; Asia total and Eastern Asia exclude Japan. §Long- acting reversible methods include implants and IUDs. Sterilization includes both male and female sterilization. **Short-term reversible methods include hormonal methods, male and female condoms, modern fertility awareness–based methods, lactational amenorrhea method, emergency contraception and other supply methods. ††Traditional methods include periodic abstinence, withdrawl, abstinence/long-term abstinence, breast-feeding/long-term breast-feeding, and other nonsupply methods. Notes: Numbers presented in the tables are unrounded to facilitate their use in further calculations, but this does not indicate precision. Calculations of distributions, rates and numbers for were made from unrounded data. Guttmacher Institute No. (000s) % receiving care No. (000s) % receiving care All developing regions 81 61 73 73 10,320 34 17,091 35 Country income level* LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES (LMICs) 81 61 73 72 10,111 34 16,794 35 Low 81 42 57 55 1,472 25 2,287 25 Lower-middle 74 53 71 67 4,967 31 9,616 33 Upper-middle 95 89 87 94 3,673 48 4,891 46 UN Population Division regions and subregions AFRICA 74 45 59 56 2,739 26 4,097 26 Sub-Saharan Africa† 73 42 56 54 2,283 25 3,410 25 Eastern Africa 85 43 53 50 849 23 1,257 23 Middle Africa 84 48 67 66 466 30 690 31 Southern Africa 97 86 91 88 133 45 205 43 Western Africa 54 34 50 49 835 23 1,258 23 Northern Africa 79 64 79 68 456 33 687 35 ASIA‡ 83 66 81 79 6,415 38 11,533 38 Eastern Asia 91 91 99 100 1,839 51 2,449 51 Central Asia 91 77 77 93 162 47 195 44 Southern Asia 74 49 74 71 2,923 33 6,593 35 Southeast Asia 96 82 83 76 967 36 1,519 38 Oceania 96 82 60 49 19 26 24 24 Western Asia 85 66 73 77 504 37 753 36 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 95 87 75 91 1,166 47 1,461 43 Caribbean 94 83 76 74 65 37 96 35 Central America 97 92 94 92 348 48 511 48 South America 94 86 65 92 753 47 855 41 Table 4. Among women with live births, the proportion who received selected antenatal care (ANC) interventions and the number of women and newborns needing and receiving care for major complications, according to country income level and developing region, 2017 Country income grouping, region and subregion Women with live births needing care for major complications Newborns needing care for major complications *Per World Bank classifications, low income corresponds to a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less, lower-middle to $1,026–4,035, and upper-middle to $4,036–12,475. Countries with GNI per capita of $12,476 or greater are not included in the income classifications presented here. This analysis covers 96% of all low- and middle-income countries: 100% of those that are low income, 98% of those that are lower-middle income and 93% of those in the upper-middle–income category. †Sub-Saharan Africa includes Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western Africa. ‡Asia total includes Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand; Asia total and Eastern Asia exclude Japan. Notes: Numbers presented in the tables are unrounded to facilitate their use in further calculations, but this does not indicate precision. Calculations of distributions, rates and numbers were made from unrounded data. % with any professional ANC visit % with 4+ professional ANC visits % with skilled attendance at delivery % delivered in health facility Guttmacher Institute Total maternal deaths Intended pregnancies Unintended pregnancies Total maternal deaths Intended pregnancies Unintended pregnancies Total maternal deaths Intended pregnancies Unintended pregnancies Total maternal deaths Intended pregnancies Unintended pregnancies All developing regions 307,553 211,285 96,268 231,397 211,285 20,111 112,212 75,873 36,338 83,713 75,873 7,841 Country income level* LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES (LMICs) 307,216 211,121 96,094 231,189 211,121 20,068 112,018 75,777 36,242 83,593 75,777 7,816 Low 117,589 77,532 40,057 84,486 77,532 6,953 40,276 25,977 14,299 28,534 25,977 2,557 Lower-middle 169,657 121,196 48,461 131,971 121,196 10,774 62,377 44,008 18,369 48,131 44,008 4,123 Upper-middle 19,970 12,392 7,577 14,733 12,392 2,340 9,365 5,791 3,574 6,928 5,791 1,136 UN Population Division regions and subregions AFRICA 210,513 146,475 64,038 159,350 146,475 12,875 75,025 51,556 23,470 56,412 51,556 4,856 Sub-Saharan Africa† 203,273 141,374 61,900 153,843 141,374 12,469 72,139 49,531 22,608 54,226 49,531 4,694 Eastern Africa 63,943 37,950 25,993 42,328 37,950 4,378 22,090 12,929 9,161 14,531 12,929 1,602 Middle Africa 42,129 28,146 13,984 31,472 28,146 3,326 15,161 9,983 5,178 11,213 9,983 1,231 Southern Africa 2,227 912 1,315 1,455 912 543 1,287 544 743 851 544 307 Western Africa 94,974 74,366 20,609 78,588 74,366 4,223 33,601 26,076 7,525 27,630 26,076 1,555 Northern Africa 7,239 5,101 2,138 5,507 5,101 406 2,886 2,024 862 2,186 2,024 162 ASIA‡ 89,785 61,919 27,866 67,852 61,919 5,933 34,027 23,058 10,970 25,456 23,058 2,398 Eastern Asia 4,734 3,662 1,073 3,985 3,662 323 2,688 2,085 603 2,267 2,085 182 Central Asia 520 406 114 424 406 18 217 168 49 175 168 8 Southern Asia 66,298 46,881 19,416 50,833 46,881 3,951 23,686 16,284 7,402 17,832 16,284 1,548 Southeast Asia 12,856 7,956 4,900 9,150 7,956 1,194 5,260 3,301 1,959 3,779 3,301 478 Oceania 527 321 206 349 321 28 219 135 85 146 135 12 Western Asia 4,851 2,693 2,157 3,112 2,693 419 1,957 1,086 871 1,256 1,086 170 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 7,255 2,891 4,364 4,194 2,891 1,303 3,159 1,260 1,899 1,846 1,260 586 Caribbean 1,259 438 821 606 438 168 550 196 353 270 196 74 Central America 1,811 842 969 1,054 842 212 778 354 425 445 354 91 South America 4,184 1,610 2,574 2,534 1,610 924 1,831 710 1,121 1,130 710 420 Table 5. Number of maternal deaths under various scenarios of needs met for modern contraceptive and maternal and newborn health (MNH) care, according to country income level and developing region, 2017 Current levels of contraceptive and MNH care No. of maternal deaths 100% coverage of contraceptive care, current level of MNH care 100% coverage of MNH care, current level of contraceptive care 100% coverage of contraceptive and MNH care Country income grouping, region and subregion *Per World Bank classifications, low income corresponds to a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less, lower-middle to $1,026–4,035, and upper-middle to $4,036–12,475. Countries with GNI per capita of $12,476 or greater are not included in the income classifications presented here. This analysis covers 96% of all low- and middle-income countries: 100% of those that are low income, 98% of those that are lower-middle income and 93% of those in the upper-middle–income category. †Sub-Saharan Africa includes Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western Africa. ‡Asia total includes Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand; Asia total and Eastern Asia exclude Japan. Notes: Numbers presented in the tables are unrounded to facilitate their use in further calculations, but this does not indicate precision. Calculations of distributions, rates and numbers were made from unrounded data. Guttmacher Institute Total newborn deaths Intended pregnancies Unintended pregnancies Total newborn deaths Intended pregnancies Unintended pregnancies Total newborn deaths Intended pregnancies Unintended pregnancies Total newborn deaths Intended pregnancies Unintended pregnancies All developing regions 2,698 2,089 610 2,218 2,089 130 659 507 152 541 507 34 Country income level* LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES (LMICs) 2,688 2,083 605 2,211 2,083 128 654 504 150 538 504 33 Low 639 457 182 487 457 30 134 95 39 101 95 7 Lower-middle 1,732 1,392 339 1,464 1,392 72 410 328 81 346 328 17 Upper-middle 317 234 84 260 234 26 110 81 29 91 81 9 UN Population Division regions and subregions AFRICA 1,144 850 294 908 850 58 239 175 64 188 175 13 Sub-Saharan Africa† 1,044 772 272 825 772 53 210 152 58 164 152 11 Eastern Africa 352 225 128 245 225 21 79 50 29 55 50 5 Middle Africa 219 160 59 174 160 14 42 30 12 33 30 3 Southern Africa 17 8 9 12 8 4 5 2 3 3 2 1 Western Africa 456 380 76 394 380 15 84 70 15 72 70 3 Northern Africa 100 78 22 83 78 4 29 23 6 24 23 1 ASIA‡ 1,455 1,190 265 1,246 1,190 56 382 314 68 328 314 15 Eastern Asia 96 88 9 90 88 3 41 37 4 38 37 1 Central Asia 25 24 1 24 24 0 8 8 0 8 8 0 Southern Asia 1,100 901 199 941 901 40 259 212 47 221 212 9 Southeast Asia 158 123 34 132 123 8 49 38 11 41 38 3 Oceania 6 4 2 5 4 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 Western Asia 70 50 20 54 50 4 24 17 7 19 17 2 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 100 48 52 65 48 16 38 18 20 25 18 6 Caribbean 13 6 7 8 6 2 4 2 2 2 2 0 Central America 27 15 12 18 15 2 10 6 5 7 6 1 South America 60 27 33 39 27 12 24 11 13 16 11 5 Table 6. Number of newborn deaths under various scenarios of needs met for modern contraceptive and maternal and newborn health (MNH) care, according to country income level and developing region, 2017 Country income grouping, region and subregion No. of newborn deaths (000s) Current levels of contraceptive and MNH care 100% coverage of contraceptive care, current level of MNH care 100% coverage of MNH care, current level of contraceptive care 100% coverage of contraceptive and MNH care *Per World Bank classifications, low income corresponds to a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less, lower-middle to $1,026–4,035, and upper-middle to $4,036–12,475. Countries with GNI per capita of $12,476 or greater are not included in the income classifications presented here. This analysis covers 96% of all low- and middle-income countries: 100% of those that are low income, 98% of those that are lower-middle income and 93% of those in the upper-middle–income category. †Sub-Saharan Africa includes Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western Africa. ‡Asia total includes Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand; Asia total and Eastern Asia exclude Japan. Notes: Numbers presented in the tables are unrounded to facilitate their use in further calculations, but this does not indicate precision. Calculations of distributions, rates and numbers were made from unrounded data. Guttmacher Institute Total Unplanned births Induced abortions Mis- carriages Stillbirths Total Unplanned births Induced abortions Mis- carriages Stillbirths Total Unplanned births Induced abortions Mis- carriages Stillbirths All developing regions 396,153 103,227 247,528 41,986 3,412 88,954 29,817 48,339 9,754 1,043 22,289 7,107 12,510 2,446 227 Country income level* LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES (LMICs) 387,210 100,351 242,535 40,944 3,380 86,486 28,910 47,086 9,457 1,033 21,657 6,884 12,178 2,370 224 Low 27,450 14,207 9,456 3,310 477 13,204 7,011 4,356 1,593 244 2,248 1,173 764 270 41 Lower-middle 139,974 43,103 80,228 14,683 1,961 41,430 13,415 23,030 4,351 635 9,229 2,947 5,175 971 136 Upper-middle 219,786 43,041 152,851 22,951 942 31,851 8,484 19,700 3,513 154 10,179 2,764 6,238 1,129 48 UN Population Division regions and subregions AFRICA 52,849 25,035 20,734 6,206 874 23,395 11,502 8,721 2,745 428 4,909 2,343 1,907 573 86 Sub-Saharan Africa† 40,248 21,209 13,453 4,843 744 19,680 10,300 6,654 2,340 386 4,082 2,088 1,432 484 77 Eastern Africa 22,732 12,692 6,819 2,830 391 9,519 5,361 2,806 1,187 166 1,615 891 496 201 27 Middle Africa 4,642 2,444 1,554 555 89 3,429 1,816 1,136 409 67 836 442 279 100 16 Southern Africa 4,440 2,232 1,601 560 47 1,425 715 515 179 15 594 298 215 75 6 Western Africa 8,435 3,841 3,478 899 217 5,306 2,407 2,198 564 137 1,036 457 443 108 28 Northern Africa 12,601 3,826 7,281 1,363 130 3,715 1,202 2,067 405 42 827 255 475 89 9 ASIA‡ 285,631 54,589 200,113 28,634 2,295 51,809 12,647 33,302 5,305 555 12,742 2,907 8,412 1,302 121 Eastern Asia 148,743 16,149 117,604 14,394 596 13,285 1,502 10,439 1,292 52 4,001 451 3,145 389 16 Central Asia 3,008 349 2,354 285 20 865 100 677 82 6 137 16 106 13 1 Southern Asia 90,504 25,150 54,840 9,144 1,370 24,552 6,776 14,928 2,452 396 5,263 1,404 3,252 526 80 Southeast Asia 32,842 8,575 20,502 3,548 217 8,851 2,551 5,264 975 62 2,416 654 1,483 264 16 Oceania 287 155 92 37 3 150 81 49 19 2 20 11 7 3 0 Western Asia 10,248 4,212 4,721 1,227 88 4,105 1,637 1,945 485 37 904 370 418 108 8 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 57,674 23,603 26,682 7,145 243 13,749 5,668 6,316 1,704 61 4,638 1,857 2,191 571 20 Caribbean 3,946 1,330 2,136 457 22 1,093 399 559 127 8 315 107 170 36 2 Central America 13,367 6,282 5,298 1,732 54 3,268 1,542 1,289 424 13 655 309 257 85 3 South America 40,361 15,991 19,247 4,956 167 9,388 3,727 4,469 1,153 39 3,669 1,440 1,764 449 15 *Per World Bank classifications, low income corresponds to a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less, lower-middle to $1,026–4,035, and upper-middle to $4,036–12,475. Countries with GNI per capita of $12,476 or greater are not included in the income classifications presented here. This analysis covers 96% of all low- and middle-income countries: 100% of those that are low income, 98% of those that are lower-middle income and 93% of those in the upper-middle–income category. †Sub- Saharan Africa includes Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western Africa. ‡Asia total includes Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand; Asia total and Eastern Asia exclude Japan. Notes: Numbers presented in the tables are unrounded to facilitate their use in further calculations, but this does not indicate precision. Calculations of distributions, rates and numbers were made from unrounded data. Table 7. Estimated annual number of unintended pregnancies by outcome and contraceptive use scenario, according to country income level and developing region, 2017 No. of unintended pregnancies (000s) Country income grouping, region and subregion Current levels of contraceptive care 100% coverage of contraceptive care No contraceptive care Guttmacher Institute Table 8. Annual costs in 2017 U.S. dollars under various scenarios of needs met for modern contraceptive and maternal and newborn health (MNH) care, according to country income level and developing region, 2017 Total costs (000s) Cost per person per year Contraceptive service costs (000s) MNH service costs: unintended pregnancies (000s) MNH service costs: intended pregnancies (000s) Total costs (000s) Cost per person per year Contraceptive service costs (000s) MNH service costs: unintended pregnancies (000s) MNH service costs: intended pregnancies (000s) Total costs (000s) Cost per person per year Contraceptive service costs (000s) MNH service costs: unintended pregnancies (000s) MNH service costs: intended pregnancies (000s) All developing regions $31,043,217 $4.96 $5,529,860 $8,285,794 $17,227,563 $59,565,206 $9.52 $5,529,860 $16,809,604 $37,225,743 $52,498,590 $8.39 $10,950,478 $4,322,364 $37,225,748 $7,066,616 Country income level* LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES (LMICs) $29,423,339 $4.84 $5,226,797 $7,695,977 $16,500,565 $57,340,759 $9.44 $5,226,797 $15,967,173 $36,146,789 $50,730,036 $8.35 $10,466,814 $4,116,433 $36,146,789 $6,610,724 Low $1,819,427 $2.76 $285,139 $544,901 $989,386 $10,171,814 $15.44 $285,139 $3,328,208 $6,558,467 $8,769,305 $13.31 $1,662,258 $548,580 $6,558,467 $1,402,509 Lower-middle $11,897,052 $4.00 $1,820,647 $2,724,118 $7,352,288 $25,254,719 $8.48 $1,820,647 $5,971,895 $17,462,177 $22,644,454 $7.60 $3,859,655 $1,322,622 $17,462,177 $2,610,264 Upper-middle $15,706,860 $6.44 $3,121,012 $4,426,958 $8,158,891 $21,914,227 $8.98 $3,121,012 $6,667,071 $12,126,145 $19,316,277 $7.92 $4,944,900 $2,245,231 $12,126,145 $2,597,951 UN Population Division regions and subregions AFRICA $6,447,767 $5.17 $910,910 $1,675,560 $3,861,298 $24,855,066 $19.94 $910,910 $7,275,337 $16,668,819 $22,333,609 $17.92 $4,040,771 $1,624,019 $16,668,819 $2,521,457 Sub-Saharan Africa† $3,519,237 $3.47 $607,235 $1,065,417 $1,846,585 $20,590,353 $20.30 $607,235 $6,335,327 $13,647,791 $18,630,777 $18.37 $3,564,203 $1,418,783 $13,647,791 $1,959,576 Eastern Africa $1,216,374 $2.92 $253,395 $409,499 $553,480 $7,150,697 $17.16 $253,395 $2,764,463 $4,132,839 $5,946,231 $14.27 $1,353,891 $459,501 $4,132,839 $1,204,466 Middle Africa $578,643 $3.59 $44,023 $176,630 $357,990 $3,520,709 $21.84 $44,023 $1,043,515 $2,433,171 $3,177,015 $19.70 $489,560 $254,284 $2,433,171 $343,694 Southern Africa $599,814 $9.39 $195,063 $227,168 $177,583 $1,879,326 $29.43 $195,063 $942,772 $741,491 $1,920,079 $30.07 $784,815 $393,774 $741,491 -$40,753 Western Africa $1,124,406 $3.02 $114,753 $252,121 $757,531 $8,039,622 $21.58 $114,753 $1,584,578 $6,340,290 $7,587,452 $20.37 $935,937 $311,224 $6,340,290 $452,170 Northern Africa $2,928,530 $12.61 $303,675 $610,142 $2,014,713 $4,264,713 $18.37 $303,675 $940,010 $3,021,028 $3,702,832 $15.95 $476,568 $205,236 $3,021,028 $561,881 ASIA‡ $17,954,641 $4.11 $3,120,753 $3,612,976 $11,220,912 $26,523,372 $6.08 $3,120,753 $5,620,843 $17,781,775 $23,953,245 $5.49 $4,817,009 $1,354,460 $17,781,775 $2,570,127 Eastern Asia $6,133,046 $4.09 $1,228,191 $848,290 $4,056,565 $7,896,836 $5.27 $1,228,191 $1,127,434 $5,541,211 $7,440,390 $4.96 $1,559,819 $339,360 $5,541,211 $456,446 Central Asia $291,090 $4.20 $30,210 $42,693 $218,187 $410,974 $5.94 $30,210 $59,745 $321,018 $376,042 $5.43 $45,155 $9,869 $321,018 $34,931 Southern Asia $6,846,831 $3.66 $955,702 $1,463,938 $4,427,191 $11,223,165 $6.00 $955,702 $2,430,212 $7,837,252 $10,066,671 $5.38 $1,696,257 $533,163 $7,837,252 $1,156,494 Southeast Asia $2,487,001 $3.84 $696,483 $569,620 $1,220,897 $3,617,852 $5.58 $696,483 $891,522 $2,029,847 $3,361,443 $5.19 $1,098,652 $232,944 $2,029,847 $256,409 Oceania $43,356 $3.86 $5,349 $12,217 $25,790 $82,140 $7.32 $5,349 $23,794 $52,997 $70,541 $6.29 $14,289 $3,255 $52,997 $11,599 Western Asia $2,153,317 $8.09 $204,817 $676,218 $1,272,282 $3,292,405 $12.37 $204,817 $1,088,137 $1,999,451 $2,638,158 $9.91 $402,838 $235,869 $1,999,451 $654,247 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN $6,640,810 $10.26 $1,498,197 $2,997,259 $2,145,354 $8,186,769 $12.64 $1,498,197 $3,913,423 $2,775,149 $6,211,736 $9.59 $2,092,698 $1,343,885 $2,775,153 $1,975,032 Caribbean $280,659 $6.41 $59,424 $133,633 $87,602 $372,847 $8.52 $59,424 $188,476 $124,947 $274,480 $6.27 $95,065 $54,463 $124,951 $98,367 Central America $1,744,760 $9.84 $257,904 $754,932 $731,924 $2,137,337 $12.06 $257,904 $953,518 $925,915 $1,496,149 $8.44 $383,067 $187,167 $925,915 $641,188 South America $4,615,390 $10.82 $1,180,869 $2,108,693 $1,325,828 $5,676,585 $13.31 $1,180,869 $2,771,429 $1,724,287 $4,441,108 $10.41 $1,614,566 $1,102,254 $1,724,287 $1,235,477 *Per World Bank classifications, low income corresponds to a 2015 GNI per capita of $1,025 or less, lower-middle to $1,026–4,035, and upper-middle to $4,036–12,475. Countries with GNI per capita of $12,476 or greater are not included in the income classifications presented here. This analysis covers 96% of all low- and middle-income countries: 100% of those that are low income, 98% of those that are lower-middle income and 93% of those in the upper-middle–income category. †Sub-Saharan Africa includes Eastern, Middle, Southern and Western Africa. ‡Asia total includes Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand; Asia total and Eastern Asia exclude Japan. Notes: Numbers presented in the tables are unrounded to facilitate their use in further calculations, but this does not indicate precision. Calculations of distributions, rates and numbers for were made from unrounded data. Country income grouping, region and subregion Current levels of contraceptive and MNH care 100% coverage of contraceptive and MNH care100% coverage of MNH care, current level of contraceptive care Net savings in total cost of full care resulting from 100% coverage of contraceptive care (000s) (col. L - col. G) Title Page Sources Table 1 Country Classifications Table 2 Contraceptive Need Table 3 Unintended Preg Table 4 MNH Need Table 5 Impact Maternal Table 6 Impact Newborn Table 7 Impact Pregnancy Table 8 Cost

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