Indonesia -Demographic and Health Survey - 2008

Publication date: 2008

Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2007 Statistics Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia National Family Planning Coordinating Board Jakarta, Indonesia Ministry of Health Jakarta, Indonesia Macro International Calverton, Maryland USA December 2008 This report summarizes the findings of the 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) carried out by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik—BPS). The IDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys program, which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. The Government of Indonesia supported the local costs of the survey. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) provided funds for questionnaire printing and shipping. Macro International provided limited technical assistance under the auspices of the Demographic and Health Surveys (MEASURE DHS) program, which is supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The Ford Foundation provided funds for the expansion of the sample in 15 districts in Java, to allow estimates at the individual district level. UNICEF provided funds to allow estimates at the individual district level in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province and for two districts in North Sumatera Province, Nias and South Nias. Additional information about the survey may be obtained from the Directorate for Population Statistics, BPS, Jalan Dr. Sutomo No. 6-8, Jakarta 10710, Indonesia (Telephone/fax 345-6285, email: kependudukan@ mailhost.bps.go.id), or the National Family Planning Coordinating Board, BKKBN, Jalan Permata 1, Halim Perdanakusumah, Jakarta 13650, Indonesia (Telephone/fax 800-8535), or the Institute for Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jalan Percetakan Negara 29, Jakarta 10560, Indonesia (Telephone/fax 4287-1604). Additional information about the DHS program may be obtained by writing to: MEASURE DHS, Macro International, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705, USA (Telephone 301-572-0200; Fax 301-572-0999; Email: reports@macrointernational.com; Internet: www.measuredhs.com). Recommended citation: Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik—BPS) and Macro International. 2008. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2007. Calverton, Maryland, USA: BPS and Macro International. Contents | iii CONTENTS Page TABLES AND FIGURES . ix PREFACE - BPS. xix PREFACE - BKKBN. xxi SUMMARY OF FINDINGS . xxiii MAP OF INDONESIA . xxx CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Geography, History, and Economy. 1 1.2 Population . 2 1.3 Population and Family Planning Policies and Programs. 3 1.4 Health Priorities and Programs . 4 1.5 Objectives of the Survey . 5 1.6 Organization of the Survey. 5 1.7 Questionnaires. 6 1.8 Data Collection. 7 CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2.1 Household Population by Age, Sex, and Residence. 9 2.2 Household Composition . 10 2.3 Children’s Living Arrangements and Parental Survival . 11 2.4 Educational Level of Household Population . 12 2.4.1 Educational Attainment of the Household Population . 12 2.4.2 School Attendance Rates . 14 2.5 Housing Characteristics and Household Possessions . 15 2.5.1 Household Environment . 15 2.5.2 Drinking Water. 15 2.5.3 Household Sanitation Facilities and Other Characteristics . 17 2.6 Household Possessions. 19 2.7 Wealth Index . 20 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND WOMEN’S STATUS 3.1 Characteristics of Survey Respondents. 23 3.2 Educational Attainment . 24 3.3 Literacy . 25 3.4 Exposure to Mass Media . 27 3.5 Employment . 28 3.5.1 Employment status. 28 3.5.2 Occupation . 31 3.6 Form of Women’s Earnings . 32 iv │ Contents 3.7 Control Over Women’s Earnings and Women’s Contribution to Household Expenditures . 34 3.8 Women’s Empowerment . 36 3.8.1 Women’s Participation in Decision Making. 36 3.8.2 Attitudes toward Wife Beating . 40 3.8.3 Women’s Attitudes toward Refusing Sexual Intercourse with Husband. 42 3.9 Lifestyle Measures . 44 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY 4.1 Current Fertility Levels and Trends . 48 4.1.1 Fertility Levels. 48 4.1.2 Differentials in Current and Completed Fertility . 50 4.1.3 Trends in Fertility. 52 4.2 Children Ever Born and Children Surviving. 53 4.3 Birth Intervals. 54 4.4 Age at First Birth. 55 4.5 Teenage Fertility. 57 CHAPTER 5 KNOWLEDGE AND EVER USE OF FAMILY PLANNING 5.1 Knowledge of Family Planning Methods . 59 5.2 Exposure to Family Planning Messages . 62 5.2.1 Exposure to Mass Media . 62 5.2.2 Dissemination of Family Planning Information . 65 5.3 Discussion of Family Planning with Husband. 66 5.4 Attitudes of Couples Toward Family Planning. 67 5.5 Knowledge of the Fertile Period . 68 5.6 Ever Use of Contraception . 69 CHAPTER 6 CURRENT USE OF FAMILY PLANNING 6.1 Current Use of Family Planning . 73 6.2 Differentials in Contraceptive Use by Background Characteristics. 74 6.3 Trends in Contraceptive Use . 77 6.4 Contraceptive Use by Women’s Status . 78 6.5 Quality of Use. 79 6.5.1 Pill Use Compliance . 79 6.5.2 Quality of Use of Injectables . 80 6.6 Informed Choice. 81 6.7 Problems with Current Method . 83 6.8 Cost and Accessibility of Methods . 83 6.9 Source of Methods. 85 6.10 Timing of Sterilization . 87 CHAPTER 7 FERTILITY PREFERENCES 7.1 Desire for Additional Children. 89 7.2 Need for Family Planning Services. 92 Contents | v 7.3 Ideal Family Size . 94 7.4 Unplanned And Unwanted Fertility. 96 7.5 Fertility Preferences by Women’s Status . 97 CHAPTER 8 NONUSE AND INTENTION TO USE FAMILY PLANNING 8.1 Discontinuation Rates . 99 8.2 Reasons for Discontinuation of Contraceptive Use . 100 8.3 Intention to Use Contraception in the Future . 102 8.4 Reasons for Nonuse . 103 8.5 Preferred Method . 104 CHAPTER 9 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY 9.1 Current Marital Status . 105 9.2 Age at First Marriage . 106 9.3 Age at First Sexual Intercourse. 108 9.4 Recent Sexual Activity . 110 9.5 Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility. 112 9.6 Termination of Exposure . 114 CHAPTER 10 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 10.1 Assessment of Data Quality . 115 10.2 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality. 117 10.3 Mortality Differentials. 119 10.4 Demographic Characteristics. 122 10.5 Mortality by Women’s Status. 123 10.6 Perinatal Mortality. 124 10.7 High-risk Fertility Behavior . 126 CHAPTER 11 MATERNAL HEALTH 11.1 Antenatal Care . 129 11.1.1 Antenatal Care . 129 11.1.2 Number of Antenatal Care Visits and Timing of First Visit . 130 11.1.3 Components of Antenatal Care . 132 11.1.4 Tetanus Toxoid Injections . 133 11.1.5 Complications of Pregnancy . 134 11.2 Delivery . 135 11.2.1 Place of Delivery. 135 11.2.2 Assistance during Delivery. 136 11.2.3 Delivery Characteristics . 139 11.2.4 Preparation for Delivery . 140 11.2.5 Complications during Delivery . 141 11.3 Postnatal Care. 142 11.4 Maternal Health Care and Women’s Status . 143 11.5 Problems in Accessing Health Care . 144 11.6 Birth Registration. 145 vi │ Contents CHAPTER 12 IMMUNIZATION OF CHILDREN 12.1 Immunization Coverage for Children Age 12-23 Months . 150 12.2 Immunization Coverage for Children Age 12-59 Months . 154 12.3 Hepatitis B Immunization. 154 CHAPTER 13 CHILDHOOD DISEASES 13.1 Prevalence and Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections and Fever . 157 13.2 Disposal of Children’s Stools . 159 13.3 Prevalence of Diarrhea. 161 13.4 Knowledge of ORS. 162 13.5 Diarrhea Treatment. 162 13.6 Feeding Practices during Diarrhea. 164 13.7 Children’s Health Care and Women’s Status . 166 13.8 Hand-Washing Practices . 167 CHAPTER 14 INFANT FEEDING 14.1 Initial Breastfeeding. 169 14.2 Age Patterns of Breastfeeding . 170 14.3 Duration and Frequency of Breastfeeding . 172 14.4 Types of Complementary Foods . 174 14.5 Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices. 175 14.6 Foods Consumed by Mothers. 177 14.7 Micronutrient Intake . 178 14.7.1 Micronutrient Intake among Children . 178 14.7.2 Micronutrient Intake among Mothers. 180 CHAPTER 15 HIV AND AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOR 15.1 Knowledge of AIDS . 184 15.2 Knowledge of HIV Prevention Methods. 187 15.3 Rejection of Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS. 189 15.4 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Issues . 192 15.5 Discussion of HIV/AIDS. 193 15.6 Social Aspect of HIV/AIDS. 195 15.7 Knowledge of A Source for Male Condoms . 196 15.8 Attitudes toward Negotiating Safer Sex . 197 15.9 Higher-Risk Sex. 198 15.10 Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Their Symptoms . 199 15.11 Sources of Information on STIs . 202 15.12 Self-Reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections. 204 15.13 HIV and AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior among Youth . 206 15.13.1 HIV-Related Knowledge among Young Adults. 206 15.13.2 Knowledge of Condom Sources among Young Women . 207 15.13.3 Age at First Sex . 207 15.14 Knowledge of Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV . 209 Contents | vii CHAPTER 16 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY 16.1 Data. 213 16.2 Direct Estimates of Adult Mortality . 214 16.3 Estimates of Maternal Mortality . 216 16.4 Trends in Maternal Mortality . 217 CHAPTER 17 MALARIA AND OTHER HEALTH ISSUES 17.1 Introduction . 219 17.2 Ownership and Use of Mosquito Nets. 219 CHAPTER 18 FATHER’S PARTICIPATION IN FAMILY HEALTH CARE 18.1 Advice and Care during Antenatal Period, Delivery, and Postnatal Period . 223 18.2 Knowledge about Children’s Immunization . 224 18.3 Contact with Health Care Providers. 225 18.4 Preparations for Delivery. 226 APPENDIX A PROVINCIAL TABLES . 229 APPENDIX B SURVEY DESIGN.339 APPENDIX C ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS .351 APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES .391 APPENDIX E PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2007 INDONESIA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY.397 APPENDIX F QUESTIONNAIRES .409 Tables and Figures | ix TABLES AND FIGURES Page CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Table 1.1 Basic demographic indicators. 3 Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews. 7 CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence. 9 Table 2.2 Household composition. 10 Table 2.3 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood . 11 Table 2.4 Educational attainment of household population . 13 Table 2.5.1 School attendance ratios: primary school . 14 Table 2.5.2 School attendance ratios: secondary school . 15 Table 2.6 Household drinking water. 16 Table 2.7 Housing characteristics. 18 Table 2.8 Household durable goods . 20 Table 2.9 Wealth quintiles. 21 Figure 2.1 Population Pyramid of Indonesia . 10 Figure 2.2 Housing Characteristics by Residence . 19 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND WOMEN’S STATUS Table 3.1 Distribution of respondents by background characteristics . 24 Table 3.2 Educational attainment by background characteristics . 25 Table 3.3 Literacy. 26 Table 3.4 Exposure to mass media: Women. 27 Table 3.5.1 Employment status: Women . 29 Table 3.5.2 Employment status: Men. 30 Table 3.6.1 Occupation: Women. 31 Table 3.6.2 Occupation: Men . 32 Table 3.7 Type of employment: Women. 33 Table 3.8 Decision on use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures. 35 Table 3.9 Women’s control over earnings. 36 Table 3.10.1 Women’s participation in decision making. 37 Table 3.10.2 Women’s participation in decision making according to men. 37 Table 3.11.1 Women’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 38 Table 3.11.2 Men’s attitudes toward wives’ participation in decision making. 40 Table 3.12.1 Women’s attitudes toward wife beating . 41 Table 3.12.2 Men’s attitudes toward wife beating. 42 Table 3.13 Women’s attitudes toward refusing sex with husband . 43 x | Tables and Figures Table 3.14.1 Use of tobacco: Women. 44 Table 3.14.2 Use of tobacco: Men . 45 Figure 3.1 Employment Status of Women Age 15-49. 30 Figure 3.2 Type of Earnings of Employed Women Age 15-49 . 33 Figure 3.3 Number of Decisions in Which Women Participate in the Final Say. 39 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY Table 4.1 Current fertility . 48 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 51 Table 4.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates. 52 Table 4.4 Children ever born and living. 53 Table 4.5 Birth intervals. 55 Table 4.6 Age at first birth . 56 Table 4.7 Median age at first birth . 56 Table 4.8 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood. 57 Figure 4.1 Total Fertility Rates in Southeast Asian Countries. 49 Figure 4.2 Total Fertility Rate by Province. 50 Figure 4.3 Trends in Total Fertility Rates, IDHS Surveys 1991-2007. 52 CHAPTER 5 KNOWLEDGE AND EVER USE OF FAMILY PLANNING Table 5.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . 59 Table 5.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by background characteristics . 61 Table 5.3 Exposure to family planning messages . 63 Table 5.4 Exposure to family planning messages through personal contact. 64 Table 5.5 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 66 Table 5.6 Discussion of family planning between husband and wife . 67 Table 5.7 Attitudes toward family planning. 68 Table 5.8 Knowledge of fertile period. 69 Table 5.9.1 Ever use of contraception: Women. 70 Table 5.9.2 Ever use of contraception: Men . 71 Table 5.10 Number of children at first use of contraception . 71 Figure 5.1 Percentage of Currently Married Women Who Know Specific Modern Contraceptive Methods, Indonesia 1991 and 2007 . 60 CHAPTER 6 CURRENT USE OF FAMILY PLANNING Table 6.1 Current use of contraception by age . 74 Table 6.2 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . 75 Table 6.3 Trends in use of specific contraceptive methods, Indonesia 1991-2007 . 77 Table 6.4 Trends in contraceptive use by province in Java 1991-2007. 77 Table 6.5 Current use of contraception by woman's status . 79 Table 6.6 Pill use compliance . 80 Table 6.7 Use of injectables. 81 Table 6.8 Informed choice . 82 Table 6.9 Problems with current method of contraception . 83 Tables and Figures | xi Table 6.10 Payment for contraceptive method and services. 84 Table 6.11 Mean cost of contraceptive method and services . 85 Table 6.12 Source of modern contraception methods . 86 Table 6.13 Timing of sterilization. 88 Figure 6.1 Contraceptive Use among Currently Married Women Age 15-49 by Background Characteristics . 76 Figure 6.2 Contraceptive Use among Currently Married Men Age 15-54, I DHS 2002-2003 and IDHS 2007. 76 Figure 6.3 Trends in Use of Contraceptive Methods by Province in Java, 1997-2007 . 78 Figure 6.4 Trends in Source of Supply of Modern Contraceptive Methods, Indonesia 2002-03 and 2007. 86 Figure 6.5 Distribution of Current Users of Modern Contraceptive Methods by Source of Supply. 87 CHAPTER 7 FERTILITY PREFERENCES Table 7.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . 90 Table 7.2.1 Desire to limit childbearing: Women . 91 Table 7.2.2 Desire to limit childbearing: Men. 92 Table 7.3 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women . 93 Table 7.4 Ideal number of children . 94 Table 7.5 Mean ideal number of children. 95 Table 7.6 Fertility planning status. 96 Table 7.7 Wanted fertility rates. 97 Table 7.8 Ideal number of children and unmet need by women's status . 98 Figure 7.1 Fertility Preferences of Currently Married Women 15-49 . 91 CHAPTER 8 NONUSE AND INTENTION TO USE FAMILY PLANNING Table 8.1 First-year contraceptive discontinuation rates . 99 Table 8.2 Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods . 101 Table 8.3 Future use of contraception . 102 Table 8.4 Reason for not intending to use contraception in the future . 103 Table 8.5 Preferred method of contraception for future use. 104 Figure 8.1 Reasons for Discontinuation of Contraceptive Methods . 101 CHAPTER 9 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY Table 9.1 Current marital status. 105 Table 9.2 Age at first marriage . 106 Table 9.3 Median age at first marriage. 107 Table 9.4 Age at first sexual intercourse . 108 Table 9.5.1 Median age at first intercourse: Ever-married women. 109 Table 9.5.2 Median age at first intercourse: Currently married men. 110 Table 9.6 Recent sexual activity. 111 Table 9.7 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility. 112 xii | Tables and Figures Table 9.8 Median duration of amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence and postpartum insusceptibility by background characteristics . 114 Table 9.9 Menopause. 114 Figure 9.1 Median Age at First Marriage by Province in Java 1994, 1997, and 2002-2003 . 107 Figure 9.2 Percentage of Births in the Past Three Years for Which the Mother is Amenorrheic or Abstaining . 113 CHAPTER 10 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Table 10.1 Early childhood mortality rates . 117 Table 10.2 Trends in early childhood mortality rates. 119 Table 10.3 Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics. 120 Table 10.4 Trends in infant mortality by province. 121 Table 10.5 Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics. 123 Table 10.6 Early childhood mortality rates by women's status . 124 Table 10.7 Perinatal mortality. 125 Table 10.8 High-risk fertility behavior . 126 Figure 10.1 Reported Age at Death in Months. 116 Figure 10.2 Infant Mortality Rates, Selected Sources, Indonesia, 1971-2007. 118 Figure 10.3 Trends in Infant and Under-five Mortality Rates for Five-year Periods Preceding the 1997 IDHS, the 2002-2003 IDHS, and the 2007 IDHS . 119 CHAPTER 11 MATERNAL HEALTH Table 11.1 Antenatal care. 130 Table 11.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 131 Table 11.3 Components of antenatal care . 132 Table 11.4 Tetanus toxoid injections . 133 Table 11.5 Complications during pregnancy. 134 Table 11.6 Place of delivery . 135 Table 11.7 Assistance during delivery: most qualified person. 137 Table 11.8 Assistance during delivery: least qualified person . 138 Table 11.9 Delivery characteristics . 139 Table 11.10 Preparation for delivery. 140 Table 11.11 Complications during delivery. 142 Table 11.12 Postnatal care by background characteristics . 143 Table 11.13 Maternal health care and women's status . 144 Table 11.14 Problems in accessing health care . 145 Table 11.15 Birth registration . 146 Table 11.16 Reason for not registering birth . 147 Figure 11.1 Number of Antenatal Care Visits and Number of Months Pregnant at Time of First ANC Visit . 131 Figure 11.2 Place of Delivery and Least Qualified Delivery Assistant . 136 Figure 11.3 Topics Discussed Regarding Preparation for Delivery . 141 Tables and Figures | xiii CHAPTER 12 IMMUNIZATION OF CHILDREN Table 12.1 Vaccinations by source of information. 150 Table 12.2 Vaccinations by background characteristics . 151 Table 12.3 Vaccinations in first year of life. 154 Table 12.4 Hepatitis B vaccination coverage. 155 Figure 12.1 Percentage of Children Age 12-23 Months Vaccinated by 12 Months of Age (Information from Health Cards and Mothers’ Reports) . 150 Figure 12.2 Percentage of Children Age 12-23 Months Who Are Fully Immunized (Information from Health Cards and Mothers’ Reports) . 153 CHAPTER 13 CHILDHOOD DISEASES Table 13.1 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection and/or fever . 158 Table 13.2 Drugs taken for fever . 159 Table 13.3 Disposal of children's stools. 160 Table 13.4 Prevalence of diarrhea . 161 Table 13.5 Knowledge of ORS packets . 162 Table 13.6 Diarrhea treatment . 163 Table 13.7 Feeding practices during diarrhea . 164 Table 13.8 Feeding pratices during diarrhea by background characteristics. 166 Table 13.9 Children's health care by women's status. 167 Table 13.10 Hand-washing practices . 168 Figure 13.1 Knowledge and Use of ORS Packets among Mothers Who Gave Birth in the Past Five Years, by Level of Education. 163 Figure 13.2 Trends in Knowledge and Use of ORS Packets for Treatment of Diarrhea by Mothers Who Gave Birth in the Past Five Years. 164 Figure 13.3 Trends in Feeding Practices among Children Under Five With Diarrhea. 165 CHAPTER 14 INFANT FEEDING Table 14.1 Initial breastfeeding. 170 Table 14.2 Breastfeeding status by age . 171 Table 14.3 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding . 173 Table 14.4 Foods and liquids consumed by children in the day and night preceding the interview . 175 Table 14.5 Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices . 176 Table 14.6 Foods consumed by mothers in the day and night preceding the interview 178 Table 14.7 Micronutrient intake among children . 179 Table 14.8 Micronutrient intake among mothers . 181 Figure 14.1 Percentage of Children under 6 Months of Age Who Are Exclusively Breastfed and Bottlefed, IDHS 2002-2003 and 2007 . 172 Figure 14.2 Median Duration of Any Breastfeeding (in Months) among Children Born in the Past Three Years, IDHS 1997, 2002-2003, and 2007. 173 Figure 14.3 Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) Practices . 177 xiv | Tables and Figures CHAPTER 15 HIV AND AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOR Table 15.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS. 184 Table 15.2.1 Source of information on HIV/AIDS: women . 186 Table 15.2.2 Source of information on HIV/AIDS: men . 187 Table 15.3 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods. 188 Table 15.4.1 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS: Women . 190 Table 15.4.2 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS: Men. 191 Table 15.5 Knowledge of HIV-related issues . 192 Table 15.6.1 Discussion of HIV/AIDS with husband. 193 Table 15.6.2 Discussion of HIV/AIDS with wife . 194 Table 15.7.1 Accepting attitudes toward persons living with HIV/AIDS: Women. 195 Table 15.7.2 Accepting attitudes toward persons living with HIV/AIDS: Men. 196 Table 15.8 Knowledge of source of male condoms and access to condoms . 197 Table 15.9 Attitudes toward refusing sexual intercourse with husband. 198 Table 15.10 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months among men. 199 Table 15.11.1 Knowledge of symptoms of STIs: women . 200 Table 15.11.2 Knowledge of symptoms of STIs: men. 201 Table 15.12.1 Sources of information on STIs: Women . 203 Table 15.12.2 Sources of information on STIs: Men. 204 Table 15.13 Self-reporting of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STI symptoms . 205 Table 15.14 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS and of a source of condoms among young people . 207 Table 15.15 Age at first sexual intercourse among young people . 208 Table 15.16.1 Knowledge of where to get voluntary counseling and testing services for HIV: Women. 210 Table 15.16.2 Knowledge of where to get voluntary counseling and testing services for HIV: Men . 211 Figure 15.1 Percentge of Ever-married Women and Currently Married Men Who Have Heard of AIDS by Level of Education . 185 Figure 15.2 Percentge of Ever-married Women and Currently Married Men Who Have Heard of AIDS, Indonesia 1994-2007. 185 Figure 15.3 Trends in Knowledge of HIV Prevention Methods among Ever-married Women Who Have Heard of AIDS,Indonesia 1994-2007. 189 Figure 15.4 Percentage of Currently Married Women and Currently Married Men Who Have Discussed AIDS Prevention with Their Spouse by Level of Education . 194 Figure 15.5 Percentage of Ever-married Women and Currently Married Men Who Do Not Know the Symptoms of STIs, by Level of Education. 202 Figure 15.6 Percentage of Ever-married Women and Currently Married Men Reporting an STI or Symptoms of an STI In the Past 12 Months Who Sought Advice or Treatment. 206 CHAPTER 16 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY Table 16.1 Completeness of information on siblings . 214 Table 16.2 Adult mortality rates. 215 Tables and Figures | xv Table 16.3 Maternal mortality . 216 Figure 16.1 Trends in Adult Mortality Rates (per 1,000), Women and Men Age 15-49, IDHS 1997-2007. 215 Figure 16.2 Changes in Adult Female Mortality Rates and PMDFs, IDHS 1994-2007. 217 CHAPTER 17 MALARIA AND OTHER HEALTH ISSUES Table 17.1 Ownership of mosquito nets . 220 Table 17.2 Use of mosquito nets by children. 221 Table 17.3 Use of mosquito nets by pregnant women . 222 CHAPTER 18 FATHER’S PARTICIPATION IN FAMILY HEALTH CARE Table 18.1 Advice and care received by mother during pregnancy, delivery, and after delivery. 223 Table 18.2 Specific vaccines received by children under five. 224 Table 18.3 Fathers’ contact with health care providers about wife's health and pregnancy. 225 Table 18.4 Preparation for delivery. 226 APPENDIX A PROVINCIAL TABLES Table A-2.1 Children's living arrangements and orphanhood by province. 229 Table A-2.2 Educational attainment of household population by province . 230 Table A-3.1 Distribution of respondents by province. 232 Table A-3.2 Educational attainment by province . 233 Table A-3.3 Literacy by province. 235 Table A-3.4 Exposure to mass media by province. 237 Table A-3.5.1 Employment status by province: Women . 239 Table A-3.5.2 Employment status by province: Men . 240 Table A-3.6.1 Occupation by province: Women. 241 Table A-3.6.2 Occupation by province: Men . 242 Table A-3.7 Decision on use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures by province. 243 Table A-3.8 Women's participation in decisionmaking by province . 244 Table A-3.9 Men's attitude toward wives' participation in decisionmaking by province. 245 Table A-3.10 Women's attitude toward wife beating by province. 246 Table A-3.11 Men's attitude toward wife beating by province . 247 Table A-3.12 Women's attitude toward refusing sex with husband by province . 248 Table A-3.13.1 Use of tobacco by province: Women. 249 Table A-3.13.2 Use of tobacco by province: Men . 250 Table A-4.1 Fertility by province . 251 Table A-4.2 Birth intervals by province. 252 Table A-4.3 Median age at first birth by province . 253 Table A-4.4 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by province. 254 Table A-5.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by province . 255 Table A-5.2 Exposure to family planning messages by province. 256 Table A-5.3 Exposure to family planning messages through personal contact by province. 258 Table A-5.4 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers by province . 259 xvi | Tables and Figures Table A-5.5 Discussion of family planning between husband and wife by province . 260 Table A-5.6 Attitudes toward family planning by province. 261 Table A-5.7 Ever use of contraception by province: Women. 262 Table A-5.8 Ever use of contraception by province: Men . 264 Table A-5.9 Number of children at first use of contraception by province . 265 Table A-6.1 Current use of contraception by province . 266 Table A-6.2 Pill use compliance by province. 267 Table A-6.3 Use of injectables by province . 268 Table A-6.4 Informed choice by province . 269 Table A.6.5 Payment for contraceptive method and services. 270 Table A-7.1.1 Desire to limit childbearing by province: Women . 271 Table A-7.1.2 Desire to limit childbearing by province: Men. 272 Table A-7.2 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women by province . 273 Table A-7.3 Mean ideal number of children by province. 274 Table A-7.4 Fertility planning status by province . 275 Table A-7.5 Wanted fertility rates by province . 276 Table A-9.1 Current marital status by province. 277 Table A-9.2 Median age at first marriage by province. 278 Table A-9.3 Recent sexual activity by province. 279 Table A-9.4 Median duration of amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence and postpartum insusceptibility by province . 280 Table A-9.5.1 Median age at first intercourse by province: Ever-married women . 281 Table A-9.5.2 Median age at first intercourse by province: Currently married men. 282 Table A-10.1 Early childhood mortality rates by province by province. 283 Table A-11.1 Antenatal care by province . 284 Table A-11.2 Components of antenatal care by province . 285 Table A-11.3 Tetanus toxoid injections by province . 286 Table A-11.4 Place of delivery by province . 287 Table A-11.5 Assistance during delivery by province: Most qualified person. 288 Table A-11.6 Assistance during delivery by province: Least qualified person . 289 Table A-11.7 Delivery characteristics by province . 290 Table A-11.8 Preparation for delivery by province . 291 Table A-11.9 Postnatal care by province . 292 Table A-11.10 Problems in accessing health care by province . 293 Table A-11.11 Birth registration by province . 294 Table A-11.12 Reason for not registering birth by province . 295 Table A.12.1 Vaccinations by province . 296 Table A-12.2 Hepatitis B vaccination coverage by province . 299 Table A.12.3 Child's weight and size at birth by province. 300 Table A-13.1 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and/or fever by province . 301 Table A-13.2 Disposal of children's stools by province. 302 Table A-13.3 Prevalence of diarrhea by province . 303 Table A-13.4 Knowledge of ORS packets by province . 304 Table A-13.5 Diarrhea treatment by province . 305 Table A-13.6 Feeding practices during diarrhea by province . 306 Table A-13.7 Hand-washing practices by province. 307 Table A-14.1 Initial breastfeeding by province. 308 Table A-14.2 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding by province . 309 Table A-14.3 Micronutrient intake among children by province . 310 Tables and Figures | xvii Table A-14.4 Micronutrient intake among mothers by province . 311 Table A-14.5 Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices by province. 312 Table A-14.6 Foods consumed by mothers in the day or night preceding the interview by province . 313 Table A-15.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS by province . 314 Table A-15.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods by province . 315 Table A-15.3.1 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS by province: Women . 316 Table A-15.3.2 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS by province: Men. 317 Table A-15.4 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-related issues by province. 318 Table A-15.5 Discussion of HIV/AIDS with husband by province. 319 Table A-15.6 Discussion of HIV/AIDS with wife by province . 320 Table A-15.7.1 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS by province: Women. 321 Table A-15.7.2 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS by province: Men . 322 Table A-15.8 Knowledge of source of male condoms and access to condoms by province. 323 Table A-15.9 Attitudes toward negotiating safer sexual relations with husband by province. 324 Table A-15.10 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months by province . 325 Table A-15.11.1 Knowledge of symptoms of STIs by province: Women . 326 Table A-15.11.2 Knowledge of symptoms of STIs by province: Men. 327 Table A-15.12 Self-reported prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and STIs symptoms by province . 328 Table A-15.13 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS and of a source of condoms among young women by province . 329 Table A-15.14 Age at first sexual intercourse among youth by province. 330 Table A-17.1 Ownership of mosquito nets by province. 331 Table A-17.2 Use of mosquito nets by children by province. 332 Table A-17.3 Use of mosquito nets by pregnant women by province . 333 Table A-18.1 Advice or care received by mother during pregnancy and delivery and after delivery by province. 334 Table A-18.2 Specific vaccines received by children under five by province. 335 Table A-18.3 Father's contact with health care provider about wife's health and pregnancy by province. 336 Table A-18.4 Preparation for delivery by province . 337 APPENDIX B SURVEY DESIGN Table B-1.1 Sample allocation by province . 341 Table B-1.2 Expected number of respondents by province. 342 Table B-2.1 Sample implementation: Women . 343 Table B-2.2 Sample implementation: results of the household interview: women . 344 Table B-2.3 Sample implementation: results of individual interview: women . 345 Table B-3.1 Sample implementation: Men. 346 Table B-3.2 Sample implementation: results of the household interview: men. 347 Table B-3.3 Sample implementation: results of individual interview: men. 349 xviii | Tables and Figures APPENDIX C ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS Table C.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors for ever-married women sample . 351 Table C.2 Sampling errors for national sample . 352 Table C.3 Sampling errors for urban sample. 353 Table C.4 Sampling errors for rural sample. 354 Table C.5 Sampling errors for NAD sample . 355 Table C.6 Sampling errors for North Sumatera sample . 356 Table C.7 Sampling errors for West Sumatera sample . 357 Table C.8 Sampling errors for Riau sample. 358 Table C.9 Sampling errors for Jambi sample . 359 Table C.10 Sampling errors for South Sumatera sample . 360 Table C.11 Sampling errors for Bengkulu sample . 361 Table C.12 Sampling errors for Lampung sample . 362 Table C.13 Sampling errors for Bangka Belitung sample . 363 Table C.14 Sampling errors for Sampling errors for Riau Islands sample. 364 Table C.15 Sampling errors for DKI Jakarta sample. 365 Table C.16 Sampling errors for West Java sample. 366 Table C.17 Sampling errors for Central Java sample . 367 Table C.18 Sampling errors for DI Yogyakarta sample . 368 Table C.19 Sampling errors for East Java sample. 369 Table C.20 Sampling errors for Banten sample. 370 Table C.21 Sampling errors for Bali sample . 371 Table C.22 Sampling errors for West Nusa Tenggara sample . 372 Table C.23 Sampling errors for East Nusa Tenggara sample . 373 Table C.24 Sampling errors for West Kalimantan sample. 374 Table C.25 Sampling errors for Central Kalimantan sample . 375 Table C.26 Sampling errors for South Kalimantan sample. 376 Table C.27 Sampling errors for East Kalimantan sample. 377 Table C.28 Sampling errors for North Sulawesi sample. 378 Table C.29 Sampling errors for Central Sulawesi sample . 379 Table C.30 Sampling errors for South Sulawesi sample. 380 Table C.31 Sampling errors for Southeast Sulawesi sample. 381 Table C.32 Sampling errors for Gorontalo sample . 382 Table C.33 Sampling errors for West Sulawesi sample. 383 Table C.34 Sampling errors for Maluku sample . 384 Table C.35 Sampling errors for North Maluku sample . 385 Table C.36 Sampling errors for Papua sample . 386 Table C.37 Sampling errors for West Papua sample . 387 APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES Table D.1 Household age distribution . 389 Table D.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 390 Table D.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men. 390 Table D.3 Completeness of reporting . 391 Table D.4 Births by calendar years . 391 Table D.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 392 Table D.6 Reporting of age at death in months. 393 Preface | xix PREFACE The 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is the sixth in a series of surveys undertaken as part of the international Demographic and Health Surveys project. The first survey was the National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey carried out in 1987. Subsequent surveys were con- ducted in 1991, 1994, 1997, and 2002-2003. The 2007 IDHS was designed together with Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS)-Statistics Indonesia, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), and the Ministry of Health (MOH). BPS-Statistics Indonesia is responsible for the survey design, implementation, and data processing. The main objective of 2007 IDHS was to provide detailed information on population, family planning, and health for policymakers and program managers. The 2007 IDHS was conducted in all 33 provinces in Indonesia. The survey collected information on respondents’ socioeconomic background, fertility levels, marriage and sexual activity, fertility preferences, knowledge and use of family planning methods, breastfeeding practices, childhood and adult mortality including maternal mortality, maternal and child health, and awareness and behavior regarding HIV/AIDS and other sexually-transmitted infec- tions. The Government of Indonesia supported the local costs of the survey. The United Nations Popu- lation Fund (UNFPA) provided funds for printing and shipping the questionnaires. Macro International provided limited technical assistance under the auspices of the Demographic and Health Surveys (MEASURE DHS) program, which is supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The Ford Foundation provided funds for expansion of the sample in 15 districts in Java, to al- low district-level estimates. UNICEF also provided funds to generate district-level estimates in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province and two districts, Nias and South Nias, in North Sumatera Province. Training of the 2007 IDHS field staff was conducted in June and July 2007, followed by field- work from 25 June to 31 December, 2007. Fieldwork in several provinces including Riau Islands, Papua, and West Papua had to be extended because of flooding and other problems. Data collection was com- pleted in all areas in February 2008. Processing of the data took place between September 2007 and March 2008. I would like to extend my gratitute and appreciation to the report-writing team from BPS, NFPCB, MOH, and Macro International for providing assistance in the preparation of the report. DR. Rusman Heriawan, APU Chief Statistician BPS-Statistics Indonesia Preface | xxi PREFACE In line with the change in paradigm from highly centralized to decentralized government, since 2004 Family Planning affairs have been handed over to district governments. This fundamental change needed different strategic management so that the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) reformulated the vision, missions, and grand strategies of the national family planning pro- grams. The new vision of BKKBN is aimed at mobilizing the community participation so that ”All Fami- lies Participate in Family Planning”. In this vision, all families in the country are expected to actively im- prove their family welfare by participating in various programs that are developed by BKKBN. To achieve the mission of achieving the norm ”Small, Happy and Prosperous Family,” BKKBN has devel- oped five grand strategies with regards to 1) mobilizing and empowering the community, 2) readjustment of family planning management, 3) strengthening human resources of the programs, 4) enhancing resil- ience and welfare of families, and 5) increasing financial sources of family planning program at all levels. On the other hand, family planning programs face challenges brought about by the paradigm shift. For the purpose of strategic planning and decision making, accurate and comprehensive data and information with regards to family planning and fertility are needed. One of the most important sources of such data and information is the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). The 2007 IDHS is the sixth of a series of surveys carried out since 1987. When family planning programs were thought to be weakening since the last decade, the 2007 IDHS is of more importance since the survey provides chances for further in-depth analysis on relationship among various factors with regards to population, Family Planning, fertility, as well as maternal and child health. The data and information provided by the survey will undoubtedly be very beneficial for program improvements in the future. I congratulate the 2007 IDHS Steering and Technical Committees for spearheading and finishing the final report. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Badan Pusat Statistik-Statistics Indonesia (BPS), the Ministry of Health, and Macro International, Inc. for their close cooperation in the preparation and finalization of the survey report. My thanks also go to the United States Agency for International De- velopment (USAID) for providing technical assistance through Macro International Inc. I also would like to extend my gratitude to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) which provides funds for print- ing and shipping the survey questionnaires, the Ford Foundation for the expansion of the sample in 15 districts in Java, and to UNICEF for taking part in supporting the implementation of the 2007 IDHS. Jakarta, December 2008 Dr. Sugiri Syarief, MPA Chairperson, National Family Planning Coordinating Board Summary of Findings | xxiii SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a nationally representa- tive survey of 40,701 households, 32,895 ever- married women age 15-49, and 8,758 currently married men age 15-54. The 2007 IDHS is the sixth national sample survey of its kind to be undertaken in Indonesia. When analyzing trends in the various IDHS data sets, caution should be used because of differences in geographic cov- erage. The current survey includes 33 provinces in Indonesia. The main purpose of the 2007 IDHS is to provide policymakers and program managers with detailed information on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, childhood and adult mortality, and knowledge of and atti- tudes related to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. FERTILITY The results of the 2007 IDHS show that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Indonesia has re- mained at 2.6. This figure represents the average number of children an Indonesian woman would have by the end of her reproductive years if she were to bear children at the age-specific rates observed for the three years preceding the sur- vey. At this level, the TFR for Indonesia is lower than rates in some other countries in Southeast Asia, such as Cambodia, Lao PDR, Philippines, and Timor-Leste, but not as low as rates in Sin- gapore, Thailand, or Vietnam; the TFR in Ma- laysia is the same as the Indonesian rate. While the TFR in the 2007 IDHS is the same as that in the 2002-2003 IDHS, there are small differences in the pattern of age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs). The age-specific fertility rate for women age 25-29 declined and for the ASFR for women age 30-34 increased. There are large variations in the total fertility rate amongst provinces in Indonesia, ranging from 1.8 in DI Yogyakarta to 4.2 in East Nusa Teng- gara. The TFR in East Nusa Tenggara is twice that in DKI Jakarta, East Java, and Bali. The differen- tials by province in the TFR in the 2007 IDHS show the same pattern as those in the 2002-2003 IDHS. Fertility varies across subgroups of women. Women in urban areas have an average of 0.5 fewer children than women in rural areas. By level of edu- cation, the results of the 2007 IDHS show an inverted U-shaped relationship between education and fertil- ity; women with some primary and completed pri- mary education have slightly higher fertility than other women. The relationship between fertility and household wealth status (wealth index) does not show the expected pattern. While the highest fertility rate is for women in the lowest quintile (TFR=3.0), it is fol- lowed by the middle quintile (TFR=2.8) and then the highest quintile (TFR=2.7). The second and Fourth quintiles each have a TFR of 2.5 children per woman. FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY The number of children a woman has is affected by a number of factor including, level of education (which delays marriage), age at marriage, age at first birth, desired number of children, and use of contra- ceptive methods. Education. Women of reproductive age are in- creasingly better educated. The percentage of women who have had some secondary education increased from 38 percent in 2002-2003 to 46 percent in 2007. Age at marriage. The 2007 IDHS shows that In- donesian women are remaining single for a longer period of time; women who marry, do so at a later age. In the 2002-2003 IDHS, the median age at mar- riage for women age 25-49 was 19.2 years; in the 2007 IDHS that figure has increased to 19.8 years. Age at first birth. Indonesian women are wait- ing longer to have their first birth. The median age at first birth for women age 25-49 increased from 21.0 years in the 2002-2003 IDHS to 21.5 years in the 2007 IDHS. xxiv | Summary of Findings Birth intervals. Fertility is affected by the length of birth intervals. Results from the 2007 IDHS indicate that half of births occurred 54.6 months after the previous birth, and 57 percent of births were occurred 48 months or more after the previous birth. Desire for smaller families. The 2007 IDHS data indicate that the desire to limit child- bearing remains at the same level as in the 2002- 2003 IDHS (54 percent). Gap between actual fertility and wanted fertility. The results of the 2007 IDHS show that one in ten pregnancies in the five years preced- ing the survey was mistimed and 7 percent were not wanted at all. If all unwanted births were avoided, the total (wanted) fertility rate for In- donesia would be 2.2 births per woman instead of the actual rate of 2.6 births per woman. The same gap between actual and wanted fertility was seen in the 2002-2003 IDHS. USE OF CONTRACEPTION Use of any method of contraception among currently married women in Indonesia has in- creased from 57 percent in 1997 to 61 percent in 2007. Between the 2002-2003 IDHS and the 2007 IDHS, use of any modern method re- mained virtually unchanged at 54 percent for ever-married women and 57 percent for cur- rently married women. Method mix. The most commonly used modern methods for both ever-married and cur- rently married women are injectables (30 and 32 percent, respectively). Contraceptive pills are also popular (13 percent for both ever-married and currently married women). Compared with the 2002-2003 IDHS data, use of injectables in- creased four percentage points, from 28 to 32 percent, whereas use of the IUD and implants decreased by one percentage points each, from 6 to 5 percent for the IUD, and from 4 to 3 percent for implants. Differentials in contraceptive use. While women in urban areas are slightly more likely than women in rural areas to use family planning (63 and 61 percent, respectively), use of modern methods in urban and rural areas is almost the same (57 and 58 percent, respectively). There are differ- ences in the method mix in urban and rural areas, with urban women relying more on the IUD, con- doms, and female sterilization, whereas rural women are more likely to use injectables and implants. In general, contraceptive use increases with respon- dents’ level of education and wealth status, and in- creases rapidly with the number of living children a woman has, from (for modern methods) 8 percent among women with no children to 64 percent among women with one or two children, after which contra- ceptive use declines to 42 percent for women with five or more children. In Java, contraceptive use varies across prov- inces, from 61 percent in West Java to 67 percent in DI Yogyakarta. There was a steady increase in use in all provinces until 2002-2003. Use rates decreased between the 2002-2003 IDHS and the 2007 IDHS, except in West Java Province. The most significant decrease was in DI Yogyakarta (from 76 to 67 per- cent) followed by DKI Jakarta (from 63 to 60 per- cent). Source of supply. Contraceptive users are rely- ing increasingly on private medical sources for their methods. Use of government sources decreased from 28 percent in 2002-2003 to the current level of 22 percent, while use of private medical sources in- creased from 63 percent to 69 percent, and use of other sources remained at 8 percent. The substantial increase in the use of private sources is mainly due to the increased use of private midwives—29 percent of current use of modern methods (an increase of three percentage points)—pharmacy/drug stores—9 per- cent of current use of modern methods (an increase of three percentage points), and other private medical sources—7 percent of current use of modern methods (an increase of six percentage points). Quality of use of contraception. In the 2007 IDHS, 92 percent of pill users were able to show the pill package to the interviewer, and among these women, eight in ten took the pill in correct order and reported taking a pill less than two days before the interview. Among users of injectables, only 4 to 9 percent were not current with their injections. Unmet need for family planning. Unmet need for family planning is defined as the percentage of currently married women who either do not want any Summary of Findings | xxv more children or want to wait before having their next birth, but are not using any method of family planning. The 2007 IDHS data show that total unmet need for family planning in Indone- sia is 9 percent, of which 4 percent is unmet need for spacing and 5 percent is for unmet need for limiting. The level of unmet need has re- mained at about the same level since 1997. Overall, the total demand for family planning is 71 percent, of which 87 percent has been satis- fied. If all of this demand were satisfied, the contraceptive prevalence rate in Indonesia could be expected to reach 71 percent. The percentage of demand satisfied in 2007 is one percentage point lower than the percentage reported in the 2002-2003 IDHS (87 and 88 percent, respec- tively). Self-reliance in family planning. Almost all family planning users (91 percent) pay for their methods and services. Injectables and pill users are more likely to pay for their contracep- tive method (97 and 96 percent, respectively) than users of other methods. Self-reliance is much lower for IUD users, with only 69 percent of users paying for their method. Self-reliance in the use of contraceptive methods is higher in the 2007 IDHS than in the 2002-2003 IDHS (91 and 88 percent, respectively). REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Antenatal care. Ninety-three percent of women received antenatal care from a medical professional during pregnancy for the most re- cent birth in the past five years, while 4 percent received no antenatal care. Sixty-six percent of pregnant women had four or more antenatal care visits, as recommended by the government; however, this level of coverage is below the tar- get of 90 percent in the maternal health program. Overall, three in four pregnant women received antenatal care services in the first trimester. Half of these women made the first antenatal care visit when they were 2.7 months pregnant. As expected, mothers in urban areas are more likely to receive antenatal care from a medical profes- sional than mothers in rural areas. Delivery care. Forty-six percent of births in the five years preceding the survey were deliv- ered in a health facility; 10 percent were deliv- ered in a public facility (government hospital or health center) and 36 percent were delivered in a pri- vate facility. There has been an increase of six per- centage points in the proportion of deliveries occur- ring in health facilities since the 2002-2003 IDHS (from 40 to 46 percent). Overall, 79 percent of births in the five years before the survey were assisted at delivery by a skilled provider; 12 percent were deliv- ered by a doctor/OB/GYN and 68 percent were de- livered by a nurse/midwife/village midwife. There has been an increase of 13 percentage points in assis- tance at delivery by a medical professional since the 2002-2003 IDHS (from 66 to 79 percent). Postnatal care. In the 2007 IDHS, women who had given birth outside a health facility were asked if they had received postnatal care. Overall, 83 percent of these women received postnatal care; 70 percent received care during the 2 days following delivery, 6 percent received care 3 to 6 days after delivery, and 7 percent received care 7 to 41 days after delivery. CHILD HEALTH Childhood immunization. Information from health cards combined with mothers’ reports shows that 59 percent of children age 12-23 months are fully immunized. This is seven percentage points higher than the immunization level reported in the 2002- 2003 IDHS (52 percent). Childhood illnesses. Acute respiratory infection (ARI), diarrhea, and malaria are common causes of childhood death. In the two weeks before the survey, 8 percent of children were reported to have symp- toms of ARI, of whom 60 percent were taken to a health facility. Eleven percent of children had diar- rhea in the two weeks preceding the survey, 45 per- cent of whom were taken to a health provider. Sixty- one percent of children with diarrhea were given oral rehydration therapy, that is, solution prepared from oral rehydration salts (ORS), recommended home fluids (RHF), or increased fluids. Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is practiced almost universally in Indonesia, with 95 percent of children under five having been breastfed for some period of time. However, only 44 percent of babies are put to the breast within one hour of birth (as recommended), and a total of 62 percent of babies have begun breast- feeding within the first day after birth. The overall xxvi | Summary of Findings median duration of any breastfeeding is 22.3 months, which is similar to the duration in the 2002-2003 (22.1 months). Exclusive breastfeed- ing is not widely practiced in Indonesia. Despite the government’s recommendation that infants receive breast milk exclusively through the first six months of life, only 48 percent of infants under 2 months of age are exclusively breastfed. At age 4 to 5 months, just 18 percent of infants are receiving breast milk only, without comple- mentary foods. Overall, less than one in three infants under age six months (32 percent) are breastfed exclusively. This is lower than the level of exclusive breastfeeding reported in the 2002-2003 IDHS (40 percent). Perceived problems in accessing health care. In the 2007 IDHS, women were asked whether they have problems seeking medical advice or treatment for themselves. The most often cited problem is getting money for treat- ment (25 percent). Other concerns include dis- tance to health facility (15 percent), having to take transport (13 percent), and concern that no female worker is available (11 percent). AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS Knowledge of HIV/AIDS. According to the results of this survey, 61 percent of ever-married women and 71 percent of currently married men say that they have heard of AIDS. The level of knowledge among women has increased from 59 percent and in 2002-2003, while the level of knowledge for men has decreases from 73 per- cent in 2002-2003. Women and men in urban areas are more likely than those in rural areas to have heard of AIDS. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention. Knowledge of the three principal ways to reduce the transmission of HIV (abstinence, reducing the number of sexual partners, and use of con- doms) is limited in Indonesia. Thirty-seven per- cent of women and 43 percent of men cited ab- stinence; 42 percent of women and 52 percent of men mentioned limiting the number of sexual partners; and 36 percent of women and 49 per- cent of men cited the use of condoms. Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In the 2007 IDHS, respondents were asked if the virus that causes AIDS can be transmitted from a mother to a child. They were then asked if transmis- sion occurs during pregnancy, delivery, or breast- feeding. Overall, between 36 and 42 percent of women said that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during any of the three situations. Men are more knowledgeable than women; the corresponding proportions for men are 45 to 51 percent. Knowledge of the symptoms of sexually trans- mitted infections (STIs). STIs have been identified as co-factors in the transmission of HIV. Knowledge of the symptoms of STIs among women in Indonesia is limited; overall, 75 percent of ever-married women reported having no knowledge of STIs. Only 8 per- cent reported knowledge of the symptoms of STIs in a woman, and 9 percent reported knowledge of the symptoms of STIs in a man. Knowledge of the symp- toms of STIs among currently married men is higher than that among ever-married women. MALARIA Ownership of mosquito nets. Overall, 32 per- cent of households own some type of mosquito net and 16 percent own more than one net. Ownership of treated mosquito nets is very low; only 4 percent of households have at least one ever-treated net—a pre- treated net or a non-pretreated net that has subse- quently been soaked in insecticide at least once. Household ownership of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is 3 percent; these include 1) factory-treated nets that do not require any further treatment; 2) pre- treated nets obtained within the past 12 months; and 3) nets that have been soaked with insecticide in the past 12 months. Because so few households in Indo- nesia have ITNs, statistically, the average number of ITNs per household is zero. Use of mosquito nets by children under five. Less than one in three children under age five (31 percent) slept under any type of net on the night be- fore the survey. Usage of nets does not vary much by the child’s age or sex. Rural children are much more likely than urban children to sleep under a net (40 and 19 percent, respectively). The highest level of net usage is among children in the lowest wealth quintile (46 percent), while children in the highest wealth Summary of Findings | xxvii quintile have the lowest level of net usage (12 percent). Use of mosquito nets by pregnant women. Overall, 23 percent of women age 15-49 slept under a mosquito net the night before interview. Because treated nets are uncommon in Indone- sia, only 2 percent of these women used an ever- treated net or an ITN. Use of mosquito nets is slightly higher among pregnant women than among all women (24 and 23 percent, respec- tively). Pregnant women are also more likely to use a treated net or an ITN. As with children, net usage is higher in rural areas and among women in the lower wealth quintiles. The use of mos- quito net has a negative relationship with women’s level of education; women with no education are the most likely to sleep under a net, while women with the highest level of edu- cation are the least likely to use a mosquito net (28 and 11 percent, respectively). FATHER’S PARTICIPATION IN FAMILY HEALTH CARE Antenatal care. The survey shows that for 87 percent of births in the five years preceding the survey the mothers are reported by their hus- bands to have received advice or care during pregnancy, 78 percent received care during de- livery, and 68 percent received care in the six weeks after delivery (postpartum period). Children’s immunization. At least two in three fathers reported that their last child had been immunized. However, only four in ten fa- thers had any contact with a health care provider during their wife’s pregnancy for that child. Most of these fathers discussed the preparations for their child’s delivery. The most frequently mentioned topics of discussion were the place of delivery (60 percent) and the person providing delivery assistance (62 percent), followed by payment for the services (52 percent). A topic less frequently discussed by fathers is transpor- tation to the place of delivery (32 percent), probably because many deliveries take place at home. MORTALITY Childhood mortality. The infant mortality rate in Indonesia has declined from 142 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1967 to 34 deaths in 2005. At current mortality levels, 44 of every 1,000 children born in Indonesia die before the fifth birthday. In general, there is a strong inverse relationship between wealth and mortality rates; children living in richer house- holds have lower mortality rates (26 deaths per 1,000 live births) than children in poorer households (56 deaths per 1,000 live births). Childhood mortality rates decline as the length of the birth interval in- creases. For example, the infant mortality rate for children born less than two years after a previous birth (77 deaths per 1,000 live births) is more than three times higher than the rate for children born after an interval of four or more years (28 deaths per 1,000 live births). Adult mortality. The adult mortality rate for the period 0-4 years preceding the survey is 2 deaths per 1,000 population for both women and men. While the mortality rate increases with age for both sexes, male mortality rates are slightly higher than female rates at most ages. Analysis of the past IDHS surveys indi- cates that there has been a slight increase in both fe- male and male adult mortality from 1992 to 2007. Maternal mortality. Using direct procedures, the maternal mortality ratio for Indonesia is estimated at 228 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births for the period 2004-2007. Analysis of maternal mortality ratios estimated for the 1994 IDHS and the 2007 IDHS seems to confirm the continuing downward trend of maternal mortality in Indonesia, and indicate that the decline is greater in recent years. CONTINUING CHALLENGES Although eight in ten births were wanted at the time of conception, 12 percent of births were wanted but at a later time, and 7 percent were not wanted at all. The proportion of mistimed and unwanted births (19 percent) is about the same as reported in the 2002-2003 IDHS, except for a slightly lower propor- tion of births wanted then and a higher proportion of births wanted later. xxviii | Summary of Findings While use of family planning has been in- creasing over time, there is heavy reliance on supply methods, particularly injectables and the pill. Greater program emphasis needs to be placed on long-term methods such as the IUD, implants, and sterilization. In the maternal health sector, while selected health indicators have shown improvement, the target of 90 percent of women having at least one antenatal care visit in the first trimester has not been reached. Whereas the proportion of home deliveries has declined over the years, in 2007 more than half (54 percent) of deliveries took place outside of a health facility. While coverage of childhood immunization has increased, the dropout rate between the first and third doses of DPT and polio remains high; 23 percent for DPT and 18 percent for polio. Furthermore, a high proportion of children age 12-23 months are not fully immunized. Given the higher morbidity and mortality risks to newborns and mothers after delivery, it is important to see that all new mothers receive postnatal care. In the 2007 IDHS, 16 percent of women did not receive postnatal care. Although childhood mortality continues to de- cline slowly, or has leveled off in some groups, one in three births in Indonesia has an elevated mortality risk that is avoidable. These include births in which the mother is too young (under age 18) or too old (age 35 or older), the birth interval is too short (less than two years), or the mother has had too many prior births (three or more) xxx | Map of Indonesia Introduction | 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND ECONOMY The Republic of Indonesia, which consists of approximately 17,000 islands, is located between 6 degrees north and 11 degrees south latitude, and from 95 to 141 degrees east longitude. The Indonesian archipelago lies between Asia and Australia. It is bounded by the South China Sea in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the north and east, and the Indian Ocean in the south and west. There are five major islands: Sumatera in the west; Java in the south; Kalimantan straddling the equator; Sulawesi, which resembles the letter “K”; and Papua bordering Papua New Guinea on the east. Two remaining groups of islands are Maluku and Nusa Tenggara, running from Sulawesi to Papua in the north and from Bali to Timor in the south. Other islands are small and mostly uninhabited. More than 80 percent of Indonesia’s territory is covered with water; the land area is about 1.9 million square kilometers. The large number of islands and their dispersion over a wide area has given rise to a diverse culture and hundreds of ethnic groups, each with its own language. This is the basis of the national motto “Unity in Diversity.” Indonesia’s climate is tropical with two seasons. The dry season extends from May to October, and the rainy season from November to April. Indonesia is administratively divided into provinces. Since 2001, the number of provinces was expanded from 26 to 33. The new provinces are Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Banten, West Sulawesi, Gorontalo, North Maluku and West Papua. These new provinces formerly were part of Riau, South Sumatera, West Java, South Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, Maluku province and Papua, respectively. Each province is subdivided into districts and municipalities. Altogether, there are 370 districts and 96 municipalities in Indonesia. The next lower administrative units are subdistricts and villages. In 2007, there were 6,131 subdistricts and 73,405 villages in Indonesia. The entire village is classified as urban or rural. Since proclaiming its independence in 1945, Indonesia has experienced several political shifts. In 1948, a rebellious movement by the Communist Party took place in Madiun. Up until the end of 1949, when the Dutch gave up control over Indonesia, there were disputes against the ruling democratic republic. Some factions, supported by the Dutch, formed the Federation of Indonesian Republics, which lasted less than one year. From 1950 to 1959, Indonesia faced several political problems including the adoption of a multiparty system (which resulted in political and economic instability) and rebellious uprisings caused by ideological, ethnic, and racial differences. The history of the Republic of Indonesia had a turning point after an aborted coup by the Communist Party in September 1965. In 1966, President Soeharto began a new era with the establishment of the New Order Government, which was oriented toward overall development. After more than 30 years under the New Order Government, Indonesia has made substantial progress, particularly in stabilizing political and economic conditions. A period of great economic growth was experienced from 1968 to 1986, when per capita income increased sharply from about US $50 to US $385. This increase was primarily the result of the international oil boom in the early 1980s, from which more than 60 percent of the country’s foreign exchange came. The drop in the price of crude oil and natural gas in 1985 forced the government to look for alternative sources of income, such as manufacturing, international trade, and service industries. This effort has been successful. Per capita income has increased to approximately US $1,124 in 1996, while the economic growth was nearly 5 2 | Introduction percent. All of these successes ended in mid-1997 when the Asian economy collapsed. The value of the currency plummeted, prices increased, and unemployment rose dramatically. In addition, parts of the country suffered from relatively long droughts and extensive forest fires. In 1998, Indonesia went through its worst economic crisis, when the economic growth rate dropped to negative 13 percent (BPS, 2003). At the same time, the political situation became unstable in several regions. President Soeharto was ousted and replaced by his Vice President, B.J. Habibie. This time was known as the reform era. Since 1998, Indonesia has had four presidents, B.J. Habibie, Abdurrahman Wahid, Megawati Soekarnoputri and Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono who, for the first time in Indonesia’s history, was elected directly in the 2004 general election. In 1999, Law No. 22 on Regional Government (Pemerintahan Daerah) was enacted. The law gives full autonomy to districts (Kota/Kabupaten). With some limited exceptions, the same law also makes the local government responsible for all deconcentrated central government ministries at the province and district levels. Since 2000, the economy has recovered, with a growth rate of 5 percent in 2000 and 6 percent in 2007. An important achievement of the Indonesian government is the improvement of the general welfare of the population by ensuring the availability of adequate food, clothing, and housing, as well as providing adequate education and health services. Data from the 1971 and 2000 Population Censuses and the 2007 National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) show that in the past 35 years Indonesia has undergone a major improvement in the area of education. The literacy rate among persons age 10 years and older increased from 61 percent in 1971 to 93 percent in 2007. The improvement in education is most pronounced among females. Whereas in 1971 school attendance among children age 7-12 years was 62 percent for males and 58 percent for females, the corresponding rates in 2007 were 93 percent and 98 percent, respectively. From 1971 to 2007, the proportion of people who never attended school declined, while that of graduates at all levels increased. The proportion of people who finished primary school only increased from 20 percent in 1971 to 31 percent in 2007, while the proportion of those who attended junior high school or higher education increased from 7 percent in 1971 to 41 percent in 2007. At all levels, the increase in education among females has been greater than that of males (CBS, 1972; BPS 2008). The fact that a larger number of girls are enrolled in education, and for a longer period, has a direct impact on the increase of the average age at first marriage. The mean age at first marriage increased from 20 years in 1971 to 22 and 23 years in 1990 and 2000, respectively (BPS, 2002a). This increase was greater in urban areas than in rural areas. The increasing level of completed education has also provided women with greater opportunity to participate in the labor force. Labor force participation among women age 10 and older increased from 33 percent in 1971 to 50 percent in 2007. Most women work in agriculture, trade, or the service industries, with the employment status being mostly an unpaid family worker and regular employee (BPS, 2008). 1.2 POPULATION According to the 2000 Population Census, the population of Indonesia was 205.8 million in 2000 and was projected to reach 225.6 million in 2007. This makes Indonesia the fourth most populous country in the world after the People’s Republic of China, India, and the United States of America. An estimated 86.6 million people (42 percent of the population) lived in urban areas in 2000, compared with 118 million (52 percent of the population) in 2007. In 2000, more than 88 percent of the Indonesian population was Muslim. Introduction | 3 Indonesia’s population growth rate has declined in the last two decades. Between 1980 and 1990, the average annual population growth rate was 1.98 percent, compared with 1.49 percent between 1990 and 2000 (see Table 1.1). This figure was projected to decline further to 1.28 percent between 2000 and 2007. Another characteristic of Indonesia is the uneven distribution of the population among the islands and provinces. The 2000 Population Census indicates that the population density varies not only across islands, but also among provinces of the same island. Java, which covers only 7 percent of the total area of Indonesia, is inhabited by 59 percent of the country’s population, making the population density of Java (951 persons per square kilometer) higher than that of other islands. By comparison, Kali- mantan has a density of 20 persons per square kilometer. Within provinces in Java, the population density ranges from 12,700 persons per square kilometer in DKI Jakarta to 726 persons per square kilometer in East Java. Population density at the national level was 109 persons per square kilometer in 2000 and projected to be 119 persons per square kilometer in 2007. Table 1.1 shows that Indonesia’s fertility has declined significantly since the 1980s. The crude birth rate (CBR), which was estimated at 28 births per 1,000 people in the period 1986-1989, declined to 23 per 1,000 people during 1996-1999, resulting in an annual decline of two percent. These figures suggest a more rapid decline in fertility in more recent years. The CBR in 2007 was projected to be 19 births per 1,000 population. The same data sources also demonstrate that in Indonesia there has been a significant decline in mortality levels, and life expectancy at birth for both males and females has increased. For males, life expectancy increased from 58 years in 1990 to 68 years in 2007. The corresponding figures for females are 62 and 72 years, respectively. 1.3 POPULATION AND FAMILY PLANNING POLICIES AND PROGRAMS The government of Indonesia has implemented many of its development programs responding to population-related issues since President Soeharto joined other heads of state in signing the Declaration of the World Leaders in 1967. In this declaration, rapid population growth was considered a potential hindrance to economic development. To carry out its population policy, the government has launched several programs. Family planning is one of the most important of these programs. Under the auspices of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) initiated family planning activities in Indonesia in 1957. IPPA provided family planning counseling and services, including maternal and child care. In 1968, the government established a National Family Planning Institute, which was reorganized as the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB, also known by its Indonesian acronym as BKKBN) two years later. BKKBN is a nondepartmental body, with the chairman reporting directly to the President. The government of Indonesia has a strong commitment to family planning and has been working with religious and community leaders to develop programs to promote family planning. Table 1.1 Basic demographic indicators Demographic indicators from selected sources, Indonesia 1990- 2007 Indicators 1990 census 2000 census 2007 projection1 Population (millions) 179.4 206.3 225.6 Growth rate (GR)2 (percent) 1.98 1.49 1.28 Density (pop/km2) 93.0 109.0 119.0 Percent urban 31 42 48 Reference period 1986-89 1996-99 2007 Crude birth rate (CBR)3 28 23 19 Crude death rate (CDR)4 9 8 6 Life expectancy5 Male 57.9 63.5 68.4 Female 61.5 67.3 72.4 1 Projected based on the 1990 and 2000 Population Censuses and 2005 Population Intercensal Survey 2 Calculated using compound interest formula 3 Births per 1,000 population; CBR = 9.48968 + 5.55 TFR 4 Deaths per 1,000 population; CDR = CBR – GR per 1,000 5 Estimated using indirect estimation techniques 4 | Introduction In less than three decades, the population policy has not only contributed to reducing the fertility rate of the country by half, but it has also helped to improve family welfare. One of the factors that contributed to the success of the family planning program in Indonesia has been the empowerment of the community in implementing the programs on the notion that family planning is more than controlling births. In Act Number 10 of 1992, family planning is explicitly defined as efforts to increase the society’s concern and participation in delaying marriage, controlling births, fostering family resilience, and improving family welfare, to create small, happy, and prosperous families. A new paradigm was introduced in 1999. Based on Law Number 22 in 1999 on Regional Government (which was later revised through Law Number 32 in 2004), the system of the country was changed from strongly centralized government to regional autonomy at the district or municipality level. In line with the new era, since 2004 family planning authorities have also been transferred to the district or municipality government. To anticipate the changing strategic environments brought about by decentralization processes that are going through the country, since 2007 BKKBN has reformulated its vision, mission and grand strategies of the national family planning programs (BKKBN, 2008). The new vision of BKKBN is to mobilize the community to participate in family planning programs as “All Families Participate in Family Planning” is articulated. By this vision, all families in the country are expected to actively improve their family welfare through BKKBN’s programs. To bring the mission of making the norm of “small, happy and prosperous family” into reality, BKKBN has formulated five grand strategies, i.e., (1) to push and empower the whole community in family planning programs, (2) to refine the management of family planning programs in accordance with the new era, (3) to strengthen human resources of family planning programs, (4) to improve the resilience and welfare of families through family planning programs, and (5) to increase financial sources of family planning programs at all levels. Through these strategies it is expected that the family planning programs, considered by many as weakened during the new era of decentralization, can be improved. 1.4 HEALTH PRIORITIES AND PROGRAMS Health Law Number 23 enacted in 1992 provides a legal basis for the health sector activities. It stipulates that the goal of the health programs and development is to increase the awareness, willingness, and ability of everyone to live a healthy life. The law emphasizes the decentralization of operational responsibility and authority to the local level as a prerequisite for successful and sustainable development. In the second 25-Year Development Plan (1994-2019), economic and human development is identified as the key to national development and self-reliance. Following the National Guidelines on State Policy issued in 1993, the strategy adopted to improve the health and nutritional status of the population is two pronged: to improve the quality of health services, making them affordable to all, and to promote a healthy lifestyle supported by adequate housing and environmental sanitation. In mid-September 1998, a new health paradigm was introduced that focuses health development more on the health promotion and prevention than on curative and rehabilitative services. The new vision is reflected in the motto “Healthy Indonesia 2010.” Year 2010 was used as a target to allow sufficient time for measuring success in achieving the goals set. In mid-September 1998, a new health paradigm was introduced that focused more on health promotion and prevention rather than on curative and rehabilitative services. The new vision was reflected in the motto Healthy Indonesia 2010. In October 1999, the Ministry of Health presented the Health Development Plan Towards Healthy Indonesia 2010, which outlined the following goals: (a) to lead and initiate health-oriented national development; (b) to maintain and enhance individual, family, Introduction | 5 and public health, along with improving the environment; (c) to maintain and enhance the quality, equitability and affordability of health services; and (d) to promote public self-reliance in achieving good health. In March 2006, the Ministry of Health issued a new Strategic plan 2005-2009 emphasizing the new vision “self reliant communities to pursue healthy living” and its mission “to make people healthy”. The values underlying the vision and mission include: people-oriented approach, rapid and appropriate response, teamwork, high integrity, and transparency and accountability. The four pillars or priorities that form the basis of the new health approach are: (i) social mobilization and community empowerment; (ii) improvement of community access to quality care services; (iii) improvement of surveillance, monitoring and health information system; and (iv) increase in health financing” (MOH, 2006). 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE SURVEY The 2007 IDHS is the sixth survey conducted in Indonesia under the auspices of the DHS program. Previous IDHS surveys were: the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the 1991 IDHS, the 1994 IDHS, the 1997 IDHS, and the 2002-03 IDHS. Since 2002-03, the survey was expanded to include a survey of currently married men age 15-54 and unmarried women and men age 15-24 (Indonesia Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey–IYARHS). Findings from this survey are presented in a separate report. The 2007 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives: • Provide data concerning fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, maternal mortality, and awareness of AIDS/STIs to program managers, policymakers, and researchers to help them evaluate and improve existing programs; • Measure trends in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates, analyze factors that affect such changes, such as marital status and patterns, residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and knowledge, use, and availability of contraception.; • Evaluate achievement of goals previously set by the national health programs, with special focus on maternal and child health; • Assess men’s participation and utilization of health services, as well as of their families; • Assist in creating an international database that allows cross-country comparisons that can be used by the program managers, policymakers, and researchers in the area of family planning, fertility, and health in general. 1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE SURVEY The 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) was implemented by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik—BPS). The Government of Indonesia supported the local costs of the survey. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) provided funds for questionnaire printing and shipment. Macro International Inc. (Macro) provided limited technical assistance under the auspices of the Demographic and Health Surveys (MEASURE DHS) program, which is supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The Ford Foundation provided funds for the expansion of the sample in 15 districts in Java, to allow estimates at the individual district level. UNICEF also provided funds to allow estimates at the individual district level in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province and for two districts in North Sumatera Province, Nias and South Nias. 6 | Introduction A survey Steering Committee was established. This committee consisted of senior representatives from BPS, BKKBN, MOH, the State Ministry for Women Empowerment, and the Demographic Institute at the University of Indonesia. A Technical Team, consisting of members of the same organizations, met more frequently than the Steering Committee to discuss and decide on technical issues relating to the implementation of the survey. The directors of the provincial statistical offices were responsible for both the technical and the administrative aspects of the survey in their respective areas. They were assisted by field coordinators, most of whom were chiefs of the social statistics divisions in the provincial offices. 1.7 QUESTIONNAIRES The 2007 IDHS used three questionnaires: the Household Questionnaire (HQ), the Ever-Married Women’s Questionnaire (EMWQ) and the Married Men’s Questionnaire (MMQ). In consultation with BKKBN and MOH, BPS made a decision to base the 2007 IDHS survey instruments largely on the questionnaires used in the 2002-03 IDHS to facilitate trend analysis. Input was solicited from other potential data users, and several modifications were made to optimize the draft 2007 IDHS instruments to collect the needs for population and health data. The draft IDHS questionnaires were also compared with the most recent version of the standard questionnaires used in the DHS program and minor modifications incorporated to facilitate international comparison. The HQ was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Basic information collected on each person listed includes: age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the HQ was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. Information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, construction materials used for the floor and outer walls of the house, and ownership of various durable goods were also recorded in the HQ. These items reflect the household’s socioeconomic status. The EMWQ was used to collect information from all ever-married women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics: • Background characteristics (marital status, education, media exposure, etc.) • Knowledge and use of family planning methods • Reproductive history and fertility preferences • Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care • Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices • Vaccinations and childhood illnesses • Practices related to the malaria prevention • Marriage and sexual activity • Woman’s work and husband’s background characteristics • Infant’s and children’s feeding practices • Childhood mortality • Awareness and behavior regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) • Sibling mortality, including maternal mortality. The MMQ was administered to all currently married men age 15-54 living in every third household in the IDHS sample. The MMQ collected much of the same information included in the EMWQ, but was shorter because it did not contain questions on reproductive history, maternal and child health, nutrition and maternal mortality. Instead, men were asked about their knowledge and participation in health-care-seeking practices for their children. Introduction | 7 1.8 DATA COLLECTION As in previous surveys, data were collected by teams of interviewers. The 2007 IDHS employed 104 interviewing teams to collect the data. Each team consisted of one team supervisor, one field editor, three female interviewers, and one male interviewer. A total of 832 persons, 468 women and of 364 men, participated in the main survey training for interviewers. Training took place in June 2007 in seven training centers (Medan, Padang, Banten, Yogyakarta, Denpasar, Banjarmasin, and Makasar), and in July 2007 in two training centers (Jayapura and Manokwari). The training included class presentations, mock interviews, and tests. All of the participants were trained using the EMWQ. Once the materials for the women’s interview were completed, the male participants were trained in conducting an interview using the MMQ. The training included practice interviews in Bahasa Indonesia and the participant’s local language. Data collection principally took place from 25 June to 31 December, 2007. However, fieldwork had to be extended in several provinces including Riau Islands, Papua, and West Papua because of flooding and other problems. Fieldwork was completed in all areas in February 2008. For more information about the fieldwork, see Appendix B. A list of persons involved in the implementation of the survey is found in Appendix E. The survey questionnaires are reproduced in Appendix F. As in previous IDHS surveys, the 2007 IDHS sample was designed to pro- duce estimates at the national, urban-rural, and provincial levels. Table 1.2 is a sum- mary of the results of the fieldwork for the 2007 IDHS from both the household and individual interviews, by urban-rural resi- dence. In general, the response rates for both the household and individual inter- views in the 2007 IDHS are high. A total of 42,341 households were selected in the sample, of which 41,131 were occupied. Of these households, 40,701 were success- fully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 99 percent. In the interviewed households, 34,227 women were identified for indi- vidual interview and of these completed interviews were conducted with 32,895 women, yielding a response rate of 96 percent. In a third of the households, 9,716 eligible men were identified, of which 8,758 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 90 percent. The lower response rate for men was due to the more frequent and longer absence of men from the household. Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence (unweighted), Indonesia 2007 Residence Result Urban Rural Total Household interviews Households selected 16,920 25,421 42,341 Households occupied 16,429 24,702 41,131 Households interviewed 16,224 24,477 40,701 Household response rate1 98.8 99.1 99.0 Individual interviews: women Number of eligible women 13,608 20,619 34,227 Number of eligible women interviewed 13,087 19,808 32,895 Eligible women response rate2 96.2 96.1 96.1 Individual interviews: men Number of eligible men 3,927 5,789 9,716 Number of eligible men interviewed 3,510 5,248 8,758 Eligible men response rate2 89.4 90.7 90.1 1 Households interviewed/households occupied 2 Respondents interviewed/eligible respondents Characteristics of Households and Housing Characteristics | 9 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2 This chapter presents information on some demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population in the sampled households. This chapter also considers the physical conditions in the households, including source of drinking water, availability of electricity, sanitation facilities, building materials, and possession of household durable goods. Information on the characteristics of the households and the individual women and men interviewed is essential for the interpretation of survey findings and can provide an approximate indication of the representativeness of the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. For the purpose of the 2007 IDHS, a household is defined as a person or a group of persons, related or unrelated, who live together in the same dwelling unit and share a common source of food. The Household Questionnaire (see Appendix F) was used to collect information on all usual residents and visitors who spent the night preceding the survey in the household. This method of data collection allows the analysis of either de jure (usual residents) or de facto (those who are there at the time of the survey) populations. 2.1 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION BY AGE, SEX, AND RESIDENCE Age and sex are important demographic variables and are the primary basis of demographic classification in vital statistics, censuses, and surveys. They are also important variables in the study of mortality, fertility, and nuptiality. The distribution of the de facto household population in the 2007 IDHS is shown in Table 2.1 by five-year age groups, according to sex and urban-rural residence. The 2007 IDHS households constitute a population of 164,052 persons. The data show that there are an equal proportion of women and men in the population (50 percent each). The sex composition of the population does not show significant variation by urban-rural residence. The table further depicts Indonesia as a country with a young population. Thirty-one percent of the population is under age 15; only 6 percent are age 65 or over, as can be seen in the population pyramid (Figure 2.1). Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age groups, according to sex and residence, Indonesia 2007 Urban Rural Total Age Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total <5 10.2 9.3 9.7 10.9 10.0 10.4 10.6 9.7 10.1 5-9 10.4 9.1 9.8 11.1 10.2 10.7 10.8 9.8 10.3 10-14 9.4 9.4 9.4 11.3 10.3 10.8 10.5 9.9 10.2 15-19 9.2 8.8 9.0 8.5 7.3 7.9 8.8 7.9 8.4 20-24 8.5 9.1 8.8 6.7 7.5 7.1 7.5 8.2 7.9 25-29 9.0 9.1 9.1 7.2 7.9 7.5 8.0 8.4 8.2 30-34 8.1 8.4 8.2 6.8 7.7 7.2 7.3 8.0 7.7 35-39 8.0 8.1 8.0 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.6 7.6 7.6 40-44 6.8 6.9 6.9 6.3 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.8 6.6 45-49 5.4 5.8 5.6 6.0 6.2 6.1 5.7 6.0 5.9 50-54 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 55-59 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 60-64 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.1 2.6 2.9 2.7 65-69 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.3 70-74 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.7 1.9 1.8 75-79 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.0 80 + 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 35,024 35,381 70,406 46,355 47,291 93,646 81,379 82,672 164,052 10 | Characteristics of Huseholds and Housing Characteristics Figure 2.1 illustrates the age structure of the household population in a population pyramid. The population pyramid has a narrow top and a wide base reflecting a pattern typical of countries with high fertility in the past. This type of age structure has a built-in momentum for the growth of the country’s population. When the young population eventually reaches reproductive age, the result will be a high population growth for several years to come. The slight tapering at the base is likely to have been caused by a decline in fertility in the recent years. 2.2 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION Information about the composition of households by sex of the head of the household and size of the household is presented in Table 2.2. These characteristics are important because they are associated with aspects of household wel- fare. Female-headed households are, for example, typically poorer than male-headed households. Where households are large, there is generally greater crowding, which is usually associated with less favorable health conditions and economic hardship. The 2007 IDHS data show that 13 percent of households are headed by women. This propor- tion is slightly higher than the level observed in the 2002-03 IDHS (BPS and ORC Macro, 2003). Moreover, the proportion of female-headed house- holds is slightly higher in urban areas than in rural areas (14 and 12 percent, respectively). Table 2.2 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size, according to residence, Indonesia 2007 Residence Characteristic Urban Rural Total Household headship Male 86.4 87.7 87.1 Female 13.6 12.3 12.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 6.2 5.7 5.9 2 11.1 13.8 12.7 3 19.9 22.3 21.3 4 24.1 23.7 23.9 5 16.9 16.6 16.7 6 11.1 9.4 10.1 7 4.9 4.6 4.7 8 2.9 2.0 2.4 9+ 3.0 1.9 2.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size of households 4.2 4.0 4.1 Number of households 16,883 23,818 40,701 Note: Table is based on de jure household members, i.e., usual residents. Figure 2.1 Population Pyramid of Indonesia 80 + 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5 0123456 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Female Male Percent Characteristics of Households and Housing Characteristics | 11 Six percent of households have only one member, with urban and rural areas having the same proportion of one-member households (6 percent, respectively). However, very large households (nine persons or more) still exist in Indonesia (3 percent in urban and 2 percent in rural areas). The sex composition of the population does not show much variation by urban-rural residence. Table 2.2 shows that the overall mean household size in Indonesia is 4.1 persons. The household size in rural and urban areas is similar (4.0 and 4.2, respectively). The same pattern was observed in the 2002-2003 IDHS (BPS and ORC Macro, 2003). 2.3 CHILDREN’S LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND PARENTAL SURVIVAL Information on children’s living arrangements, specifically fosterhood and orphanhood, is pre- sented in Table 2.3. Several aspects of the table are of interest, particularly the extent of orphanhood (i.e., the proportion of children who have lost one or both parents). Provincial differences are shown in Appendix Table A-2.1. In the 2007 IDHS, information was collected on all persons under age 15 regarding their living arrangements and the survival status of their biological parents. A large majority of children under age 15 live with both of their parents (85 percent); this percentage is slightly lower than that reported for the 2002-2003 IDHS (88 percent). The level of orphanhood in Indonesia is relatively low, 97 percent of children under age 15 have either their father or mother alive. Six percent of children under age 15 are not living with a biological parent, but only 4 percent are orphans (one or both parents dead). Younger children are more likely than older children to live with both parents. For example, 90 percent of children under age 2 compared with 80 percent of that age 10-14 live with both parents. Male children are as likely as female children to live with both parents, while children in urban areas are slightly more likely than children in rural areas to live with their parents (87 percent compared with 84 percent). Table 2.3 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood Percent distribution of de jure children under age 15 by children’s living arrangements and survival status of parents, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Living with mother but not with father Living with father but not with mother Not living with either parent Background characteristic Living with both parents Father alive Father dead Mother alive Mother dead Both alive Only father alive Only mother alive Both dead Missing information on father/ mother Total Percent- age not living with a biological parent Percent- age with one or both parents dead Number of children Age 0-4 89.0 6.1 1.1 0.8 0.2 2.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 100.0 2.6 1.7 16,625 <2 90.1 7.0 0.8 0.2 0.1 1.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 100.0 1.6 1.1 6,673 2-4 88.3 5.5 1.2 1.2 0.3 2.7 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.2 100.0 3.3 2.1 9,952 5-9 85.5 4.6 2.0 1.5 0.6 4.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 100.0 5.5 3.6 16,941 10-14 80.0 4.2 3.6 2.2 1.0 6.7 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.7 100.0 8.5 6.3 16,854 Sex Male 84.6 5.3 2.1 1.6 0.5 4.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 100.0 5.5 3.9 26,085 Female 85.0 4.7 2.3 1.4 0.6 4.7 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.4 100.0 5.6 3.9 24,335 Residence Urban 86.5 4.6 2.0 1.4 0.5 3.8 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 100.0 4.7 3.4 20,383 Rural 83.7 5.2 2.3 1.6 0.6 4.9 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 100.0 6.1 4.2 30,037 Wealth quintile Lowest 83.8 5.2 3.0 1.2 0.9 4.1 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.4 100.0 5.5 5.4 11,371 Second 83.3 5.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 5.0 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 100.0 6.4 4.6 10,112 Middle 83.5 5.5 2.0 1.7 0.4 5.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.4 100.0 6.4 3.5 10,130 Fourth 85.8 4.8 1.7 1.6 0.4 4.5 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 100.0 5.3 2.9 9,531 Highest 88.0 4.3 1.5 1.2 0.7 3.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 100.0 3.9 2.6 9,276 Total <15 84.8 5.0 2.2 1.5 0.6 4.5 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.4 100.0 5.5 3.9 50,420 Note: Table is based on de jure members, i.e., usual residents. 12 | Characteristics of Huseholds and Housing Characteristics 2.4 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLD POPULATION Education is a key determinant of the lifestyle and status an individual enjoys in a society. Studies have consistently shown that educational attainment has a strong effect on reproductive behavior, contraceptive use, fertility, infant and child mortality, morbidity, and attitudes and awareness related to family health and hygiene. In the 2007 IDHS, information on educational attainment was collected for every member of the household. The 2007 IDHS results can be used to show the educational attainment of household members as well as school attendance, repetition, and drop-out rates among youth. 2.4.1 Educational Attainment of the Household Population For the purposes of the analysis presented below, the official age for entry into the primary school is six. The official primary school ages are 6-13, while the ages for secondary school are 14-17. Table 2.4 shows the percent distribution of the de facto male and female population age six and over by the highest level of education attained, according to age and residence. Table 2.4 indicates that there are substantial differences in the level of education by background characteristics. Overall, men are slightly better educated than women; 12 percent of females age six and above have never attended school compared with only 6 percent of males. In all age groups except 6-19 males are more likely to have been educated and more likely to stay in school than females. In 1994, based on the President’s Instruction Number 1, the Government of Indonesia declared “Nine Years Compulsory Education” for children under age of 15. This campaign resulted in achieving equity in education for males and females. While there are small differences in educational attainment between males and females in older age groups, the gap in educational attainment is no longer visible by gender in the youngest age cohort. These figures imply that in recent years, girls have had as much opportunity as boys to pursue education. The percentage of males and females who have never attended school increases steadily with age. Among females, this proportion increases from 1 percent among those age 10-14 years to 57 percent in the oldest age group (65 years or older). The increase is less dramatic among males, from 1 percent to 28 percent, respectively. Table 2.4 shows that older people have less education. For example, the median number of years of schooling among men age 50-54 years is 5.4 years, whereas for men age 20-24 the median is 8.9 years. The difference for women is even greater: a median of 4.5 years for age 50-54 and 8.7 years for age 20-24. Urban residents are much more likely to attend school and stay in school than rural residents. Only 4 percent of men in urban areas have never gone to school, compared with 8 percent in the rural areas. For women, the corresponding figures are 7 percent in the urban areas and 15 percent in the rural areas. The urban-rural differential is also evident from the median years of schooling: for men the median is 8.2 years and 5.4 years, respectively. For women the difference is less pronounced, 6.9 years and 5.2 years, respectively. Provincial differences are shown in Appendix Table A-2.2. Characteristics of Households and Housing Characteristics | 13 Table 2.4 Educational attainment of household population Percent distribution of the de facto male and female household populations age six and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median number of years completed, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed FEMALE Age 6-9 7.4 91.8 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 6,615 1.1 10-14 0.7 42.3 11.0 45.8 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 8,207 5.3 15-19 1.0 5.0 15.2 57.4 15.9 5.5 0.1 100.0 6,560 8.8 20-24 1.6 7.3 21.1 28.1 28.2 13.7 0.1 100.0 6,785 8.7 25-29 2.1 9.4 28.3 22.9 24.3 12.9 0.1 100.0 6,928 8.4 30-34 3.1 10.8 34.4 20.4 21.6 9.6 0.0 100.0 6,588 7.4 35-39 6.1 14.6 31.4 17.9 22.1 7.8 0.0 100.0 6,310 5.9 40-44 12.2 26.1 27.2 12.6 14.2 7.6 0.1 100.0 5,598 5.4 45-49 17.9 32.0 26.3 11.0 7.2 5.5 0.2 100.0 4,976 5.0 50-54 22.1 29.7 27.5 10.9 5.9 3.5 0.6 100.0 4,088 4.5 55-59 24.3 28.0 27.1 9.2 8.3 2.7 0.5 100.0 2,817 4.4 60-64 38.9 26.9 21.3 5.8 4.5 1.7 1.0 100.0 2,421 1.9 65+ 57.1 21.7 14.4 3.0 2.8 0.2 0.8 100.0 5,310 0.0 Residence Urban 7.3 21.1 17.8 23.9 19.8 9.9 0.2 100.0 31,502 6.9 Rural 15.1 30.8 23.8 19.8 7.5 2.7 0.3 100.0 41,714 5.2 Wealth quintile Lowest 21.6 37.9 22.0 14.2 3.5 0.4 0.4 100.0 14,383 3.5 Second 16.3 31.2 25.3 19.7 6.3 0.9 0.3 100.0 14,390 5.1 Middle 11.6 26.8 24.8 23.2 10.9 2.7 0.1 100.0 14,657 5.4 Fourth 6.8 22.8 21.0 26.1 17.0 6.1 0.2 100.0 14,633 5.9 Highest 3.0 15.3 13.4 24.2 25.5 18.5 0.2 100.0 15,153 8.9 Total 11.7 26.6 21.2 21.5 12.8 5.8 0.2 100.0 73,216 5.5 MALE Age 6-9 9.1 90.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 7,248 0.9 10-14 1.0 48.8 10.9 39.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 8,541 5.0 15-19 1.1 7.0 13.9 60.3 14.9 2.9 0.0 100.0 7,158 8.6 20-24 1.4 7.9 18.5 26.4 33.5 12.2 0.1 100.0 6,095 8.9 25-29 1.8 8.7 25.4 23.3 29.9 10.7 0.2 100.0 6,486 8.6 30-34 1.5 9.8 26.3 23.2 29.8 9.3 0.2 100.0 5,966 8.5 35-39 2.7 11.2 28.6 19.1 28.1 10.2 0.1 100.0 6,169 8.3 40-44 4.7 18.6 26.4 15.4 24.4 10.4 0.2 100.0 5,306 6.0 45-49 6.9 26.4 29.3 13.4 14.7 9.1 0.1 100.0 4,676 5.6 50-54 9.5 28.6 28.8 13.2 12.7 7.1 0.1 100.0 3,985 5.4 55-59 10.8 22.8 33.2 12.9 14.5 5.4 0.4 100.0 2,822 5.5 60-64 18.7 25.3 29.4 9.3 10.6 5.5 1.2 100.0 2,078 5.2 65+ 28.0 30.8 26.1 6.1 6.9 1.5 0.6 100.0 4,666 2.7 Residence Urban 3.5 21.6 15.5 23.6 25.2 10.5 0.2 100.0 30,740 8.2 Rural 7.8 31.8 24.6 22.0 10.5 3.0 0.2 100.0 40,461 5.4 Wealth quintile Lowest 12.3 39.4 24.7 17.3 5.2 0.6 0.5 100.0 13,741 4.7 Second 8.0 33.0 26.5 22.7 8.5 1.2 0.2 100.0 14,515 5.3 Middle 5.2 27.1 24.1 25.9 14.9 2.6 0.2 100.0 14,303 5.7 Fourth 3.1 22.0 19.0 25.8 23.7 6.3 0.1 100.0 14,384 7.6 Highest 1.4 15.8 9.1 21.6 31.6 20.3 0.1 100.0 14,259 11.1 Total 5.9 27.4 20.7 22.7 16.8 6.2 0.2 100.0 71,201 5.7 Note: Total includes 10 unweighted women and 12 unweighted men with information missing on age 1 Completed 6th grade at the primary level 2 Completed 6th grade at the secondary level 14 | Characteristics of Huseholds and Housing Characteristics 2.4.2 School Attendance Rates The 2007 IDHS collected information on school attendance that allows the calculation of net attendance ratios (NARs) and gross attendance ratios (GARs). The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school-age population (6-13 years) that is attending primary school. The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school-age population (14-17 years) that is attending secondary school. By definition, the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, of any age, expressed as the percentage of the official primary-school-age population. The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students up to an age limit of 24 years, expressed as the percentage of the official secondary- school-age population. The GARs are almost always higher than the NARs because the GAR includes participation by those who are older or younger than the official age range for that level. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. Youth are considered to be attending school currently if they attended formal academic school at any point during the given school year. The gender parity index (GPI) assesses sex-related differences in school attendance rates and is calculated by dividing the GAR for females by the GAR for males. A GPI less than one indicate a gender disparity in favour of males, i.e., a higher proportion of males than females attends that level of schooling. A GPI greater than one indicates a gender disparity in favour of females. A GPI of one indicates parity or equality between the rates of participation for males and females. Table 2.5.1 indicates that at primary school and secondary school levels there are large differences in NAR and GAR across background characteristics. Table 2.5.1 shows that in primary school, the NAR and GAR are slightly higher in rural than in urban areas (85 percent compared with 84 percent, and 103 percent compared with 101 percent, respectively). The gender parity index is 0.97 in rural areas and 0.94 in urban areas. Moreover, the NAR and GAR are slightly higher for men than for women (86 percent compared with 84 percent and 104 percent compared with 100 percent, respectively). Table 2.5.1 School attendance ratios: primary school Net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de jure household population attending primary school by sex and the gender parity index (GPI), according to residence and wealth index, Indonesia 2007 Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Residence/ wealth index Male Female Total Male Female Total Gender Parity Index3 Residence Urban 85.7 82.5 84.1 103.7 97.9 100.9 0.94 Rural 85.6 84.4 85.0 104.3 100.8 102.6 0.97 Wealth quintile Lowest 85.2 86.2 85.7 104.8 105.4 105.1 1.01 Second 87.4 85.4 86.5 107.1 101.1 104.2 0.94 Middle 85.5 83.8 84.7 104.5 98.6 101.5 0.94 Fourth 86.2 83.1 84.7 103.8 97.8 100.9 0.94 Highest 83.9 78.8 81.4 99.6 94.2 97.0 0.94 Total 85.7 83.6 84.7 104.1 99.7 101.9 0.96 1 The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school-age (7-12 years) population that is attending primary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. 2 The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official primary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. 3 The Gender Parity Index is the ratio of the GAR for females to the GAR for males. Characteristics of Households and Housing Characteristics | 15 Table 2.5.2 shows that secondary school attendance ratios are much lower and differ substantially by background characteristics. The NAR and GAR for secondary school are 58 and 72 percent, respectively. The NAR for secondary school is substantially higher in urban areas (65 percent) than in rural areas (53 percent). The GAR for secondary school is also substantially higher in urban areas (80 percent) than in rural areas (66 percent). In addition, the NAR and GAR for secondary school differ substantially between males and females. In general, the NAR and GAR are lower for males than for females. For the NAR, it is 57 for males compared with 59 for females, and for the GAR, it is 70 for males compared with 75 for females. Table 2.5.2 School attendance ratios: secondary school Net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de jure household population attending secondary school by sex and the gender parity index (GPI), residence, province and wealth index, Indonesia 2007 Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Residence/ wealth index Male Female Total Male Female Total Gender Parity Index3 Residence Urban 65.0 64.6 64.8 79.4 81.4 80.4 1.02 Rural 51.4 54.5 52.9 63.8 69.2 66.3 1.08 Wealth quintile Lowest 35.5 37.7 36.5 44.4 47.4 45.8 1.07 Second 47.9 54.2 50.8 58.8 67.5 62.7 1.15 Middle 57.0 59.7 58.3 69.5 74.5 71.9 1.07 Fourth 67.0 72.2 69.5 83.1 89.7 86.3 1.08 Highest 80.4 69.3 74.7 98.9 91.1 94.9 0.92 Total 57.2 59.0 58.1 70.4 74.6 72.4 1.06 1 The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school age (13-18 years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. 2 The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. 3 The Gender Parity Index is the ratio of the GAR for females to the GAR for males. 2.5 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POSSESSIONS 2.5.1 Household Environment The physical characteristics of the dwelling in which a household lives are important determinants of the health status of household members, especially children. They can also be used as indicators of the socioeconomic status of households. In the 2007 IDHS respondents were asked a number of questions about the physical characteristics of the household environment. These included questions on source of drinking water, type of sanitation facility, type of flooring, walls and roof, and number of rooms in the dwelling. The results are presented both in terms of sampled households and the de jure population. 2.5.2 Drinking Water Increasing access to improved drinking water is one of the Millennium Development Goals that Indonesia along with other nations worldwide has adopted (United Nations General Assembly, 2001). Table 2.6 includes a number of indicators that are useful in monitoring household access to improved drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2005). The source of drinking water is an indicator of whether it is suitable for drinking. Sources which are likely to provide water suitable for drinking include a piped source within the dwelling or plot, public tap, tube well or borehole, protected well, or spring and rainwater.1 1 The categorization of drinking water sources into improved and nonimproved follows the guidelines proposed by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (WHO and UNICEF, 2005). 16 | Characteristics of Huseholds and Housing Characteristics Table 2.6 Household drinking water Percent distribution of households and de jure population by source, time to collect, and person who usually collects drinking water; and percentage of households and the de jure by treatment of drinking water, according to residence, Indonesia 2007 Households Population Characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Source of drinking water Piped into dwelling 20.6 5.0 11.5 22.0 5.1 12.3 Piped to yard/plot 2.5 1.6 1.9 2.6 1.6 2.1 Public tap/standpipe 4.0 2.3 3.0 3.8 2.3 2.9 Open well - in dwelling 3.6 3.1 3.3 3.8 3.2 3.5 Open well - in yard/plot 3.3 8.3 6.2 3.4 8.4 6.2 Open well - public 1.3 4.0 2.9 1.2 4.0 2.8 Protected well - in dwelling 19.6 12.9 15.7 20.7 13.4 16.5 Protected well - in yard/plot 12.3 17.6 15.4 12.1 17.5 15.2 Protected well - public 5.4 10.8 8.6 5.0 10.4 8.1 Spring 3.3 22.8 14.7 3.4 22.5 14.3 River/stream 0.8 4.8 3.1 0.9 5.2 3.3 Pond/lake/dam 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 Rainwater 1.8 2.4 2.1 1.9 2.5 2.2 Tanker truck 4.0 1.1 2.3 4.1 1.0 2.3 Bottled water1 17.3 2.6 8.7 14.9 2.3 7.7 Other 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using any improved source of drinking water 80.4 54.5 65.2 80.6 54.4 65.6 Time to obtain drinking water (round trip) Water on premises 87.5 70.3 77.4 88.1 70.2 77.9 Less than 30 minutes 10.8 24.0 18.5 10.1 23.7 17.9 30 minutes or longer 1.0 4.7 3.2 1.0 5.1 3.4 Don't know/missing 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Person who usually collects drinking water Adult female 15+ 5.8 18.6 13.3 5.2 18.5 12.8 Adult male 15+ 5.3 8.6 7.2 5.1 8.3 6.9 Female child under age 15 0.3 1.2 0.8 0.3 1.5 1.0 Male child under age 15 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.9 Water on premises 87.5 70.3 77.4 88.1 70.2 77.9 Missing 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Water treatment prior to drinking2 Boiled 86.4 93.5 90.6 88.3 93.6 91.4 Bleach/chlorine 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.2 Ceramic, sand or other filter 3.9 4.5 4.2 4.0 4.6 4.3 Solar disinfection 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Other 21.0 27.4 24.8 21.9 28.2 25.5 No treatment 10.7 4.7 7.2 8.9 4.4 6.3 Percentage using an appropriate treatment method3 86.9 93.6 90.8 88.9 93.8 91.7 Number 16,883 23,818 40,701 71,433 95,569 167,002 1 Because the quality of bottled water is not known, households using bottled water for drinking are classified as using an improved or non-improved source according to their water source for cooking and washing. 2 Respondents may report multiple treatment methods so the sum of treatment may exceed 100 percent. 3 Appropriate water treatment methods include boiling, bleaching, straining, filtering, and solar disinfecting. Lack of ready access to a water source may limit the quantity of suitable drinking water that is available to a household. Even if the water is obtained from an improved source, water that must be fetched from a source that is not readily accessible to the household may be contaminated during transport or storage. Another factor in considering the accessibility of water sources is the fact that burden of fetching water often falls disproportionately on female members of the household. Households were further asked if they treat the water before drinking it. Characteristics of Households and Housing Characteristics | 17 Table 2.6 shows that protected wells, whether in the dwelling, in the yard, or at a public tap, are the main source of drinking water (40 percent). Sixteen percent of households use water that is either piped into the residence or into the yard or obtained from the public tap. This proportion is much higher in the urban than in the rural areas (27 and 9 percent, respectively). Other sources of drinking water include springs (15 percent), other open water such as rivers and ponds (3 percent), and bottled water (9 percent). Rural households are much more likely to use spring water than urban households (23 percent compared with 3 percent). On the other hand, bottled water is more common in urban areas (17 percent) than in rural areas (3 percent). The urban-rural differences are also reflected in the time taken to draw water. In urban areas, 98 percent of households have water in the house or yard, compared with 70 percent of rural households. Additionally, 11 percent of urban households are within 15 minutes of a water source, compared with 24 percent of rural households. 2.5.3 Household Sanitation Facilities and Other Characteristics Ensuring adequate sanitation facilities is another of the Millennium Development Goals that Indonesia shares with other countries. A household is classified as having an improved toilet if the toilet is used only by members of one household (i.e., it is not shared) and if the facility used by the household separates the waste from human contact (WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2005). Households without proper toilet facilities are more exposed to the risk of diseases like dysentery, diarrhea, and typhoid fever. More than half of households in the sample (57 percent) have a private toilet, a slight increase from 54 percent found in the 2002-2003 IDHS (BPS and ORC Macro, 2003). Ten percent of households use a shared facility, and the remaining 33 percent do not have a toilet. This latter percentage is slightly higher than that found in the 2002-2003 IDHS (28 percent). The urban-rural differences are notable; 75 percent of households in urban areas have a private toilet, compared with 43 percent in rural areas. Table 2.7 shows the distribution of households by the distance from the well to the nearest septic tank. Forty-eight percent of households have no well. For 10 percent of the households, the nearest septic tank is less than seven meters from their well, and for 33 percent, the nearest septic tank is seven meters from the well. 18 | Characteristics of Huseholds and Housing Characteristics Table 2.7 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households and de jure population by housing characteristics and percentage using solid fuel for cooking; and among those using solid fuels, percent distribution by type of chimney/stove, according to residence, Indonesia 2007 Households Population Housing characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Electricity Yes 98.2 86.1 91.1 98.2 85.8 91.1 No 1.8 13.9 8.9 1.8 14.1 8.8 Missing 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Sanitation facility Private with septic tank 65.7 32.7 46.4 66.8 33.6 47.8 Private with no septic tank 9.7 10.4 10.1 10.5 10.7 10.6 Shared/public 10.9 8.9 9.8 9.0 8.1 8.5 River/stream/creek 8.6 19.9 15.2 8.4 19.7 14.9 Pit 2.3 15.2 9.9 2.2 14.5 9.3 Bush/forest/yard/field/ no facility 2.2 11.9 7.9 2.4 12.4 8.1 Other 0.5 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.8 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Distance from well to nearest septic tank No well 54.5 43.2 47.9 53.8 43.1 47.7 Less than 7 meters 10.4 9.3 9.7 10.6 9.1 9.7 7 meters or more 28.6 36.2 33.1 29.1 36.6 33.4 Don’t know/missing 6.5 11.3 9.3 6.5 11.2 9.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Dirt/ earth 5.2 18.2 12.8 4.6 16.4 11.4 Bamboo 0.3 1.7 1.1 0.4 1.7 1.2 Wood 5.9 18.3 13.1 5.9 19.1 13.4 Brick/concrete 30.8 34.7 33.1 30.9 35.8 33.7 Tile 19.5 11.0 14.6 19.5 10.8 14.5 Ceramic/marble/granite 37.9 15.8 25.0 38.4 15.8 25.4 Other 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Missing 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Cooking fuel Electricity 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.2 LPG/natural gas/biogas 20.4 3.8 10.7 21.0 3.9 11.2 Kerosene 54.6 18.7 33.6 55.2 18.5 34.2 Coal/lignite 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Charcoal 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.4 Wood 21.7 76.3 53.6 22.3 76.6 53.4 Straw/shrubs/grass 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 No food cooked in household 2.5 0.4 1.3 0.8 0.1 0.4 Other 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Missing 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using solid fuel for cooking1 22.0 76.8 54.0 22.6 77.2 53.8 Number of households 16,883 23,818 40,701 71,433 95,569 167,002 Number of households/ population using solid fuel 3,707 18,290 21,997 16,119 73,767 89,885 LPG=Liquid petroleum gas 1 Includes coal/lignite, charcoal, wood, and straw/shrubs/grass Characteristics of Households and Housing Characteristics | 19 The type of flooring material in the dwelling can be considered as both an economic indicator and a health indicator for household. Some floor materials like dirt or earth pose health problems for the household because they are the natural environment of pests such as insects and parasites, and may be a source of dust. This kind of flooring is also more difficult to keep clean. In Indonesia, 13 percent of households have a dirt floor. Almost half of households (48 percent) live in dwellings with a concrete, brick, or tile floor, while 13 percent have a wooden floor. There are substantial urban-rural differentials by type of floor material. Whereas 50 percent of urban households have a concrete, brick, or tile floor, the proportion in rural areas is 46 percent. Conversely, 18 percent of rural households have a dirt floor, compared with 5 percent in urban areas. The majority of the households uses kerosene and firewood or straw for cooking (34 and 54 percent, respectively); while 11 percent use liquid propane gas (LPG) or natural gas. There are substantial urban-rural differentials by type of cooking fuel. Whereas 55 percent of urban households use kerosene for cooking, only 19 percent of rural households do so. Furthermore, 20 percent of urban households use gas for cooking compared with 4 percent of households in rural areas. Table 2.7 shows that 91 percent of the households covered in the 2007 IDHS have electricity, a large increase from the 80 percent reported in the 1997 IDHS (BPS and MI, 1998). There are significant urban-rural differentials, with 98 percent of urban households having electricity, compared with 86 percent of rural households (see Figure 2.2). 2.6 HOUSEHOLD POSSESSIONS The presence of durable goods in the households, such as a radio, television, telephone, refrigerator, motorcycle, and private car, is another indicator of the household’s socioeconomic status. Moreover, particular goods have specific benefits. Ownership of a radio or television is a measure of access to mass media and exposure to innovative ideas; telephone ownership measures access to an efficient means of communication; refrigerator ownerships prolongs the wholesomeness of foods; and ownership of private transport allows greater access to many services away from the local area. 98 27 75 50 86 9 43 46 91 16 57 48 Electricity Piped water Private toilet Floor concrete, brick, or tile 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Urban Rural Total Figure 2.2 Housing Characteristics by Residence IDHS 2007 20 | Characteristics of Huseholds and Housing Characteristics Table 2.8 shows that 49 percent of households have a radio, 69 percent have a television, 42 percent have telephone or mobile phone, 25 percent have a refrigerator, 47 percent have a bicycle, 45 percent have a motorcycle or scooter, and 7 percent of households have a private car or truck. Thirteen percent of households have none of the durable goods listed in Table 2.8. Ownership of durable goods (except for the radio) has increased since the 2002-2003 IDHS (BPS and ORC Macro, 2003). Ownership of radios has decreased from 62 percent in 1997 to 49 percent in 2007, while ownership of televisions increased from 48 to 69 percent. Ownership of specific durable goods varies by urban-rural residence. In general, these goods are more available in urban households than in rural households. For example, 85 percent of urban households have a television set, compared with 57 percent of rural households. A telephone is available in 61 percent of urban households compared with 29 percent of rural households. Furthermore, urban households are three times as likely to own a private car or truck as rural households (11 and 3 percent, respectively). Table 2.8 Household durable goods Percentage of households and de jure population possessing various durable goods by residence, Indonesia 2007 Households Population Durable goods Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Radio 58.3 42.3 49.0 59.8 42.9 50.1 Television 84.9 57.2 68.7 87.6 60.3 72.0 Telephone/mobile phone 61.3 28.5 42.1 63.4 31.0 44.9 Refrigerator 43.1 12.6 25.2 46.0 13.7 27.5 Bicycle 52.5 43.4 47.2 57.1 46.5 51.0 Motorcycle/scooter 55.7 37.3 45.0 59.3 40.1 48.3 Car/truck 10.8 3.4 6.5 12.0 3.8 7.3 None of the above 5.3 19.1 13.4 4.1 16.7 11.3 Number 16,883 23,818 40,701 71,433 95,569 167,002 2.7 WEALTH INDEX The wealth index is a background characteristic that is used throughout the report as a proxy for long-term standard of living of the household. It is based on the data for household ownership of consumer goods; dwelling characteristics; source of drinking water source; toilet facilities; and other characteristics related to the socioeconomic status of households. To construct the index, each of these assets was assigned a weight (factor score) generated through principal component analysis, and the resulting asset scores were standardized in relation to a standard normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one (Gwatkin et al., 2000). Each household was then assigned a score for each asset, and the scores were summed for each household. Individuals were ranked according to the total score of the household in which they resided. The sample was then divided into quintiles from one (lowest) to five (highest). A single asset index was developed on the basis of data from the entire country sample and this index is used in all the tabulations presented in the report. Table 2.9 shows the distribution of the de jure household population into the five wealth quintiles by residence. The distribution indicates the degree to which wealth is evenly (or unevenly) distributed by urban-rural residence. Data in Table 2.9 indicate that the population in urban areas is more likely to be in the highest wealth quintiles, while rural populations are more likely to be in the lowest wealth quintiles. For example, more than half of the rural population is in the two lowest quintiles, while two-thirds of the urban population is in the two highest quintiles. Characteristics of Households and Housing Characteristics | 21 Table 2.9 Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the jure population by wealth quintiles, according to residence and province, Indonesia 2007 Wealth quintile Residence/province Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Total Number of population Residence Urban 4.4 10.1 18.9 28.1 38.5 100.0 71,433 Rural 31.7 27.4 20.8 13.9 6.2 100.0 95,569 Sumatera DI Aceh 36.1 26.8 17.1 14.0 6.0 100.0 2,820 North Sumatera 26.9 19.2 21.5 16.4 15.9 100.0 9,131 West Sumatera 22.6 30.8 20.2 14.0 12.4 100.0 3,237 Riau 21.9 22.1 14.4 21.7 19.9 100.0 2,582 Jambi 23.6 25.0 20.9 18.6 11.9 100.0 1,651 South Sumatera 32.2 21.9 22.2 13.4 10.2 100.0 4,706 Bengkulu 29.9 22.0 18.5 16.4 13.2 100.0 1,089 Lampung 21.1 27.0 24.8 15.7 11.5 100.0 5,147 Bangka Belitung 15.0 19.3 20.9 25.0 19.7 100.0 989 Kep Bangka Belitung 13.6 12.8 18.1 26.2 29.2 100.0 707 Java DKI Jakarta 0.3 3.4 8.0 25.1 63.2 100.0 7,342 West Java 9.7 14.3 20.7 27.8 27.5 100.0 27,052 Central Java 15.0 21.3 25.1 22.6 15.9 100.0 27,012 DI Yogyakarta 5.4 16.4 25.7 24.3 28.3 100.0 2,946 East Java 13.3 24.5 21.0 21.2 20.0 100.0 28,017 Banten 13.5 15.1 20.2 17.6 33.6 100.0 6,752 Bali and Nusa Tenggara Bali 5.3 13.9 18.4 26.7 35.7 100.0 2,713 West Nusa Tenggara 28.4 27.8 15.9 14.8 13.1 100.0 3,506 East Nusa Tenggara 65.8 14.9 10.1 6.8 2.3 100.0 3,617 Kalimantan West Kalimantan 42.6 20.8 13.5 14.3 8.8 100.0 3,365 Central Kalimantan 51.8 22.7 11.7 7.5 6.4 100.0 1,411 South Kalimantan 35.5 27.5 18.7 11.6 6.8 100.0 2,601 East Kalimantan 24.6 22.7 20.0 15.7 17.0 100.0 2,257 Sulawesi North Sulawesi 18.1 28.3 24.0 23.2 6.4 100.0 1,973 Central Sulawesi 45.0 21.9 15.6 8.1 9.4 100.0 1,838 South Sulawesi 37.3 23.0 16.8 11.4 11.5 100.0 5,882 Southeast Sulawesi 49.0 17.8 12.3 11.3 9.7 100.0 1,476 Gorontalo 42.9 22.4 11.3 13.2 10.2 100.0 773 West Sulawesi 51.9 19.1 14.9 9.5 4.6 100.0 779 Maluku and Papua Maluku 42.2 22.3 13.9 14.8 6.9 100.0 1,091 North Maluku 29.8 27.5 20.8 16.4 5.6 100.0 745 Papua 27.7 22.5 17.2 19.9 12.7 100.0 472 West Papua 58.9 12.7 15.8 8.2 4.4 100.0 1,321 Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 167,002 Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 23 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND WOMEN’S STATUS 3 The purpose of this chapter is to provide a demographic and socioeconomic profile of the 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) sample of ever-married women and currently married men. Information on the background characteristics of the respondents in the survey is essential for the interpretation of findings presented later in the report. The chapter begins by describing basic background characteristics including age, marital status, educational level, and residential characteristics. More de- tailed information on education, literacy, and exposure to mass media are then discussed. This is followed by data on the employment and earnings of women, decision making in the household, and attitudes on women’s position in relation to others in the household. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS Table 3.1 shows the distribution of ever-married women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 interviewed in the 2007 IDHS by background characteristics including age, marital status, urban-rural residence, educational level, wealth index, and religion. The findings show that approximately one-third of women and one in five men are under age 30. Table 3.1 also shows that 94 percent of women are currently married, and the remaining 6 percent is split between divorced and widowed women. Forty-two percent of women and 43 percent of men live in urban areas. Seven percent of ever-married women and 4 percent of currently married men have never attended formal schooling. More women than men completed primary school (31 and 27 percent, respectively), but more men than women have secondary education (31 and 25 percent, respectively). Overall, the data indicate that women are becoming better educated. While the percentage of ever-married women with no education is similar to that in the 2002-2003 IDHS, the percentage of those with some secondary education increased from 38 percent in 2002-2003 to 46 percent in 2007. Looking at the distribution of respondents by religion, 89 percent of women and 88 percent of men are Muslim and 9 percent are Christian (Protestant or Catholic). The small remaining percentages are Hindus, Buddhists, or other religions. Differentials in background characteristics by province are pre- sented in Appendix Table A-3.1. 24 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.1 Distribution of respondents by background characteristics Percent distribution of ever-married women and currently married men by background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Ever-married women Currently married men Background characteristic Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Age 15-19 2.6 845 914 0.3 29 19 20-24 12.4 4,094 4,156 4.9 432 442 25-29 17.5 5,771 6,170 12.7 1,116 1,190 30-34 18.3 6,020 6,317 16.2 1,418 1,587 35-39 18.3 6,004 5,898 19.2 1,679 1,708 40-44 16.3 5,365 5,034 17.9 1,570 1,500 45-49 14.6 4,795 4,406 15.5 1,359 1,268 50-54 na na na 13.2 1,155 1,044 Marital status Married 94.0 30,931 30,869 100.0 8,758 8,758 Divorced/separated 3.1 1,012 1,035 na na na Widowed 2.9 952 991 na na na Residence Urban 41.8 13,745 13,087 42.6 3,728 3,510 Rural 58.2 19,150 19,808 57.4 5,030 5,248 Education No education 6.9 2,271 2,237 4.2 365 346 Some primary 16.9 5,572 5,503 18.3 1,605 1,444 Complete primary 30.6 10,077 8,834 26.7 2,339 2,084 Some secondary 20.6 6,781 7,048 19.7 1,721 1,868 Secondary + 24.9 8,193 9,273 31.1 2,727 3,016 Wealth quintile Lowest 18.9 6,219 8,453 19.1 1,676 2,226 Second 20.1 6,606 6,578 19.4 1,698 1,750 Middle 20.4 6,710 5,965 20.4 1,788 1,594 Fourth 20.4 6,713 5,918 19.6 1,713 1,527 Highest 20.2 6,647 5,981 21.5 1,882 1,661 Religion Islam 88.5 29,104 26,185 88.2 7,724 6,881 Protestant 6.0 1,989 3,598 6.1 531 990 Catholic 2.9 958 1,406 3.0 263 368 Hindu 1.8 592 1,286 2.0 174 408 Buddhist 0.4 139 253 0.4 33 62 Confucian 0.0 0 0 0.1 7 12 Other 0.2 74 120 0.2 18 26 Missing 0.1 38 47 0.1 8 11 Total 100.0 32,895 32,895 100.0 8,758 8,758 Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was completed. na = Not applicable 3.2 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Table 3.2 shows the percent distribution of respondents by highest level of schooling attained or completed, according to age, residence, and household wealth status. Young women and men are more likely to have attended school than older respondents. The percentage of respondents who have never attended school increases with age for both men and women. For example, 2 percent of ever-married women and 1 percent of currently married men age 20-24 have no formal education, compared with 18 percent of women and 7 percent of men age 45-49. Similarly, 35 percent of women age 20-24 had some secondary education, compared with only 11 percent of women age 45-49. The corresponding figures for men are 31 and 14 percent, respectively. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 25 Table 3.2 Educational attainment by background characteristics Percent distribution of ever-married women and currently married men by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median grade completed, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Highest level of schooling Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Total Number Median years completed EVER-MARRIED WOMEN Age 15-19 2.2 10.6 38.6 39.2 9.1 0.3 100.0 845 5.9 20-24 1.5 9.4 28.5 34.9 21.7 4.0 100.0 4,094 8.2 25-29 2.1 10.1 31.3 25.1 22.9 8.5 100.0 5,771 8.2 30-34 3.0 11.0 35.4 21.2 21.1 8.2 100.0 6,020 6.3 35-39 5.9 15.0 31.7 18.4 21.8 7.3 100.0 6,004 5.9 40-44 12.5 26.4 27.4 12.5 14.1 7.1 100.0 5,365 5.4 45-49 18.0 32.0 26.5 10.9 7.0 5.6 100.0 4,795 5.0 Residence Urban 3.7 11.2 23.5 22.4 27.7 11.5 100.0 13,745 8.5 Rural 9.2 21.1 35.7 19.3 11.2 3.4 100.0 19,150 5.5 Wealth quintile Lowest 14.7 30.1 34.8 14.7 5.2 0.5 100.0 6,219 5.1 Second 9.9 22.5 38.5 19.3 9.0 0.9 100.0 6,606 5.5 Middle 6.5 16.3 35.7 23.7 14.9 2.9 100.0 6,710 5.8 Fourth 2.7 12.2 29.1 26.3 23.6 6.0 100.0 6,713 8.2 Highest 1.2 4.5 15.3 18.6 36.9 23.3 100.0 6,647 11.3 Total 6.9 16.9 30.6 20.6 18.1 6.8 100.0 32,895 5.8 CURRENTLY MARRIED MEN Age 15-19 * * * * * * 100.0 29 5.9 20-24 1.2 13.0 26.9 31.2 23.7 4.0 100.0 432 8.2 25-29 1.3 8.8 29.2 26.0 28.7 5.9 100.0 1,116 8.4 30-34 1.5 9.2 27.6 23.5 29.0 9.2 100.0 1,418 8.4 35-39 3.2 12.5 27.8 21.0 26.2 9.3 100.0 1,679 8.2 40-44 3.3 22.0 22.5 14.7 24.8 12.7 100.0 1,570 8.0 45-49 7.3 27.2 28.8 14.1 11.7 11.0 100.0 1,359 5.5 50-54 10.0 34.0 24.2 15.3 9.1 7.0 100.0 1,155 5.2 Residence Urban 2.4 11.4 19.5 20.3 32.3 14.0 100.0 3,728 8.9 Rural 5.4 23.5 32.0 19.2 14.4 5.5 100.0 5,030 5.7 Wealth quintile Lowest 9.8 28.9 35.2 16.9 8.4 0.8 100.0 1,676 5.3 Second 5.1 29.1 32.9 21.1 10.4 1.3 100.0 1,698 5.5 Middle 3.3 20.2 31.9 22.2 18.5 4.0 100.0 1,788 5.8 Fourth 1.9 11.3 23.3 22.2 32.0 9.3 100.0 1,713 8.6 Highest 1.0 3.9 11.7 16.0 38.9 28.2 100.0 1,882 11.4 Total 4.1 18.3 26.7 19.7 22.0 9.1 100.0 8,758 6.6 Note: An asterisk indicates that an estimate is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Completed 6 grade at the primary level 2 Completed 6 grade at the secondary level The IDHS data indicate that educational opportunities vary by urban-rural residence. Urban women and men are more likely to go to school than their rural counterparts. Four percent of urban women and 2 percent of urban men have not attended school, compared with 9 percent of women and 5 percent of men in rural areas. Comparison of the median number of years of education completed shows a similar pattern, with urban women having a median of 8.5 years of schooling and rural women having 5.5 years. For men, the corresponding figures are 8.9 and 5.7 years, respectively. There are significant differentials in educational attainment across provinces (see Appendix Table A-3.2). 3.3 LITERACY The ability to read is an important personal asset that gives women and men increased opportunities in life. Information on the distribution of the literate population can help health and family 26 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status planning professionals reach their target populations with messages. In the 2007 IDHS, literacy was measured by the respondent’s ability to read a sentence in Indonesian from a card. The questions assessing literacy were asked only of women and men who had not attended school or had attended only primary school. Respondents who attended at least secondary school are considered literate. Table 3.3 shows that the majority of respondents are literate, 87 percent of ever-married women and 91 percent of currently married men cannot read at all. The percentage of women who cannot read at all is 12 percent; 9 percent of men cannot read at all. Younger respondents are more likely to be literate than older respondents. Whereas 96 percent of women and men age 20-24 are literate, the proportion among respondents age 45-49 is 70 percent for women and 85 percent for men. There are variations by urban-rural residence and wealth status, with urban respondents and those in the higher wealth quintiles being more likely to be literate. Almost all women and men in the highest wealth quintile are literate (98 percent each). The variation in literacy rates by province is presented in Appendix Table A-3.3. Table 3.3 Literacy Percent distribution of ever-married women and currently married men by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 No schooling or primary school Background characteristic Secondary school or higher Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all Missing Total Percentage literate1 Number EVER-MARRIED WOMEN Age 15-19 48.6 40.0 6.1 4.5 0.9 100.0 94.6 845 20-24 60.6 31.5 3.6 3.8 0.5 100.0 95.7 4,094 25-29 56.4 33.1 5.4 4.5 0.6 100.0 95.0 5,771 30-34 50.6 36.9 5.7 6.0 0.8 100.0 93.2 6,020 35-39 47.4 34.6 7.0 10.6 0.3 100.0 89.0 6,004 40-44 33.7 33.0 11.8 21.0 0.5 100.0 78.5 5,365 45-49 23.5 33.2 13.6 29.2 0.5 100.0 70.3 4,795 Residence Urban 61.6 26.7 5.4 5.8 0.5 100.0 93.7 13,745 Rural 34.0 39.3 9.5 16.7 0.6 100.0 82.8 19,150 Wealth quintile Lowest 20.4 39.9 13.5 25.6 0.7 100.0 73.8 6,219 Second 29.1 42.8 10.0 17.5 0.6 100.0 81.9 6,606 Middle 41.5 39.4 7.7 11.0 0.5 100.0 88.5 6,710 Fourth 55.9 32.0 5.9 5.7 0.6 100.0 93.8 6,713 Highest 78.9 16.6 2.4 1.8 0.3 100.0 97.8 6,647 Total 45.5 34.1 7.8 12.1 0.5 100.0 87.4 32,895 CURRENTLY MARRIED MEN Age 15-19 * * * * * 100.0 * 29 20-24 58.9 30.2 7.2 3.6 0.0 100.0 96.4 432 25-29 60.7 30.7 4.3 3.7 0.6 100.0 95.7 1,116 30-34 61.7 30.8 3.9 3.3 0.3 100.0 96.4 1,418 35-39 56.4 34.1 3.7 5.5 0.3 100.0 94.3 1,679 40-44 52.1 32.3 7.1 8.1 0.4 100.0 91.5 1,570 45-49 36.8 40.2 8.2 14.2 0.5 100.0 85.2 1,359 50-54 31.4 35.2 9.9 22.8 0.6 100.0 76.6 1,155 Residence Urban 66.6 24.6 3.8 4.5 0.5 100.0 95.0 3,728 Rural 39.1 40.5 7.8 12.2 0.4 100.0 87.4 5,030 Wealth quintile Lowest 26.1 43.9 11.6 18.0 0.4 100.0 81.6 1,676 Second 32.9 42.6 9.4 14.6 0.5 100.0 84.9 1,698 Middle 44.6 40.4 6.8 7.6 0.6 100.0 91.8 1,788 Fourth 63.6 30.1 2.5 3.6 0.2 100.0 96.3 1,713 Highest 83.1 13.9 0.8 1.8 0.4 100.0 97.8 1,882 Total 50.8 33.8 6.1 8.9 0.4 100.0 90.7 8,758 Note: An asterisk indicates that an estimate is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Refers to respondents who attended secondary school or higher and those who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 27 3.4 EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA Information access is essential to increasing people’s knowledge and awareness of what is taking place around them that may eventually affect their perceptions and behavior. It is important to know which groups are likely to be reached by the media for purposes of planning programs intended to disseminate information about health and family planning. In the 2007 IDHS, exposure to media was assessed by asking how often a respondent reads a newspaper, watches television, or listens to the radio. Tables 3.4 shows the percentage of ever-married women and currently married men who were exposed to different types of media by age, urban-rural residence, level of education, and wealth quintile. Table 3.4 shows that television is the most popular mass media among ever-married women and currently married men (78 and 80 percent, respectively), followed by radio with 27 percent of women and 32 percent of men. Readership of print media is much lower for both women and men (12 and 24 percent, respectively). Since 2002-2003, there has been a decrease in the proportion of women exposed to all three media, from 9 percent to 6 percent in the 2007 IDHS. Women and men living in urban areas and those age 30-44 are more likely to have access to all three media than their rural counterparts or those in other age groups. The findings also show that education is strongly associated with exposure to mass media. For instance, 14 percent of women and 22 percent of men with secondary or higher education are likely to have access to all three types of media, compared with 2 and 5 percent, respectively, of women and men with some primary education. In general, men have greater exposure to mass media than women. This differential applies to all population groups. Appendix Table A-3.4 shows the variation in media exposure among ever-married women and currently married men by province. Table 3.4 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of ever-married women and currently married men who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, by background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week All three media at least once a week None of the specified media at least once a week Number EVER-MARRIED WOMEN Age 15-19 6.0 72.0 32.3 2.3 21.3 845 20-24 8.7 79.2 32.2 4.8 15.9 4,094 25-29 12.8 81.3 28.9 5.5 14.9 5,771 30-34 13.2 80.7 27.6 5.7 15.8 6,020 35-39 14.2 78.7 27.8 6.7 17.6 6,004 40-44 13.4 74.7 25.1 6.3 21.7 5,365 45-49 9.2 72.4 22.0 3.4 24.2 4,795 Residence Urban 20.0 86.7 29.7 8.8 10.4 13,745 Rural 6.2 71.5 25.7 2.9 24.0 19,150 Education No education 0.3 50.3 12.4 0.1 46.2 2,271 Some primary 2.1 66.0 19.8 1.0 30.2 5,572 Complete primary 4.8 76.7 26.4 2.5 19.0 10,077 Some secondary 9.4 83.4 30.6 4.4 12.7 6,781 Secondary + 33.0 90.3 35.1 14.3 6.4 8,193 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.8 45.4 19.0 1.1 46.8 6,219 Second 4.6 72.9 25.4 1.9 22.1 6,606 Middle 7.1 84.9 27.6 3.3 12.3 6,710 Fourth 12.6 90.6 30.9 6.1 7.5 6,713 Highest 32.3 93.0 33.3 14.3 4.9 6,647 Total 12.0 77.8 27.3 5.4 18.3 32,895 Continued… 28 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.4—Continued Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week All three media at least once a week None of the specified media at least once a week Number CURRENTLY MARRIED MEN Age 15-19 * * * * * 29 20-24 14.0 82.6 32.5 6.3 13.4 432 25-29 22.9 81.9 31.8 7.4 13.9 1,116 30-34 27.2 81.7 33.6 11.4 12.7 1,418 35-39 25.5 81.2 36.2 11.6 13.7 1,679 40-44 25.7 82.1 31.1 11.5 12.3 1,570 45-49 23.5 78.7 28.1 8.0 17.5 1,359 50-54 19.9 75.5 30.3 8.8 19.8 1,155 Residence Urban 36.0 88.4 33.0 13.7 7.4 3,728 Rural 14.7 74.4 31.3 6.9 20.3 5,030 Education No education 2.2 46.9 20.0 0.4 49.3 365 Some primary 4.7 70.2 24.9 2.1 25.3 1,605 Complete primary 10.2 76.7 31.8 4.5 18.2 2,339 Some secondary 19.1 84.5 33.2 7.5 10.3 1,721 Secondary + 52.6 91.4 37.1 21.7 3.9 2,727 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.3 51.1 25.5 3.0 40.5 1,676 Second 11.1 75.8 30.3 5.6 19.0 1,698 Middle 17.9 87.5 34.0 8.1 8.5 1,788 Fourth 28.2 92.7 33.5 10.6 4.6 1,713 Highest 52.4 92.6 36.0 20.7 3.5 1,882 Total 23.8 80.4 32.0 9.8 14.8 8,758 Note: An asterisk indicates that an estimate is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 3.5 EMPLOYMENT 3.5.1 Employment status Respondents in the 2007 IDHS were asked a number of questions about their employment status at the time of the survey and the continuity of employment in the past 12 months. The measurement of women’s employment, however, is difficult because some of the work they do, especially on family farms, in family businesses, or in the informal sector, is often not perceived as employment by the women themselves and hence is not reported as such. To avoid underestimating women’s employment, the IDHS asked women several questions to ascertain their employment status. First, women were asked, “Aside from your own housework, are you currently working?” Women who answered “no” to this question were then asked, “As you know, some women take up jobs for which they are paid in cash or kind. Others sell things, have a small business, or work on the family farm or in the family business. Are you currently doing any of these things or any other work?” Women who answered “no” to this question were asked, “Have you done any work in the past 12 months?” Women are considered currently employed if they answer “yes” to either of the first two questions. Women who answer “yes” to the third question are considered not currently employed, but worked in the past 12 months. Table 3.5.1 and Figure 3.1 show that 57 percent of ever-married women are currently employed, 3 percent are not currently employed but were employed at some time during the past 12 months, and 39 percent of women were not employed at all in the past 12 months. Older women, women in rural areas, and women who have no education are more likely to have been employed during the past year. Women with more children are more likely to be currently employed than those with fewer children. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 29 Table 3.5.1 shows that, in general, there is a negative relationship between current employment and household wealth status. The likelihood of a woman being employed goes down as the household wealth quintile increases. Table 3.5.1 Employment status: Women Percent distribution of ever-married women by employment status, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed Not employed in the past 12 months Total Number of women Age 15-19 29.7 9.3 61.0 100.0 845 20-24 38.7 5.7 55.6 100.0 4,094 25-29 49.5 4.1 46.3 100.0 5,771 30-34 57.0 3.4 39.7 100.0 6,020 35-39 63.8 2.4 33.8 100.0 6,004 40-44 67.6 2.1 30.3 100.0 5,365 45-49 68.0 2.2 29.9 100.0 4,795 Marital status Married 56.2 3.4 40.4 100.0 30,931 Divorced/separated/ widowed 74.3 3.5 22.3 100.0 1,964 Number of living children 0 54.3 7.2 38.5 100.0 2,687 1-2 55.2 3.3 41.4 100.0 18,545 3-4 60.9 2.7 36.4 100.0 8,908 5+ 62.2 2.0 35.8 100.0 2,754 Residence Urban 53.1 3.0 43.8 100.0 13,745 Rural 60.2 3.6 36.2 100.0 19,150 Education No education 75.9 2.3 21.8 100.0 2,271 Some primary 63.9 3.0 33.0 100.0 5,572 Complete primary 56.9 3.4 39.7 100.0 10,077 Some secondary 47.0 4.4 48.5 100.0 6,781 Secondary + 56.6 3.0 40.4 100.0 8,193 Wealth quintile Lowest 61.8 4.2 33.9 100.0 6,219 Second 59.2 3.5 37.3 100.0 6,606 Middle 56.9 3.8 39.3 100.0 6,710 Fourth 52.6 3.2 44.2 100.0 6,713 Highest 56.2 2.2 41.6 100.0 6,647 Total 57.3 3.4 39.3 100.0 32,895 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past seven days; includes persons who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. Table 3.5.2 shows that almost all currently married men are currently employed (98 percent), another 1 percent were employed at some time in the past year, and 1 percent were not employed at all during the past year. There are small variations across subgroups of men. Appendix Tables A-3.5.1 and A-3.5.2 show the percent distribution of ever-married women and currently married men by employment status, according to province. 30 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.5.2 Employment status: Men Percent distribution of currently married men by employment status, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Employed in the past 12 months Background characteristic Currently employed Not currently employed Not employed in the past 12 months Total Number of men Age 15-19 * * * 100.0 29 20-24 96.4 3.3 0.3 100.0 432 25-29 97.3 2.1 0.6 100.0 1,116 30-34 98.5 1.3 0.2 100.0 1,418 35-39 98.5 0.9 0.6 100.0 1,679 40-44 98.6 0.5 0.9 100.0 1,570 45-49 98.3 1.3 0.4 100.0 1,359 50-54 96.9 0.7 2.4 100.0 1,155 Number of living children 0 97.4 2.2 0.4 100.0 723 1-2 98.1 1.2 0.6 100.0 4,855 3-4 97.8 0.8 1.4 100.0 2,411 5+ 98.2 1.3 0.5 100.0 769 Residence Urban 97.6 1.3 1.1 100.0 3,728 Rural 98.3 1.1 0.6 100.0 5,030 Education No education 96.7 1.5 1.7 100.0 365 Some primary 98.8 0.6 0.5 100.0 1,605 Complete primary 97.9 1.3 0.8 100.0 2,339 Some secondary 97.1 1.8 1.1 100.0 1,721 Secondary + 98.3 1.0 0.7 100.0 2,727 Wealth quintile Lowest 98.3 1.4 0.3 100.0 1,676 Second 97.5 1.5 1.0 100.0 1,698 Middle 98.0 0.9 1.0 100.0 1,788 Fourth 97.7 1.5 0.8 100.0 1,713 Highest 98.4 0.7 0.9 100.0 1,882 Total 98.0 1.2 0.8 100.0 8,758 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past seven days; includes persons who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. IDHS 2007 Figure 3.1 Employment Status of Women Age 15-49 Currently employed 57% Not employed in past 12 months 39% Not currently employed 3% Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 31 3.5.2 Occupation Table 3.6.1 shows the percent distribution of ever-married women who were employed during the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics. The data indicate that 40 percent of ever-married women work in agriculture; about half (20 percent) of these women work on their own land. The majority of women who work in the nonagricultural sector are engaged in sales and services occupations (37 percent). Respondents’ occupations vary by age: younger women who work in agriculture tend to work on family land, while older women tend to work on their own land. In the nonagricultural sector, the engagement of women in sales and services increases with age. Rural and less educated women are more likely to work in agriculture than other women. Urban and better educated women are more likely to work in sales and services professions. Table 3.6.1 Occupation: Women Percent distribution of ever-married women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Agriculture Nonagriculture Background characteristic Own land Family land Someone else’s land Rented land Don’t know/ missing Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Un- skilled manual Other/ missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 19.6 14.2 22.0 1.8 0.2 1.4 0.4 26.1 14.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 330 20-24 16.8 8.2 11.1 0.7 1.1 3.7 2.9 35.9 19.1 0.1 0.5 100.0 1,816 25-29 16.3 4.8 10.1 1.4 0.7 8.1 3.7 37.0 17.6 0.0 0.3 100.0 3,093 30-34 16.9 4.3 13.2 1.5 0.6 5.9 3.1 38.4 15.6 0.1 0.3 100.0 3,631 35-39 20.5 3.7 14.4 1.5 0.3 7.3 2.5 38.7 11.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3,974 40-44 21.9 3.2 13.6 2.0 0.6 8.8 3.0 38.1 8.7 0.1 0.0 100.0 3,740 45-49 28.0 3.0 15.9 1.2 1.1 6.8 1.8 33.5 8.4 0.2 0.1 100.0 3,362 Marital status Married 20.8 4.3 13.5 1.4 0.7 7.1 2.9 36.2 12.8 0.1 0.2 100.0 18,420 Divorced/separated/ widowed 15.2 4.4 12.9 1.5 0.6 4.9 1.9 45.4 13.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 1,526 Number of living children 0 13.6 5.3 8.0 1.3 0.3 9.9 4.6 39.0 17.8 0.1 0.1 100.0 1,653 1-2 18.1 4.4 13.7 1.0 0.6 7.2 3.4 36.5 14.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 10,855 3-4 22.9 3.9 13.9 1.5 0.9 7.0 1.8 39.0 9.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 5,669 5+ 32.4 4.5 15.7 4.0 0.6 2.7 0.7 31.0 8.1 0.3 0.1 100.0 1,769 Residence Urban 2.2 0.7 4.9 0.5 0.4 10.7 5.6 56.9 17.7 0.1 0.2 100.0 7,720 Rural 31.9 6.7 18.8 2.0 0.8 4.6 1.0 24.3 9.7 0.0 0.1 100.0 12,225 Education No education 35.0 5.1 27.8 2.3 0.8 0.0 0.0 20.2 8.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,776 Some primary 30.6 5.4 23.4 1.9 1.0 0.0 0.0 28.7 9.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3,731 Complete primary 25.0 5.5 16.4 1.3 0.5 0.5 0.1 36.2 14.3 0.0 0.2 100.0 6,074 Some secondary 16.4 4.8 6.9 2.0 0.7 1.9 0.4 47.6 18.9 0.1 0.3 100.0 3,489 Secondary + 4.4 1.6 1.5 0.6 0.6 26.5 11.0 42.5 10.9 0.1 0.2 100.0 4,876 Wealth quintile Lowest 41.2 8.8 22.9 2.9 0.9 1.1 0.2 13.8 8.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 4,108 Second 29.2 5.6 22.8 1.9 0.9 1.7 0.5 26.5 10.6 0.0 0.3 100.0 4,143 Middle 18.6 4.2 14.0 1.3 0.6 4.6 1.3 39.2 16.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 4,070 Fourth 8.8 2.2 5.6 0.6 0.2 8.4 1.8 52.7 19.4 0.1 0.1 100.0 3,744 Highest 1.9 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.7 19.8 10.5 54.9 10.4 0.1 0.3 100.0 3,879 Total 20.4 4.4 13.4 1.5 0.7 7.0 2.8 36.9 12.8 0.1 0.2 100.0 19,946 Table 3.6.2 shows the percent distribution of currently married men who were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics. Thirty-nine percent of currently married men work in agriculture, with around half (20 percent) working on their own land. Men in the nonagricultural sector, like women, are far more likely to work in sales and services than in other professions (29 percent). They also show the same variations across subgroups as women. Provincial differentials in occupation are shown in Appendix Tables A-3.6.1 and A-3.6.2 32 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.6.2 Occupation: Men Percent distribution of currently married men employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Agriculture Nonagriculture Background characteristic Own land Family land Someone else’s land Rented land Don’t know/ missing Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Agri- culture Other/ missing Total Number of men Age 15-19 * * * * * * * * * * * 100.0 29 20-24 14.3 11.3 14.7 3.4 0.7 1.8 0.7 25.9 25.2 1.7 0.3 100.0 430 25-29 14.3 6.0 10.3 0.9 0.4 3.4 3.4 32.2 26.3 1.6 1.2 100.0 1,109 30-34 16.0 6.1 11.2 1.9 0.4 5.6 3.1 33.9 19.4 1.1 1.3 100.0 1,415 35-39 18.6 3.5 12.4 1.5 0.8 6.9 3.5 31.1 19.1 1.7 0.9 100.0 1,668 40-44 21.3 2.2 11.5 1.1 0.5 8.7 4.6 28.9 18.3 1.7 1.2 100.0 1,555 45-49 24.7 2.5 16.4 1.2 1.0 9.6 4.4 24.5 12.2 1.7 1.8 100.0 1,353 50-54 27.1 2.2 17.0 1.0 0.5 5.2 5.5 26.2 12.0 2.1 1.3 100.0 1,127 Number of living children 0 15.6 6.6 9.6 1.3 0.9 3.9 4.1 36.1 19.3 1.8 0.8 100.0 720 1-2 18.4 4.4 12.8 1.6 0.4 6.4 3.8 29.1 20.2 1.7 1.0 100.0 4,823 3-4 20.8 2.6 14.1 0.8 0.7 8.3 4.0 30.2 16.1 1.1 1.4 100.0 2,378 5+ 30.3 4.5 14.7 2.1 0.9 3.9 3.6 23.0 12.1 2.8 2.1 100.0 765 Residence Urban 4.1 0.7 5.2 0.8 0.7 9.2 6.5 44.4 25.8 0.7 1.9 100.0 3,686 Rural 31.6 6.6 18.9 1.8 0.5 4.5 1.9 18.4 12.7 2.3 0.7 100.0 5,000 Education No education 37.2 3.1 28.9 0.3 1.2 1.4 0.1 13.4 11.5 3.0 0.0 100.0 359 Some primary 27.9 4.0 27.4 2.1 0.7 0.1 0.0 21.2 14.4 1.7 0.4 100.0 1,596 Complete primary 27.8 5.9 13.3 1.2 0.6 0.7 0.2 30.6 16.6 2.6 0.6 100.0 2,322 Some secondary 16.7 5.9 12.1 2.3 0.5 1.6 2.6 30.1 25.8 1.2 1.2 100.0 1,703 Secondary + 8.2 1.7 3.1 0.7 0.5 19.0 10.5 34.9 18.3 0.9 2.3 100.0 2,707 Wealth quintile Lowest 36.6 8.8 25.8 2.4 0.9 0.9 0.5 11.0 10.3 2.7 0.1 100.0 1,672 Second 28.3 4.9 20.4 1.6 0.5 1.2 1.2 20.9 18.0 2.2 0.7 100.0 1,680 Middle 20.5 4.9 13.2 1.9 0.5 4.9 2.7 29.1 19.8 1.6 0.9 100.0 1,770 Fourth 11.9 2.0 6.3 0.6 0.5 7.8 4.0 41.2 24.2 0.7 0.9 100.0 1,700 Highest 4.1 0.5 1.2 0.5 0.6 16.6 10.2 43.2 19.0 1.0 3.1 100.0 1,865 Total 19.9 4.1 13.1 1.4 0.6 6.5 3.9 29.4 18.3 1.6 1.2 100.0 8,686 Note: An asterisk indicates that an estimate is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 3.6 FORM OF WOMEN’S EARNINGS Table 3.7 shows the percent distribution of ever-married women who were employed during the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings received, type of employer, continuity of employment, and variations by type of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural). Sixty-one percent of women received their earnings in cash; 6 percent receive payment in cash and in kind; and 29 percent receive no payment (Figure 3.2). The majority of women who work in agriculture (53 percent) receive no payment, while among women engaged in nonagricultural professions, only 13 percent reported receiving no payment. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 33 Table 3.7 Type of employment: Women Percent distribution of ever-married women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and continuity of employment, according to type of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural), Indonesia 2007 Employment characteristic Agricultural work Non- agricultural work Total Type of earnings Cash only 31.3 81.7 61.4 Cash and in-kind 8.3 4.6 6.1 In-kind only 7.4 0.2 3.1 Not paid 52.9 13.2 29.2 Missing 0.2 0.3 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Type of employer Employed by family member 60.3 12.8 32.0 Employed by nonfamily member 27.8 46.2 38.8 Self-employed 11.7 40.6 28.9 Missing 0.2 0.4 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Continuity of employment All year 58.1 90.6 77.5 Seasonal 36.9 4.9 17.8 Occasional 4.5 4.1 4.3 Missing 0.4 0.4 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women employed during past 12 months 8,038 11,902 19,946 Note: Total includes 15 women with information missing on type of employment who are not shown separately. IDHS 2007 Figure 3.2 Type of Earnings of Employed Women Age 15-49 Cash only 61% No payment 29% Cash and in-kind 6% In-kind only 3% 34 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Six in 10 women who work in the agricultural sector are employed by a family member, while women who work in the nonagricultural sector are more likely to be employed by a non-family member (46 percent) or are self-employed (41 percent). Nine in 10 women who work in nonagricultural jobs work all year, compared with 58 percent of women in agriculture. Thirty-seven percent of ever-married women in the agriculture sector work seasonally. 3.7 CONTROL OVER WOMEN’S EARNINGS AND WOMEN’S CONTRIBUTION TO HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES Employed women who earn cash for their work were asked about who the main decisionmaker is with regard to the use of their earnings. This information allows the assessment of women’s control over their own earnings. In addition, to assess the relative importance of women’s earnings, respondents were asked about the proportion of household expenditures met by their earnings. This information not only allows an evaluation of the relative importance of women’s earnings in the household economy, but has implications for the empowerment of women. It is expected that employment and earnings are more likely to empower women if they perceive their earnings as important for meeting the needs of their household. Table 3.8 shows the distribution of ever-married women by person who decides how earnings are used and by proportion of household expenditures met by earnings, according to background characteristics. Table 3.8 shows that 69 percent of ever-married women reported that they alone decide how their earnings are to be spent, and 28 percent reported that they decide jointly with someone else (mostly husbands). Only 3 percent of women reported that someone else makes the decision on how their earnings are used. Table 3.8 also shows that respondents’ control over the use of their earnings varies little by background characteristics, except for marital status. Divorced, separated, or widowed women are substantially more likely to decide alone how their earnings are used than women who are married (95 and 66 percent, respectively). While 30 percent of married women report that this decision is made jointly with someone else, only 4 percent of divorced, separated, or widowed women shared the decision making with someone else. When asked about the proportion of household expenditures that are met by their earnings, 47 percent of women reported that their earnings support all of the household expenditures and 39 percent reported that their earnings support half or more. Across subgroups, the data show that older women, those who are widowed, separated, or divorced, women with a larger number of children, rural women, and those who are less educated are more likely to meet all of their household’s expenditures. Appendix Table A-3.7 shows provincial variations regarding the decision on use of earnings in the household and women’s contribution to household expenditures. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 35 Table 3.8 Decision on use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures Percent distribution of ever-married women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey receiving cash earnings by person who decides how earnings are used and by proportion of household expenditures met by earnings, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Person who decides how the woman’s earnings are used: Proportion of household expenditures met by earnings Background characteristic Self only Jointly1 Someone else only2 Missing Total Almost none/ none Less than half Half or more All Don’t know/ missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 74.1 18.3 3.6 3.9 100.0 7.2 9.0 44.8 33.9 5.0 100.0 208 20-24 66.7 30.0 2.7 0.6 100.0 6.5 12.1 44.0 36.0 1.5 100.0 1,206 25-29 64.4 29.8 3.6 2.1 100.0 5.4 12.8 41.5 39.8 0.5 100.0 2,121 30-34 67.1 29.4 3.0 0.5 100.0 3.2 10.2 37.6 48.4 0.6 100.0 2,534 35-39 68.0 28.1 2.6 1.3 100.0 2.7 9.2 39.3 47.9 0.9 100.0 2,699 40-44 72.2 24.8 2.2 0.8 100.0 1.7 9.2 39.9 48.2 1.1 100.0 2,527 45-49 72.1 24.6 2.3 0.9 100.0 1.7 7.1 33.9 56.7 0.5 100.0 2,158 Marital status Married 65.9 29.9 3.0 1.1 100.0 3.3 10.4 40.7 44.7 0.9 100.0 12,170 Divorced/separated/ widowed 95.0 4.1 0.2 0.7 100.0 2.9 5.2 23.3 68.3 0.4 100.0 1,283 Number of living children 0 70.3 27.0 1.7 1.0 100.0 10.5 15.1 46.8 26.0 1.5 100.0 1,203 1-2 68.4 27.6 3.0 1.1 100.0 3.0 10.1 40.4 45.8 0.7 100.0 7,538 3-4 69.0 27.6 2.3 1.0 100.0 2.2 8.4 36.2 52.3 0.8 100.0 3,702 5+ 68.0 26.9 3.9 1.3 100.0 1.1 7.0 30.2 60.3 1.3 100.0 1,010 Residence Urban 72.0 24.9 2.4 0.6 100.0 4.3 9.8 41.2 44.3 0.4 100.0 6,529 Rural 65.5 29.9 3.1 1.5 100.0 2.3 9.9 37.0 49.4 1.3 100.0 6,924 Education No education 75.6 21.3 2.1 1.0 100.0 1.3 5.5 26.8 64.9 1.5 100.0 960 Some primary 71.9 24.7 2.3 1.2 100.0 1.6 7.7 29.6 60.3 0.8 100.0 2,192 Complete primary 69.1 26.7 3.3 1.0 100.0 1.9 8.8 33.1 55.4 0.8 100.0 3,829 Some secondary 66.6 29.6 2.4 1.3 100.0 3.1 11.9 42.4 41.3 1.4 100.0 2,375 Secondary + 66.2 29.9 2.8 1.0 100.0 6.1 11.9 50.6 30.8 0.6 100.0 4,097 Wealth quintile Lowest 61.9 33.0 3.2 1.9 100.0 1.5 7.0 32.7 57.0 1.8 100.0 2,024 Second 69.2 27.3 2.4 1.1 100.0 2.1 9.6 31.4 55.9 1.0 100.0 2,405 Middle 71.2 24.7 3.0 1.1 100.0 2.2 8.3 36.0 52.7 0.8 100.0 2,851 Fourth 70.6 26.7 2.1 0.6 100.0 2.8 11.6 43.5 41.6 0.5 100.0 2,937 Highest 68.6 27.3 3.1 1.0 100.0 6.8 11.6 47.4 33.6 0.6 100.0 3,236 Total 68.7 27.5 2.7 1.1 100.0 3.3 9.9 39.1 46.9 0.9 100.0 13,453 1 With husband or someone else 2 Includes husband Table 3.9 shows the distribution of currently married working women by person who decides how cash earning are used and the extent to which their earnings meet household expenditures. Sixty-six percent of currently married women make their own decisions on how their earnings are used. Interestingly, women who do not contribute any cash to the household expenditures are much more likely to make the decision on cash spending alone (78 percent) than those who cover all of their household expenditures (67 percent). Almost all women who are not currently married (98 percent) make their own decisions on how their cash will be used, regardless of their contribution to the household expenditures (data not shown). 36 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.9 Women’s control over earnings Percent distributions of currently married women who received cash earnings for work in the past 12 months by person who decides how earnings are used, according to proportion of household expenditures met by earnings, Indonesia 2007 Person who decides how woman’s cash earnings are used Contribution to household expenditures Self only Jointly with husband Jointly with someone else Husband only Someone else only Missing Total Number of women Almost none/none 78.0 13.1 1.0 2.8 4.3 0.8 100.0 406 Less than half 67.2 27.9 0.1 3.0 0.2 1.7 100.0 1,261 Half or more 63.8 31.8 0.1 3.3 0.0 0.9 100.0 4,956 All 66.8 29.6 0.0 2.3 0.1 1.2 100.0 5,434 Don’t know/missing 60.6 34.2 0.0 2.3 0.0 2.9 100.0 113 Total1 65.9 29.8 0.1 2.8 0.2 1.1 100.0 12,170 1 Excludes cases where a woman or her husband/partner has no earnings, and includes cases where a woman does not know whether she earned more or less than her husband/partner 3.8 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT In addition to information on women’s education, employment status, and control over earnings, the 2007 IDHS obtained information from both ever-married women and currently married men on other measures of women’s status and empowerment. Specifically, questions were asked about women’s participation in specific household decisions, on their degree of acceptance of wife beating, and on their opinions about when a wife should be able to refuse sex with her husband. These data provide insights into women’s control over their lives and environment, and their attitudes toward traditional gender roles. These are important aspects of women’s empowerment and are relevant for understanding women’s demographic and health behaviors. 3.8.1 Women’s Participation in Decision Making To assess women’s decision making autonomy, information was collected on women’s partici- pation in five different decisions: respondent’s own health care, large household purchases, household purchases for daily needs, visits to family or relatives, and what food to cook each day. Table 3.10.1 shows the percent distribution of ever-married women by who in the household usually has the final say in making each of the specified decisions. Table 3.10.2 shows the distribution of currently married men by person they think should have the final say in making specific decisions. Women are considered to participate in decision making if they make decisions alone or jointly with their husband or someone else. The data show that for two of the four decisions (what food should be cooked each day and household purchases for daily needs), women are the main decisionmakers. Half of women say that they are responsible for their own health care. Decisions on large household purchases and visits the woman’s family or relatives are more likely to be made by the respondent jointly with her husband. Comparing participation in decision making by marital status, currently married women are substantially less likely to make specific decisions by themselves than women who are not currently married. For instance, about half of currently married women (51 percent) decide themselves about their own health care, compared with 89 percent of women who are not married. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 37 Table 3.10.1 Women’s participation in decision making Percent distribution of ever-married women by person who has the final say in making five specific decisions by current marital status, according to type of decision, Indonesia 2007 Currently married women Women who are not married1 Decision Self only Jointly with hus- band Jointly with some- one else Hus- band only Some- one else only No deci- sion/ missing Total Number of women Self only Jointly with hus- band Jointly with some- one else Hus- band only Some- one else only No deci- sion/ missing Total Number of women Own health care 50.9 33.2 0.3 14.4 0.6 0.6 100.0 30,931 88.7 1.5 3.3 0.4 5.2 1.0 100.0 1,964 Large household purchases 16.6 62.5 0.5 17.9 1.2 1.2 100.0 30,931 72.8 3.9 8.4 1.2 9.6 4.2 100.0 1,964 Daily household purchases 81.5 12.7 0.9 3.1 1.4 0.4 100.0 30,931 82.6 1.4 5.6 0.4 8.8 1.2 100.0 1,964 Visits to family or relatives 15.7 71.1 0.7 10.3 0.5 1.6 100.0 30,931 74.6 4.1 10.1 0.6 7.3 3.2 100.0 1,964 What food to cook each day 87.9 6.5 1.7 1.1 2.0 0.8 100.0 30,931 81.0 0.9 5.8 0.3 10.1 1.9 100.0 1,964 1 Divorced or widowed women Table 3.10.2 shows that most men think that women should make decisions about household purchases for daily needs, while decisions about large household purchases and visiting family or relatives should be made together by the wife and husband. Table 3.10.2 Women’s participation in decision making according to men Percent distribution of currently married men by person who they think should have the final say in making three specific decisions, Indonesia 2007 Person who should have final say Decision Wife only Wife and husband equally Husband Husband and someone else Someone else No decision/ missing Total Number of men Large household purchases 12.3 70.0 16.2 0.2 0.5 0.8 100.0 8,758 Daily household purchases 64.3 27.3 7.3 0.2 0.4 0.5 100.0 8,758 Visits to family or relatives 5.8 80.2 12.3 0.1 0.3 1.3 100.0 8,758 Table 3.11.1 shows the percentage of ever-married women who reported that they decide alone or jointly about specific household decisions, according to background characteristics. The results indicate that the majority of women participate in all household decisions including purchases for daily household needs and what food to cook each day (94 percent each), visits to her family or relatives (86 percent), and her own health care (85 percent). It is in decisions regarding major household purchases that women are less likely to have a say (79 percent). Overall, two in three ever-married women participate in all five of the specified decisions and very few (1 percent) say that they do not participate in any of the decisions. The degree of independence in making household decisions increases with age and number of children. The most educated women and women who earn cash are more likely to have a final say in all the specified decisions. 38 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.11.1 Women’s participation in decision making by background characteristics Percentage of ever-married women who say that they alone or jointly have the final say in five specific decisions, by background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Percentage of women who say that they alone or jointly have final say in the following decisions: Background characteristic Own health care Major household purchases Purchases for daily household needs Visits to her family or relatives What food to cook each day Percentage who participate in all decisions Percentage who participate in none of the decisions Number of women Age 15-19 74.8 65.5 83.9 79.9 81.8 49.3 2.3 845 20-24 81.2 73.7 87.0 83.4 86.8 57.4 2.1 4,094 25-29 84.6 80.5 93.7 85.8 93.2 65.2 0.8 5,771 30-34 85.0 79.6 95.1 87.1 95.4 67.3 1.0 6,020 35-39 86.9 81.5 95.8 87.6 95.6 69.4 0.7 6,004 40-44 83.8 79.5 95.2 87.8 95.3 67.0 0.9 5,365 45-49 85.8 79.5 94.5 86.6 95.6 68.2 1.6 4,795 Marital status Married 84.1 79.1 94.2 86.8 94.4 65.6 0.9 30,931 Divorced/separated/ widowed 90.2 76.7 84.0 78.7 81.9 67.1 4.9 1,964 Number of living children 0 77.8 74.3 86.7 82.3 82.8 54.4 2.6 2,687 1-2 85.2 79.6 93.5 87.0 93.6 66.1 1.0 18,545 3-4 85.3 80.0 95.6 86.5 96.4 68.3 1.0 8,908 5+ 83.6 76.4 94.6 85.4 95.8 65.5 1.5 2,754 Residence Urban 85.6 80.1 93.4 87.4 92.6 66.2 1.1 13,745 Rural 83.6 78.2 93.8 85.6 94.4 65.4 1.2 19,150 Education No education 80.7 73.9 91.9 80.8 94.6 60.1 2.3 2,271 Some primary 81.4 75.2 93.0 83.6 94.8 62.2 1.6 5,572 Complete primary 83.9 77.4 94.0 86.3 94.7 65.4 1.1 10,077 Some secondary 84.0 79.5 93.2 87.1 93.4 65.2 1.1 6,781 Secondary + 88.7 84.5 94.4 89.2 91.6 70.4 0.7 8,193 Wealth quintile Lowest 82.5 76.4 92.5 83.2 95.3 64.3 1.5 6,219 Second 83.2 76.9 93.5 85.0 94.2 63.4 1.2 6,606 Middle 84.8 79.8 93.8 87.2 93.8 66.5 1.4 6,710 Fourth 85.5 80.5 94.1 88.2 93.5 67.1 0.9 6,713 Highest 86.2 81.2 94.1 87.9 91.5 67.0 0.8 6,647 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 83.6 77.6 92.8 86.6 94.1 64.7 1.2 12,944 Employed for cash 87.2 82.3 94.7 87.7 92.7 69.0 0.9 13,453 Employed not for cash 80.5 75.0 93.1 83.1 94.7 60.8 1.7 6,446 Missing 69.5 70.8 86.2 77.1 86.4 61.9 12.2 52 Total 84.5 79.0 93.6 86.3 93.6 65.7 1.2 32,895 Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 39 Table 3.11.2 shows the attitudes of men regarding their wife’s participation in three specific household decisions, by background characteristics. It is interesting to note that men are more likely to report that women have the final say in decisions about major household purchases than women (82 and 79 percent, respectively). Appendix Table A-3.8 shows women’s participation in decision making by province and Appendix Table A-3.9 shows men’s attitude toward wives’ participation in decision making by province. 85 79 94 86 94 66 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of decisions 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Figure 3.3 Number of Decisions in Which Women Participate in the Final Say IDHS 2007 40 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.11.2 Men’s attitudes toward wives’ participation in decision making Percentage of currently married men who say a wife should have the greater say alone or equal say with her husband on three specific decisions, by background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Percentage of men who say that a wife should have the greater say alone or equal say with her husband in the following decisions Background characteristic Major household purchases Purchases for daily household needs Visits to her family or relatives Percentage who participate in all three decisions Percentage who participate in none of the decisions Number of men Age 15-19 97.9 98.3 95.1 94.3 0.9 29 20-24 74.8 89.2 78.8 62.7 4.7 432 25-29 81.8 91.6 84.3 72.9 3.5 1,116 30-34 83.5 92.4 88.1 75.5 2.6 1,418 35-39 81.6 90.8 86.8 72.5 3.5 1,679 40-44 83.3 90.8 85.9 72.3 3.6 1,570 45-49 84.2 91.6 87.0 74.6 3.3 1,359 50-54 80.9 93.6 85.3 74.7 3.1 1,155 Number of living children 0 82.0 90.5 88.1 76.1 5.1 723 1-2 83.4 91.9 86.6 74.4 2.8 4,855 3-4 82.2 92.1 86.6 73.0 3.5 2,411 5+ 75.7 89.6 78.0 63.3 4.6 769 Residence Urban 84.3 92.9 87.8 75.2 2.6 3,728 Rural 80.8 90.7 84.7 71.7 3.9 5,030 Education No education 72.3 88.2 83.1 63.9 7.3 365 Some primary 77.8 89.5 83.1 67.4 3.5 1,605 Complete primary 82.8 89.2 84.2 72.8 4.9 2,339 Some secondary 83.0 93.5 87.3 75.4 2.6 1,721 Secondary + 85.3 94.2 88.8 76.8 1.9 2,727 Wealth quintile Lowest 77.6 88.4 81.0 65.7 5.0 1,676 Second 79.4 87.5 83.8 69.4 4.7 1,698 Middle 82.3 92.5 87.4 75.1 2.8 1,788 Fourth 85.5 93.9 87.6 77.6 3.1 1,713 Highest 86.0 95.3 89.6 77.6 1.4 1,882 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 74.8 89.1 86.5 71.5 7.4 70 Employed not for cash 82.3 91.6 86.0 73.2 3.3 8,686 Missing 100.0 84.5 100.0 84.5 0.0 1 Total 82.3 91.6 86.0 73.2 3.3 8,758 3.8.2 Attitudes toward Wife Beating To assess women’s degree of acceptance of wife beating, the 2007 IDHS asked ever-married women, “Sometimes a husband is annoyed or angered by things that his wife does. In your opinion, is a husband justified in hitting or beating his wife in the following situations?” The five situations presented to women for their opinion were: she burns the food, she argues with him, she goes out without telling him, she neglects the children, and she refuses to have sex with him. The first five columns in Table 3.12.1 and Table 3.12.2 show how acceptance of wife beating varies in each situation. The last column shows the percentage of ever-married women and currently married men who feel that a husband is justified in beating his wife for at least one of the specified reasons. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 41 It is worth noting that women who have no final say in household decisions are the least likely to agree that wife beating is justified (25 percent), while women who participate in one or two household decisions are most likely to agree with at least one of the specified reasons for wife beating (41 percent). Women who participate in three or four decisions and those who participate in five decisions are less likely to agree (37 to 27 percent, respectively). Appendix Table A-3.10 shows women’s attitudes toward wife beating by province and Appendix Table A-3.11 shows men’s attitudes toward wife beating by province. Table 3.12.1 Women’s attitudes toward wife beating Percentage of ever-married women who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife for five specific reasons, by background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: Background characteristic Burns the food Argues with him Goes out without telling him Neglects the children Refuses to have sexual intercourse with him Percentage who agree with at least one specified reason Number of women Age 15-19 5.4 11.0 32.0 33.1 9.5 40.8 845 20-24 3.1 8.0 29.7 31.8 7.5 38.8 4,094 25-29 3.4 6.5 24.8 27.3 7.1 33.0 5,771 30-34 3.0 6.2 23.3 24.4 6.7 30.4 6,020 35-39 3.1 6.8 23.8 24.7 7.2 31.1 6,004 40-44 3.0 6.2 20.1 20.1 6.0 25.9 5,365 45-49 2.8 6.4 20.2 19.7 5.5 25.5 4,795 Marital status Married 3.1 6.8 24.0 25.0 6.8 31.2 30,931 Divorced/separated/widowed 3.2 6.3 19.3 19.9 6.0 25.2 1,964 Number of living children 0 3.8 6.8 24.4 26.5 6.6 31.9 2,687 1-2 2.8 6.4 23.6 24.8 6.4 30.8 18,545 3-4 2.9 6.6 23.1 23.7 6.8 30.2 8,908 5+ 5.2 9.9 25.5 25.7 9.2 32.2 2,754 Residence Urban 1.9 4.5 20.1 20.6 4.8 26.1 13,745 Rural 4.0 8.4 26.3 27.7 8.1 34.2 19,150 Education No education 5.1 12.3 23.9 22.3 8.8 29.7 2,271 Some primary 4.1 8.1 24.9 25.1 8.0 31.4 5,572 Complete primary 3.2 6.6 23.9 25.2 7.0 31.8 10,077 Some secondary 2.6 6.6 26.9 27.8 6.9 34.3 6,781 Secondary + 2.3 4.6 20.0 22.0 4.9 26.7 8,193 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.2 12.0 28.4 30.8 9.6 37.8 6,219 Second 3.5 7.9 26.5 27.2 8.3 34.2 6,606 Middle 3.0 6.6 24.2 25.4 6.5 31.4 6,710 Fourth 1.9 4.1 21.5 23.0 5.6 28.4 6,713 Highest 1.3 3.5 18.2 17.5 3.9 23.0 6,647 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 2.6 6.3 24.0 24.7 6.2 30.4 12,944 Employed for cash 3.2 6.5 21.9 22.7 6.4 28.8 13,453 Employed not for cash 4.3 8.3 26.9 28.9 8.5 36.1 6,446 Missing 1.7 8.4 10.2 16.3 5.6 19.1 52 Number of decisions in which woman has final say1 0 4.1 6.0 21.7 17.3 6.7 24.9 383 1-2 4.6 11.5 31.6 32.9 9.5 41.3 2,113 3-4 3.4 7.8 28.2 29.2 8.0 37.1 8,786 5 2.9 5.9 21.1 22.2 6.0 27.4 21,613 Total 3.1 6.8 23.7 24.7 6.7 30.8 32,895 1 Either by herself or jointly with others 42 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.12.2 Men’s attitudes toward wife beating Percentage of currently married men who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife for five specific reasons, by background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: Background characteristic Burns the food Argues with him Goes out without telling him Neglects the children Refuses to have sexual intercourse with him Percentage who agree with at least one specified reason Number of men Age 15-19 * * * * * * 29 20-24 1.5 6.6 16.7 14.8 2.2 23.6 432 25-29 1.5 5.3 11.5 13.1 2.7 18.8 1,116 30-34 1.4 5.1 12.1 13.1 3.4 17.4 1,418 35-39 1.5 5.2 11.8 11.6 2.3 16.2 1,679 40-44 0.9 4.6 11.4 11.0 2.2 16.6 1,570 45-49 1.6 4.1 10.0 9.4 2.4 13.8 1,359 50-54 1.5 3.2 9.5 9.5 2.7 12.3 1,155 Number of living children 0 1.7 5.4 11.8 11.3 2.3 17.0 723 1-2 0.9 4.3 10.7 10.9 2.4 15.5 4,855 3-4 2.1 5.0 12.0 11.3 2.9 16.7 2,411 5+ 1.8 6.0 13.8 15.0 3.1 19.5 769 Residence Urban 0.6 3.4 9.9 8.7 1.5 13.6 3,728 Rural 1.9 5.7 12.6 13.4 3.4 18.2 5,030 Education No education 4.9 9.4 16.3 16.1 4.2 22.7 365 Some primary 1.2 4.0 12.2 11.4 3.2 16.3 1,605 Complete primary 1.4 4.8 11.6 12.3 2.7 16.3 2,339 Some secondary 1.2 4.4 12.1 12.6 2.6 18.5 1,721 Secondary + 1.1 4.7 9.7 9.3 1.9 14.1 2,727 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.0 7.8 15.6 16.7 4.3 22.6 1,676 Second 1.6 5.0 12.9 12.5 3.0 17.3 1,698 Middle 0.9 3.3 10.3 11.8 2.6 15.9 1,788 Fourth 0.4 3.4 10.1 10.2 2.0 14.6 1,713 Highest 1.0 4.3 8.7 6.5 1.3 11.6 1,882 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 0.2 4.0 7.4 8.5 1.7 10.7 70 Employed 1.4 4.7 11.5 11.5 2.6 16.3 8,686 Total 1.4 4.7 11.4 11.4 2.6 16.3 8,758 Note: An asterisk indicates that an estimate is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 3.8.3 Women’s Attitudes toward Refusing Sexual Intercourse with Husband The extent of control women have over when and with whom they have sexual intercourse is an indicator of women’s empowerment and has implications for demographic and health outcomes. In the 2007 IDHS, women were asked whether a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband under four circumstances: she knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease (STD); she knows her husband has sex with other women; she has recently given birth; and she is tired or not in the mood. These four circumstances for which women’s opinions are sought have been chosen because they are effective in combining issues of women’s rights and consequences for women’s health. Table 3.13 shows the percentage of ever-married women who say that a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband for specific reasons by background characteristics. Findings show that 57 percent of women agree that a wife is justified in refusing sex with her husband for all four of the specified reasons. On the other hand, 6 percent of women agree with none of the specified reasons. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 43 Respondents are most likely to agree with a woman’s right to refuse sex with her husband if she gave birth recently (92 percent). Women are the least likely to agree that a wife has a right to refuse sex if she is tired or not in the mood (67 percent). Justification for a wife refusing to have sex with her husband does not show a clear pattern by background characteristics, except for education and employment status. Better-educated women and women who are employed for cash are more likely than other women to agree with all four reasons for a wife to refuse sex with her husband. Appendix Table A-3.12 shows the differentials across provinces in women’s attitudes toward a wife refusing to have sex with her husband. Table 3.13 Women’s attitudes toward refusing sex with husband Percentage of ever-married women who believe that a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband for four specific reasons, by background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Wife is justified in refusing intercourse with her husband if she: Background characteristic Knows husband has a sexually transmitted disease Knows husband has intercourse with other women Has recently given birth Is tired or not in the mood Percentage who agree with all four specified reasons Percentage who agree with none of the specified reasons Number of women Age 15-19 76.6 83.8 89.2 62.5 52.2 7.3 845 20-24 83.3 86.1 92.8 67.9 58.1 4.6 4,094 25-29 85.9 85.5 93.8 70.0 60.6 4.1 5,771 30-34 84.1 84.6 93.4 66.7 58.3 4.9 6,020 35-39 84.3 82.4 92.3 66.1 57.1 5.4 6,004 40-44 81.8 80.3 92.0 64.6 54.7 6.3 5,365 45-49 78.9 79.0 89.7 65.0 54.7 7.6 4,795 Marital status Married 83.2 83.3 92.5 66.9 57.3 5.3 30,931 Divorced/separated/widowed 79.7 78.8 89.4 63.0 55.7 9.0 1,964 Number of living children 0 82.3 82.9 91.0 65.1 56.1 6.1 2,687 1-2 84.9 84.9 93.5 68.4 59.3 4.4 18,545 3-4 81.9 81.2 91.8 64.7 54.8 6.2 8,908 5+ 75.1 76.5 87.5 62.8 51.1 9.9 2,754 Residence Urban 86.9 85.1 93.8 68.1 59.7 4.3 13,745 Rural 80.2 81.5 91.2 65.6 55.4 6.3 19,150 Education No education 67.1 71.7 85.0 61.6 46.3 11.8 2,271 Some primary 76.8 78.9 89.6 65.6 53.9 7.7 5,572 Complete primary 81.7 82.6 92.4 66.8 56.4 5.7 10,077 Some secondary 86.9 85.2 93.8 68.1 60.2 4.0 6,781 Secondary + 90.1 87.5 94.9 67.4 60.9 3.3 8,193 Wealth quintile Lowest 74.2 76.9 87.3 64.5 52.0 9.8 6,219 Second 81.3 82.8 92.0 66.8 56.5 5.6 6,606 Middle 83.5 84.1 93.2 66.6 58.0 5.1 6,710 Fourth 84.7 83.9 94.1 68.0 58.1 3.8 6,713 Highest 90.8 86.9 94.6 67.2 61.0 3.5 6,647 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 84.4 83.4 92.3 64.7 56.2 5.7 12,944 Employed for cash 83.4 83.7 93.1 68.3 58.7 4.7 13,453 Employed not for cash 79.4 80.7 90.9 67.1 56.0 6.6 6,446 Missing 83.4 82.3 75.1 58.6 50.1 16.3 52 Number of decisions in which woman has final say1 0 64.9 70.8 78.3 60.1 48.0 18.9 383 1-2 81.5 82.3 93.8 67.2 57.1 4.7 2,113 3-4 81.8 82.5 93.8 68.2 56.6 4.2 8,786 5 84.0 83.5 91.8 66.1 57.6 5.9 21,613 Number of reasons for which wife beating is justified 0 82.8 83.1 91.7 66.8 58.1 6.1 22,749 1-2 84.2 82.8 94.3 66.0 54.9 3.8 7,451 3-4 81.8 82.1 91.8 63.8 51.9 4.5 2,139 5 82.5 85.3 90.0 80.1 68.8 5.8 555 Total 83.0 83.0 92.3 66.6 57.2 5.5 32,895 1 Either by herself or jointly with others 44 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status 3.9 LIFESTYLE MEASURES The use of tobacco in the household adversely affects the health status of all household members, including individuals who are not smoking. To assess the use of tobacco, the 2007 IDHS included questions on tobacco use. Respondents were asked whether they smoke regularly, the type of tobacco they use and, if they smoke cigarettes, how many they smoked in the past 24 hours. When interpreting the data on tobacco use, it is important to recognize that some respondents may, out of embarrassment, under- report tobacco use. Table 3.14.1 shows that 3 percent of ever-married women smoke tobacco regularly. Among women who smoke cigarettes, 34 percent reported smoking 1-2 cigarettes and 29 percent smoked 3-5 cigarettes in the past 24 hours. It is of interest to note that 14 percent of women who smoke cigarettes reported smoking 10 or more cigarettes in the past 24 hours. Table 3.14.1 Use of tobacco: Women Percentage of ever-married women who smoke cigarettes or tobacco and percent distribution of cigarette smokers by number of cigarettes smoked in preceding 24 hours, according to background characteristics and maternity status, Indonesia 2007 Use of tobacco by women Number of cigarettes in past 24 hours Background characteristic Cigarettes Other tobacco Does not use tobacco Number of women 0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10+ Don’t know/ missing Total Number of cigarette smokers Age 15-19 1.3 0.0 98.7 845 * * * * * * 100.0 11 20-24 1.6 0.1 98.3 4,094 4.0 29.7 23.9 23.9 5.5 13.0 100.0 65 25-29 1.3 0.3 98.4 5,771 2.5 56.3 17.4 10.2 12.0 1.6 100.0 76 30-34 1.7 0.2 98.1 6,020 6.4 25.4 18.6 19.9 19.0 10.8 100.0 102 35-39 2.7 0.3 96.9 6,004 1.2 35.5 26.7 17.3 18.5 0.8 100.0 164 40-44 3.6 0.5 95.9 5,365 2.5 38.6 35.0 14.3 6.7 2.9 100.0 195 45-49 5.4 0.6 94.1 4,795 1.4 29.3 34.9 13.6 17.8 2.9 100.0 257 Residence Urban 3.2 0.1 96.6 13,745 1.8 35.3 24.1 22.2 12.8 3.8 100.0 446 Rural 2.2 0.5 97.3 19,150 3.3 33.0 34.6 8.5 16.1 4.5 100.0 424 Education No education 3.4 2.0 94.6 2,271 0.0 13.6 42.7 11.6 32.2 0.0 100.0 77 Some primary 3.8 0.6 95.6 5,572 1.4 36.5 34.2 13.4 9.2 5.4 100.0 210 Complete primary 2.1 0.2 97.7 10,077 2.9 39.6 23.1 20.7 8.3 5.5 100.0 215 Some secondary 2.5 0.0 97.5 6,781 4.0 37.2 34.5 7.4 13.0 3.8 100.0 166 Secondary + 2.5 0.1 97.4 8,193 3.1 31.5 21.2 20.4 20.6 3.2 100.0 203 Maternity status Pregnant 0.6 0.5 98.9 1,664 * * * * * * 100.0 10 Breastfeeding (not pregnant) 1.0 0.2 98.8 6,236 0.7 31.9 31.3 6.4 14.7 15.1 100.0 63 Neither 3.2 0.3 96.5 24,996 2.5 34.3 29.3 16.1 14.6 3.2 100.0 797 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.3 1.0 96.7 6,219 4.3 28.8 28.7 11.3 23.3 3.7 100.0 145 Second 2.5 0.3 97.1 6,606 1.8 24.5 41.8 12.2 13.4 6.3 100.0 168 Middle 2.4 0.2 97.3 6,710 4.0 35.9 43.5 7.8 6.4 2.3 100.0 164 Fourth 2.8 0.1 97.1 6,713 1.4 47.6 17.6 15.2 12.8 5.4 100.0 190 Highest 3.1 0.1 96.9 6,647 1.7 32.2 18.6 27.8 16.7 3.0 100.0 205 Total 2.6 0.3 97.0 32,895 2.5 34.2 29.2 15.5 14.4 4.1 100.0 871 Note: An asterisk indicates that an estimate is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 45 Table 3.14.2 shows that among currently married men who smoked cigarettes in the past 24 hours, 5 percent reported smoking 1-2 cigarettes, 12 percent smoked 3-5 cigarettes, and 62 percent smoked 10 or more cigarettes. Appendix Tables A-3.13.1 and A-3.13.2 present the differentials in the use of tobacco by women and men by province. Table 3.14.2 Use of tobacco: Men Percentage of currently married men who smoke cigarettes or tobacco and percent distribution of cigarette smokers by number of cigarettes smoked in preceding 24 hours, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2007 Use of tobacco by men Number of cigarettes in past 24 hours Background characteristic Cigarettes Other tobacco Does not use tobacco Number of men 0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10+ Don’t know/ missing Total Number of cigarette smokers Age 15-19 * * * 29 * * * * * * 100.0 5 20-24 50.7 1.3 9.6 432 0.2 4.6 12.3 27.7 55.2 0.0 100.0 219 25-29 52.7 3.5 16.8 1,116 0.2 4.9 13.6 24.1 55.7 1.6 100.0 588 30-34 47.4 3.3 17.8 1,418 0.7 6.0 16.3 19.5 56.4 1.0 100.0 672 35-39 33.2 2.3 17.0 1,679 0.8 6.6 9.6 14.4 68.2 0.4 100.0 558 40-44 29.2 2.1 12.3 1,570 0.3 4.0 10.3 16.7 67.6 1.2 100.0 458 45-49 13.3 1.4 5.9 1,359 0.0 2.6 10.2 18.1 68.6 0.5 100.0 180 50-54 6.6 0.9 2.9 1,155 0.0 0.6 9.9 4.5 85.0 0.0 100.0 76 Residence Urban 32.1 0.8 15.2 3,728 0.5 6.2 13.0 22.5 56.3 1.5 100.0 1,195 Rural 31.1 3.2 10.1 5,030 0.4 4.2 12.0 16.7 66.2 0.4 100.0 1,562 Education No education 18.2 4.2 7.2 365 0.0 5.1 3.7 10.9 80.2 0.0 100.0 66 Some primary 22.5 3.8 5.7 1,605 0.6 2.9 11.0 16.7 68.7 0.0 100.0 360 Complete primary 32.1 3.1 8.9 2,339 0.1 4.5 16.1 19.2 59.4 0.7 100.0 751 Some secondary 35.7 1.5 12.7 1,721 0.8 6.2 9.9 22.7 59.7 0.7 100.0 615 Secondary + 35.4 0.6 19.3 2,727 0.5 5.5 12.4 18.5 61.6 1.6 100.0 965 Wealth quintile Lowest 34.4 6.8 9.2 1,676 0.4 4.1 11.9 17.1 66.4 0.1 100.0 576 Second 33.4 2.6 7.7 1,698 0.5 5.7 12.7 16.8 63.3 0.9 100.0 567 Middle 31.7 1.4 13.6 1,788 0.3 4.7 11.5 19.4 64.1 0.0 100.0 566 Fourth 31.7 0.1 12.4 1,713 0.6 3.3 13.5 21.1 60.8 0.7 100.0 543 Highest 26.8 0.5 17.6 1,882 0.4 7.6 12.7 22.2 54.2 3.0 100.0 505 Total 31.5 2.2 12.2 8,758 0.4 5.1 12.4 19.2 61.9 0.9 100.0 2,758 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Fertility | 47 FERTILITY 4 The 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) collected information on current, past, and cumulative fertility. This chapter presents the results of the survey on levels, trends, and differentials in fertility based on the analysis of the birth histories collected from ever-married women age 15-49 interviewed during the survey. Women were first asked a series of questions to determine the total number of live births that occurred in their lifetime. Second, for each live birth, information was collected on the age, sex, and survival status of the child. For dead children, age at death was recorded. Birth history information is used to assess current fertility (age-specific and total fertility) and completed fertility (number of children ever born [alive] to women), as well as to look at other fertility-related factors, such as age at first birth, birth intervals, and teenage childbearing. From population censuses and surveys in Indonesia, fertility and mortality rates have been esti- mated using indirect methods, and are based on the number of children ever born and children surviving. The fertility measures presented here are calculated directly from the birth history data. There are some limitations with both procedures. Because interviews were conducted only with living women, there was no information on the fertility of women who have died. The fertility rates would be biased if the mortality of women of childbearing age was high or if there were significant differences in fertility between living and dead women. In Indonesia, neither of these situations appears to be the case. The 2007 IDHS collected data only from ever-married women. Since most births in Indonesia occur within marriage, the number of births to single women is negligible. The accuracy of fertility data is affected primarily by underreporting of births (especially children who died in early infancy) and misreporting of the date of birth. Errors in underreporting of births affect the estimates of fertility levels, while misreporting of dates of births can distort estimates of fertility trends. If these errors vary by socioeconomic characteristics of the women, the differentials in fertility will also be affected. Fertility estimates are affected by the reporting accuracy of women of reproductive age (15-49) in the Household Questionnaire.1 1 Comparison of the age distribution of women age 15-49 in the 2007 IDHS, in the Population Census, and in previous national surveys indicates that the IDHS may have missed reporting some women, especially those who have never been married. For example, the percentage of single women age 15-29 in the 2007 IDHS is lower than that in the 2005 Inter-censal Population Survey (SUPAS). On the other hand, the percentage of ever-married women age 15-29 in the 2007 IDHS is higher than in the SUPAS. The discrepancy resulted in overestimation of age-specific fertility rates, especially for women age 20-29, when the fertility rates are highest. The reestimated TFR after adjusting for the missing never-married women is 2.4 births per woman, 0.2 births fewer than the unadjusted estimate. 48 | Fertility 4.1 CURRENT FERTILITY LEVELS AND TRENDS 4.1.1 Fertility Levels The most widely used measures of current fertility are the total fertility rate (TFR) and the age- specific fertility rate (ASFR).2 The TFR is calculated by summing the ASFRs and can be defined as the total number of births a woman would have by the end of her childbearing period if she were to pass through those years bearing children at the currently observed rates of age-specific fertility. To obtain the most recent estimates of fertility—without compromising the statistical precision of estimates and in an attempt to avoid possible displacement of births from five to six years before the survey—the three-year period preceding the survey is used. It corresponds roughly to the calendar period 2005-2007. Table 4.1 shows total fertility, age specific fertility, general fertility, and the crude birth rate by residence for the three years preceding the survey. The 2007 IDHS data indicate that the TFR remains constant at 2.6, which means that, on average, a woman in Indonesia would have 2.6 children in her lifetime. Although the level of fertility remains the same as that in the 2002-2003 IDHS, there is a slight change in the pattern of ASFR. ASFR decreased for age group 25-29 and increased for age group 30-34 (Figure 4.1). Table 4.1 Current fertility Age-specific and total fertility rates, the general fertility rate, and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey, by residence, Indonesia 2007 Residence Age group Urban Rural Total 15-19 26 74 51 20-24 116 153 135 25-29 138 131 134 30-34 104 110 108 35-39 59 70 65 40-44 17 21 19 45-49 4 7 6 TFR 2.3 2.8 2.6 GFR 80 97 89 CBR 20.2 21.5 20.9 Notes: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due to truncation. Rates are for the period 1-36 months prior to interview. TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate expressed per 1,000 women CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population 2 Numerators of the ASFRs are calculated by summing the number of live births that occurred in the period 1 to 36 months preceding the survey (determined by the date of interview and the date of birth of the child) and classifying them by age (in five-year groups) of the mother at the time of birth (determined by the mother’s date of birth). The denominators of the rates are the number of woman-years lived in each of the specified five-year groups during the 1 to 36 months preceding the survey. Since only women who had ever married were interviewed in the IDHS, the numbers of women in the denominators of the rates were inflated by factors calculated from information in the Household Questionnaire on populations ever married to produce a count of all women. Never-married women are presumed not to have given birth. Fertility | 49 As expected, ASFRs are lower in urban areas than in rural areas for almost every age group. However, there are differences in patterns. For women in the youngest age group, ASFRs are much higher in rural than in urban areas. For women in the next two age groups, the reverse is seen. ASFR is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Peak childbearing for urban women is at age 25-29 (138 children per 1,000 women), whereas for rural women the peak is at age 20-24 (153 children per 1,000 women). The general fertility rate (GFR) is the number of live births per 1,000 women age 15-49. The GFR for rural women is much higher than for urban women (97 compared with 80 live births per 1,000 women). The crude birth rate (CBR) is the number of live births per 1,000 population, which in 2007 is 20.9. All of these rates are lower than those reported in the 2002-2003 IDHS. Comparing the results of the 2002-2003 IDHS with those of the 2007 IDHS shows that the TFR in urban areas was lower in 2007 than in 2002-2003 (2.3 compared with 2.4 births per woman), however the TFR in rural areas was higher in 2007 than in 2002-2003 (2.8 compared with 2.7 births per woman). Figure 4.2 compares the TFR in Indonesia with rates in neighboring South-East Asian countries. The TFR in Indonesia is higher than rates in Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, and Brunei. It is the same as the rate in Malaysia, and lower than rates in the four remaining countries: Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, and Timor-Leste. 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.6 3.3 3.4 3.5 6.6 Singapore Thailand Viet Nam Myanmar Brunei Darussalam Indonesia Malaysia Lao People's Democratic Republic Cambodia Philippines Timor-Leste 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 Percent Figure 4.1 Total Fertility Rates in Southeast Asian Countries Source: UNESCAP. 2007. Population and Development Indicators for Asia and the Pacific, 2007, DHS reports for Cambodia, Indonesia Philippines, and Vietnam 50 | Fertility 4.1.2 Differentials in Current and Completed Fertility Fertility is known to vary by place of residence, education, and other background characteristics of women. Table 4.2 shows several indicators of fertility including the total fertility rate, mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49, and the percentage currently pregnant. The mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 is an indicator of cumulative fertility; it reflects the fertility performance of older women who are nearing the end of their reproductive period. If fertility remains stable over time, the two fertility measures, total fertility rate (TFR) and children ever born (CEB), tend to be very similar. The percentage of pregnant women provides a useful additional measure of current fertility, although it is recognized that it may not capture all early stage pregnancies. Table 4.2 indicates that there are variations in the TFR by residence, region, education, and wealth quintile. Results of the 2007 IDHS show that education has an inverted U-shaped relationship with Figure 4.2 Total Fertility Rate by Province 4.2 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.8 East Nusa Tenggara Maluku North Sumatera West Sulawesi West Sumatera Papua

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