1999 Belize Family Health Survey Males

Publication date: 2001

1999 L li=il IE 1-- I~: l s Prepared by the Central Statistical Office November 2001 Table of Contents Table of Contents .i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . 1 Executive Summary . 3 BELIZE FAMILY HEALTH SURVEY (MALES) . 3 Introduction .3 CHAPTER 1.7 INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY.7 1.1 Historical, Geographical, Demographic, and Social Background.7 1.2 Population Policies and Programmes.9 1.3 Objectives of the 1999 Family Health Survey of Belize.9 1.4 Coverage of the 1999 Survey .9 1.5 Administration of the Survey .10 1.6 The Sample Design.10 1.7 The Questionnaire Design .11 1.8 Recruitment and Training.11 1.9 Fieldwork.12 CHAPTER 2 .13 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURVEY POPULATION. 13 2.1 Introduction. 13 2.2 Housing and Household Characteristics. 13 2.3 General Characteristics. 15 2.4 Summary. 17 CHAPTER 3 . 18 SEXUAL ACTIVITY. 18 3.1 Introduction. 18 3.2 Age at first sexual intercourse. 18 3.3 Level of education at first sexual intercourse. 18 3.4 Relationship to first female . 18 3.5 Contraceptive use at first sexual intercourse. 19 3.6 Sexual intercourse in the last 30 days and last 3 months. 19 3.7 Summary.20 CHAPTER 4.21 FERTILITY, RELATIONSHIP AND REPRODUCTIVE HISTORY.21 4.1 Introduction .21 4.2 Mean number of children.21 4.3 Level of education at the time first child was born.22 4.4 Planning status of first and last children .22 4.5 Fathered children with more than one woman.23 4.6 Spouse/Partner currently pregnant .23 4.7 Summary.23 CHAPTER 5.25 GENERAL ATTITUDES AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS CHILDBEARING AND CONTRACEPTION.25 i 5.1 Introduction . 25 5.2 Family Planning Messages. 25 5.3 Ideal Family Size .26 5.4 Opinions About Childbearing .27 5.5 Attitudes Towards Contraception .28 5.6 Ideal Age for a Man to have his First Sexual Relationship .29 5.7 Ideal Age for a Woman to have her First Sexual Relationship .29 5.8 General Attitudes and Opinions .31 5.9 Beliefs of how a girl can avoid getting pregnant.32 5.10 Beliefs about boys and sexuality.32 5.11 Beliefs about the importance of female virginity.33 5.12 Opinion about Pregnancy and School Admittance for boys and girls .33 5.13 Opinion on Extramarital Affairs .33 5.14 Beliefs about Vasectomy.34 5.15 The issue of family violence and sexual harassment .34 5.16 Summary .34 CHAPTER 6 .36 KNOWLEDGE, USE AND SOURCE OF CONTRACEPTION.36 6.1 Introduction.36 6.2 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods.36 6.3 Knowledge of the Fertile Period .37 6.4 Current Contraceptive Use.37 6.5 Reasons for Currently Using Contraceptives .39 6.6 Characteristics at First Contraceptive Use.40 6.7 Reasons for Non-Use of Contraceptives .41 6.8 Reasons for Discontinued Use of Contraceptives. 42 6.9 Desire to Use Contraceptives in the Future.42 6.10 Summary . 43 CHAPTER 7. 44 FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION. 44 7.1 Introduction. 44 7.2 Findings . 44 7.3 Summary. 46 CHAPTER 8. 47 THE USE AND POTENTIAL DEMAND FOR SURGICAL CONTRACEPTION 47 8.1 Introduction . 47 8.2 Demand for Vasectomy . 47 8.3 Summary. 49 CHAPTER 9. 51 9.1 Introduction . 51 9.2 Men who have heard of AIDS. 51 9.3 Sources of information on HIV/AIDS . 52 9.4 Correct Knowledge of How AIDS May be Transmitted . 52 9.5 Incorrect Knowledge of How AIDS May be Transmitted. 53 ii 9.6 Perceived Risk of Getting AIDS Among Men.54 9.7 Perceived Risk and Condom Use.55 9.8 Summary .56 CHAPTER 10 .57 CONDOM USE.57 10.1 Introduction .57 10.2 Knowledge and Use of Condoms.57 10.3 Frequency of Use with Steady and Non-Steady Partners . 58 10.4 Other Matters Relating to Condom Use. 59 10.5 Summary. 61 CHAPTER 11. 63 DRUG USE AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. 63 11.1 Introduction . 63 11.2 Alcoholic Beverages. 63 11.3 Cigarette Smoking . 64 11.4 Marijuana Consumption . 65 11.5 Domestic Violence. 66 11.6 Summary .68 Appendix I. 70 Appendix II.71 BIBLIOGRAPHY.72 iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Both surveys of Males and Females' Family Health were conducted in December, 1999. Even though there were some unforeseen setbacks, I am now happy to report that the final reports have been prepared by the following personnel, two of whom were intimately involved with the project from its inception. Mrs. Jewell Quallo Rosberg, Director of the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) prepared chapters 6, 7, 8 and 9 of the female survey, and chapters 6 and 7 of the male survey. Mr. Jose Orlando Puga, private consultant assisted in preparing chapters 14 and 9 of the female and male survey respectively. Mrs. Elizabeth Talbert, Deputy Chief Statistician was responsible for chapters 3, 4, 5 and 15 of the female survey and chapters 3 and 4 of the male survey. Mrs. Leticia Vega prepared chapters 10, 11 and 12 of the female survey and chapters 5,8 and 11 of the male survey. I prepared chapters 1, 2 and 13 and chapters 1,2 and 10 of the female and male surveys respectively. Formal acknowledgements must also be made of the funding and technical assistance agencies whose inputs were essential in realizing the final products. The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) funded most of the cost related to the female Family Health Survey. UNICEF and the government of Belize also assisted with funding for this study, and together met all costs related to the male survey. The Centers For Disease Control (CDC) provided very essential and timely technical assistance in helping to train four (4) key members of the staff of the Central Statistical Office (CSO), and also in the review of the final databases. Most importantly, this is to formally acknowledge the co-operation of the many households who were in the sample for both surveys, who so generously gave of their time and patience in answering the questions. No matter how much funding or expertise were available, if the respondents had not co-operated with the field-staff, these final reports would not have been possible. Let it be reiterated here that the CSO greatly appreciates this co-operation and will always do all that is possible to ensure the confidentiality of all information provided, and the usefulness of it in improving the quality of life of the entire population. CHIEF STATISTICIAN 1 2 Executive Summary BELIZE FAMILY HEALTH SURVEY (MALES) Introduction This report on the Belize Family Health Survey of Males 1999 represents another milestone for the Central Statistical Office, mainly because it is the first time it has been done in Belize, but also because Belize is only the second country from among the CARICOM countries to carry out such a survey. Besides providing bench mark data, the survey results present information on the knowledge and attitudes of Belizean men on contraceptive use, child bearing, HIV/AIDS, condoms and domestic violence to mention a few areas of concern. At total of 1773 men were interviewed during the four week period that the survey was conducted. The survey covered all areas in Belize excluding the Mennonite communities and therefore allows for comparisons between districts as well as between urban and rural areas. As with the females survey, interviewers were well trained and supervised during the course of the exercise. Data Highlights The living conditions were similar to that gleaned from the survey of females in that almost two thirds of the men live in dwellings with concrete floors with a small proportion living in dwellings with dirt floors (6%). As before there are significant differences between districts. For example, 50% of the men in the rural areas of Toledo live in dwellings with dirt floors. Data on the general characteristics of the men, show that about 15% were immigrants, mainly from Guatemala and Honduras. A large proportion was Mestizo, and of a Roman Catholic background. While 65% speaks English very well, about 55% speaks Spanish very well, a reflection of the immigrant background of the population. The vast majority of the men have only completed primary school and almost one third have no formal education. In terms of employment, 85% had worked at some point in time. The mean age at first sexual intercourse is about 17 years without much variation by district or ethnicity. Their first sexual intercourse was on a consensual basis with their partner for almost all of them and in about half of the cases it was either with their wife or a friend/fiancee. Almost three quarters of them did not use a contraceptive during first intercourse, with the majority who used one, using a condom. About 70% had sexual intercourse in the 30 day period prior to the survey. 3 In terms of fertility about half of the men fathered at least one child, but only 3% of the under 20 years report doing so and 14% of this group not having sexual intercourse at all. What is note worthy though is the fact that most of these men (78%) have children with only one woman and 10% with 2 women. Eight percent did not respond, so that the rate is even higher, which means only about 4% of the men in Belize have children with 3 or more women. This latter rate is highest among Creole men, about 9%. Of course in some of these cases the man could have been married on more than one occasion. The men interviewed are of the view that the ideal number of children a man should have is just under 4 (3.9); these men on average have over 4 children (4.3). In their opinion a man should have his first child at about 20 years although they think he should have his first sexual intercourse at about 17 years. On the other hand they think women should have their first sexual intercourse at about 18 years. Over 60% of the men did not hear a family planning message in the six months prior to the survey. However, most are knowledgeable about contraceptives, especially orals (86%), condoms (74%) and to a lesser extent, females sterilization (65%) and injectables (62%). Well under half of them know about other methods. However, 39% of these men are currently using a contraceptive, with the largest group, men in a union, only half using a contraceptive. Maya/Ketchi men know the least about contraceptives. Men with no children or 6 or more children were least likely to be using a contraceptive at the time of the survey (35%). Maya/Ketchi men are the least likely to be currently using a contraceptive (30%). As might be expected, the use of contraceptive increases with education. While about 60% of the men say they do not want any more children or about half of these are using any contraceptive and for about half of these, it is female sterilization. Condoms are the most popular contraceptive among men, with just under half of the current users choosing this method, especially the younger men. While half always use this method, it is used more to prevent pregnancy (88%) than to prevent HIV/AIDS (37%) or STIs (29%). This low use to prevent STI's including HIV/AIDS is due in part to the fact that well over two thirds of these men do not perceive themselves at risk of getting HIV/AIDS with another 16% do not think they are at much risk. However, more men use condoms to prevent getting HIV/AIDS (75%) than to avoid pregnancy (70%) when having sex with a non-steady partner. With regards to their risk of getting HIV/AIDS, among those who perceive themselves to be at great risk of contracting the virus are Maya/Ketchi men (13%), Garifuna men (7%), men in a visiting relationship (6%), and men 20 to 24 years of age (7%). Overall, only 4% of the men consider themselves to be at great risk, with another 9% considering themselves to be at some risk. Among the sub-populations who consider themselves to be at some risk of getting HIV/AIDS, are men 20 - 24 years (11%), men 25 to 29 years (14%), men 45 to 49 years (12%), men with 9 or more 4 years of education (11%), men in a visiting relationship (24%), Creole men (11%) and Garifuna men (16%). What is worth noting is the fact that more men know where to get information on HIV/AIDS and STI's than information on sex and contraceptives. Almost all know about HIV/AIDS and most know it is transmitted by heterosexual intercourse. However, only half know about transmission by blood transfusion, sharing of needles or male sexual intercourse. Almost all men think the topics of Human Reproduction, Contraception and STI's and HIV/AIDS should be taught in school, particularly between the ages of 10 and 15 years. Much less than half of these men themselves had received any such education at all. On the topics of drug use and domestic violence, just over half of the men interviewed are using alcohol (58%), with a much smaller proportion using cigarettes (22%) or marijuana (6%). In all cases a larger proportion had used these drugs. While alcohol is used by all groups, generally older men use cigarettes and more young men use marijuana. With regards to domestic violence, half of the men say they discuss problems that arise in the home. Only 1% say they react violently. About one tenth of the men say they were abused as a child. The abuse was mainly physical (83%) and was carried out by their father, about half of the time. Of those men who were abused, 36% feel it is okay to beat a Woman if she had an affair while 28%o of those who were never abused feel so. Again there is a difference in perception when it comes to beating of children. Among abused men, 74% feel it is okay to beat a child who has been disobedient as opposed to 62% for the never abused. However, about the same proportion in each case (47%) feel it is okay to beat a child when they are upset. These instances were the most significant responses of abuse of women and children. Opinions on other forms of abuse to women were in small proportions, less than 7% when "she's getting on your nerves." While agreement on abuse to children ranged from 29% "when they get home late" to 11%, "when they are too noisy." 5 6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY 1.1 Historical, Geographical, Demographic and Social Background Belize is an independent country geographically located on the isthmus of Central America. It is bordered on the north by Mexico, on the west and south by Guatemala and on the east by the Caribbean Sea. Originally, Belize was a British colony but obtained political independence on September 21, 1981. Regionally, Belize is a member of CARICOM, the Caribbean Community of Nations, as well as of ECLAC, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. The country is approximately 8,866 square miles (22,700 square kilometres) and is divided into six (6) administrative districts, namely, Corozal and Orange Walk in the north, Belize in the east, Cayo in the west and Stann Creek and Toledo in the south. Each of these districts is further sub-divided into a recognized urban and rural area, and the significance of these divisions lies in the fact that there are sharp socio-economic differences between them. Preliminary results from the National Population and Housing Census 2000 show that at mid-year 2000, the population of the country was 249,800 with an annual population growth rate of 2.7%. The estimated crude birth rate and crude death rate in 1999 were 25.1 per thousand population and 5.7 per thousand population respectively, resulting in a rate of natural increase of 19.4. This compares with rates of natural increase of 33.8 at the beginning of the decade, which clearly shows a decline during the period. In any study of Reproductive Health, the age distribution of the population is very important. Of particular significance, for example, is the proportion of women of childbearing age, since this will assist greatly in projecting future population size. The age distribution also provides important sub-groups for analysis, such as Young Adults and the Child and Infant sub-groups. The table below shows the age distribution of Belize's population in 1999. 7 Table Showing Total Population by Age and Sex Age Apr 1996 Apr 1997 Apr 1998 Apr 1999 Both Sexes Total 221,120 228,695 236,975 243,390 0-13 86,645 91,190 91,050 93,035 14-19 31,865 31,440 34,485 33,730 20-24 16,965 18,120 19,050 19,700 25-29 14,800 14,720 15,700 16,310 30-34 13,830 14,975 15,155 15,400 35-39 12,845 12,970 14,020 14,965 40-44 9,355 10,340 10,425 11,965 45-49 8,005 7,870 8,290 8,555 50-54 5,490 5,820 6,890 7,280 55-59 5,505 5,390 5,680 5,345 60-64 3,740 4,220 4,940 4,500 65 and over 11,805 11,285 11,105 12,605 DK/NS 270 355 185 0 Male Total 110,610 113,905 117,640 121,565 0-13 44,555 46,090 46,315 47,540 14-19 16,425 16,065 17,285 17,180 20-24 7,940 9,055 9,310 9,380 25-29 6,640 6,445 7,125 7,605 30-34 6,425 7,410 7,010 7,450 35-39 6,105 6,205 6,660 7,080 40-44 4,810 5,165 5,160 5,715 45-49 4,200 4,030 4,240 4,475 50-54 2,655 2,630 3,545 3,650 55-59 2,915 2,990 2,925 2,905 60-64 1,900 2,015 2,455 2,205 65 and over 5,820 5,605 5,485 6,380 DK/NS 220 200 125 0 Female Total 110,510 114,790 119,335 121,825 0-13 42,090 45,100 44,735 45,495 14-19 15,440 15,375 17,200 16,550 20-24 9,025 9,065 9,740 10,320 25-29 8,160 8,275 8,575 8,705 30-34 7,405 7,565 8,145 7,950 35-39 6,740 6,765 7,360 7,885 40-44 4,545 5,175 5,265 6,250 45-49 3,805 3,840 4,050 4,080 50-54 2,835 3,190 3,345 3,630 55-59 2,590 2,400 2,755 2,440 60-64 1,840 2,205 2,485 2,295 65 and over 5,985 5,680 5,620 6,225 DK/NS 50 155 60 0 8 1.2 Population Policies and Programmes Experience has shown that the adoption and promotion of positive population policies can have significant socio-economic effects on people, and can improve their quality of life. To date, however, Belize has not adopted a Population Policy, even though such a policy has been drafted. Despite the lack of an articulated population policy, the Ministry of Health of Belize does encourage and promote reproductive health to a great extent. Also, among the Non Governmental Community, a very vibrant Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) has been successfully promoting family planning and family life education among the interested population. 1.3 Objectives of the 1999 Family Health Survey of Belize The main objectives of the 1999 Family Health Survey of Belizean males are to have an updated database for urgent use in decisions related to male family health. More specifically, the survey will provide urgently needed information on fertility of males, family practices, male attitudes towards various related health issues such as HIV/AIDS and other STIs and other reproductive health issues. There presently exists a dire need for data on male Reproductive Health, among others, and an FHS at this time would meet many of these urgent needs. The major users of the results of this survey will include the Ministry of Health, the BFLA and the Ministries of Human and Economic Development. Of course, the survey will provide a rich database for use by socio-economic and demographic researchers, as was the case with the database for the 1991 female survey. It is also hoped that local research units, like that of the recently established University of Belize, will take full advantage of the primary data collected in this survey. 1.4 Coverage of the 1999 Survey The survey carried out in 1999 was of males aged 15 to 64 years, and is the first such survey to be carried out in the country. Hence, very little comparison can be made. A scientific sample of men between the above ages was used. This sample was representative of all six (6) districts of the country. An interview was done with each selected male in the survey and this provided information on a broad cross section of topics. Some of these topics included the birth history of the man, contraceptive knowledge and use, knowledge of STIs 9 including HIV/AIDS, and behavioural risks. In order to enrich the analysis, basic social and economic characteristics like educational level and employment status were also collected. 1.5 Administration of the Survey The Central Statistical Office (CSO) of Belize was the major implementing agency for the survey. However, there were other local collaborating agencies, including the BFLA and the Ministry of Health, whose contributions were significant especially at the preparatory stages of the project. Foreign collaborating agencies included the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), which provided some of the funding, including the provision of a regional consultant to assist the CSO at the preparatory stages and in the preparation of reports; UNICEF, which provided most of the funding for this survey; and the Centers for Disease Control, which assisted with the training of CSO field staff and the analysis of the data. 1.6 The Sample Design The sample finally used was a scientific sample, and was selected as follows. The survey sought to interview 2,000 men between the ages of 13 and 64 years. It was expected to interview only one eligible male per household even if there was more than one eligible respondent. Preliminary investigations revealed that to achieve an objective of 2,000 interviews, it would be necessary to target some 2,670 households. It was also necessary to analyze the data at the district and urban/rural levels. Allowing for a non-response rate of 10% meant that about 2,940 households would have to be selected. The estimated number of households in the country at the time was 45,455, excluding the Mennonite settlements of Little Belize in the Corozal District, Blue Creek and Shipyard in Orange Walk and Spanish Lookout in the Cayo District. Hence, a sampling fraction of 1/15 was estimated to be necessary to obtain this number of households. To achieve the above, the total number of households in the country was broken up into clusters of approximately 30 households and distributed proportionately among the districts. This resulted in 1,524 clusters being formed for the country. Of this, 1/15 or 98 clusters were selected to be interviewed. This yielded approximately 2,940 households which is the minimum needed to obtain 2,000 successful interviews. It turned out that only 1,773 successful interviews were completed, taking into account non-contacts and refusals. 10 1.7 The Questionnaire Design A preparatory committee comprising representation from the Ministry of Health, the BFLA, UNICEF and the CSO was established and one of its first tasks was to put together a suitable questionnaire to collect the required information. Contacts with the CDC through the person of Dr. Paul Stupp and with Mr. Stan Terrel of the regional programme on HIV/AIDS were extremely beneficial in guiding the discussions on the final questionnaire. These two gentlemen provided samples of both male and female questionnaires, which enriched the committee's deliberations, and resulted in a hybrid questionnaire in the end, tailored to meet the needs of Belize. The final questionnaire was then translated into Spanish, the second language of Belize. Spanish-speaking interviewers administered the questionnaire in Spanish among the respondents who preferred to be interviewed in this language. A copy of the questionnaire is appended at the back of this report. 1.8 Recruitment and Training From the beginning, it was decided that only female interviewers would be used for the Family Health Survey of females and males for the male survey. These interviewers were centrally trained over a period of three days, i.e. 12-14 November, 1999, on the male questionnaire. The staff of the CSO was responsible for the training, and this team comprised a senior Statistician and one other Statistician. These lead trainers were assisted in administrative and logistical matters by a Statistician (Ag.), two Statistical Officers and two Statistical Assistants. Their task included matters such as venue preparations, hotel arrangements for interviewers, payments to trainees and eventually to the fieldstaff, distribution of training materials as well as other administrative and logistical matters. Personnel trained included the six District Supervisors, who form part of the permanent staff of the CSO and each of whom is based in one of Belize's six administrative areas. These officers are also charged with the responsibility for the recruitment of field supervisors, interviewers and editors in their particular district. In addition, other officers trained included one Assistant District Supervisor who was hired specifically for the survey, seven (7) Field Supervisors, sixty one (61) Interviewers and seven (7) Editors. The first morning of the training session was dedicated to administrative matters dealing with payments and roles of different survey personnel, as well as to general survey topics such as interviewing techniques and procedures, and concepts and definitions. Following this, the 11 various sections of the questionnaire were timetabled over remaining days, leaving adequate time at the end for paired interviews, mock interviews, as well as some live interviews in the field. 1.9 Fieldwork The fieldwork for the male Family Health Survey started as scheduled on November 15, 1999, and was to last for four (4) weeks. A pilot survey had been done prior to the main fieldwork, and from this pilot, some changes to the questionnaire were incorporated, and some logistics were corrected. The administration of the fieldwork was similar to the administration of all of the CSO's household surveys with staff from the headquarter liasing directly with the District Supervisors. This District Supervisor, in turn, has at least one Field Supervisor assisting him with the implementation of the fieldwork at the district level. In the case of the Belize District however, because of population size, a staff member from headquarters was assigned on a full time basis to assist the District Supervisor, who also had assistance from at least three (3) Field Supervisors. A very important task of the Field Supervisor, in addition to his task of correcting, guiding and training of his interviewers to carry out the work, was to do sample re-interviews of households already interviewed by the interviewers. This helps greatly in enhancing a higher quality of information collected. The District Supervisor was also required to do sample re-interviews, and was the manager of all the operations at the district level. 12 CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURVEY POPULATION 2.1 Introduction This chapter can be compared to Chapter two in the report on the survey of females. It presents some quick facts about the housing conditions and other characteristics of the males in the survey. This background information is very useful in understanding the circumstances surrounding the major subjects of the study. It will serve to enrich and appreciate the analyses much more. It is hoped that these facts will assist the user to appreciate the circumstances much more, and in making more meaningful intervention for the betterment of males in Belize. 2.2 Housing and Household Characteristics Tables 2.1 to 2.7 present various statistics on the general housing situation of the sampled respondents who provided information in the survey. Table 2.1 shows that 62% of the men live in dwelling units whose main construction material for flooring is 'Cement'. In addition, another 30% live in dwelling units with wooden floors. Almost 6%, however, still live in dwelling units with 'Dirt' floors. As should be expected, these characteristics are similar to those of the women in the report on the survey of women. Further, there are also strong regional differences with respect to the type of flooring characteristic. For example, even though the table is not presented, the data show that whereas in most of the districts 'Cement' is the most commonly used material for floor construction, in the rural areas of Toledo district in particular, 50% (the largest share) of the men live in houses with a dirt floor. This is more than 10% higher than it is for females (see report on females). Only 30% live in units with cement floors and 20% in units with wooden floors. Differences between urban and rural areas within the district can also be illustrated by contrasting the above with the example of Punta Gorda Town, with 65% of its dwelling units having 'Cement' floor and no household having 'Dirt' floors. Other housing characteristics also give useful information about the background situation of the men in the survey. The type of 'Lighting' which the household uses, as well as fuel used for 'Cooking' are two such variables. Table 2.2 shows that the main source (83%) of 'Lighting' for households is the Belize Electricity Limited (BEL). In the case of 13 fuel used for 'Cooking', over 80% use mainly 'Butane' gas. Again, though, these figures at the country level tend to disguise differences at the urban versus rural and at the district level. For example, in the Stann Creek District, whereas in Dangriga, which is the main urban area, more than 94% of households use electricity from the BEL for their lighting, in Stann Creek rural only 58% are so privileged. In the Toledo District, the difference between the urban and the rural areas is even more acute. In the town of Punta Gorda, 96% of households use electricity from BEL, but in the rural parts of the Toledo district only 23% have this luxury. This leaves 73% using 'Kerosene Lamps' and another 2% using 'Gas Lamps'. With respect to fuel used for cooking, Table 2.3 shows that 'Butane Gas' is the most popular fuel used (80%). However, the table also shows that a sizeable (15%) proportion of the households continue to use 'Wood' as their fuel for cooking. Again, there are distinct regional differences. In the Toledo District, for example, whereas in the urban area 83% (figure not shown) use mainly 'Butane Gas', in the rural areas 70% of the men use 'Wood' as their main fuel for cooking. The data (not shown) also reveal that 22% of men in the rural parts of the Cayo District are in households which continue to rely on 'Wood' as their main source of fuel. The main source of drinking water is also a good indicator of the prevailing socio- economic circumstances. Table 2.4 presents this information for the men in the survey. From the data in this table, whereas 33% of the men get their water from a VAT/DRUM or WELL (not piped), only 19% get their drinking water from a public pipe in the dwelling and another 19%o from a public pipe in the yard. It is good to note, however, that 10% use 'Purified Water'. From these data, it can be concluded that, whereas almost 50% are certain to be using treated water for drinking, another 43 % may be at risk since their source is private piped into dwelling, vat, drum or well. The remaining 7% are most certainly at risk since their source of drinking water is the river, stream, pond or public well i.e. water which will be contaminated. Information about the type of toilet facility available to men in their households was also gathered in the survey. Together with the other housing characteristics, information here can paint a very good picture of the socio-economic conditions prevailing. Table 2.5 presents results relating to type of toilet facilities available. The table shows that even though 50% of men have access to a toilet either linked to the sewer system or linked to a septic tank, over 14 44% continue to use a 'Pit Latrine'. More than 18% of the latter use non ventilated pit latrines, which is known to be the less sanitary of the two types of latrines. It is good to note, though, that less than 5% of men reported that they have no type of toilet facility at all. The number of bedrooms per dwelling unit is a further good indicator of living conditions since it can reveal the level of 'overcrowdedness' within the household. Table 2.6 shows that over 40% of men live in dwelling units with 3 or more bedrooms. This finding shows a marked improvement in the living conditions of men, as compared with other data for years gone by. However, it should be noted that a worrying 22% are still living in houses with one or no bedrooms. This latter situation certainly warrants much attention, with the aim of improving these conditions. Finally, respondents were asked to state whether certain household durables were available in their households. Table 2.7 presents these results. Over 90% of the men own at least one radio. Of concern, however, is the 10% who do not have even one radio in their household. In addition, it is comforting to note that over 75% of men have access to at least one television set in their homes. The potentially rich effect of the television set as a source of education and useful information cannot be overemphasized. However, the data also show that more than 22% do not have any television set. With respect to ownership of a video recorder, it is perhaps not surprising that 73% do not own one. The video recorder may perhaps continue to be a luxury item, which most people can either ill afford, or which may be of much lower priority than other household durables. It is noted that ownership of a refrigerator, which may be a necessity nowadays, is much higher with approximately 62% of the respondents reporting that they owned at least one refrigerator. Over half of the men live in households which own a washing machine, which may also be becoming a necessity in Belizean households. It should be noted with some concern, however, that these data also show that 93% of men in Belize do not have access to a personal computer. If the 'Digital Divide' is to be narrowed, accelerated access to and use of personal computers within the households will be necessary. 2.3 General Characteristics Tables 2.8 to 2.11 present some of the major general characteristics of the survey population. The first table presents a simple frequency relating to the country of birth of the respondents. As expected, most men (83%) were born in Belize. These data also show 7% 15 recording their country of birth as Guatemala, and another 3%, as El Salvador. A further 2% were born in Honduras. These data show that the largest percentage of immigrant men are from the neighbouring Central American countries, in particular from Guatemala. These men are therefore mainly of Mestizo or Hispanic origin.The general ethnic composition of the male population is presented in table 2.9. From the table it is clear that the largest ethnic group is the Mestizo (40%). This is followed by Creoles (27%), Spanish (11%), Mayas (10%) and Garifuna (5%). Although not identical, this ethnic distribution is reflective of the male population at large, as given in other surveys (see Labour Force Survey 1999). Respondents were also asked to report their religion or religious denomination, as well as how often they attend religious services. Tables 2.10 and 2.11 present these results. It is clear from Table 2.10 that the most popular religious denomination continues to be Roman Catholicism (54%), followed by Pentecostal (6%). Only 6% and 4% reported their religion as Anglican or Methodist respectively. A surprising 11% stated that they are not affiliated to any religion. As in the female survey, it is clear that the more recent religious denominations, like the Pentecostals, which have more recently come to Belize, have surpassed the traditional ones, like the Anglicans or Methodists, and may even be attracting a sizable share of the Roman Catholics. When asked how often they attend religious services, however, only 33% reported that they do so at least once per week. Another 37% reported that they only attend services on special occasions like weddings, whereas 14% do so at least once per month. It is interesting to note that when frequency of attendance is cross classified by religious affiliations (table not shown), it is seen that the most dedicated, in terms of frequency of attendance, are the Bahai's. Table 2.12 shows that just over 66% of the men speak ENGLISH 'Very Well', whereas another 25% do so 'Not So Well'. However, 9% of the males can barely speak the country's official language. When the respondents were asked how well they speak SPANISH, 55% reported that they do so 'Very Well'. This is a clear reflection of the ethnic distribution referred to earlier, where it was noted that over 50% reported their ethnic origin as either Mestizo or Spanish. Not surprisingly, almost 26% of the men can barely speak the Spanish language, which has become the second language of Belize. Finally, respondents were asked for the highest level of education completed, and about their economic activity. Table 2.13 shows that just under 50% of the men completed 16 only a Primary level of education. Another 12% reported that they have completed High School, and a further 9% have completed the tertiary level. Of the latter, 4% went to University. However, the statistic that stands out most here is that 26% of our men have no formal education. With respect to the men's work status, the data show (table not included) that 71% worked for pay, profit or family gain in the week prior to the interview. When those who did not work in the past week were further questioned about whether they have ever worked, 50% reported that they had ever done so. 2.4 Summary In this chapter, an attempt has been made to 'paint' a reasonable picture of the socio- economic situation of the men in the survey. In summary, these men are largely of Mestizo ethnic origin, with approximately 15% being of immigrant background. Most have a Roman Catholic religious background, but less than half reported attending religious services weekly. Approximately 65% speak ENGLISH very well and just over 55% speak SPANISH very well. Almost 30% have no formal education at all, and most of the other 70% have completed Primary school only. Just over 85% of the men have ever worked before. 17 TABLE 2-1 BELIZE: Material Used For Flooring (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Main Construction Material Used for Flooring Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) Wood Cement Dirt Other Unknown 29.8 62.7 6.0 1.4 0.1 (475) (999) (96) (22) (2) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-2 BELIZE: Fuel Used For Lighting (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Type of Lighting Used Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) Gas Lamp Kerosene Lamp Electricity From BEL Electricity From a Private Generator Other Unknown 1.8 9.8 82.9 2.7 2.4 0.3 (28) (157) (1322) (43) (39) (5) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-3 BELIZE: Fuel Used For Cooking (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Type of Fuel Used For Cooking Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) Wood Gas (Butane) Kerosene Electricity Other Unknown 14.5 80.2 1.4 0.4 2.7 0.8 (231) (1279) (22) (7) (43) (12) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-4 BELIZE: Source Of Drinking Water (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Main Source of Drinking Water Supply Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) Private, Piped into Dwelling Private Vat/ Drum/ Well Not Piped Public, Piped into Dwelling Public, Piped into Yard Public Stand Pipe or Hand Pump Public Well River, Stream, Creek, Pond, Spring Purified Water Other Unknown 10.6 32.1 18.9 19.7 3.1 0.9 1.4 10.2 2.5 0.4 (169) (512) (301) (314) (50) (15) (23) (163) (40) (7) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-5 BELIZE: Type Of Toilet Facility (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Type of Toilet Facility Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) WC Linked to WASA Sewer System WC Linked to Septic Tank Pit Latrine, Ventilated and Elevated Pit Latrine, Ventilated and Not Elevated Pit Latrine, Ventilated Compost Pit Latrine, Not Ventilated None Other Unknown 16.2 35.3 11.6 11.7 2.1 18.2 3.5 0.8 0.6 (259) (562) (185) (187) (34) (290) (55) (12) (10) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-6 BELIZE: Number Of Bedrooms (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Number of Bedrooms Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Unknown 3.8 18.5 34.7 29.1 9.3 2.0 1.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.3 (60) (295) (553) (464) (149) (32) (16) (3) (1) (1) (20) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-7 BELIZE: Ownership Of Communications Media (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey No. of Radios Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 Unknown 9.5 69.9 13.4 4.5 1.6 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 (151) (1115) (213) (72) (26) (10) (3) (1) (1) (2) Total 100.0 (1594) No. of Television Sets Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) 0 1 2 3 4 5 7 9 Unknown 22.5 62.1 11.4 2.8 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 (358) (990) (182) (44) (13) (3) (1) (1) (2) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-8 BELIZE: Country Of Birth (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey No. of Cases Country Born Percent (Unweighted) Bahamas 0.1 (1) Belize 82.6 (1316) Jamaica 0.1 (2) Trinidad and Tobago 0.1 (1) Haiti 0.1 (1) Australia 0.1 (1) Canada 0.1 (2) India 0.1 (1) Pakistan 0.1 (1) United Kingdom 0.1 (2) Honduras 1.8 (28) USA 0.8 (13) Mexico 0.9 (14) Guatemala 7.5 (119) Other Central America 0.1 (2) El Salvador 3.5 (56) Germany 0.1 (2) Spain 0.1 (1) Netherlands 0.1 (1) China 0.4 (6) Taiwan 0.1 (1) Hong Kong 0.1 (1) Other Far East Countries 0.1 (1) Unknown 1.3 (21) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-9 BELIZE: By Ethnic Group (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Ethnic Group Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) Black/ African Caucasian/ White Chinese Creole East Indian Garifuna Maya Ketchi Maya Mopan Mennonite Mestizo Yucatan Maya Spanish Other Unknown 0.6 1.2 0.7 26.9 2.6 5.2 4.8 4.2 0.2 40.0 0.8 11.0 0.7 1.1 (9) (19) (11) (429) (42) (83) (77) (67) (3) (637) (12) (176) (11) (18) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-10 BELIZE: Religious Denomination (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey No. of Cases Religious Denomination Percent (Unweighted) Anglican 5.9 (94) Bahai Faith 0.1 (2) Baptist 2.4 (39) Hindu 0.1 (1) Jehova Witness 1.8 (29) Mennonite 0.6 (9) Methodist 3.7 (59) Mormon 0.6 (10) Muslim 0.3 (5) Nazarene 2.9 (46) Pentecostal 6.3 (100) Roman Catholic 53.8 (857) Salvation Army 0.2 (3) Seventh Day Adventist 5.0 (80) None 11.0 (176) Other 4.8 (77) Unknown 0.4 (7) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-11 BELIZE: Frequency Of Attendance Of Religious Service (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Frequency For Attending Religious Service Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) At Least Once a Week At Least Once a Month Less Than Once a Month Special Occasions Only (Weddings, etc.) Does Not Attend At All Unknown 33.0 13.6 5.2 37.1 10.3 0.8 (465) (192) (74) (523) (146) (11) Total 100.0 (1411) TABLE 2-12 BELIZE: Language Spoken (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey How Well Speak English Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) Very Well Not So Well Barely/ Not at All Unknown 66.2 24.7 8.6 0.5 (1056) (393) (137) (8) Total 100.0 (1594) How Well Speak Spanish Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) Very Well Not So Well Barely/ Not at All Unknown 55.4 18.1 25.3 1.1 (883) (289) (404) (18) Total 100.0 (1594) TABLE 2-13 BELIZE: By Level Of Highest School (Percentage Distribution) 1999 Family Health Survey Level of Highest School Percent No. of Cases (Unweighted) None Primary High School BTTC/BCA/BNS Sixth Form or Equivalent University Unknown 25.8 50.6 13.7 0.7 4.8 4.2 0.3 (411) (806) (218) (11) (76) (67) (5) Total 100.0 (1594) CHAPTER 3 SEXUAL ACTIVITY 3.1 Introduction This chapter addresses the issues of men's sexual activity, in particular their age and the age of their partner at first sexual intercourse, if they were in school or not and whether their first intercourse was on a consensual basis. It also examines sexual activity over 30 days and 3 months prior to the survey. These issues are further examined by selected characteristics. 3.2 Age at first sexual intercourse The mean age at first intercourse for men is 17 years. Table 3.1 presents the rates by selected characteristics. Rural men report an older age (17years) at first sexual intercourse than urban men (16 years). There is a general tendency for mean age at first sexual intercourse to increase with age with teenagers having a mean age of 15 years rising to 18 years for men 55 years and over. The mean age is highest among Maya (19 years) and lowest among Garifuna men (16 years). The mean age is highest in Toledo (18 years) and lowest in Belize (16 years) and Stann Creek Districts. 3.3 Level of education at first sexual intercourse Among those that have had sexual intercourse, the majority (65%) report that they were not in school at the time when they had their first sexual intercourse. This rate is higher for rural men and highest among Maya men (see Table 3.2). Table 3.3 shows that the majority (89%) of men had their first sexual intercourse before they had completed high school. 3.4 Relationship to first female When asked if the first sexual intercourse was on a consensual basis, the majority (97%) said "Yes". Table 3.4 presents the rates by residence and ethnic group. Most of the men (37%) had their first sexual intercourse with a friend or a fiancee/girlfriend (34%), while 15% had their first sexual intercourse with their wife. It is interesting to note that the majority of Maya men (58%) reported that they had their first sexual intercourse with their 18 wife. Most of the men in the Toledo district also had their first sexual intercourse with their wife. However, this figure was only 7% for either Garifuna or Creole men. For both of these groups of men, the majority had their first experience with a friend or fiancee/girlfriend (Table 3.5). Thirty-two percent of the men stated that their female partners had not completed high school at the time when the men had their first sexual intercourse with them. This rate is higher among urban men and among Garifuna and Creole men (see Table 3.6). The majority of the men (73%) stated that their female partners had not completed high school at the time the men had their first sexual intercourse with them. Table 3.7 presents the rates by residence and ethnic group. 3.5 Contraceptive use at first sexual intercourse The majority (76%) of the men said that they did not use a contraceptive method when they first had sexual intercourse. Contraceptive use is highest at first sexual intercourse among men in the 15-19 age group. The majority of them (53%) had used a form of contraception at first sexual intercourse. Contraceptive use was highest among Creole (30%) men and men in the Corozal District (31%). Among those that use a form of contraception, condom was the main method used at first sexual intercourse. Approximately 89% used a condom and approximately 6% stated that their female partner had used the pills (see Table 3.9). The majority of men (57%) stated that, of the two partners, they were the ones who made the decision to use contraceptive at first sexual intercourse. Twelve percent stated that it was their partner's decision and 31% stated that both partners together, made the decision. Table 3.10 presents the rates by residence and ethnic group. 3.6 Sexual intercourse in the last 30 days and last 3 months Sixty-nine percent (69%) of the men stated that they had sex with a female in the 30 days prior to the survey. Slightly more urban men (70%) compared to rural men (69%) stated that they had sex in the last 30 days. Also, the 40-44-age group had the largest percent (82%) of men reporting having had sex in the last 30 days. In the 15-19 age group, only 36% had sex in the reference period. 19 Those that did not have sex in the 30 days prior to the survey were asked, "Have you had sexual intercourse with a female in the last 3 months?" Only 42% of them had sex in the last 3 months. Table 3.14 presents the rates by residence, age and ethnic group. Almost all the men stated that their last sexual intercourse was on a consensual basis and with their wife (62%). Fifteen percent (15%) stated that it was with a fiancee/girlfriend and 12% with a friend (see Table 3.14). 3.7 Summary This chapter focused on sexual activity among males. Even though the mean age at first sexual intercourse for all men is 17 years, it is as high as 19 years for Maya men and as low as 15 years for Garifuna men. The majority (89%) of men had their first sexual intercourse before completing high school. Only 15% of the men reported having their first sexual intercourse with their wife. Most Maya men reported that they had their first sexual intercourse with their wife. Further, most men did not use any form of contraception at their first sexual intercourse. Four the minority who did use, the condom was the most popular method. Sixty nine percent of the men state that they had had sexual intercourse within the last 30 days. Of those who did not have sex in the last 30 days, only 42% had intercourse within the last three months. 20 TABLE 3-1 BELIZE: Mean Age at First Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Mean Age (Unweighted) Total 16.7 (1210) Residence Urban 16.3 (633) Rural 17.1 (577) District Corozal 16.9 (178) Orange Walk 17.7 (210) Belize 15.9 (356) Cayo 16.6 (195) Stann Creek 15.9 (129) Toledo 17.8 (142) Age 15-19 14.8 (99) 20-24 15.7 (162) 25-29 16.8 (207) 30-34 17.0 (180) 35-39 16.9 (172) 40-44 17.7 (123) 45-49 17.6 (89) 50-54 17.1 (74) 55-59 18.2 (53) 60-64 17.8 (51) Ethnic Group Creole 15.9 (315) Mestizo 16.8 (641) Garifuna 15.5 (66) Maya/Ketchi 18.6 (117) Other 17.3 (71) TABLE 3-1 continued BELIZE: Mean Age at First Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Mean Age (Unweighted) Religion Anglican 15.9 (72) Baptist 17.2 (31) Methodist 16.6 (46) Nazarene 15.8 (36) Pentecostal 16.7 (74) Roman Catholic 16.7 (660) Other 17.1 (159) None 16.4 (132) Working Status Working 16.8 (997) Not working 16.0 (213) * For the purpose of calculating the mean, those who answered "Don't Know" and those who have never had sexual intercourse were omitted, for a total of 359. * Excludes 16 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 6 cases for whom religion is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. TABLE 3-2 BELIZE: In School at Time of First Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) In School at Time of First Sexual Intercourse Selected Characteristics Yes No Total No. of Cases* (Unwieghted) Total 34.9 65.1 100.0 (1336) Residence Urban 43.5 56.5 100.0 (713) Rural 25.4 74.6 100.0 (623) Ethnic Group Creole 47.1 52.9 100.0 (356) Mestizo 30.2 69.8 100.0 (699) Garifuna 49.6 50.4 100.0 (74) Maya/Ketchi 12.7 87.3 100.0 (126) Other 38.9 61.1 100.0 (81) * Excludes 13 cases for whom in school at time of first sexual intercourse is unknown. * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 3-3 BELIZE: Level of Education Completed at Time of First Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Level of Education Completed Primary BTTC/ No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics None School High School BCA/BNS Sixth Form University Unknown Total (Unweighted) Total 36.1 52.8 6.1 0.0 1.2 0.4 3.3 100.0 (1349) Residence Urban 30.1 56.0 6.6 0.1 1.5 0.8 4.8 100.0 (722) Rural 42.7 49.2 5.5 0.0 0.9 0.0 1.7 100.0 (627) Ethnic Group Creole 23.5 63.7 7.7 0.2 0.9 0.4 3.7 100.0 (360) Mestizo 41.4 50.1 4.9 0.0 0.5 0.3 2.8 100.0 (706) Garifuna 41.5 48.8 6.9 0.0 1.7 0.0 1.2 100.0 (74) Maya/Ketchi 48.5 41.1 5.1 0.0 1.9 0.0 3.3 100.0 (126) Other 24.3 45.9 10.7 0.0 8.1 2.6 8.4 100.0 (83) Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 3-4 BELIZE: First Sexual Intercourse on Consensual Basis, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Consensual Basis Selected Characteristics Yes No Total No. of Cases* (Unwieghted) Total 96.8 3.2 100.0 (1332) Residence Urban 96.8 3.2 100.0 (712) Rural 96.8 3.2 100.0 (620) Ethnic Group Creole 96.3 3.7 100.0 (354) Mestizo 97.1 2.9 100.0 (698) Garifuna 94.8 5.2 100.0 (73) Maya/Ketchi 99.0 1.0 100.0 (125) Other 95.5 4.5 100.0 (82) * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 18 cases for whom first sexual intercourse on consensual basis is unknown. TABLE 3-5 BELIZE: Relationship to The First Female, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Relationship to First male Wife/ Prostitute/ Incest Incest Common- Visiting Fiance/ Casual Father's Sex (Mother/ (Other No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics law Partner Girlfriend Friend Acquaintance Partner Worker Sister) Relative) Other Total (Unweighted) Total 14.6 2.8 33.5 37.4 7.6 0.0 3.4 0.1 0.1 0.4 100.0 (1327) Residence Urban 12.1 3.9 39.1 36.6 5.9 0.1 2.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 100.0 (710) Rural 17.4 1.7 27.3 38.2 9.5 0.0 5.0 0.1 0.0 0.7 100.0 (617) District Corozal 10.5 1.0 16.7 48.9 10.8 0.0 10.5 0.0 0.0 1.6 100.0 (198) Orange Walk 15.6 4.1 47.4 22.6 6.2 0.0 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (215) Belize 7.9 2.5 39.8 39.3 9.1 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 (388) Cayo 17.9 4.7 26.5 40.2 7.3 0.0 2.8 0.3 0.0 0.3 100.0 (228) Stann Creek 5.3 2.1 31.2 53.4 4.8 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.5 1.1 100.0 (144) Toledo 47.0 0.9 34.0 14.0 3.3 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (154) Age 15-19 2.8 4.5 35.8 45.4 7.6 0.0 3.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (103) 20-24 5.9 1.6 40.9 40.2 8.2 0.3 1.7 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 25-29 15.5 2.5 31.2 39.9 4.6 0.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 (218) 30-34 15.7 2.7 29.5 36.4 8.9 0.0 5.4 0.0 0.4 0.9 100.0 (197) 35 - 39 18.0 1.6 36.0 33.2 8.9 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (193) 40-44 20.2 4.9 35.4 34.1 3.5 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 (145) 45-49 18.9 2.6 29.3 35.4 11.8 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (101) 50-54 17.0 1.9 28.4 43.9 4.5 0.0 3.5 0.0 0.9 0.0 100.0 (82) 55-59 27.8 0.0 22.3 28.2 16.5 0.0 3.8 1.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 (57) 60-64 24.5 7.3 33.1 23.6 7.0 0.0 4.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (62) TABLE 3-5 continued BELIZE: Relationship to The First Female, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Relationship to First male Wife/ Prostitute/ Incest Incest Common- Visiting Fiance/ Casual Father's Sex (Mother/ (Other No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics law Partner Girlfriend Friend Acquaintance Partner Worker Sister) Relative) Other Total (Unweighted) Ethnic Group Creole 6.8 1.7 38.3 42.9 9.8 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (352) Mestizo 13.2 3.2 32.4 38.2 7.0 0.0 5.4 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 (694) Garifuna 6.7 5.0 47.3 31.2 6.8 0.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 100.0 (73) Maya/Ketchi 58.0 2.0 16.8 18.8 3.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 (125) Other 14.9 4.2 31.5 34.2 9.7 0.0 4.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (83) Religion Anglican 6.4 1.6 39.5 45.2 7.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (81) Baptist 35.1 0.0 11.2 49.0 2.3 0.0 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (34) Methodist ' 5.7 7.8 48.4 31.1 5.7 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (53) Nazarene 5.5 0.0 26.5 61.7 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (36) Pentecostal 9.8 3.1 31.4 38.9 11.5 0.0 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (79) Roman Catholic 15.8 2.1 34.3 36.2 7.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.2 0.7 100.0 (727) Other 19.2 3.6 33.3 33.6 7.5 0.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (173) None 12.1 5.8 28.9 36.3 10.6 0.0 5.4 0.5 0.0 0.4 100.0 (144) * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 7 cases for whom religion is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. * Excludes 15 cases for whom relationship to the first male is unknown. TABLE 3-6 BELIZE: Female in School at Time of Male's First Sexual Intercourse, Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) School First - Intercourse Total No. of Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown (Unweighted Total 31.8 53.9 14.3 100.0 (1349) Residence Urban 42.0 48.6 9.4 100.0 (722) Rural 20.4 59.7 19.9 100.0 (627) Ethnic Group Creole 45.9 44.5 9.7 100.0 (360) Mestizo 23.7 58.7 17.7 100.0 (706) Garifuna 59.6 31.2 9.1 100.0 (74) Maya/Ketchi 15.1 77.8 7.1 100.0 (126) Other 40.4 40.8 18.8 100.0 (83) * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 3-7 BELIZE: Level of Education Completed by First Female, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Level of Education Completed Primary High BTTC/ No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics None School School BCA/BNS Sixth Form University Unknown Total (Unweighted) Total 19.5 53.0 6.6 0.1 1.3 0.3 19.2 100.0 (1144) Residence Urban 14.5 55.9 7.5 0.1 1.2 0.5 20.2 100.0 (640) Rural 25.8 49.5 5.5 0.0 1.4 0.0 17.9 100.0 (504) Ethnic Group Creole 11.7 63.5 8.2 0.0 3.0 0.0 13.7 100.0 (321) Mestizo 21.3 48.6 5.5 0.0 0.3 0.3 23.9 100.0 (567) Garifuna 30.9 54.2 7.4 0.0 0.8 1.3 5.4 100.0 (69) Maya/Ketchi 32.6 50.4 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.3 100.0 (118) Other 13.0 43.8 10.8 1.0 4.2 1.1 26.2 100.0 (69) * Excludes 13 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 3-8 BELIZE: Use of Contraceptive at First Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Contraceptive Method Used Selected Characteristics Yes No Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 24.4 75.6 100.0 (1325) Residence Urban 26.9 73.1 100.0 (710) Rural 21.7 78.3 100.0 (615) District Corozal 31.3 68.7 100.0 (201) Orange Walk 19.5 80.5 100.0 (214) Belize 29.3 70.7 100.0 (388) Cayo 24.1 75.9 100.0 (226) Stann Creek 13.1 86.9 100.0 (143) Toledo 17.8 82.2 100.0 (153) Age 15-19 53.0 47.0 100.0 (100) 20-24 35.5 64.5 100.0 (168) 25-29 34.7 65.3 100.0 (217) 30-34 24.1 75.9 100.0 (196) 35-39 12.5 87.5 100.0 (195) 40-44 11.7 88.3 100.0 (147) 45-49 12.4 87.6 100.0 (100) 50-54 8.7 91.3 100.0 (83) 55-59 3.6 96.4 100.0 (58) 60-64 3.3 96.7 100.0 (61) Ethnic Group Creole 30.1 69.9 100.0 (354) Mestizo 23.6 76.4 100.0 (695) Garifuna 21.4 78.6 100.0 (71) Maya/Ketchi 6.5 93.5 100.0 (125) Other 31.8 68.2 100.0 (80) Religion Anglican 22.6 77.4 100.0 (81) Baptist 18.9 81.1 100.0 (34) Methodist 33.8 66.2 100.0 (53) Nazarene 23.3 76.7 100.0 (36) Pentecostal 15.5 84.5 100.0 (79) Roman Catholic 24.8 75.2 100.0 (727) Other 25.2 74.8 100.0 (172) None 25.9 74.1 100.0 (143) * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 3-9 BELIZE: Method of Contraception Used at First Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Rythym/ Pills/Oral Inter-Uterine Condoms Calendar No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Contraceptives Injection Device/ Coil (Male) Method Withdrawal Total (Unweighted) Total 6.4 0.7 0.2 88.7 0.6 3.4 100.0 (290) Residence Urban 7.7 0.4 0.0 88.6 0.7 2.6 100.0 (175) Rural 4.6 1.1 0.5 88.9 0.5 4.4 100.0 (115) Ethnic Group Creole 5.7 91.8 2.5 100.0 (90) Mestizo 5.2 0.4 0.4 88.8 1.2 4.0 100.0 (157) Garifuna ** ** ** ** ** ** 100.0 (15) Maya/Ketchi ** ** ** ** ** ** 100.0 (8) Other ** ** ** ** ** ** 100.0 (20) * Excludes 2 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 3 cases for whom method used is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 3-10 BELIZE: Decision to Use Contraceptive, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Whose Decision to Use Method Decision Partner's Made No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics My Decision Decision Together Total (Unweighted) Total 56.6 12.1 31.4 100.0 (292) Residence Urban 53.7 14.4 32.0 100.0 (174) Rural 60.5 8.9 30.6 100.0 (118) Ethnic Group Creole 60.0 11.6 28.4 100.0 (89) Mestizo 59.8 9.4 30.8 100.0 (159) Garifuna ** ** ** 100.0 (15) Maya/Ketchi ** ** ** 100.0 (8) Other ** ** ** 100.0 (21) * Excludes 2 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 1 cases for whom decision is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 3-11 BELIZE: Reason For Using Contraceptives, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Reason to Use Contraceptive Methods Prevent Prevent STI's/HIV/ No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Pregnancies AIDS Both Other Total (Unweighted) Total 63.1 13.2 23.3 0.4 100.0 (293) Residence Urban 61.1 13.1 25.4 0.4 100.0 (175) Rural 65.7 13.3 20.6 0.5 100.0 (118) Ethnic Group Creole 61.5 8.2 29.0 1.3 100.0 (90) Mestizo 63.4 16.3 20.3 0.0 100.0 (159) Garifuna ** ** ** ** 100.0 (15) Maya/Ketchi ** ** ** ** 100.0 (8) Other ** ** ** ** 100.0 (21) * Excludes 3 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 2 cases for whom reason to use contraceptive is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 3-12 BELIZE: Sexual Intercourse in The Last 30 Days, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Sexual Intercourse in Last 30 Days No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No Total (Unweighted) Total 69.3 30.7 100.0 (1339) Residence Urban 69.9 30.1 100.0 (714) Rural 68.6 31.4 100.0 (625) Age 15-19 36.0 64.0 100.0 (104) 20-24 64.0 36.0 100.0 (172) 25-29 75.1 24.9 100.0 (219) 30-34 80.1 19.9 100.0 (198) 35-39 78.5 21.5 100.0 (197) 40-44 82.6 17.4 100.0 (149) 45-49 80.9 19.1 100.0 (100) 50-54 71.4 28.6 100.0 (82) 55-59 66.2 33.8 100.0 (57) 60-64 49.6 50.4 100.0 (61) Ethnic Group Creole 71.5 28.5 100.0 (355) Mestizo 68.0 32.0 100.0 (702) Garifuna 76.9 23.1 100.0 (74) Maya/Ketchi 68.3 31.7 100.0 (126) Other 65.7 34.3 100.0 (82) * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 10 cases for whom sexual intercourse in the last 30 days is unknown. TABLE 3-13 BELIZE: Sexual Intercourse in The Last 3 Months, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Sexual Intercourse in Last 3 Months No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No Total (Unweighted) Total 41.5 58.5 100.0 (359) Residence Urban 39.4 60.6 100.0 (189) Rural 43.7 56.3 100.0 (170) Age 15-19 36.8 63.2 100.0 (62) 20-24 53.2 46.8 100.0 (51) 25-29 44.3 55.7 100.0 (48) 30-34 35.9 64.1 100.0 (33) 35-39 50.5 49.5 100.0 (36) 40-44 38.6 61.4 100.0 (27) 45-49 18.6 81.4 100.0 (23) 50-54 37.2 62.8 100.0 (25) 55-59 ** ** 100.0 (21) 60-64 29.6 70.4 100.0 (33) Ethnic Group Creole 42.0 58.0 100.0 (95) Mestizo 42.8 57.2 100.0 (185) Garifuna 32.6 67.4 100.0 (18) Maya/Ketchi 40.1 59.9 100.0 (37) Other ** ** 100.0 (24) * Excludes 6 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 8 cases for whom sexual intercourse in the last 3 months is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 3-14 BELIZE: Relationship With Last Female With Whom Had Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Relationship to the Last Male With Whom Had Sexual Intercourse Wife/ Visiting Fiance/ Casual Father's Prostitute/ No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Common-law Parmer Girlfriend Friend Acquaintance Partner Sex Worker Other Total (Unweighted) Total 61.9 4.9 14.8 12.4 2.8 0.0 2.7 0.3 100.0 (1341) Residence Urban 56.7 6.4 18.0 14.7 2.8 0.0 1.3 0.1 100.0 (719) Rural 67.8 3.2 11.3 9.9 2.8 0.1 4.3 0.5 100.0 (622) Age 15-19 5.5 7.4 46.5 32.2 3.0 0.0 5.4 0.0 100.0 (103) 20-24 28.2 7.0 37.1 18.1 5.3 0.0 3.9 0.3 100.0 (171) 25-29 55.8 9.3 15.3 14.8 0.9 0.0 3.1 0.6 100.0 (221) 30-34 79.2 3.1 4.7 5.9 2.6 0.4 4.0 0.0 100.0 (196) 35-39 81.6 3.0 1.2 11.5 2.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 100.0 (196) 40-44 86.0 3.9 0.8 4.1 2.8 0.0 1.9 0.5 100.0 (149) 45-49 87.7 1.1 0.6 4.5 4.3 0.0 1.2 0.6 100.0 (102) 50-54 91.5 0.9 3.2 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 100.0 (82) 55-59 87.6 3.3 0.0 3.5 4.5 0.0 1.1 0.0 100.0 (59) 60-64 88.9 1.1 0.8 4.8 2.2 0.0 1.1 1.1 100.0 (62) Ethnic Group Creole 48.8 6.9 23.6 15.6 4.3 0.0 0.4 0.4 100.0 (356) Mestizo 66.7 3.8 12.2 10.6 2.2 0.1 4.1 0.4 100.0 (703) Garifuna 51.0 10.7 17.4 18.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 (74) Maya/Ketchi 86.5 0.0 5.3 5.0 2.7 0.0 0.7 0.0 100.0 (125) Other 55.4 8.1 9.2 19.7 2.5 0.0 5.2 0.0 100.0 (83) * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 10 cases for whom relationship with last male is unknown. CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY, RELATIONSHIP AND REPRODUCTIVE HISTORY 4.1 Introduction It is rare when fertility and reproductive issues are discussed about males. This Chapter, therefore, focuses on male fertility and reproductive issues. More specifically, it looks at the number of children the males have fathered, their age at which their first child was born and whether they wanted and had planned to have their first and last children. It should be noted that there are instances where the males reported that they are not sure if they have fathered any children, or of the number of children they have fathered. Even though the number of those who are not sure is small, it indicates the doubts that males sometimes have about their own fertility and reproductive history. These doubts may be due to their own perception of their ability or inability to reproduce, or more so, their mistrust in the females who claim that these males have fathered their children. 4.2 Mean number of children The men were asked, "Have you ever fathered any children, even if the child or children died shortly after birth?" The majority, almost 53%, have fathered a child/children, 44% have not fathered a child and 4% have 'never had sexual intercourse.' Only 3% of the younger men (15-19 years) have fathered a child/children and 14% of them have not had sexual intercourse before. These teenagers and 2% of those in the 20-24 age groups are the only males who reported that they have never had sexual intercourse. The Maya males have the highest percentage (60%) that has fathered a child/children compared to the other major ethnic groups (see Table 4.1). However, the majority of Mestizo (55%), Garifuna (53%) and Creole (57%) have fathered a child/children. The Maya males also have the highest percentage (8%) of males that have never had sexual intercourse. The corresponding rates for the Creole and Mestizo are 4% and 3% respectively. No Garifuna males reported that they have 'never had sexual intercourse.' It should be noted that the respondents were not asked directly if they have ever had sexual intercourse. The choice 'never had sexual intercourse' was included among the choices for the question on whether the respondent has fathered any children. 21 Table 4.2 presents the mean number of children the men have fathered by selected characteristics. The mean number of children the men have fathered is 4. This number is higher for rural men(3.6), and highest among Maya men (5.3) and men in the Toledo District (5.3). A closer look at the mean number of children by other characteristics shows that the mean number of children increases with age and decreases as education level increases, 5.5 for men with no education and 2.7 for men with secondary education. The mean number of children is the same for working and non-working males (4). This figure indicates that the male's work status does not affect his fertility as much as it does the female's fertility. This raises the issue of the financial and emotional support one expects a male to give when he fathers a child, if he is likely to have the same number of children with or without a job The mean age at which the men had their first child is 24 years. . There is little difference between urban and rural men. However, Garifuna men reported the highest mean age at 26 years, and Maya men the lowest at 22 years (see Table 4.4). 4.3 Level of education at the time first child was born Only 4% of the men were in school at the time their first child was born. This rate is higher for urban (5%) and Creole (6%) men. No Garifuna or Maya men were in school when they had their first child (see Table 4.5). Twenty-nine percent (29%) had completed secondary or higher education. Table 4.6 presents the rates by residence and ethnic group. 4.4 Planning status of first and last children Eighty-seven percent (87%) of the males wanted to have their first child and 5% said that they did not (see Table 4.7). Among those who wanted to, 75% had planned to have the first child. Table 4.8 shows that more Garifuna men had planned to have their first child compared to men in the other ethnic groups. Even though a higher percentage (93%) wanted to have the last child (Table 4.9), the percentage of those who planned to have that last child is similar (72%) to those that planned the first child (Table 4.10). The Maya men were more likely to have planned their last child compared to the other ethnic groups. One would expect that since a higher percentage of males wanted to have the last child there would have been more planning for that last child compared to the first. The last child comes when the male is at an older age and usually is more financially stable than when he had the first child. Even if he did not plan to have the last child, he may see himself as more capable of caring for that child and therefore is more willing to have wanted to have the last child. Creole 22 males were the least likely to have planned to have their first child (67%) and their last child. Working males (74%) are more likely than non-working males (96%) to have planned to have their first child. However, there is not much difference between males who work and do not work when it came to planning their last child, 73% and 72% respectively. It should be noted that the working status was based on the current situation at the time of the survey and does not reflect the work status at the time the males had their first or last child. 4.5 Fathered children with more than one woman The men were asked, "How many women have had children for you?" The majority (78%) had children with only one woman, 10% have children with 2 women, and 3% have children with 3 women. Approximately 21% of Garifuna men have children with 2 women, the highest rate compared to the other ethnic groups. They are followed by Creole males with 15%. However, only 7% of Mestizo and 5% of Maya men have fathered children with 2 women. A higher proportion of non-working men (12%) have fathered children with 2 women compared to 9% of men who work (see Table 4.11). 4.6 Spouse/Partner currently pregnant Only 3% of the men had a woman that was pregnant for them at the time of the survey. The rate was higher for rural (4%) and Maya (5%) men (see Table 4.12). None of them had more than one woman pregnant. Of those for whom a woman was pregnant, the majority of the men (78%) wanted the pregnancy (Table 4.13). When asked, "What type of support do you give the first prospective baby mother?" 73% said that they give 'both emotional and financial support', 13% give 'financial support' only and 4% give 'no support at this time'. These figures indicate that more than one quarter of the men do not give financial support to the prospective mother. 4.7 Summary Men's fertility, relationships and reproductive history are the main focus of this chapter. The mean number of children that men have fathered is 4. The number is higher for rural men and highest among the Maya men. It is also highest among men of the Toledo district. The mean age at which men have their first child is 24 years. Maya men have their first child the earliest, on average 22 years, whereas Garifuna men have their first child at an average age of 26 years. Four percent of men had their first child when in school. Eighty 23 seven percent (87%) of the men wanted to have their first child, but only 75% had planned for it. Seventy eight percent (78%) had fathered children with only one woman, while another 10% had children with more than one woman. 24 TABLE 4-1 BELIZE: Fathered Any Children, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Fathered any Children Never Has Had Sexual No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No Intercourse Not Sure Total (Unwieghted) Total 52.5 43.5 3.7 0.2 100.0 (1570) Residence Urban 53.6 44.2 2.0 0.2 100.0 (811) Rural 51.5 42.8 5.4 0.3 100.0 (759) District Corozal 52.9 45.3 1.7 0.0 100.0 (238) Orange Walk 50.6 45.4 3.6 0.4 100.0 (259) Belize 51.3 45.9 2.5 0.3 100.0 (453) Cayo 55.1 37.4 7.1 0.5 100.0 (266) Stann Creek 47.1 50.8 2.0 0.0 100.0 (165) Toledo 59.7 34.2 6.0 0.0 100.0 (189) Ethnic Group Creole 47.3 48.6 3.7 0.3 100.0 (426) Mestizo 54.7 41.7 3.4 0.1 100.0 (811) Garifuna 53.3 46.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 (83) Maya/Ketchi 59.5 . 32.2 8.3 0.0 100.0 (156) Other 45.6 49.8 3.2 1.4 100.0 (94) Age 15-19 2.8 82.9 13.6 0.7 100.0 (283) 20-24 24.7 73.0 1.7 0.5 100.0 (200) 25-29 59.8 40.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 (227) 30-34 74.7 25.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 (203) 35-39 89.2 10.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 (201) 40-44 91.5 8.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 (150) 45-49 90.1 9.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 (101) 50-54 89.0 11.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 (85) 55-59 92.9 7.1 . 0.0 0.0 100.0 (59) 60-64 96.9 3.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 (61) Educational Level None 82.3 17.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 (63) Incomplete Primary 58.1 37.1 4.4 0.3 100.0 (342) Complete Primary 58.6 38.3 2.8 0.2 100.0 (565) Secondary 36.1 58.3 5.6 0.0 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 54.9 42.9 1.3 0.9 100.0 (176) Working Status Working 63.0 34.7 2.2 0.1 100.0 (1189) Not working 26.7 65.1 7.6 0.6 100.0 (381) * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. TABLE 4-2 BELIZE: Mean Number of Children, by Selected Characteristics Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Mean Number (Unweighted) Total 4.0 (981) Residence Urban 3.6 (502) Rural 4.4 (479) District Corozal 3.7 (153) Orange Walk 3.8 (161) Belize 3.5 (265) Cayo 4.2 (174) Stann Creek 4.5 (95) Toledo 5.3 (133) Ethnic Group Creole 3.6 (236) Mestizo 4.0 (532) Garifuna 4.4 (49) Maya/Ketchi 5.3 (112) Other 3.5 (52) Age 15-19 1.3 (7) 20-24 1.5 (62) 25-29 2.2 (161) 30-34 3.1 (165) 35-39 4.0 (177) 40-44 4.3 (136) 45-49 5.2 (89) 50-54 5.6 (74) 55-59 6.4 (53) 60-64 6.2 (57) Educational Level None 5.5 (50) Incomplete Primary 4.7 (242) Complete Primary 4.3 (372) Secondary 2.7 (205) Post Secondary 2.9 (112) Working Status Working 4.0 (845) Not working 4.1 (136) * For the purpose of calculating the mean, those who answered "Don't Know" were omitted, for a total of 1 case. * Excludes 14 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 3 cases for whom education level is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. TABLE 4-3 BELIZE: Mean Number of Children Living With Fathers, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Mean Number (Unweighted) Total 2.5 (985) Residence Urban 2.2 (505) Rural 2.9 (480) Ethnic Group Creole 1.9 (236) Mestizo 2.7 (535) Garifuna 2.9 (49) Maya/Ketchi 3.9 (112) Other 1.5 (53) Age 15-19 ** (7) 20-24 1.2 (62) 25-29 1.8 (161) 30-34 2.6 (165) 35-39 2.9 (177) 40-44 3.2 (136) 45-49 3.7 (91) 50-54 2.6 (74) 55-59 1.9 (53) 60-64 2.1 (59) Working Status Working 2.6 (848) Not working 2.0 (137) * Excludes 14 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 4-4 BELIZE: Mean Age When First Child Was Born, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Mean Number (Unweighted) Total 23.5 (958) Residence Urban 23.1 (491) Rural 23.9 (467) Ethnic Group Creole 22.6 (228) Mestizo 23.8 (523) Garifuna 26.2 (46) Maya/Ketchi 22.1 (109) Other 24.5 (52) * For the purpose of calculating the mean, those who answered "Dont Know" were omitted, for a total of 30 cases. * Excludes 12 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 4-5 BELIZE: Males in School When First Child was Born, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) In School When First Child was Born Selected Characteristics Yes No Total No. of Cases* (Unwieghted) Total Residence Urban Rural Ethnic Group Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketchi Other 3.5 5.3 1.6 6.1 3.4 0.0 0.0 1.5 96.5 94.7 98.4 93.9 96.6 100.0 100.0 98.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (970) (501) (469) (235) (523) (49) (111) (52) * Excludes 13 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 17 cases for whom in school at the time that first child was born is unknown. TABLE 4-6 BELIZE: Level of Education Completed When First Child was Born, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Education Level Incomplete Complete Post No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics None Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Total (Unwieghted) Total 5.1 26.7 39.3 20.0 8.9 100.0 (966) Residence Urban 1.9 20.0 37.4 28.7 12.0 100.0 (495) Rural 8.4 33.5 41.2 11.2 5.7 100.0 (471) Ethnic Group Creole 0.4 9.4 53.7 26.7 9.8 100.0 (231) Mestizo 6.7 34.3 32.4 18.9 7.8 100.0 (526) Garifuna 1.6 18.5 35.6 26.0 18.2 100.0 (48) Maya/Ketchi 10.8 37.3 43.0 5.6 3.2 100.0 (110) Other 3.1 12.5 43.6 21.9 18.9 100.0 (51) * Excludes 13 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 21 cases for whom education level when first child was born is unknown. TABLE 4-7 BELIZE: Wanted to Have First Child, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) If Wanted To Have First Child Unknown Total No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No (Unwieghted) Total Residence Urban Rural Ethnic Group Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketchi Other 87.7 88.5 87.0 80.5 91.5 87.8 80.4 93.2 5.1 3.5 6.6 5.9 3.3 5.5 13.4 5.0 7.2 7.9 6.4 13.7 5.3 6.7 6.2 1.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (866) (438) (428) (198) (473) (44) (107) (44) * Excludes 13 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 4-8 BELIZE: Planned to Have First Child, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Planning Status of First Child No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Planned Unplanned Total (Unwieghted) Total 74.7 25.3 100.0 (750) Residence Urban 77.1 22.9 100.0 (382) Rural 72.4 27.6 100.0 (368) Ethnic Group Creole 69.1 30.9 100.0 (160) Mestizo 74.8 25.2 100.0 (430) Garifuna 82.2 17.8 100.0 (37) Maya/Ketchi 77.8 22.2 100.0 (84) Other 83.5 16.5 100.0 (39) * Excludes 12 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 2 cases for whom first child planned or unplanned is unknown. TABLE 4-9 BELIZE: Wanted to Have Last Child, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) If Wanted to Have Last Child No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No Total (Unwieghted) Total Residence Urban Rural Ethnic Group Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketchi Other 92.6 94.4 90.7 91.4 94.9 88.2 84.5 89.8 7.4 5.6 9.3 8.6 5.1 11.8 15.5 10.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (971) (504) (467) (233) (533) (49) (103) (53) * Excludes 14 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 15 cases for whom whether the male wanted his last child is unknown. TABLE 4-10 BELIZE: Planned to Have Last Child, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Selected Characteristics Planned Unplanned Unknown Total (Unwieghted) Total 71.8 22.9 5.3 100.0 (979) Residence Urban 72.9 22.7 4.3 100.0 (502) Rural 70.7 23.0 6.4 100.0 (477) Ethnic Group Creole 67.3 24.7 8.0 100.0 (234) Mestizo 72.7 23.9 3.4 100.0 (533) Garifuna 72.2 17.7 10.2 100.0 (49) Maya/Ketchi 73.7 17.9 8.4 100.0 (111) Other 79.2 17.0 3.8 100.0 (52) * Excludes 14 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 4-11 BELIZE: Have Children With More Than One Woman, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Number of Women Males Had Children With Total No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unknown (Unwieghted) Total 78.2 9.7 2.5 0.9 0.2 0.2 8.2 100.0 (985) Residence Urban 74.0 13.4 3.2 1.6 0.3 0.4 7.1 100.0 (505) Rural 82.4 6.0 1.8 0.3 0.1 0.0 9.4 100.0 (480) Ethnic Group Creole 66.8 15.5 5.4 1.8 0.3 0.9 9.3 100.0 (236) Mestizo 82.6 7.0 1.4 0.4 0.1 0.0 8.5 100.0 (535) Garifuna 73.0 20.9 0.0 2.8 0.0 0.0 3.2 100.0 (49) Maya/Ketchi 90.4 4.7 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.0 3.7 100.0 (112) Other 65.5 11.6 6.2 3.0 0.0 0.0 13.7 100.0 (53) Working Status Working 79.2 9.3 2.2 0.7 0.2 0.2 8.3 100.0 (848) Not working 72.5 12.3 4.0 2.0 0.5 0.5 8.2 100.0 (137) * Excludes 14 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. TABLE 4-12 BELIZE: Have A Spouse/Partner Who is Presently Pregnant, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Fathered Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Anyone Presently Pregnant For You No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No Total (Unwieghted) Total Residence Urban Rural Ethnic Group Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketchi Other Working Status Working Not working 3.4 2.5 4.3 3.1 3.5 1.6 4.9 1.1 3.5 2.5 96.6 97.5 95.7 96.9 96.5 98.4 95.1 98.9 96.5 97.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (979) (502) (477) (233) (533) (48) (112) (53) (843) . (136) * Excludes 12 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. * Excludes 8 cases for whom males that have a spouse/partner presently pregnant is unknown. TABLE 4-13 BELIZE: Wanted The Present Pregnancy(ies), by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have a Spouse/Partner(s) Presently Pregnant: 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) If Wanted Pregnancy Selected Characteristics Wanted One Pregnancy Wanted all Pregnancies Wanted no Pregnancy God's Will, Fate, Did Not Think About It Total No. of Cases* (Unwieghted) Total Residence Urban Rural Ethnic Group Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketchi Other Working Status Working Not working 46.1 60.3 37.6 31.2 58.9 0.0 16.0 100.0 49.3 19.8 32.2 17.4 40.9 59.0 23.3 0.0 36.0 0.0 33.7 19.9 9.0 0.0 14.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 48.0 0.0 10.1 0.0 12.8 22.3 7.2 9.8 17.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.9 60.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (36) (15) (21) (9) (20) (1) (5) (1) (32) (4) * Excludes 1 case for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 4-14 BELIZE: Type of Support Given to Prospective Mothers, by Selected Characteristics Men Aged 15-64 Who Have a Spouse/Partner(s) Presently Pregnant: 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Type of Support First Mother Selected Characteristics No Support at This Time Gives Financial Support Only Gives Both Emotional and Financial Support Total No. of Cases* (Unwieghted) Total Residence Urban Rural Ethnic Group Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketchi Other Working Status Working Not working 4.3 4.5 4.1 0.0 7.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.8 0.0 22.8 25.0 21.5 21.4 15.1 0.0 64.0 0.0 20.6 40.5 73.0 70.5 74.4 78.6 77.8 100.0 36.0 100.0 74.6 59.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (36) (15) (21) (9) (20) (1) (5) (1) (32) (4) * Excludes 1 case for whom ethnic group is unknown. CHAPTER 5 GENERAL ATTITUDES AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS CHILDBEARING AND CONTRACEPTION 5.1 Introduction Men aged 15 to 64 years were asked a series of questions on their attitudes towards childbearing and contraception and their beliefs and opinions on topics related to sexuality. They expressed their opinions on the ideal family size, the ideal interval between children, abortion, contraception, the ideal age for a man and a woman to have his/her first sexual relationship and the ideal age for a man and a woman to be responsible enough to have his/her own child. Questions were also asked on general attitudes and opinions on topics related to man and the way he views sexuality. These findings are presented by selected characteristics. It is expected that this information will be useful to better understand the attitudes and beliefs of men in Belize so as to develop programmes of intervention to improve the lives of all Belizeans. 5.2 Family Planning Messages Men were asked whether they have seen or heard messages on family planning on radio, television and local newspaper over the past six months. Only 39% have heard such messages on radio, 37% on television and 19% in a local newspaper (Table 5.1). As expected, most of these messages were heard or seen in the urban areas. The education level of the man was directly related to the likelihood of hearing or seeing a message. It is alarming to note that more than 90% of men without any level of education have not seen any message on family planning on television or newspaper, and that 88% of these men have also not heard any message on the radio. Organizations working in the area of reproductive health need to reach out to the male population, especially those in the rural areas. In general, the coverage of family planning messages by radio, television and local newspaper is poor. When men who have seen or heard a family planning message were asked if they have heard a message from the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA), more than half responded yes (Table 5.2). Men who have seen or heard messages on family planning from the BFLA were primarily among those in the urban areas (61%) and with a higher level of 25 education. However, it is worth noting that 21% of men stated that they did not know if the message they heard was from the BFLA. In general, the BFLA is a major source of information and services on family planning throughout the country. 5.3 Ideal Family Size All men were asked their opinion on the ideal number of children a man should have. Most men prefer to have four children (21%) (Table 5.3). A slightly lower percentage indicated three (20%) and two children (18%). In general, men who indicated that they want a lower number of children were men who have completed primary or a higher level of education. It is interesting to note that 10% indicated it is fate or up to God. These persons were mostly among men in the rural areas and with lower level of education. The mean ideal family size is 3.9 children for men who have living children (Table 5.4) and 3.6 for men who do not have living children (Table 5.5). Rural men and older men prefer larger families than urban and younger men. For men with children, ideal family size decreases as years of schooling increase; for men without children, there is a marginal difference in preferred family size by education level. Ideal family size does not vary between Roman Catholics and Protestants and is about the same for the country as a whole. Mestizos and Creoles have the smallest ideal family size, while the Maya/Ketchi have the largest. It is worth noting that the Maya/Ketchi men think that their ideal family size is one child more than the number of living children they already have (Table 5.4). The majority of men who have children stated that the number of living children that they have is greater than their ideal family size. In general, men with children have exceeded their preferred family size. Major contributors to this excess are men 45 to 54 years of age and men who did not complete primary school. It is worth noting that men 30 years or older have already exceeded their ideal family size. Moderately sized families are much desired in Belize. The comparison of the mean ideal family size for men who do not have children with that of men who have children suggests that if men who currently do not have any children have only the number they desire, fertility will continue to decline in Belize. 26 5.4 Opinions About Childbearing All men were asked their opinion on the main reason a man might wish to limit the number of children that he has. It is interesting to note that 80% of them stated that the main reason is financial reasons (Table 5.6). Men strongly agree that their economic situation is an important factor that determines whether or not to have a child. Among other reasons given were: child care problem (6%), work related reasons (4%) and health of mother (3%). When asked who should decide on the number of children the couple wants to have, 87% stated both partners (Table 5.7). This percentage is similar among men in the urban and rural areas. More men among those in urban areas, however, are likely to have the wife as the person to decide (5%) while more men among those in the rural stated the husband (6%). The proportion of men who stated that the husband should be the decision-maker is slightly higher than those who stated the wife. This is perhaps partially due to the machismo behaviour still present in some men. Men in union and men who were visiting partners were those who strongly stated that both partners should decide (Table 5.8). As the level of education increases, so does the likelihood of stating that both partners should decide on the number of children the couple should have. In particular, the difference is more noticeable among men who have completed primary education from those who have incomplete primary or no education (Table 5.9). All men were asked their opinion on the appropriate time spacing between two children. Seven out of every ten men stated two years or more (Table 5.10). Men in urban areas as well as men with higher levels of education preferred a higher interval between children. Almost 26% of men with no education preferred an interval less than 2 years. In general, however, men think that both partners should decide on the number of children a couple should have and that the time spacing between the children should be two years or more. The opinion that a woman always has the right to decide about her pregnancy, including whether or not to have an abortion, was rejected by 47% of men (Table 5.11). An almost equal percentage (46%) stated the contrary. The opinion among men in urban areas differed substantially from among those in the rural areas. Most men in the urban areas stated that the woman has the right, while men in the rural disagreed. The opinion of married men also varied greatly from those who are visiting partners or not in union. In general, men who are living in the rural areas, married, and with less than secondary level education are more likely to strongly oppose that the woman always has the right to decide about her 27 pregnancy, including whether or not to have an abortion. Therefore, even if men strongly agree that both partners should decide on the number of children they should have, they disagree that the woman always has the right to decide about her pregnancy, including whether or not to have an abortion. Men were also asked under what circumstances they think that it should be acceptable to terminate a pregnancy, that is, have an abortion. More than half of the men stated it is acceptable only under one circumstance, for health reasons of the mother. This percentage, however, was only acceptable for 55% of men (Table 5.12). Although accepted by a minority, other circumstances stated were: health reasons of the child (43%), pregnancy resulting from rape (36%) and economic reasons (22%). Although 80% of the men might wish to limit the number of children because of financial reasons, only 22% stated it is an acceptable reason for a woman to have an abortion. Men, in general, are against abortion under any circumstance. Circumstances that were considered highly unacceptable were: if a woman is not married (92%) and if both or either of the parents does not want the child (more than 80% of men). 5.5 Attitudes Towards Contraception The vast majority of men (86%) agreed that the decision for the couple to use methods of family planning is a decision of both partners (Table 5.13). The low percentage that stated the wife (6%) was almost equivalent to the percentage that stated the husband (5%). As expected, men from the urban areas are more likely to state that both partners should make the decision. The opinion that both partners should make the decision does not vary by marital status (Table 5.14). However, it differs by educational level (Table 5.15). Men with lower level of education tend to disagree that the couple should make the decision and agree that the husband or wife should decide. When asked who should decide on the type of contraceptive a couple should use, 75% stated both partners (Table 5.16). The husband's likelihood to decide the type of contraceptive is higher than deciding whether or not to use a contraceptive. As expected, men from the urban areas and with higher level of education tend to favour the couple making the decision while men from the rural areas and with lower education prefer having the husband make the decision. It is interesting to note that a higher proportion of men believe that the nurse/doctor/mid-wife should decide the type of contraceptive to use (7%) than the proportion who believe it should be the wife/partner (5%). 28 5.6 Ideal Age for a Man to have his First Sexual Relationship It was found, in general, that 78% of men think that the ideal age to start having sexual intercourse is before completing 20 years (Table 5.17). Two peaks are observed for ideal ages less than 20 years: 16 years (11%) and 18 years (40%). After completing 18 years, men in Belize are no longer considered children and can marry without the parents' consent. It is interesting to note that 51% of men believe that the earliest age that the woman can legally consent to having sexual intercourse is 18 years (Table not shown). Thirty five percent of men, however, believe that it is acceptable for men to have their first sexual relationship before completing 18 years. There are no great differences in the ideal age by place of residence. Table 5.18 shows the mean age that men think they can have start having sexual intercourse. In general, the mean age is 17.4 years and, with one exception, there is no big difference based on the characteristics of men. The exception is that there exists a difference of 1.2 years among men who have had a sexual relationship (17 years) and men who have not had any sexual relationship (18%). It is interesting to note that in this survey the estimated mean age for men 15 to 24 years to have their first sexual relationship is 14.8 years (see Chapter 3). 5.7 Ideal Age for a Woman to have her First Sexual Relationship While 35% of men aged 15 to 64 think that the ideal age for a man to have his first sexual intercourse is before completing 18 years, a lower percentage (27%) believe this to be the ideal age for a young woman (Table 5.19). This finding shows that men believe that young women should wait more time than the men before starting to be sexually active. Men also believe that there are two ideal ages for a woman under 20 years to start having sexual intercourse: 16 years (14%) and 18 years (47%), the same as for men. Table 5.20 shows the mean age that it is expected for a woman to have her first sexual relationship. The mean age is 17.7 years, 3.6 months older than the mean age expected for men to have their first sexual relationship. Men- who have had sexual experience stated that the age for a woman to have her first sexual relationship is 17.6 years. Men with no sexual experience state that the woman should be 18.3 years. It is interesting to note that the 1999 Family Health Survey found that the mean age for women 15-24 years to have their first sexual relationship is 16.5 years. 29 5.8 Ideal Age for a man and a woman to be responsible enough to have his/her own child Even if men desire to begin their sexual life at an early age, they are not in much of a hurry to have their first child. The ideal average age that the men stated being responsible enough to have children is 20.9 years, three and a half years after having their first sexual intercourse (Table 5.21). The ideal average age for men to have their first child did not vary considerably by selected characteristics. According to men, the ideal average age. for a woman to have her first child is 20.3 years, 7.2 months earlier than men (Table 5.22), and the woman is expected to have her first child two and a half years after her first sexual relationship. Therefore, men expect the women to start having sexual intercourse later but to have their first child at a younger age than themselves. All men were asked when they think is the time in life when a man is responsible enough to have his first child. The popular responses were when mature enough (35%) and when economically stable (28%) (Table 5.23). It is important to note that men also think that their financial condition is a very important reason for them to limit the number of children they can have (Table 5.6). In addition, being in a stable union is considered a more important reason to be responsible enough to have a child than after completing his education. Men were also asked when they think a woman is responsible enough to have her first child. In their opinion, it is important for a woman to be mature enough (38%) and also to be in a stable union (27%). Men believe that women who are economically stable are as equally prepared to have their first child as those who have completed their education. It is interesting to note that men think it is more important for a man, than it is for a woman, to be economically stable to be responsible enough to have his first child. This is especially significant, considering the expectation that society has of men, i.e., that of being the breadwinner of the home. At the same time, they believe that it is more important for a woman than it is for a man to be in a stable union for her to have her first child. 30 5.8 General Attitudes and Opinions Being knowledgeable of the attitudes and opinions of men is important to be able to understand their behaviour. This section researches the opinions and attitudes of men. Eighteen statements were read out to the men and they stated whether they think it is true or untrue. Table 5.24 provides the list of statements along with the percentage distribution of the men's opinion. More than 75% of men agreed that: ¾ Boys should not go to prostitutes to become men (86%) ¾ It is not okay for married men to have extramarital affairs (80%) ¾ You cannot get rid of STIs/HIV/AIDS by having sex with a virgin (79%) ¾ A girl cannot avoid getting pregnant by bathing in the sea after sexual intercourse (78%), or by drinking pepsi or coke after sexual intercourse (78%), or by having sex standing up (76%) ¾ Family Violence is a significant issue in our society (77%) ¾ Sexual Harassment of Women is a significant issue in our society (77%) and ¾ There is nothing wrong with a boy who has not had sex by the time he is 16 years (77%). When asked their opinion on school admittance for teenage parents, it was equally agreed by more than sixty percent of men that a school boy who gets a girl pregnant should not be expelled from school and that a school girl who gets pregnant should be allowed to return to school after she has had her baby. At the same time, more than fifty percent of men believe that it is important for a woman to be a virgin when she marries and that a girl can get pregnant only after she has her period for the first time. The men's lack of knowledge of the menstrual cycle is also expressed when 32% of them stated that the woman can more likely become pregnant right after her period and 30% stated not knowing when it is more likely for a woman to become pregnant during her menstrual cycle (Table not shown). Only 19% stated that the woman could more likely get pregnant in the middle of the cycle. A small but significant percentage of men stated that if a boy has an erection, he will get sick unless he discharges (14%), there is something wrong with a boy who has not had sex by the time he is 16 years (14%) and if a boy masturbates he will get sick (12%). 31 There were two statements that the majority of men did not know whether it was true or false. When asked if men who had a vasectomy do not perform well sexually, 60% of men did not know what to answer. Similarly, when asked if female sterilization is less complicated than male sterilization, 49% answered that they did not know. As seen in chapter 8, there is a need for educational programs for men on the topic of vasectomy. 5.9 Beliefs of how a girl can avoid getting pregnant Five statements were closely related to beliefs of how a girl can avoid getting pregnant: ¾ If a woman does not have sex, she will get sick (Table 5.25) ¾ A girl can get pregnant only after she has seen her period for the first time (Table 5.26) ¾ A girl can avoid getting pregnant by having sex standing up (Table 5.27). ¾ A girl can avoid getting pregnant by drinking Pepsi or Coke after sexual intercourse (Table 5.28) and ¾ A girl can avoid getting pregnant by bathing in the sea after sexual intercourse (Table 5.29). Men generally disagreed with these statements. The level of disagreement was greater among men in the urban areas and among men with higher level of education. The difference in opinion varied especially between men who have completed higher than primary school education and those who have not completed primary school. It is important to note that men in general are not knowledgeable of the women's reproductive system, specifically the menstrual cycle (Table 5.26). 5.10 Beliefs about boys and sexuality Men also gave their opinion on the following four statements that are related to the way they view their sexuality: ¾ There is something wrong with a boy who has not had sex by the time he is 16 (Table 5.30) ¾ If a boy masturbates, he will get sick (Table 5.31) ¾ If a boy has an erection, he will get sick unless he discharges (Table 5.32) and ¾ Boys should go to prostitutes to become men (Table 5.33) 32 They disagreed strongly with the above statements, especially the fourth statement. The disagreement increased with their level of education. Men in the urban areas tend to disagree more than those in the rural. It is interesting to note that fifteen percent of men in the rural areas believe that if a boy masturbates he will get sick and that if a boy has an erection, he will get sick unless he discharges. 5.11 Beliefs about the importance of female virginity More than half of men believe that it is important for a woman to be a virgin when she marries, while 9% of men believe that you can get rid of STIs/HIV/AIDS by having sex with a virgin. More than ten percent of men in the rural areas and men with less than primary school education believe that you can get rid of STIs/HIV/AIDS by having sex with a virgin (Table 5.35). Men not in union also expressed a high affirmation to this belief. In addition, more men in the rural areas (58%) and more men with incomplete primary school (61%) believe it is important for a woman to be a virgin when she marries (Table 5.34). Although men expect a woman to have her first sexual relationship when she is 17.7 years (Table 5.20), 55% of them think it is important for a woman to be a virgin when she marries. The mean age for a woman to marry in Belize was 25.6 years in 1998 (1). It therefore seems that men want the women to have sexual intercourse at an age earlier than the women's average age of marriage and be a virgin at the time of marriage. 5.12 Opinion about Pregnancy and School Admittance for boys and girls Men's acceptance of boys in school after they get a girl pregnant and girls in school after having their baby was prevalent especially among men in the urban areas and men with higher than primary school level completed (Tables 5.36 and 5.37). Men not in union and men living in the rural areas and with no level of schooling were most likely to disagree that these boys and girls should be accepted in school. 5.13 Opinion on Extramarital Affairs It seems that it is not acceptable to have extramarital affairs in Belize. Eighty percent of men regardless of place of residence, marital status and educational level said that it is not acceptable for married men to have extramarital affairs (Table 5.38). Perhaps these responses are socially conditioned responses. Nonetheless, ten percent of men in the urban 33 areas and men with complete primary level of education believe that it is acceptable for married men to have extramarital affairs. 5.14 Beliefs about Vasectomy Almost fifty percent of men do not know if female sterilization is less complicated than male sterilization. A lower percentage of men (22%) said that female sterilization is less complicated than those who said the contrary (29%) (Table 5.39). Moreover, when asked if men who have had a vasectomy do not perform well sexually, 61% of men stated not knowing (Table 5.40). However, a higher percentage of men said that men who had a vasectomy do perform well sexually (29%) than those who said the contrary (10%). Thus, from the men who stated that they knew, the majority had positive responses: female sterilization is not less complicated than male sterilization and men who have had a vasectomy do perform well sexually. Men not in union, men in the rural areas, and men with less than primary level of education are most likely to give either an erroneous response or state that they do not know. It is interesting to note that the difference between the responses of men in the urban and the rural areas is marginal. This indicates that there exists a group of men that can be taught to value vasectomy in a positive form. 5.15 The issue of family violence and sexual harassment The majority of men (77%) believe that family violence and sexual harassment are significant issues in our society. This belief was strongly expressed by men in the urban areas, by men who were visiting partners and by men who had higher than a primary school level of education (Table 5.41 and Table 5.42). Men who are married or men who have not completed primary school education were less likely to believe that neither family violence nor sexual harassment is a significant issue in our society. 5.16 Summary More than 90% of men agree that courses on human reproduction, contraception and STIs/HIV/AIDS should be taught in school (see chapter 7). Men are thus interested in reproductive health more than is usually believed. This chapter shows evidence that men indeed are in need of programmes on reproductive health for them to decrease their misconceptions and doubts and for them to develop a positive attitude on human reproduction, family planning and other areas in reproductive health. Only in this way can we have men increase their participation in decisions pertaining to reproductive health. Their 34 participation can most likely increase the impact of programs aimed at addressing social problems such as family violence, sexual harassment and the spread of STIs/HIV/AIDS. The information presented in this chapter is important because it gives ways to improve reproductive health in Belize. It shows where there are weak areas of knowledge and communication. This is useful to develop ideas and programmes to contribute to the goal of a healthy and happy Belizean population. 35 TABLE 5-1 BELIZE: Have Seen or Heard A Family Planning Message Over The Past Six Months, By Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Radio Television Local Newspaper Total No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No Yes No Yes No (Unweighted) Total 38.7 59.9 36.9 61.3 18.9 78.8 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 41.6 57.3 36.5 62.0 19.4 78.3 100.0 (814) Rural 36.0 62.4 37.3 60.7 18.5 79.3 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 40.7 57.5 39.0 58.9 19.8 77.5 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 43.9 56.1 42.5 55.3 20.3 79.7 100.0 (115) Not in Union 35.1 63.7 33.1 65.5 17.6 80.2 100.0 (502) Education Level None 9.8 87.8 7.1 90.5 2.4 95.1 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 31.5 66.6 29.7 68.3 11.8 85.3 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 36.7 61.9 34.4 64.0 16.3 81.4 100.0 (572) Secondary 43.0 55.9 42.5 55.5 22.8 75.2 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 59.4 40.1 55.7 43.5 38.8 60.3 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-2 BELIZE: Have Heard a Family Planning Message From The Belize Family Life Association, Men Aged 15-64 Who have Heard Family Planning Messages Over the Past 6 Months 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total (Unweighted) Total 55.5 23.5 21.0 100.0 (818) Residence Urban 60.8 15.7 23.5 100.0 (444) Rural 49.9 31.8 18.3 100.0 (374) Marital Status 58.5 21.7 19.8 100.0 (513) Married/In Union Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 58.2 24.5 17.3 100.0 (70) Not in Union 50.6 25.7 23.7 100.0 (233) Education Level None ** ** ** 100.0 (13) Incomplete Primary 46.1 33.4 20.5 100.0 (149) Complete Primary 50.3 25.8 23.9 100.0 (278) Secondary 64.3 16.8 19.0 100.0 (245) Post Secondary 62.5 19.4 18.3 100.0 (133) * Excludes 6 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 4 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-3 BELIZE: Opinion on the Ideal Number of Children a Man Should Have, by Selected Characteristics Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) The Ideal Number of Children A Man Should Have Fate, Up No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 6+ To God Unknown Total (Unweighted) Total 0.5 17.7 20.3 21.3 11.4 11.2 9.5 8.0 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 0.4 22.3 21.7 23.0 11.7 8.0 7.8 5.0 100.0 (814) Rural 0.7 13.2 18.9 19.7 11.1 14.3 11.2 11.0 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 0.6 13.4 20.0 23.5 11.9 13.9 11.0 5.6 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 0.0 24.4 24.5 13.8 16.6 7.8 7.6 5.4 100.0 (115) Not in Union 0.6 21.5 19.6 20.3 9.7 8.6 8.1 11.6 100.0 (502) Education Level None 3.8 6.4 12.3 25.3 5.6 14.1 26.1 6.3 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 1.2 17.1 17.7 19.4 8.8 13.4 10.3 12.2 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 0.1 14.2 18.4 22.3 13.4 12.1 10.4 9.1 100.0 (572) Secondary 0.4 22.2 21.2 21.7 12.3 9.7 7.4 5.2 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 0.0 22.7 32.6 20.3 9.2 6.7 5.3 3.3 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-4 BELIZE: Mean Perception of Ideal Family Size and Mean Actual Number of Children, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Have Living Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Ideal No. of Living Difference Actual- No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Family Size Children Ideal (Unweighted) Total 3.9 4.3 0.4 (826) Residence Urban 3.6 4.2 0.5 (444) Rural 4.2 4.5 0.4 (382) Age 15-19 ** ** ** (5) 20-24 3.7 2.6 -1.1 (54) 25-29 3.7 3.0 -0.7 (136) 30-34 3.6 3.8 0.2 (140) 35-39 4.1 4.5 0.4 (146) 40-44 4.3 4.8 0.5 (117) 45-49 4.3 5.2 0.9 (78) 50-54 4.0 5.2 1.2 (59) 55-59 4.5 5.3 0.8 (44) 60-64 5.2 5.5 0.3 (47) Educational Level 0-7 4.0 4.8 0.8 (228) 8 4.2 4.6 0.4 (307) 9+ 3.6 3.6 0.0 (291) Ever Married Ever Married 4.1 4.4 0.3 (809) Never Married ** ** ** (17) Religion Roman Catholic 4.0 4.3 0.4 (445) Protestant 4.0 4.4 0.4 (243) None 3.4 4.0 0.5 (85) Other 3.7 4.7 1.0 (53) Ethnic Group Creole 3.8 4.0 0.2 (210) Mestizo 3.6 4.3 0.7 (444) Garifuna 4.2 4.6 0.4 (44) Maya/Ketchi 6.2 5.2 -1.0 (79) Other 3.7 4.3 0.6 (49) * For the purpose of calculating ideal family size, those who answered "Don't Know" or Gods Will" were omitted. * Excludes 1 case for whom religion is unknown. * Excludes 3 cases for whom Education Level is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 8 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-5 BELIZE: Mean Perception of Ideal Family Size, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Do Not Have Any Living Children 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Ideal No. of Cases Selected Characteristics Family Size (Unweighted) Total (3.6) (459) Residence Urban (3.5) (254) Rural (3.8) (205) Age 15-19 (3.5) (207) 20-24 (3.7) (113) 25-29 (3.8) (50) 30-34 (3.0) (34) 35-39 ** (20) 40-44 ** (11) 45-49 ** (9) 50-54 ** (7) 55-59 ** (6) 60-64 ** (2) Education Level 0-7 (3.6) (78) 8 (3.8) (140) 9+ (3.6) (241) Ever Married Ever Married (3.8) (155) Never Married (3.5) (304) Religion Roman Catholic (3.6) (238) Protestant (3.7) (145) None (3.2) (55) Other ** (21) Ethnic Group Creole (3.5) (159) Mestizo (3.5) (212) Garifuna (4.0) (29) Maya/Ketchi ** (24) Other (3.7) (35) * For the purpose of calculating ideal family size, those who answered Don't Know or "Gods Will" were omitted. * Excludes 2 cases for whom Education Level is unknown. * Excludes 3 cases for whom Marital Status is unknown. * Excludes 3 cases for whom Religion is unknown. * Excludes 3 cases for whom Ethnic group is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 5-6 BELIZE: Opinion on the Main Reason A Man Might Wish to Limit The Number of Children He Has: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Reason Total Urban Rural Financial 79.7 86.2 72.8 Child Care Problem 5.5 2.5 8.6 Work Related 3.8 3.3 4.3 Health of Mother 2.9 2.9 2.9 Schooling 1.8 1.1 2.5 Health of Child 0.1 0.1 0.0 Other 1.4 0.8 2.1 Unknown 4.9 3.0 6.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (1594) (825) (769) TABLE 5-7 BELIZE: Opinion on Who Should Decide on The Number of Children the Couple Want to Have, by Residence Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Residence Person/Persons Who Should Decide Total Urban Rural Both Partners Husband/Partner Wife/Partner Fate, up to God Nurse/Doctor/Midwife Other Total 87.2 5.7 3.6 2.5 0.9 0.0 100.0 87.5 5.5 4.5 1.6 0.9 0.0 100.0 87.0 6.0 2.7 3.4 0.9 0.1 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1551) (811) (740) * Excludes 43 cases for whom person/persons who should decide is unknown. TABLE 5-8 BELIZE: Opinion on Who Should Decide on The Number of Children the Couple Wants to Have, by Union Status Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Union Status Person/Persons Who Should Decide Total Married/In Union Sep./Div./ Widowed Visiting Partner Not in Union Both Partners Husband/Partner Wife/Partner Fate, up to God Nurse/Doctor/Midwife Other Total 87.3 5.8 3.6 2.5 0.9 0.0 100.0 88.7 4.3 2.9 3.5 0.6 0.0 100.0 ** ** ** ** ** ** 100.0 90.9 4.5 2.3 0.9 1.4 0.0 100.0 84.6 7.9 4.8 1.5 1.1 0.1 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1543) (950) (2) (113) (478) * Excludes 43 cases for whom person/persons who should decide is unknown. * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-9 BELIZE: Opinion on Who Should Decide on The Number of Children the Couple Wants to Have, by Education Level Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Person/Persons Who Should Decide Total Incomplete Primary Complete Primary Secondary Post Secondary Both Partners Husband/Partner Wife/Partner Fate, up to God Nurse/Doctor/Midwife Other Total 87.2 5.7 3.6 2.5 0.9 0.0 100.0 77.0 9.5 1.3 8.3 4.0 0.0 100.0 79.1 10.8 5.3 3.4 4.0 0.0 100.0 87.4 5.6 4.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 91.7 3.6 2.9 1.2 0.5 0.0 100.0 94.5 0.3 1.2 0.9 2.6 0.4 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1546) (60) (335) (553) (423) (175) * Excludes 43 cases for whom person/persons who should decide is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. TABLE 5-10 BELIZE: Opinion on the Appropriate Time Spacing Between Two Children, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Interval Less than 2 Two Years or No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Years More Unknown Total (Unweighted) Total 15.4 71.2 13.3 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 15.4 73.1 11.5 100.0 (814) Rural 15.4 69.4 15.1 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 16.9 75.5 7.6 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed 0.0 ** 0.0 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 22.9 69.5 7.6 100.0 (115) Not in Union 12.1 66.3 21.6 100.0 (502) Education Level None 25.8 66.4 7.8 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 19.2 66.0 14.9 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 14.6 71.5 13.9 100.0 (572) Secondary 12.1 73.8 14.1 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 15.9 76.8 7.3 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-11 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether a Woman Always Has the Right to Decide About Her Pregnancy, Including Whether or Not to Have An Abortion, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) A Woman Always Has The Right To Decide About Her Pregnancy, including Whether or Not to Have An Abortion No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total (Unweighted) Total 45.9 47.2 7.0 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 56.7 39.1 4.1 100.0 (814) Rural 35.3 55.0 9.7 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 43.6 51.9 4.5 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** 0.0 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 53.2 43.7 3.1 100.0 (115) Not in Union 47.1 42.1 10.8 100.0 (502) Education Level None 31.4 57.6 11.1 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 44.2 44.9 10.9 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 42.4 49.8 7.8 100.0 (572) Secondary 52.3 43.8 3.9 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 48.4 49.6 2.0 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is Unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-12 BELIZE: Opinion on Circumstances That are Acceptable to have an Abortion: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Circumstances Stated Abortion Total (Unweighted) Acceptable Not Acceptable For Health Reasons of the Mother 55.3 44.7 100.0 (1594) For Health Reasons of the Child 42.5 57.5 100.0 (1594) Pregnancy Resulting From Rape 35.6 64.4 100.0 (1594) For Economic Reasons 21.5 78.5 100.0 (1594) If Both Parents Do Not Want Child 19.1 80.9 100.0 (1594) If Mother Does Not Want Child 12.4 87.6 100.0 (1594) If Father Does Not Want Child 9.3 90.7 100.0 (1594) Woman is Not Married 8.0 92.0 100.0 (1594) TABLE 5-13 BELIZE: Opinion on Who Should Decide if a Couple Uses Methods of Family Planning, by Residence: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Residence Person/Persons Who Should Decide Total Urban Rural Both Partners 85.8 87.6 83.9 Wife/Partner 6.1 6.0 6.3 Husband/Partner 5.9 5.1 6.7 Nurse/Doctor/Midwife 1.5 0.9 2.2 Fate, up to God 0.4 0.4 0.5 Mother-in-law 0.1 0.0 0.2 Religious Leader 0.0 0.0 0.1 Other 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1538) (810) (728) * Excludes 56 cases for whom person/persons who should decide is unknown. TABLE 5-14 BELIZE: Opinion on Who Should Decide if a Couple Uses Methods of Family Planning, by Union Status: Men Aged 15-64 1991 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Union Status Person/Persons Who Should Decide Total Married/In Union Sep./Div./ Widowed Visiting Partner Not in Union Both Partners Wife/Partner Husband/Partner Nurse/Doctor/Midwife Fate, up to God Mother-in-law Religious Leader Other Total 85.9 6.1 5.8 1.5 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 87.6 5.8 4.1 1.5 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 100.0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 100.0 89.4 3.6 3.7 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 82.9 7.0 8.4 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1530) (942) (2) (113) (473) * Excludes 56 cases for whom person/persons who should decide is unknown. * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-15 BELIZE: Opinion on Who Should Decide if a Couple Uses Methods of Family Planning, by Education Level: Men Aged 15-64 1991 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Education Level Person/Persons Who Should Decide Total None Incomplete Primary Complete Primary Secondary Post Secondary Both Partners Wife/Partner Husband/Partner Nurse/Doctor/Midwife Fate, up to God Mother-in-law Religious Leader Other Total 85.8 6.1 5.9 1.5 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 76.6 13.5 6.8 3.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 77.4 7.9 12.6 1.1 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.1 100.0 87.2 5.6 5.3 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 87.6 6.3 3.4 1.6 0.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.6 1.6 0.6 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1533) (58) (329) (547) (423) (176) * Excludes 56 cases for whom person/persons who should decide is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. TABLE 5-16 BELIZE: Opinion of Who Should Decide on What Type of Contraceptive a Couple Uses, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1991 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Who Should Decide on What Type of Contraceptive A Couple Should Use Nurse/ Both Husband/ Wife/ Doctor/ No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Partners Partner Partner Mid-wife Other Unknown Total (Unweighted) Total 75.2 8.3 5.2 6.8 100.0 3.7 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 78.2 7.2 4.3 7.6 100.0 2.0 100.0 (814) Rural 72.3 9.3 6.1 6.0 100.0 5.4 100.0 (767) Educational Level None 59.5 12.7 8.5 8.3 0.0 11.0 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 66.9 9.9 8.3 6.4 0.7 7.8 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 75.1 8.0 6.5 6.6 0.0 3.5 100.0 (572) Secondary 80.1 9.0 1.9 7.0 0.2 0.8 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 85.8 2.3 1.5 7.5 0.8 1.1 100.0 (176) * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. TABLE 5-17 BELIZE: Opinion of the Ideal Age a Man Should be Before He Has Sexual Intercourse, by Residence: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Residence Ideal Age Total Urban Rural <12 0.2 0.2 0.2 12 1.6 1.3 1.9 13 1.5 2.4 0.6 14 3.5 3.5 3.6 15 8.7 7.7 9.7 16 11.4 12.4 10.3 17 7.6 7.4 7.8 18 40.0 38.5 41.5 19 3.2 4.3 2.2 20-24 11.7 14.0 9.4 25 + 0.6 0.4 0.8 Unknown 10.0 8.0 12.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (1594) (825) (769) TABLE 5-18 BELIZE: Mean Ideal Age of a Man at First Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Mean Age (Unweighted) Total 17.4 (1426) Residence Urban 17.5 (748) Rural 17.3 (678) Marital Status Married/In Union 17.4 (886) Sep./Div./Widowed ** (1) Visiting Partner 17.1 (106) Not in Union 17.6 (433) Education Level None 17.3 (48) Incomplete Primary 17.4 (308) Complete Primary 17.2 (513) Secondary 17.7 (394) Post Secondary 17.7 (163) Sexual Experience Have 17.2 (1136) Do Not Have 18.4 (184) Unknown 17.1 (106) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-19 BELIZE: Opinion of the Ideal Age a Woman Should be Before She Has Sexual Intercourse, by Residence: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Residence Ideal Age Total Urban Rural 12 0.4 0.5 0.3 13 0.6 0.1 1.1 14 1.9 2.0 1.9 15 4.8 3.1 6.5 16 13.9 14.6 13.1 17 5.8 5.3 6.2 18 47.2 47.3 47.0 19 2.7 3.0 2.5 20-24 11.2 14.1 8.4 25 + 0.5 0.9 0.2 Unknown 11.0 9.0 12.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (1594) (825) (769) TABLE 5-20 BELIZE: Mean Ideal Age of a Woman at First Sexual Intercourse, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Mean Age (Unweighted) Total 17.7 (1413) Residence Urban 17.9 (742) Rural 17.5 (671) Marital Status Married/In Union 17.6 (867) Sep./Div./Widowed ** (1) Visiting Partner 17.6 (112) Not in Union 17.8 (433) Educational Level None 17.6 (47) Incomplete Primary 17.6 (304) Complete Primary 17.5 (505) Secondary 17.9 (393) Post Secondary 17.9 (164) Sexual Experience Have 17.6 (1127) Do Not Have 18.3 (185) Unknown 17.5 (101) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-21 BELIZE: Mean Ideal Age When a Man is Responsible Enough To Have His First Child: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Selected Characteristics Mean Age No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total Residence Urban Rural Marital Status Married/In Union Sep./Div./Widowed Visiting Partner Not in Union Educational Level None Incomplete Primary Complete Primary Secondary Post Secondary 20.9 20.8 21.0 20.7 ** 21.5 21.1 20.6 20.8 20.6 21.2 21.7 (1449) (759) (690) (892) (2) (109) (446) (51) (314) (528) (392) (164) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-22 BELIZE: Mean Ideal Age When A Woman is Responsible Enough To Have Her First Child: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Mean Age (Unweighted) Total 20.3 (1438) Residence Urban 20.4 (761) Rural 20.2 (677) Marital Status Married/In Union 20.0 (883) Sep./Div./Widowed ** (2) Visiting Parmer 20.7 (111) Not in Union 20.6 (442) Educational Level None 19.9 (51) Incomplete Primary 19.8 (306) Complete Primary 20.1 (517) Secondary 20.7 (400) Post Secondary 20.6 (164) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-23 BELIZE: Opinion on the Time in Life When a Man and a Woman is Responsible Enough to Have His/Her First Child. Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Time in Life Man is Responsible Enough to Have His Own Child Woman is Responsible Enough to Have Her Own Child When Mature Enough When Working When in A Stable Union After Completing Education One or Two Years After Entering Into a Stable Union Other Unknown Total 34.8 28.4 18.9 9.3 2.5 1.5 4.5 100.0 38.0 11.9 26.9 11.9 4.2 1.5 5.6 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (1594) (1594) TABLE 5-24 BELIZE: Opinion on Various Themes: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Themes True Untrue Unknown Total No. of Cases (Unweighted) Family Violence is a Significant Issue in Our Society 77.0 13.0 10.1 100.0 (1594) Sexual Harassment of Women is a Significant Issue in Our Society 76.6 11.7 11.7 100.0 (1594) A School Girl Who Gets Pregnant Should Be Allowed to Return to School After She Has Had The Baby 64.2 26.7 9.1 100.0 (1594) It is Important For A Woman To Be a Virgin When She Marries 55.4 36.2 8.5 100.0 (1594) A Girl Can Get Pregnant Only After She Has Seen Her Period for The First Time 52.1 36.6 11.2 100.0 (1594) A School Boy Who Gets a Girl Pregnant Should Be Expelled From School 26.3 64.9 8.8 100.0 (1594) Female Sterilization is Less Complicated Than Male Sterilization 22.0 28.9 49.0 100.0 (1594) If a Woman Doesn't Have Sex, She Will Get Sick 21.1 68.4 10.5 100.0 (1594) If A Boy Has An Erection, He Will Get Sick Unless He Discharges 14.0 73.7 12.3 100.0 (1594) There is Something Wrong With A Boy Who Has Not Had Sex By The Time He Is 16 13.6 76.6 9.8 100.0 (1594) If A Boy Masturbates, He Will Get Sick 12.2 74.1 13.7 100.0 (1594) Men Who Have Had A Vasectomy Do Not Perform Well Sexually 10.0 29.6 60.3 100.0 (1594) A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant By Having Sex Standing Up 9.5 76.1 14.5 100.0 (1594) It is Okay for Married Men to Have Extra-Marital Affairs 9.4 80.3 10.2 100.0 (1594) You Can Get Rid of STIs/HIV/AIDS By Having Sex With A Virgin 8.8 78.9 12.3 100.0 (1594) Boys Should Go To Prostitutes to Become Men 5.0 85.7 9.3 100.0 (1594) A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant By Bathing In The Sea After Sexual Intercourse 4.8 77.8 17.4 100.0 (1594) A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant By Drinking Pepsi or Coke After Sexual Intercourse 3.9 77.7 18.4 100.0 (1594) TABLE 5-25 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether a 'Woman Will Get Sick if She Does Not Have Sex,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) If a Woman Does Not Have Sex, She Will Get Sick Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 21.2 68.3 10.5 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 17.2 72.9 10.0 100.0 (814) Rural 25.2 63.8 11.0 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 24.8 67.8 7.3 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 14.7 82.2 3.1 100.0 (115) Not in Union 18.2 65.7 16.0 100.0 (502) Education Level None 26.2 57.7 16.2 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 30.8 54.0 15.1 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 24.7 63.0 12.3 100.0 (572) Secondary 12.6 80.7 6.7 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 9.3 88.4 2.3 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-26 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A Girl Can Get Pregnant Only After She Has Seen Her Period for The First Time', by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) A Girl Can Get Pregnant Only After She Selected Characteristics Has Seen Her Period for The First Time Total Yes No Unknown No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 52.2 36.5 11.3 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 47.7 41.5 10.8 100.0 (814) Rural 56.6 31.7 11.7 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 58.6 34.2 7.2 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 41.0 52.0 7.0 100.0 (115) Not in Union 46.7 36.1 17.2 100.0 (502) Education Level None 55.3 21.3 23.4 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 59.9 27.6 12.5 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 53.0 34.1 12.9 100.0 (572) Secondary 47.6 42.5 9.9 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 43.8 53.8 2.4 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-27 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant by Having Sex Standing Up,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant by Having Sex Standing Up Total Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 9.4 76.0 14.6 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 7.2 78.8 14.0 100.0 (814) Rural 11.6 73.3 15.1 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 11.3 75.7 13.0 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 6.1 86.1 7.7 100.0 (115) Not in Union 7.9 74.1 18.0 100.0 (502) Educational Level None 10.7 58.9 30.4 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 14.3 68.3 17.4 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 8.3 74.7 17.1 100.0 (572) Secondary 7.1 82 6 10.4 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 8.6 85.2 6.1 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-28 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant Drinking Pepsi or Coke After Sexual Intercourse,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant by Drinking Pepsi or Coke After Sexual Intercourse Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 3.9 77.5 18.5 100.0 (1581) Residence Urbana 4.4 80.8 14.8 100.0 (814) Rural 3.5 74.4 22.1 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 4.2 79.1 16.8 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 7.2 83.9 8.8 100.0 (115) Not in Union 2.9 74.3 22.8 100.0 (502) Educational Level None 2.8 63.6 33.7 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 6.1 68.0 25.9 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 4.8 75.9 19.3 100.0 (572) Secondary 2.4 83.3 14.3 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 0.4 93.5 6.1 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-29 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant by Bathing in the Sea After Sexual Intercourse,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) A Girl Can Avoid Getting Pregnant by Bathing in The Sea After Sexual Intercourse Total Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 4.8 77.7 17.5 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 5.1 79.3 15.7 100.0 (814) Rural 4.5 76.3 19.2 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 4.9 80.2 14.8 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 4.8 85.5 9.7 100.0 (115) Not in Union 4.6 73.0 22.4 100.0 (502) Education Level None 5.1 65.5 29.4 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 7.7 69.6 22.8 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 4.9 74.5 20.6 100.0 (572) Secondary 3.6 84.4 11.9 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 0.8 93.1 6.1 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-30 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'There is Something Wrong With a Boy Who Has Not Had Sex by The Time He is 16 Years,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) There is Something Wrong With a Boy Who Has Had Sex by The Time He is 16 Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 13.3 76.8 9.9 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 12.5 79.2 8.2 100.0 (814) Rural 14.1 74.5 11.5 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 14.1 77.1 8.8 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 7.7 87.3 5.1 100.0 (115) Not in Union 13.6 74.2 12.2 100.0 (502) Education Level None 19.7 60.9 19.4 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 17.7 67.8 14.5 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 16.0 72.4 11.6 100.0 (572) Secondary 7.7 86.6 5.7 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 7.3 90.8 1.9 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-31 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A Boy Will Get Sick if He Masturbates,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) If a Boy Masturbates, He Will Get Sick Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 12.2 73.9 13.8 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 9.3 79.0 11.6 100.0 (814) Rural 15.1 69.0 15.9 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 15.2 72.9 11.9 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 4.4 87.0 8.6 100.0 (115) Not in Union 10.2 72.4 17.3 100.0 (502) Education Level None 22.2 56.5 21.3 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 19.2 64.4 16.4 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 13.0 69.7 17.4 100.0 (572) Secondary 8.1 81.6 10.3 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 2.0 95.2 2.9 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-32 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A Boy Gets Sick if He Does Not Discharge When He Gets an Erection,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) If a Boy Has An Erection He Will Get Sick Unless He Discharges Total Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 13.8 73.8 12.4 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 12.7 76.6 10.7 100.0 (814) Rural 14.9 71.2 13.9 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 15.6 73.2 11.2 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 12.5 81.1 6.4 100.0 (115) Not in Union 11.8 73.0 15.1 100.0 (502) Educational Level None 26.2 51.2 22.5 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 20.2 62.5 17.2 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 14.1 70.8 15.1 100.0 (572) Secondary 10.0 81.7 8.2 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 4.7 95.3 0.0 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-33 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'Boys Should go to Prostitute to become Men,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Boys Should go to Prostitutes to Become Men Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 5.0 85.6 9.4 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 3.1 91.5 5.4 100.0 (814) Rural 6.9 79.9 13.2 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 5.3 85.5 9.2 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 2.4 93.2 4.4 100.0 (115) Not in Union 5.2 84.1 10.7 100.0 (502) Educational Level None 19.1 62.4 18.5 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 9.8 76.2 14.0 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 3.9 84.8 11.2 100.0 (572) Secondary 2.8 91.6 5.6 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 0.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-34 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'It Is Important for a Woman to be a Virgin When She Marries,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) It is Important For A Woman to be A Virgin When She Marries Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 55.4 36.1 8.5 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 52.3 41.3 6.4 100.0 (814) Rural 58.4 31.0 10.6 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 56.8 36.3 6.9 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 48.7 45.9 5.3 100.0 (115) Not in Union 55.0 33.7 11.3 100.0 (502) Educational Level None 64.5 16.1 19.4 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 61.2 27.5 11.4 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 54.2 36.1 9.8 100.0 (572) Secondary 51.6 42.2 6.2 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 54.3 44.8 0.8 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-35 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A Man Can Get Rid of STIs/HIV/AIDS by Having Sex With a Virgin,' by Selected Characteristic Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) You Can Get Rid of STIs/HIV/AIDS by Having Sex With A Virgin Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 8.8 78.8 12.4 100.0 (1581) Residence 5.8 85.1 9.2 100.0 (814) Urban Rural 11.8 72.7 15.5 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 8.4 80.7 10.9 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 4.9 91.1 4.0 100.0 (115) Not in Union 10.0 73.9 16.0 100.0 (502) Education Level 15.0 52.5 32.6 100.0 (62) None Incomplete Primary 11.2 69.9 18.9 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 8.8 76.5 14.7 100.0 (572) Secondary 6.5 87.5 6.1 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 7.9 91.2 0.8 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-36 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A Girl Who Gets Pregnant Should be Allowed to Return to School After She Has The Baby,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) A School Girl Who Gets Pregnant Should Be Allowed to Return to School After She Has Had The Baby Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 64.0 26.8 9.2 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 71.6 22.0 6.4 100.0 (814) Rural 56.6 31.5 11.9 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 63.6 27.1 9.3 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 82.7 11.5 5.8 100.0 (115) Not in Union 60.3 29.8 9.8 100.0 (502) Educational Level None 33.2 40.1 26.7 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 47.1 37.9 15.0 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 63.4 28.0 8.6 100.0 (572) Secondary 73.8 20.7 5.5 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 87.0 10.2 2.8 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-37 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'A School Boy Who Gets a Girl Pregnant Should Be Expelled From School,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) A School Boy Who Gets A Girl Pregnant Should Be Expelled From School Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 26.4 64.8 8.8 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 16.2 76.6 7.1 100.0 (814) Rural 36.2 53.4 10.4 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 26.6 65.1 8.4 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 15.8 78.5 5.8 100.0 (115) Not in Union 28.5 61.5 9.9 100.0 (502) Education Level None 40.5 33.8 25.7 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 37.2 51.5 11.3 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 28.3 61.4 10.3 100.0 (572) Secondary 20.6 73.8 5.6 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 6.6 91.7 1.7 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-38 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'It Is Okay for Married Men to Have Extramarital Affairs,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) It is Okay for Married Men to Have Extramarital Affairs Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 9.5 80.2 10.3 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 10.6 82.1 7.3 100.0 (814) Rural 8.4 78.4 13.1 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 9.7 81.8 8.5 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 10.4 79.5 10.0 100.0 (115) Not in Union 9.1 78.5 12.4 100.0 (502) Education Level None 5.0 70.0 25.1 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 9.6 78.6 11.8 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 10.6 78.1 11.3 100.0 (572) Secondary 9.7 82.7 7.6 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 6.4 87.6 6.0 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-39 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'Female Sterilization is less Complicated Than Male Sterilization,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Female Sterilization is Less Complicated Than Male Sterilization Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 22.1 28.6 49.3 100.0 (1581) Residence 20.5 29.2 50.2 100.0 (814) Urban Rural 23.7 27.9 48.4 100.0 (767) Marital Status 24.9 29.6 45.4 100.0 (962) Married/In Union Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 30.2 24.6 45.3 100.0 (115) Not in Union 17.0 27.9 55.0 100.0 (502) Education Level None 15.8 13.8 70.4 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 22.4 26.7 51.0 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 21.1 27.9 51.0 100.0 (572) Secondary 23.5 27.5 49.0 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 23.3 42.4 34.3 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-40 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'Men Who Have Vasectomy Do Not Perform Well Sexually,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Men Who Have Had a Vasectomy Do Not Perform Well Sexually Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 10.1 29.3 60.6 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 11.0 28.9 60.1 100.0 (814) Rural 9.3 29.6 61.1 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 12.2 29.0 58.8 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 7.0 33.5 59.5 100.0 (115) Not in Union 8.2 28.6 63.2 100.0 (502) Education Level None 11.7 14.3 74.1 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 13.0 24.5 62.5 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 11.0 27.5 61.5 100.0 (572) Secondary 8.7 30.6 60.7 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 4.0 47.2 48.8 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-41 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether' Family Violence is a Significant Issue In Our Society,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Family Violence is A Significant Issue In Our Society Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 76.9 12.9 10.2 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 80.8 12.1 7.0 100.0 (814) Rural 73.1 13.7 13.2 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 77.4 14.2 8.4 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 89.6 6.7 3.7 100.0 (115) Not in Union 73.6 12.8 13.7 100.0 (502) Educational Level None 60.7 18.4 20.9 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 66.1 17.8 16.1 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 77.1 12.8 10.1 100.0 (572) Secondary 82.9 9.7 7.4 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 89.1 9.6 1.4 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 5-42 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether 'Sexual Harassment of Women Is a Significant Issue in Our Society,' by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Sexual Harassment of Women is A Significant Issue in Our Society Selected Characteristics Yes No Unknown Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) Total 76.5 11.7 11.8 100.0 (1581) Residence Urban 78.9 11.9 9.2 100.0 (814) Rural 74.3 11.5 14.2 100.0 (767) Marital Status Married/In Union 77.7 12.7 9.6 100.0 (962) Sep./Div./Widowed ** ** ** 100.0 (2) Visiting Partner 90.9 6.9 2.2 100.0 (115) Not in Union 72.0 11.6 16.4 100.0 (502) Education Level None 44.7 25.4 29.8 100.0 (62) Incomplete Primary 66.2 14.1 19.7 100.0 (347) Complete Primary 77.7 12.3 10.0 100.0 (572) Secondary 81.8 9.9 8.3 100.0 (424) Post Secondary 91.2 4.9 3.9 100.0 (176) * Excludes 8 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases CHAPTER 6 KNOWLEDGE, USE AND SOURCE OF CONTRACEPTION 6.1 Introduction This chapter examines knowledge, use and source of contraception among males. It explores reasons for use and non-use at present, as well as a desire to use in the future. The chapter includes topics concerning contraceptive methods, knowledge of the fertile period, current contraceptive use, and source of contraceptives. 6.2 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods Table 6.1 shows that knowledge of all the major contraceptive methods increases with the number of years of education of the men. Knowledge of all contraceptive methods, including Condoms, is less for men than for women1 . For the men in the survey, the most known method is Oral contraceptives (86%) followed by Condoms (74%), and female sterilization (65%). Only 38% report that they know about the Rhythm method and 8% about the Billings method. For those with no education, the most known method of contraception (59%) is Oral contraceptives followed by female sterilization. In view of the fact that the proper use of Orals necessitates a high level of education, the former result is surprising. However, 'common sense' more so that formal education may in fact be the major requirement here. According to Table 6.2, the most known contraceptive, Orals, is known most by the Garifuna men followed by Creole men. The Maya/Ketchi ethnic group report the least knowledge of Orals. The Rhythm and the Billings methods are known the most by Garifuna men and the least by Maya/Ketchi and Creole men respectively. Female Sterilization, the second most known method, is known most again by the Garifuna ethnic group and least by the Maya/Ketchi ethnic group. Table 6.3 indicates that knowledge of contraceptive methods is generally higher among English-speaking and Bilingual men than among Spanish-speaking men. (e.g. Orals: 90%, English-speaking; Bilingual, 89%; and, Spanish-speaking, 82%). For Condoms, the 1 See the Family Health Survey report (1999) on females. 36 pattern is quite similar: 81%, Bilingual, 80%, English-speaking; and, 70%, Spanish-speaking. The pattern is again repeated for the method of female sterilization as follows: 73%, English- speaking; 70%, Bilingual; and, 54%, Spanish-speaking. For Billings, the least known method, knowledge is as follows: 8%, English-speaking; 11%, Bilingual; and 6%, Spanish- speaking. 6.3 Knowledge of the Fertile Period Men need to know their partners' fertile period whenever they make use of any of these methods (Rhythm, Billings, or Withdrawal). They also need to know specifically when, during the woman's menstrual cycle, she is most likely to conceive. Table 6.4 shows that knowledge of the fertile period is higher among men aged 55-59 than among all the survey respondents put together (i.e. 27% vs. 20% respectively). The rate is 20% among all urban respondents compared to 35% among urban ever users. For rural survey respondents, the rate 19% among all rural respondents compared with 33% of rural ever users. The table further shows that teenage men and those aged 20-24 years are the least likely to correctly know when during the menstrual cycle a woman is most likely to get pregnant. Among all ever married respondents, the rate of knowledge is 22%, compared to 34% of ever married men who have ever used the methods. Knowledge of these methods increases with education from 14% for all respondents with 0-7 years of education to 29% for all respondents with 9 or more years of education. As one would expect, the rates are higher for ever users, rising from 19% for those with 0-7 years of education to 45% for those with over 9 years of education. Among Belize's various ethnic groups, knowledge of these methods is highest among Garifuna men (28%), and lowest for Maya/Kekchi men (9%). Higher rates are recorded for ever users, following the same pattern: 52% for Creole men; 28% for Mestizos. There are fewer than 25 cases recorded on this table for other ethnic groups. Among those not currently using a method, knowledge is 16%, but is 30% among those who have ever used a method. 6.4 Current Contraceptive Use Tables 6.5 and 6.show that 39% of all men, and 49% of all married men, are using a contraceptive method. Female sterilization is the method preferred by married men (14%), 37 followed by Orals (13%), and Condoms (10%). Seventy-six percent of visiting partners among all men, are currently using contraceptives, and 58% are using Condoms. Twenty- four percent of visiting partners are not currently using contraceptives. Seventeen percent of men not in union use a method: 16% are using Condoms. Eighty-three percent of men not in a union are not using a method. The highest percent of married male contraceptive users (59%) fall in the 25-29 age group (Table 6.6), followed by 57% in the 30-34 age group, and 56% in the 40-44 age group. Married males above 40-49 tend to prefer female sterilization, whereas those 20-29 prefer Orals. Condom use is highest among the 20-24 year olds (22%). For the 25-29 age group, Condom use is at 14%, and 11% for the 30-34 year age group. Contraceptive use as, indicated in Table 6.7, increases after one child, and is greatest after two children. After three children, female sterilization increases to 18%, and to 28% with four children. Thereafter it falls back to 19% with five children. Table 6.8 shows that contraceptive use increases with years of education. With 1-7 years of education, it is at 43%; 48% with 8 years, 54% with 9-12 years, and 65% with 13 or more years of education. Female sterilization and Orals are the most used methods (14% and 13%, respectively) Condom use is greatest among married men with more years of education from 2% with no education, to 14% with more than 13 years of education. Table 6.9 indicates that contraceptive use among married men increases with more amenities. Contraceptive use increases from 24% with 0-2 amenities to 49% with 0-7 and to 58% with 8-10 amenities. Female sterilization and use of Orals occur among partners of married men with more amenities. Female sterilization is at 20%, and Orals, at 14% among partners of men with 8- 10 amenities; Condoms are at 12% usage among men with 8-10 amenities. Contraceptive use does not appear to be affected by the working status of married men. As is shown in Table 6.10, 49% of working men, and the same percentage of non-working men, use contraceptives. In contrast, as the female family health survey for 1999 shows, 61% of married women currently using contraceptives are employed while 54% are not working. 38 Table 6.11 indicates that contraceptive use is greatest among married Creole men (54%), followed by Mestizo and Garifuna (49% each). Married Creole men prefer Orals (18%) followed by Condoms (17%), and female sterilization (12%). Mestizo men prefer Female Sterilization (17%) followed by Orals (13%), and Condom (8%). Garifuna men prefer Condoms (18%), injection (9%) and Orals (8%). Of those currently married men who are currently using contraceptives, table 6.12 shows that the highest percentage of users are of no professed religion (54%) followed by Protestants (51%) and Catholic (48%). Female sterilization is highest among partners of currently married Protestant men (15.4%), closely followed by Catholic men (15.0%). Among men and their partners professing no religion, Female Sterilization is 8%. Condom use is highest among currently married men with no religion (18%), followed by Catholic men at 10%. It is 7% for Protestant men. Fifty one percent of currently married men are currently not using contraceptive methods. Among the married men, currently married Catholic men are the least likely (51%) to be using a contraceptive method. Table 6.13 indicates that use of contraceptives is higher in urban (55%) than in rural (45%) areas, for all ages. The table also shows that use is generally higher for men at all education levels in urban areas. Further, use of contraceptives is positively associated with the possession of household amenities. The data here also show that use is more likely as the number of living children increases up to 2 living children. Thereafter, use of contraceptives decreases with the number of children alive. In general, this pattern for all the various characteristics is replicated in both the urban and rural areas. Finally, at the national level, there is no significant difference in use of contraceptives depending on the man's working status. However, the table shows clearly that for the urban men, use is more likely when they are working. Surprisingly, the opposite is true for the men residing in rural areas. 6.5 Reasons for Currently Using Contraceptives Of currently married men whose partner had a pregnancy in the last 5 years, 51% are using a contraceptive (Table 6.15). Overall, the most frequently used method is Female Sterilization (15%). Of the men in the survey, 38% use contraceptives in order to limit pregnancies and 49% want to space pregnancies (Table 6.16). An equal proportion (49%) of urban and rural men use contraceptives to space pregnancies. In terms of limiting pregnancies however, this 39 pattern is not the same, since more urban (40%) than rural (36%) men use contraceptives to limit pregnancies. The data in this table also show that spacing is more important than limiting pregnancies for younger age groups. Limiting pregnancies becomes more important as men age. For example, for the age group 25-29, 67% want to space their births, whereas 25% want to limit them. However, in the age group (40-44), the parallel percentages are 33% and 43%, respectively. For currently married men with 0 or 1 living child, spacing is obviously more important than limiting pregnancies. As the number of living children increases however, limiting pregnancies become much more important than spacing. In general also, the use of contraceptives for the spacing of pregnancies increases with the number of years of education of the man. However, use of contraceptives for the purpose of limiting pregnancies decreases as the number of years of education increases. Table 6.16 also shows that the most frequently used method of contraception among currently married men who are spacing pregnancies is injection (81%), and the least used method is Female Sterilization (7%). For those men who wish to limit pregnancies, the most frequently used method of contraception is Female Sterilization (74%) and the least popular method is the use of Injectables. Among the various ethnic groups of Belize, the data show that currently married Maya/Kekchi and Mestizo men are the most likely to use contraceptives to space pregnancies (50%). The Maya/Ketchi men are the least likely (27%) to use contraceptives for limiting pregnancies. 6.6 Characteristics at First Contraceptive Use Mean number of children for urban men at the time of first use of contraception is 0.6, whereas their mean age at this time is 19.0 years (Table 6.17). The corresponding figures for the rural men are 0.9 and 20.4 years. Men with more education tend to have fewer children at the time of first use of contraceptives. The data also show that the less education a man has, the later, the first use of contraceptives. For example, men with no education, tend to start using contraceptives at 25.9 years of age, whereas those with 13 or more years of education start at 18.1. The implication here is that early fathering of children will be higher among males with less education. Intensified Sexual and Reproductive Health education targeted at men with lower levels of education should reduce unplanned pregnancies. 40 Table 6.17 also shows that men with 0-2 amenities begin using contraception after fathering 1.9 children on average, while those with 8-10 amenities begin using contraception after fathering 0.4 children. Also, men with 0-2 amenities will begin using contraception at age 22, whereas men with 8-10 amenities will begin using contraception at age 19. In terms of ethnicity, the ethnic group (Creole) with the lowest mean number of children (0.4) will begin using contraception at the earliest age (18.6) compared with the other ethnic groups. The Maya/Kekchi have the most children (2.5) and are the oldest (24.7) at first use. For younger men (15-29), first use of contraception is greatest with no children, and generally decreases with more children (Table 6.21). For older men (30-44), first use of contraceptives tends to be less frequent with no children, and increases with more children. The pattern is less clear among older men. As indicated in Table 6.19, the most frequent source of contraception for currently married men who are currently using contraceptives is the pharmacy (53%), and the least frequent source is 'Outside of Belize' (3%). Approximately 15% of men obtain their contraceptive products from the BFLA, the second most popular source. This pattern is repeated in the urban and rural areas. Level of education is an important factor in the choice of source of contraception (Table 6.20). The pharmacy is used most by those with nine or more years of education (55%), decreasing to 53% for men with 0-7 years of education. BFLA is used most by the group with 8 years of education (16%), falling to 11% for men with nine or more years of education. Table 6.21 presents data on the source of contraception by ethnic group. It is clear from the table that with respect to the most popular source which is the pharmacy, Creoles (65%) tend to use this source more so than other ethnic groups. The Maya/Ketchi group uses the BFLA (36%) and the Government Facility (15%) for their contraceptives supplies more so than any other ethnic group. 6.7 Reasons for Non-Use of Contraceptives Of currently married men 15-64 years, 32% reported reasons for non-use related to pregnancy, fecundity, and sexual activity (Table 6.22). Of those in this group, 11% had partners who are 'Currently Pregnant', 7% were 'Not Sexually Active', and 11% desired 41 their partner to become pregnant. Almost 3% reported that they were infertile. The other 68% offer 'Other Reasons' for non-use of contraceptives ranging from 'Does Not Want' (23%), 'Advanced Age' (12%) and 'Fear of Side Effects' (7%). In this group also, 5% do not use contraceptives because of 'Health Reasons'. In general, this national pattern of non-use is repeated among the urban men. Among the rural men however, although the major proportions are similar, there are significant deviations from the national pattern in terms of the detailed reasons for non-use of contraceptives. Table 6.23 presents the percent distribution of reasons for not currently using contraceptives by the years of education of the currently married men aged 15-64. The data show that among the 32% who stated reasons for non-use related to pregnancy, fecundity and sexual activity, the higher the number of years of education of the man, the more likely that he would state a reason related to this category. For the other 68% who gave 'Other Reasons' however, the more educated men were less likely to state these reasons. 6.8 Reasons for Discontinued Use of Contraceptives Table 6.24 shows that the highest percentage (30%) of married men 15-64 years stopped using contraceptives because they desire pregnancy. Most of these (31%) had been using Condoms. Another 11% stopped using for health or medical reasons, and a further 11% stopped because they did not like or want to use contraceptives. Eight percent stopped because of fears of side effects, and among these, 14% had been using Orals. Of those discontinuing for health or medical reasons, 23% last used Orals. Less than 1% cited a lack of money as the reason for discontinuing the use of contraceptives. 6.9 Desire to Use Contraceptives in the Future A desire to use contraceptives in the future is stated by 21% of currently married men 15-64 years who are not currently using contraceptives (Table 6.25). Seventy six percent of these know where to obtain their preferred method. Twenty one percent of the urban men and an equal proportion of those in the rural areas desire to use contraceptives in the future. Of these, 90% of the urban dwellers as against 65% of those in the rural areas know where to obtain the method. The desire to use contraceptives in the future is greatest among those 25- 29 years (40%). The 30-34 age group are the second most interested (38%) in future use. The table also shows that the desire to use contraceptives in the future is highest among men 42 with 4 living children (31%). The desire generally declines for men with 6 or more living children (17%). The desire to use contraceptives in the future among men with 0-7 years of education is 20%, and is 26% among men with nine or more years of education. This desire is highest among Garifuna men (30%») but lowest among the Mestizo men. According to Table 6.26, the most frequent method identified by non-users who desire to use a method in the future is the Condoms (25%), followed by Orals (21%). Female Sterilization (16%) and the Injection (16%) are also popular methods for future use among non-users. Among urban male non-users, Orals (29%) followed by Condoms (25%) are the preferred methods for future use. The data show that for the rural men however, the preferred methods are Condoms (24%) followed by the Injection (21%). Among all men in the survey, the Pharmacy is cited as the preferred source for future access to contraceptives (37%). The Pharmacy is also the preferred future source among either urban (47%) or rural (27%) men. As the preferred source of contraceptives in the future, the BFLA is three times as popular among rural men than among their urban counterparts. 6.10 Summary Knowledge of all contraceptives generally increases with years of education. Orals are the most known method among men. Knowledge is also higher among English-speaking and bilingual men, than among Spanish-speaking men. Knowledge is also higher among urban than among rural males. Knowledge of the fertile period is highest among the 50-59 year age group for all respondents. Thirty-nine percent (39%) of all men, and 49% of all married men are using a contraceptive. Spacing pregnancies is more important for younger age than limiting. Limiting pregnancies becomes more important among men as they age. The pharmacy is the most frequent source of contraception. The highest percent of married men stop using contraceptives because they desire a pregnancy" (30%). The desire to use contraception increases with years of education and varies among ethnic groups. 43 TABLE 6-1 BELIZE: Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, by Method and Years of Education: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Years of Education Contraceptive Method Total None 1-7 8 9-12 13+ Orals 86.4 58.9 81.9 82.8 94.0 96.8 Female Sterilization 64.9 44.7 52.2 61.4 74.6 85.4 Injection 61.8 26.5 59.5 58.7 70.0 67.2 Condoms 73.8 30.4 71.5 75.5 86.0 85.3 IUD 38.7 24.3 24.7 33.5 46.2 73.0 Rhythm 37.6 22.8 24.2 29.6 47.4 73.6 Male Sterilization 45.4 19.4 31.3 38.4 57.8 75.7 Vaginal Tablets 20.6 9.4 10.7 14.0 25.0 58.2 Other Vaginal Methods** 20.1 8.5 5.8 13.2 27.7 60.0 Diaphragm 26.6 5.7 6.9 15.7 42.4 72.8 Withdrawal 36.4 19.0 17.8 29.6 47.7 76.1 Billings 8.3 2.4 1.7 4.1 12.6 28.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1589) (63) (348) (572) (429) (177) * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. ** Includes creams, jellies, and foam. TABLE 6-2 BELIZE: Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, by Method and Ethnic Group: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Ethnic Group Contraceptive Method Total Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketc Other Orals 86.2 91.6 84.5 95.7 72.6 89.5 Female Sterilization 64.6 73.1 60.2 76.7 53.3 73.4 Injection 61.6 62.8 61.0 80.6 57.8 54.8 Condoms 73.7 83.7 73.8 87.1 59.5 80.1 IUD 38.3 41.8 36.1 41.6 29.6 52.9 Rhythm 37.1 38.3 37.4 39.8 29.1 38.2 Male Sterilization 45.0 50.6 40.8 49.1 44.2 56.5 Vaginal Tablets 20.5 20.7 19.4 26.5 14.0 35.3 Other Vaginal Methods** 20.2 25.9 17.0 23.9 14.1 28.8 Diaphragm 26.4 31.9 22.9 31.6 18.2 41.3 Withdrawal 36.2 46.6 34.2 38.9 15.3 35.4 Billings 8.3 5.7 9.5 9.7 6.2 10.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1576) (429) (813) (83) (156) (95) * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. ** Includes creams, jellies, and foam. TABLE 6-3 BELIZE: Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, by Method and Language Spoken: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Language Spoken Contraceptive Method Total English Spanish English/ Spanish Other Orals Female Sterilization Injection Condoms IUD Rhythm Male Sterilization Vaginal Tablets Other Vaginal Methods** Diaphragm Withdrawal Billings Total 86.4 64.9 61.7 73.8 38.7 37.5 45.3 20.6 20.1 26.6 36.3 8.3 100.0 90.3 73.3 61.5 79.5 44.0 37.5 50.9 22.2 24.9 33.8 44.4 8.0 100.0 82.2 54.2 58.1 69.7 24.7 31.0 35.4 13.8 9.6 11.0 22.9 6.0 100.0 89.4 70.4 67.1 81.3 48.5 47.4 51.2 26.7 24.9 34.2 43.6 11.2 100.0 72.4 43.5 57.0 60.5 24.0 21.8 31.9 12.6 15.4 17.3 17.7 5.8 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (1594) (563) (390) (493) (148) ** Includes creams, jellies, and foam. TABLE 6-4 BELIZE: Ever Used Rhythm, Billing, or Withdrawal With Correct Knowledge of When During the Menstrual Cycle a Woman is Most Likely to Get Pregnant, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (percent Distribution) Ever Users of Rhythm, Selected Characteristics All Respondents* Billings or Withdrawal Total 19.6 (1563) 34.4 (123) Residence Urban 20.0 (806) 35.3 (73) Rural 19.2 (757) 32.7 (50) Age 15-19 16.8 (279) ** (3) 20-24 19.0 (200) ** (14) 25-29 25.1 (227) ** (17) 30-34 19.2 (203) ** (19) 35-39 19.2 (200) ** (23) 40-44 23.9 (150) ** (22) 45-49 12.8 (99) ** (7) 50-54 23.5 (85) ** (9) 55-59 27.1 (59) ** (8) 60-64 12.2 (61) ** (1) Marital Status Ever Married 22.4 (1148) 34.4 (116) Never Married 14.6 (415) ** (7) Education Level 0-7 13.6 (406) 19.1 (27) 8 14.3 (562) 27.1 (32) 9+ 28.7 (595) 44.6 (64) Ethnic Group Creole 16.8 (423) 51.7 (29) Mestizo 21.4 (807) 27.5 (64) Garifuna 27.7 (83) ** (7) Maya/Ketchi 9.4 (156) ** (17) Other 23.9 (94) ** (6) Contraceptive Use Currently Using 24.7 (643) 36.0 (89) Not Using 16.4 (920) 30.3 (34) * Excludes 6 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom education level is unknown. * Excludes 18 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 2 cases for whom contraceptive use is unknown ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 6-5 BELIZE: Current Contraceptives Use, by Method and Marital Status: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Marit Status Married/In Sep./ Div./ Visiting Current Use and Method Total Union Widowed Partner Not in Union Currently Using 38.6 49.3 0.0 75.9 17.2 Female Sterilization 7.3 14.1 ** 1.2 0.1 Orals 7.6 13.1 ** 7.5 0.8 injection 2.9 4.9 ** 3.7 0.1 Rythym/ Billings 2.2 3.5 ** 2.4 0.5 Condoms 16.6 10.1 ** 58.2 15.7 IUD 0.6 1.1 ** 0.0 0.0 Other 1.5 2.5 ** 2.9 0.0 Not Currently Using 61.4 50.7 ** 24.1 82.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (1582) (965) (2) (115) (500) * Excludes 5 cases for whom marital status is unknown. * Excludes 7 cases for whom current primary contraceptive method is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 6-6 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Age Group: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Age Current Use and Method Total 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 Currently Using 49.3 ** 49.7 511 56.5 512 55.8 50.4 35.2 31.9 12.6 Female Sterilization 14.1 ** 0.0 3.9 12.1 13.4 25.8 22.4 20.2 20.2 9.2 Orals 13.1 ** 17.5 27.6 15.2 16.6 12.7 3.7 1.0 6.7 0.0 injection 4.9 ** 7.0 8.5 8.8 2.7 3.5 7.1 1.9 0.0 0.0 Rythym/ Billings 3.5 ** 2.1 0.8 5.5 6.8 4.1 4.7 1.9 0.0 0.0 Condoms 10.1 ** 22.1 13.5 10.5 9.2 8.5 10.7' 4.3 2.5 1.4 IUD 1.1 ** 1.0 1.5 2.2 1.1 0.6 0.7 0.0 2.5 0.0 Other 2.5 ** 0.0 3.3 2.1 5.4 0.6 1.1 5.9 0.0 2.1 Not Currently Using Total 50.7 100.0 ** 100.0 50.3 100.0 40.9 100.0 43.5 100.0 44.8 100.0 44.2 100.0 49.8 100.0 64.8 100.0 68.1 100.0 87.4 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (965) (13) (75) (155) (170) (175) (125) (85) (70) (50) (47) * Excludes 5 cases for whom contraceptive use is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 6-7 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Number of Living Children: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Living Children Current Use and Method Total 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Currently Using 49.3 35.5 52.1 57.0 56.2 56.4 55.2 34.7 Female Sterilization 14.1 1.9 1.6 12.9 18.1 27.9 18.9 15.1 Orals 13.1 10.3 25.8 16.1 12.1 7.4 14.4 6.9 injection 4.9 2.0 3.4 9.3 6.6 4.0 3.2 3.6 Rythym/ Billings 3.5 2.9 2.1 2.4 4.0 6.5 6.6 1.9 Condoms 10.1 18.3 16.9 13.2 9.3 5.5 4.5 5.3 IUD 1.1 0.0 1.1 2.5 1.5 1.1 1.5 0.0 Other 2.5 0.0 1.1 0.8 4.6 3.9 6.0 1.9 Not Using 50.7 64.5 47.9 43.0 43.8 43.6 44.8 65.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (965) (85) (144) (192) (163) (129) (78) (174) * Excludes 5 cases for whom current primary contraceptive method is unknown. TABLE 6-8 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Years of Education: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Years of Education Current Use and Method Total None 1-7 8 9-12 13+ Currently Using Female Sterilization Orals injection Rythym/ Billings Condoms IUD Other Not Using Total 49.3 14.1 13.1 4.9 3.5 10.1 1.1 2.5 50.7 100.0 30.3 14.2 9.0 1.7 1.9 1.7 0.0 1.9 69.7 100.0 43.4 12.2 9.9 5.5 5.3 7.0 0.6 2.8 56.6 100.0 48.2 15.6 13.7 4.3 1.3 10.5 0.4 2.4 51.8 100.0 54.3 13.9 17.0 5.9 1.6 12.6 1.8 1.6 45.7 100.0 65.1 14.0 13.5 5.5 10.5 13.8 4.0 3.8 34.9 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (962) (49) (244) (350) (205) (114) * Excludes 3 cases for whom years of education is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom contraceptive use is unknown. TABLE 6-9 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Household Amenities: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Household Amenities Current Use and Method Total 0-2 3-7 8-10 Currently Using Female Sterilization Orals injection Rythym/ Billings Condoms IUD Other Not Using Total 49.3 14.1 13.1 4.9 3.5 10.1 1.1 2.5 50.7 100.0 23.7 6.3 2.6 4.5 3.6 1.7 0.0 4.9 76.3 100.0 49.4 11.9 15.3 6.0 2.0 10.9 0.7 2.6 50.6 100.0 58.0 20.0 13.5 3.5 5.6 11.8 2.1 1.5 42.0 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (965) (133) (504) (328) * Excludes 5 cases for whom contraceptive use is unknown TABLE 6-10 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Work Status: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Work Status Currently Use and Method Total Not Working Working Currently Using Female Sterilization Orals injection Rythym/ Billings Condoms IUD Other Not Using Total 49.3 14.1 13.1 4.9 3.5 10.1 1.1 2.5 50.7 100.0 48.6 13.2 11.2 6.5 1.9 12.7 1.2 2.0 51.4 100.0 49.3 14.3 13.3 4.7 3.7 9.7 1.1 2.5 50.7 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (964) (119) (845) * Excludes 5 cases for whom contraceptive use is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. TABLE 6-11 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Ethnic Group: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Ethnic Group Current Use and Method Total Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketchi Other Current Using Female Sterilization Orals injection Rythym/ Billings Condoms IUD Other Not using Total 49.3 14.1 13.1 4.9 3.5 10.1 1.1 2.5 50.7 100.0 53.5 11.5 18.0 2.5 1.5 16.5 1.1 2.4 46.5 100.0 48.9 16.5 12.5 5.5 3.4 8.1 1.2 1.7 51.1 100.0 48.9 7.0 8.2 8.6 5.7 18.2 1.3 0.0 51.1 100.0 29.6 5.7 3.8 4.7 5.1 2.7 0.0 7.6 70.4 100.0 61.9 11.3 19.7 7.6 3.1 13.9 2.2 4.2 38.1 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (953) (214) (527) (44) (111) (57) * Excludes 5 cases for whom contraceptive use is unknown. * Excludes 12 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. TABLE 6-12 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Religion: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Religion Current Use and Method Total Protestant Catholic None Other Currently Using Female Sterilization Orals injection Rythym/ Billings Condoms IUD Other Not Using Total 49.3 14.1 13.1 4.9 3.5 10.1 1.1 2.5 50.7 100.0 51.4 15.4 16.6 3.6 3.5 6.6 1.3 4.4 48.6 100.0 47.9 15.0 10.8 5.7 3.5 10.2 1.2 1.5 52.1 100.0 54.2 8.0 16.8 4.8 3.5 18.0 0.8 2.3 45.8 100.0 37.5 11.8 13.1 2.4 2.9 4.4 0.0 2.9 62.5 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (962) (286) (529) (93) (54) * Excludes 5 cases for whom contraceptive use is unknown. * Excludes 3 cases for whom religion is unknown. TABLE 6-13 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Residence: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Residence Characteristics Total Urbana Rural Total 50.1 (966) 55.3 (483) 44.9 (483) Age 15-19 ** (13) ** (6) ** (7) 20-24 52.0 (75) 55.6 (36) 48.7 (39) 25-29 56.1 (155) 61.4 (83) 50.0 (72) 30-34 57.3 (171) 67.1 (79) 48.9 (92) 35-39 54.5 (176) 58.8 (97) 49.4 (79) 40-44 55.6 (126) 59.6 (57) 52.2 (69) 45-49 46.4 (84) 64.3 (42) 28.6 (42) 50-54 40.0 (70) 38.2 (34) 41.7 (36) 55-59 32.0 (50) 25.0 (28) ** (22) 60-64 17.4 (46) ** (21) 12.0 (25) Education Level 0-7 41.4 (292) 52.7 (91) 36.3 (201) 8 47.7 (354) 50.0 (168) 45.7 (186) 9+ 60.6 (320) 60.3 (224) 61.5 (96) Household Amenities 0-2 24.1 (133) ** (15) 22.0 (118) 3-7 50.8 (504) 53.4 (236) 48.5 (268) 8-10 59.6 (329) 58.2 (232) 62.9 (97) No. of Living Children 0 35.3 (85) 32.6 (46) 38.5 (39) 1 51.7 (145) 57.1 (77) 45.6 (68) 2 59.6 (193) 66.0 (94) 53.5 (99) 3 56.5 (161) 61.3 (93) 50.0 (68) 4 52.7 (129) 55.1 (69) 50.0 (60) 5 50.6 (79) 51.4 (35) 50.0 (44) 6+ 37.4 (174) 47.8 (69) 30.5 (105) Working Status Working 50.0 (846) 57.1 (420) 43.0 (426) Not working 50.8 (120) 42.9 (63) 59.6 (57) * Excludes 3 cases for whom education level is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 6-14 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Years of Education and Selected Characteristics: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Years of Education Selected Characteristics Total 0-7 8 9+ Total 50.1 (966) 41.4 (292) 47.7 (354) 60.6 (320) Age 15-19 ** (13) ** (4) ** (3) ** (6) 20-24 52.0 (75) ** (19) 57.7 (26) 50.0 (30) 25-29 56.1 (155) 57.5 (40) 44.8 (58) 66.7 (57) 30-34 57.3 (171) 40.4 (47) 56.9 (51) 68.5 (73) 35-39 54.5 (176) 40.8 (49) 51.6 (64) 68.3 (63) 40-44 55.6 (126) 53.5 (43) 53.8 (52) 61.3 (31) 45-49 46.4 (84) ** (19) 45.0 (40) 56.0 (25) 50-54 40.0 (70) 35.5 (31) 36.0 (25) ** (14) 55-59 32.0 (50) ** (22) ** (14) ** (14) 60-64 17.4 (46) ** (18) ** (21) ** (7) No. of Living Children 0 35.3 (85) 27.8 (18) 34.6 (26) 39.0 (41) 1 51.7 (145) 51.6 (31) 41.2 (51) 60.3 (63) 2 59.6 (193) 42.0 (50) 56.7 (60) 72.3 (83) 3 56.5 • (161) 59.4 (32) 46.3 (67) 66.1 (62) 4 52.7 (129) 50.0 (50) 46.7 (45) 64.7 (34) 5 50.6 (79) 48.3 (29) 56.3 (32) ** (18) 6+ 37.4 (174) 25.6 (82) 47.9 (73) ** (19) Household Amenities 0-2 24.1 (133) 28.2 (85) 12.8 (39) ** (9) 3-7 50.8 (504) 43.2 (169) 50.5 (206) 61.2 (129) 8-10 59.6 (329) 63.2 (38) 55.0 (109) 61.5 (182) Working Status Working 50.0 (846) 41.3 (259) 45.6 (305) 62.8 (282) Not working 50.8 (120) 42.4 (33) 61.2 (49) 44.7 (38) * Excludes 3 cases for whom education level is unknown. * Excludes 1 case for whom working status is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases TABLE 6-15 BELIZE: Current Contraceptive Use, by Method and Planning Status of Last Pregnancy: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 Whose Partner Had a Pregnancy in the Last 5 Years 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Planning Status Current Use and Method Total Planned Unplanned Unwanted Currently Using 50.5 52.8 47.8 30.2 Female Sterilization 15.4 17.8 9.5 5.0 Orals 13.3 13.1 15.0 10.4 injection 5.3 6.1 3.5 2.6 Rythym/ Billings 3.6 3.4 5.1 0.0 Condoms 9.4 9.2 12.1 3.0 IUD 1.2 1.3 1.3 0.0 Other 2.3 2.0 1.3 9.1 Not Currently Using 49.5 47.2 52.2 69.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (864) (637) (172) (55) * Excludes 5 cases for whom current primary contraceptive method is unknown. * Excludes 19 cases for whom planning status is unknown. TABLE 6-16 BELIZE: Reasons for Currently Using Contraception, by Current Method and Ethnic Group Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Space Limit No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Pregnancies Pregnancies Other Total (Unweighted) Total 48.8 38.2 13.0 100.0 (468) Residence Urban 48.6 40.3 11.1 100.0 (259) Rural 48.9 35.9 15.2 100.0 (209) Age 15-19 ** ** ** 100.0 (3) 20-24 72.9 13.3 13.8 100.0 (39) 25-29 66.9 24.6 8.5 100.0 (85) 30 -34 63.7 25.6 10.7 100.0 (97) 35-39 52.2 37.2 10.6 100.0 (90) 40-44 33.2 42.5 24.3 100.0 (66) 45-49 29.9 60.0 10.1 100.0 (37) 50-54 17.0 80.1 2.9 100.0 (27) 55-59 ** ** ** 100.0 (16) 60-64 ** ** ** 100.0 (8) No. of Living Children 0 46.0 4.3 49.7 100.0 (30) 1 77.3 20.6 2.1 100.0 (74) 2 60.7 25.1 14.2 100.0 (111) 3 44.0 48.4 7.6 100.0 (87) 4 34.7 46.7 18.6 100.0 (66) 5 50.2 38.9 10.9 100.0 (37) 6+ 21.6 69.7 8.7 100.0 (63) Years of Education None ** ** ** 100.0 (12) 1-7 50.6 29.7 19.8 100.0 (107) 8. 43.6 46.9 9.5 100.0 (161) 9-12 51.7 37.0 11.2 100.0 (112) 13+ 55.4 35.4 9.2 100.0 (76) TABLE 6-16 continued BELIZE: Reasons for Currently Using Contraception, by Current Method and Ethnic Group Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Space Limit No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Pregnancies Pregnancies Other Total (Unweighted) Current Method Female Sterilization 6.7 73.7 19.6 100.0 (120) Orals 69.1 26.7 4.2 100.0 (136) injection 81.0 15.9 3.2 100.0 (53) Rythym/ Billings 71.2 28.8 0.0 100.0 (34) Condoms 51.8 21.1 27.1 100.0 (93) IUD ** ** ** 100.0 (13) Other ** ** ** 100.0 (19) Ethnic Group Creole 47.2 37.8 15.0 100.0 (111) Mestizo 49.7 39.7 10.6 100.0 (269) Garifuna ** ** ** 100.0 (22) Maya/Ketchi 49.8 27.1 23.1 100.0 (32) Other 47.5 43.1 9.4 100.0 (34) * Excludes 2 cases for whom education level is unknown. * Excludes 4 cases for whom current method is unknown. * Excludes 8 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 8 cases for whom reason for currently using contraception is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 6-17 BELIZE: Mean Age and Mean Number of Children at Time of First Contraceptive Use, by Selected Characteristics: Men Aged 15-64 Who Ever Used Contraception 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Mean No. No. of Cases* Selected Characteristics Children Mean Age (Unweighted) Residence Urban 0.6 19.0 (476) Rural 0.9 20.4 (320) Years of Education None 2.0 25.9 (12) 1-7 1.2 20.7 (148) 8 1.0 21.2 (268) 9-12 0.3 17.5 (242) 13+, 0.1 18.1 (126) Household Amenities 0-2 1.9 22.2 (65) 3-7 0.8 20.0 (399) 8-10 0.4 18.7 (332) Ethnic Group Creole 0.4 18.6 (247) Mestizo 0.8 20.0 (404) Garifuna 0.6 18.9 (50) Maya/Ketchi 2.5 24.7 (43) Other 0.4 18.9 (52) Religion Roman Catholic 0.7 19.5 (448) Other 0.8 20.0 (270) None 0.6 19.0 (78) Total 0.7 19.6 (796) * Excludes 2 cases for whom education level is unknown. * Excludes 9 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. * Excludes 5 cases for whom religion is unknown. TABLE 6-18 BELIZE: Mean Age and Mean Number of Children at Time of First Contraceptive Use: Ever Married Men Aged 15-64 Who Ever Used Contraception 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Children at First Use Actual Age 0 1 2 3 4+ Never Used Total No. of Cases* (Unweighted) 15-19 81.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 18.9 100.0 (40) 20-24 73.0 5.3 1.1 0.5 0.0 20.2 100.0 (122) 25-29 63.8 9.9 2.6 2.8 1.1 19.8 100.0 (182) 30-34 53.2 13.6 3.6 2.8 2.1 24.7 100.0 (183) 35-39 39.1 12.8 6.8 3.0 9.6 28.8 100.0 (185) 40-44 24.7 13.0 5.5 7.4 15.2 34.2 100.0 (134) 45 -49 34.7 8.1 5.7 5.7 9.6 36.2 100.0 (91) 50-54 27.7 4.0 4.9 3.1 12.7 47.7 100.0 (75) 55-59 17.6 15.9 6.0 2.7 9.0 48.7 100.0 (55) 60-64 4.7 2.4 2.7 2.7 9.8 77.8 100.0 (56) Total 45.2 9.5 4.0 3.2 6.5 31.6 100.0 (1123) * Excludes 30 cases for whom number of children at first use is unknown. TABLE 6-19 BELIZE: Source of Contraception by Residence: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 Currently Using Contraception 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Residence Source of Contraception Total Urban Rural Government Facility BFLA Pharmacy Private Facility Outside of Belize Other/Unknown Total 6.5 12.5 53.4 6.7 2.5 18.4 100.0 6.2 13.1 52.7 6.7 2.5 18.8 100.0 6.8 12.0 54.1 6.7 2.4 17.9 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (357) (193) (164) TABLE 6-20 BELIZE: Source of Contraception by Years of Education: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 Currently Using Contraception 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Source of Contraception Total Years of Education 0-7 8 9+ Government Facility BFLA Pharmacy Private Facility Outside of Belize Other/Unknown Total 6.5 12.6 53.6 6.8 2.5 18.0 100.0 8.4 9.3 53.2 2.9 0.9 25.3 100.0 9.1 16.4 52.2 3.3 2.7 16.4 100.0 2.9 11.2 55.2 12.4 3.4 14.9 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (355) (88) (118) (149) * Excludes 2 cases for whom education level is unknown. TABLE 6-21 BELIZE: Source of Contraception by Ethnic Group: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 Currently Using Contraception 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Ethnic Group Source of Contraception Total Creole Mestizo Garifuna Maya/Ketchi Other Government Facility BFLA Pharmacy Private Facility Outside of Belize Other/Unknown Total 6.6 12.0 53.8 6.3 2.5 18.7 100.0 7.8 5.8 65.2 3.5 2.5 15.2 100.0 6.3 9.9 53.9 8.8 1.7 19.4 100.0 ** ** ** ** ** ** 100.0 15.3 35.9 16.5 0.0 3.4 29.0 100.0 2.3 12.3 51.6 3.0 9.8 21.1 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (353) (91) (190) (19) (26) (27) * Excludes 4 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 6-22 BELIZE: Reasons for Not Currently Using Contraception, by Residence: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Residence Reasons for Nonuse Total Urban Rural Reasons Related to Pregnancy, Fecundity, and Sexual Activity 32.0 34.8 27.3 Currently Pregnant 11.2 12.0 10.0 Desires Pregnancy 10.7 9.7 12.4 Not Sexually Active 7.2 10.1 2.5 Infertile 2.9 3.1 2.4 Other Reasons 68.0 65.2 72.7 Had or Fear Side Effects 7.4 6.4 9.1 Does Not Want 22.9 23.2 22.4 Health Reasons 5.0 5.1 4.8 Spouse Opposes 0.5 0.0 1.4 Embarrassed to Use 0.5 0.0 1.4 Religious Reasons 0.9 0.7 1.2 Advanced Age 12.2 14.0 9.2 Problems with Past Methods 0.9 0.0 2.5 Other 14.4 11.3 19.4 Unknown 3.3 4.6 1.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (154) (96) (58) TABLE 6-23 BELIZE: Reasons for Not Currently Using Contraception, by Years of Education: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Reasons For Nonuse Total Years of Education 0-7 8 9+ Reasons, Related to Pregnancy Fecundity, and Sexual Activity 32.0 2.5 9.8 23.1 Currently Pregnant 11.2 2.5 9.8 16.4 Desires Pregnancy 10.7 14.1 5.7 13.8 Not Sexually Active 7.2 7.8 7.9 6.2 Infertile 2.9 0.0 0.0 6.8 Other Reasons 68.0 75.6 76.6 56.8 Had or Fear Side Effects 7.4 3.7 8.0 8.5 Does Not Want 22.9 25.8 32.2 13.1 Health Reasons 5.0 1.9 10.6 1.3 Spouse Opposes 0.5 2.8 0.0 0.0 Embarrassed to Use 0.5 2.8 0.0 0.0 Religious Reasons 0.9 0.0 0.0 2.2 Advanced Age 12.2 18.5 11.7 9.8 Problems with Past Methods 0.9 2.5 1.2 0.0 Other 14.4 12.4 10.5 18.8 Unknown 3.3 5.3 2.4 3.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (154) (32) (58) (64) TABLE 6-24 BELIZE: Reasons for Stopped Using Contraception, by Method Last Used: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 Who Had Used Contraception in the Past But Are Not Currently Using 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Last Method Used Reason Stopped Using Contraception Total Orals Injection Condoms Other Desires Pregnancy 30.3 28.9 ** 30.7 30.8 Had or Fears Side Effects 7.7 14.3 ** 0.0 4.0 Does not Like or Want to Use 10.9 10.6 ** 15.7 4.2 Method Not Effective 1.4 0.0 ** 2.5 0.0 Health or Medical Reasons 11.2 23.4 ** 3.8 11.1 Not Sexually Active 5.4 0.0 ** 14.3 0.0 Lack of Money 0.4 0.0 ** 0.0 0.0 Far Distance Source 0.4 1.3 ** 0.0 0.0 Other 28.9 16.4 ** 29.1 49.9 Unknown 3.5 5.0 ** 4.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases* (Unweighted) (150) (46) (18) (53) (33) * Excludes 4 cases for whom method used when stopped using contraception is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 6-25 BELIZE: Desire to Use a Method in the Future and Have Knowledge of Availability, by Selected Characteristics: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 Who Do Not Currently Use Contraception 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Desire to Use Contraceptive Desire* and Knowledge of Selected Characteristics to Use Contraceptive Availability Total 21.1 (472) 76.2 (110) Residence Urban 21.3 (209) 90.2 (48) Rural 20.9 (263) 65.4 (62) Age 15-19 ** (9) ** (5) 20-24 21.3 (35) ** (9) 25-29 40.1 (68) 81.8 (28) 30-34 37.5 (71) 60.1 (27) 35-39 26.7 (78) ** (20) 40-44 12.4 (55) ** (8) 45-49 9.9 (44) ** (5) 50-54 15.2 (42) ** (5) 55-59 1.9 (32) ** 0) 60-64 7.9 (38) ** (2) No. of Living Children 0 28.9 (54) ** (15) 1 20.7 (70) ** (16) 2 12.8 (77) ** (11) 3 27.2 (69) ** (20) 4 30.6 (58) ** (19) 5 17.3 (39) ** (10) 6+ 17.0 (105) ** (19) Education Level 0-7 20.4 (167) 59.3 (38) 8 18.7 (182) 74.0 (38) 9+ 25.7 (123) 97.6 (34) Ethnic Group Creole 25.3 (99) ** (24) Mestizo 17.4 (252) 75.9 (51) Garifuna 30.3 (22) ** (6) Maya/Ketchi 26.0 (78) ** (24) Other ** (21) ** (5) * Excludes 1 case for whom education level is unknown. * Excludes 4 cases for whom ethnic group is unknown. ** Less than 25 cases. TABLE 6-26 BELIZE: Desire to Use a Method in the Future, by Method of Choice and Source Where Method Would be Obtained, by Residence: Currently Married Men Aged 15-64 Who Do Not Currently Use Contraception 1999 Family Health Survey Residence Method of Choice Total Urban Rural Orals Female Sterilization Injection IUD Rhythm/Billings Condoms Other Unknown Total 21.0 15.9 15.8 2.2 5.2 25.0 3.5 11.3 100.0 28.9 19.0 9.5 3.4 3.6 26.0 5.1 4.5 100.0 14.9 13.6 20.6 1.3 6.5 24.2 2.3 16.6 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (110) (48) (62) Source Where Method Would be Obtained Government Facilities BFLA Pharmacy/Drugstore Private Facilities Other Total 18.3 15.0 37.1 16.9 12.6 100.0 18.9 7.5 47.2 24.6 1.9 100.0 17.7 22.9 26.6 9.0 23.8 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (82) (41) (41) CHAPTER 7 FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION 7.1 Introduction Family life education includes topics such as sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS), Human Reproduction, Contraception, Human Growth and Development, as well as aspects of self-esteem and life planning skills. This chapter looks at topics men think should be included in a programme of family life education, topics that have been offered in such programmes, the appropriate age of children for introducing the topics, and the preferred sources of information on family life education. It also reports whether men knew where to go for information about sexually transmitted infections. 7.2 Findings As indicated in Table 7.1, there is strong support for having schools include on their curricula, classes on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS (96%), Human Reproduction (94%), and Contraception (93%). When respondents were asked to state the age when these topics could be introduced on the curricula, the majority thought that the topic of STIs, including HIV/AIDS (70%), Human Reproduction (71%), and Contraception (68%) should be introduced to students between the ages of 10 and 13 years (Table 7.2). Within this age range, 28% of respondents identify age 12 as the best age for introducing the topic STI including HIV/AIDS, 29% of respondents think this is the most appropriate age for introducing the topic of Human Reproduction, and 27% think it is the best age for introducing the topic of Contraception. Respondents were also asked whether Parents or Guardians provided them information on pregnancy. Table 7.3 shows that 62% of the young men received such information from their parents or guardians, and Table 7.4 further shows that such information is often passed on at age 13-16 years. Seventy four percent of the men (Table 7.5) currently aged 13-34 also receive information from parent or guardian about birth control methods when they are between the ages of 12-15 (Table 7.6). In addition, these data show that most (56%) had not received information about Family Life or Sex Education in school (Table 7.7). Of those, who did receive information about Family Life or Sex Education in school, most (69%) are between the ages of 12 and 15 according to Table 7.8. 44 Also, as shown in Table 7.9, of those who received the latter information while in school, most (41%) were in Primary School. Another 32% first received such information in Secondary School. Table 7.10 displays information about the main persons who taught the respondents their first class or course about Family Life or Sex Education in school. By far, the School Teacher (83%) is the main person to teach these topics first. Only 5% of the respondents reported a Counsellor/Psychologist or a Physician/Nurse as the main person to teach them these topics first. In most (54%) cases, these classes or courses included information on Counselling, as Table 7.11 shows, whereas 42% of the classes included Clinic Services or Distribution of Contraceptives In terms of such classes or courses anywhere outside the school or home, table 7.12 shows that only 12% of the respondents received these. The major organizations offering such classes or courses are through Peer Group (28%) and the BFLA (23%), as shown in Table 7.13. Further, the main persons to teach these first classes or courses are Peers/Friends (26%), the BFLA (16%) and a Counselor/Psychologist (11%), as can be seen in Table 7.14. Respondents were also asked whether the first class or course on family life or sex education taught in school included specific topics of high interest for young people. According to Table 7.15, 78% affirmed that information on Human Reproductive System was included in such classes. Seventy six percent (76%) also reported that the classes or courses included topics on Pregnancy and How it Works, and 91% affirmed that topics on diseases that can result from sexual contact were included. Eighty seven percent (87%) also stated that their first class, in these areas, in school, included information on STFs including HIV/AIDS, and 85% reported that information relating to Condoms was also taught. Other topics which were popular, judging from the rate of the responses were modern birth control methods like the Pill or the IUD (58%), Parenting (73%), the woman's menstrual cycle (84%), and values and roles (55%). Further, as Table 7.16 indicates, 63% affirmed that information on Counselling services was also included in these clases. Fifty seven percent (57%) of the respondents also reported that information on 'Clinic Services' was included and 52% said that the Distribution of Contraceptives was also discussed in these classes. When the men aged 13-34 were asked to give their preferred source of information about Family Life or Sex Education Topics, Table 7.17 indicates that this preferred source of information is as follows: Books and Publications (18%), Parent or Guardian (18%), 45 Peers/Friends (12%), Teachers (11%), the Media (11%), Health Personnel (10%), and the BFLA (8%). Table 7.18 further shows that 66% of the men know where to go for information about family life or sex education topics. When the men aged 13-34 were asked to name the sources of information most frequently cited for information about Sex or Contraception topics, Table 7.19 indicates that they responded as follows: the Belize Family Life Association (29%), Government Clinic/Health Center (23%), and Government Hospital (15%). This table also shows that less than 1% cited the Churches as their preferred source of such information. On the issue of where to go if they need information on STI's, Table 7.20 shows that 70% of the men aged 13-34 know where to go for such information. Table 7.21 further shows that the sources for information about sexually transmitted infection most frequently cited by men are the Belize Family Life Association (25%), Government Clinic/Health Center (24%), Government Hospital (21%), and Private Doctors/Clinic (18%). Finally, the men, currently aged 13-34 were also asked if they knew where to go for information about HIV/AIDS. Seventy percent (70%) know where to go for such information as Table 7.22 indicates. The sources of information about HIV/AIDS most frequently cited by men are Government Clinic/Health Center (24%), the Belize Family Life Association (23%), Government Hospital (23%), and Private Doctors/Clinic (16%). 7.3 Summary There is strong support for the provision of Family Life Education in schools. Most of the men, currently aged 13-34, receive information from Parent or Guardian about Birth Control methods, between the ages of 12 and 15. They also first receive a class or course about Family Life and Sex Education in school from their teachers (83%). This group indicates that their preferred source of information about Family Life and Sex Education topics is books and publications. Seventy percent of the same group knew where to go for information on sexually transmitted infections. The most frequently cited source for information was BFLA (25%), and Government Health Center (24%). 46 TABLE 7-1 BELIZE: Opinion on Whether Certain Topics Should be Taught in Schools: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Topics Yes No Unknown No. of Cases (Unweighted) Human Reproduction Contraception STI's-HIV-AIDS 94.3 92.8 95.5 3.4 4.7 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.0 (1594) (1594) (1594) TABLE 7-2 BELIZE: Opinion on Ideal Age That Certain Topic Should be Taught: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Topics Human STI's-HIV- Ideal Age Reproduction Contraception AIDS 4 0.1 0.0 0.0 5 0.8 0.5 0.7 6 0.2 0.3 0.3 7 1.5 1.2 1.6 8 2.6 2.6 3.6 9 3.9 3.4 3.9 10 18.0 16.8 19.3 11 9.0 8.7 8.7 12 29.0 27.2 27.9 13 15.0 15.5 14.5 14 7.1 8.5 7.5 15 5.3 6.4 5.0 16 1.4 1.9 1.4 17 0.3 0.4 0.3 18 0.8 1.1 0.6 19 0.2 0.1 0.3 20 0.1 0.0 0.0 21 0.0 0.1 0.0 Unknown 4.7 5.1 4.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (1594) (1594) (1594) TABLE 7-3 BELIZE: Received Information From Parents/Guardians About Pregnancy: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Received Information Percent Yes No Unknown 38.0 61.8 0.2 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (923) TABLE 7-4 BELIZE: Age When First Received Information on Pregnancy: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Age Percent 7 0.5 8 1.1 9 2.6 10 5.5 11 5.1 12 17.6 13 19.1 14 11.3 15 14.6 16 9.0 17 2.2 18 4.0 19 0.3 20 0.5 21 0.0 22 0.2 23 0.3 24 0.0 25 0.0 26 0.0 27 0.0 28 0.2 Unknown 6.0 Total 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (325) TABLE 7-5 BELIZE: Received Information From Parents/Guardians about Birth Control Methods: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Have Received Information From Parents or Guardians About Birth Control Methods Percent Yes No Unknown 25.2 74.4 0.4 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (923) TABLE 7-6 BELIZE: Age When First Received Information on Birth Control: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Age When Received The Information on Birth Control Methods Percent 8 0.7 9 1.8 10 3.2 11 5.5 12 23.4 13 11.1 14 14.0 15 13.9 16 7.0 17 3.1 18 6.0 19 2.1 20 0.5 21 0.0 22 0.0 23 1.5 24 0.2 25 0.0 26 0.0 27 0.0 28 0.0 29 0.2 Unknown 5.8 Total 100.0 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (215) TABLE 7-7 BELIZE: Received Information From Parents/Guardians Family Life or Sex Education: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Received Information on Family Life or Sex Education Percent Yes No Unknown 42.8 56.4 0.9 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (923) TABLE 7-8 BELIZE: Age When First Received Information on Family Life or Sex Education: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Age Percent 7 0.4 8 0.0 9 0.8 10 1.5 11 4.8 12 16.1 13 16.6 14 20.9 15 15.2 16 8.7 17 7.0 18 1.6 19 0.0 20 0.3 21 0.3 22 0.2 23 0.0 24 0.0 25 0.1 Unknown 5.6 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (368) TABLE 7-9 BELIZE: Level of Education When First Received Information on Family Life or Sex Education: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Education Level Percent None Incomplete Primary Complete Primary Secondary Post Secondary Unknown 0.7 41.4 22.6 31.7 2.1 1.5 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (368) TABLE 7-10 BELIZE: Main Person to Teach the First Class or Course About Family Life or Sex Education in School: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Main Person Percent School Teacher Counselor or Psychologist Physician/ Nurse Belize Family Life Association Officer (BFLA) COMPAR/ Min. of Human Development Personnel Youth Officer (YMCA, SCOUTS, etc.) Peers/ Friends Parent/ Guardian Religious Person Volunteer Other Unknown 83.2 5.0 4.8 2.6 0.9 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.3 0.6 1.6 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (368) TABLE 7-11 BELIZE: Information on Services for Adolescence that are Included in the Class or Course: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases Type of Information Yes No Unknown (Unweighted) Counseling 54.0 43.3 2.7 (368) Clinic Services 41.6 54.7 3.7 (368) Distribution of Contraceptives 41.6 56.8 1.7 (368) TABLE 7-12 BELIZE: Received Classes About Family Life etc. Outside The School: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Received Formal Class or Course Percent Yes No Unknown 11.9 87 1.1 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (923) TABLE 7-13 BELIZE: Main Organization Outside the School or Home That Conducted Formal Class or Course About Family Life or Sex Education: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Main Organization Percent Doctor's Office/ Clinic NOPCA Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) COMPAR/ Min. of Human Development Personnel SHAPES Youth Group (YMCA, Scouts, etc.) Peer Group Church Volunteer Other Unknown 1.4 2.5 22.8 2.7 0.0 8.2 27.6 13.2 1.5 16.5 3.4 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (103) TABLE 7-14 BELIZE: Main Person To Teach Family Life etc. Outside The School or Home: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Main Person Percent School Teacher Counselor or Psychologist Physician/ Nurse Belize Family Life Association Officer (BFLA) COMPAR/ Min. of Human Development Personnel Youth Officer (YMCA, SCOUTS, etc.) Peers/ Friends Parent/ Guardian Religious Person Volunteer Other Unknown 9.0 10.5 8.3 15.9 2.7 7.3 25.8 2.3 6.9 2.2 5.2 3.8 No. of Cases (Unweighted) (103) TABLE 7-15 BELIZE: Topics Taught in First Class or Course in School: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) No. of Cases Topics Yes No Unknown (Unweighted) The Human Reproductive System 77.7 21.8 0.5 (103) The Woman's Menstrual Cycle or Period 83.5 15.9 0.5 (103) Pregnancy and How It Works 75.5 22.2 2.3 (103) Modern Birth Control Methods Such As The Pill, IUD or Injections 85.5 11.1 3.5 (103) Condoms 84.9 14.6 0.5 (103) Diseases That Can Result From Sexual Contacts 90.7 8.7 0.5 (103) STI's/HIV/AIDS 76.8 22.7 0.5 (103) Parenting 73.4 22.5 4.1 (103) Values and Roles 55.1 28.6 16.3 (103) TABLE 7-16 BELIZE: Information on Services for Adolescent Included in First Class or Co Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Following Services Yes No Unknown Counseling Clinic Services Distribution of Contraceptives 62.9 57.2 51.6 35.7 41.4 47.0 1.4 1.4 1.4 TABLE 7-17 BELIZE: Preferred Source of Information About Family Life etc: Men Aged 15-64 1999 Family Health Survey (Percent Distribution) Source Percent Parents/ Guardians 17.5 Sisters/ Brothers 0.6 Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) 8.0 Teachers 11.1 Peers/ Friends 12.4 Media 10.8 Counselor 0.7 Books/ Publications 18.3 Internet 1.3 Religious Lea

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