Uzbekistan - Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2000

Publication date: 2000

Dec-5, 2000 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Dec. 05, 2000 2 Table of Contents List of Figures.3 Foreword and Acknowledgements .4 Executive Summary.5 Summary Indicators .8 I. Introduction . 10 Background of the Survey .10 Uzbekistan Background.10 Survey Objectives.12 II. Survey Methodology .12 Sample Design.12 Questionnaires .13 Fieldwork and Processing.13 III. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality .14 Response Rates.14 Age Distribution and Missing Data .14 Characteristics of the Household Population .15 IV. Results .16 AB. Education .16 Early childhood education. 16 Basic education .16 Literacy.16 B. Water and Sanitation.16 Use of drinking water .16 Use of sanitation.17 C. Child Malnutrition.17 Breastfeeding .17 Salt iodization.18 Low birth weight .18 D. Child Health.19 Immunization coverage.19 Diarrhea.20 Acute respiratory infection .21 IMCI initiative . 21 E. HIV/AIDS.21 AIDS knowledge.21 AIDS testing .23 F. Reproductive Health. 24 Contraception.24 Prenatal care .24 Assistance at delivery .24 G. Child Rights.25 Birth registration .25 Orphanhood and living arrangements of children.25 Child labor .25 Appendix A: Sample Design .26 Appendix B: List of Personnel Involved in the Uzbekistan MICS .26 Appendix C: Questionnaires.26 Dec. 05, 2000 3 List of Figures Figure 1: Single year age distribution of the household population by sex; Uzbekistan, 2000 Figure 2: Percent distribution of living children by breastfeeding status; Uzbekistan, 200018 Figure 3: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months; Uzbekistan, 200020 Figure 4: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission by level of education; Uzbekistan, 2000 Dec. 05, 2000 4 Foreword and Acknowledgements The 2000 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is one of the first full-fledged household surveys at the national level in Uzbekistan dedicated to the analysis of the situation of women and children. The goals of the survey were to gather information to monitor the progress towards the goals that were set at the World Summit for Children (1990), and to provide a basis for further national actions to ensure the survival, protection and development of children. Specialists from the State Department of Statistics of the Minister of Macroeconomy and Statistics of the Republic of Uzbekistan, with support from oblast-level statistical departments, conducted the MICS. The successful completion of MICS in Uzbekistan was a result of the work of staff from the Cabinet of Ministers, specialists from relevant ministries and departments, State Department of Statistics of the Minister of Macroeconomy and Statistics, oblast, rayon and urban khokimiyats, public organizations, and the civil society. This research was conducted with the technical assistance and financial support of UNICEF Uzbekistan. Special thanks are due to Rudy Rodrigues, Assistant Representative, for his support in the coordination of the survey, and to Shukhrat Rakhimdjanov, Assistant Project Officer, for his assistance during the implementation and analysis phases. Andrei Zaharchenko and Natalya Chochovskaya supervised the data entry and analysis. Thanks go to the many others were involved in the survey, whose names can be found in Annex B. In preparation for the survey, representatives from the State Statistical Department and relevant Ministries and Departments provided basic statistical and administrative data on health, infant, child and maternal mortality, education and other indicators, which were gathered from available routine data sources and reports. This survey introduced several elements new to Uzbekistan including: a new model of sampling; household-based sociological interviews; analysis by age and level of education. It provided information on breastfeeding, water and sanitation, education, HIV/AIDS awareness and other subjects. The variance between indicators of the official statistics and administrative sources on one side and the data of the MICS survey results from differences in the methods of data collection and the applicable standards of identification of indicators. When taken along with the existing statistical and administrative data, the survey results provide a more comprehensive picture of the achievements of the World Summit for Children goals. Dec. 05, 2000 5 Executive Summary The 2000 Uzbekistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative survey of households, women, and children. The main objectives of the survey were to provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Uzbekistan at the end of the decade and to furnish the data needed to monitor progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and as a basis for future action. Education · Seventy three percent of children of primary school age (8-10 years old) in Uzbekistan are attending primary school. School attendance in urban areas is slightly higher than in rural areas (93 versus 92 percent). At the national level, there is virtually no difference between male and female primary school attendance. · Eighty nine percent of children who enter the first grade of primary school eventually reach grade five. · The vast majority (97 percent) of the population over age 16 years is literate. This percentage declines from 99 percent among those aged 16-44 to 76 percent among the population aged 65 and older. Water and Sanitation · Eighty four percent of the population has access to safe drinking water – 94 percent in urban areas and 79 percent in rural areas. · Eighty nine percent of the population of Uzbekistan lives in households with sanitary means of excreta disposal. Breastfeeding Approximately 22 percent of children aged under four months are exclusively breastfed, a level considerably lower than recommended. At age 6-9 months, 45 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. At age 20-23 months, 36 percent are continuing to breastfeed. Salt Iodization · Nineteen percent of households in Uzbekistan have adequately (15+ PPM) iodized salt. The percentage of households with adequately iodized salt ranges from 24 percent to 16 percent in the urban and rural areas respectively. Low Birth Weight · Approximately six percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth. Immunization Coverage · Ninety eight percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to 98 percent. The percentage declines for subsequent doses of DPT to 96 percent for the second dose, and 94 percent for the third dose. · Similarly, 96 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and declining to 94 percent by the third dose. · The coverage for measles vaccine is lower than for the other vaccines at 92 percent. · Eighty five percent of children had all eight recommended vaccinations in the first 12 months of life. · Male and female children are vaccinated at roughly the same rate. Dec. 05, 2000 6 Diarrhea · Ninety four percent children with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with Oral Rehydration Solution or a recommended home fluid. · Only 19 percent of children with diarrhea received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended. Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) · As there were only seven cases, or less than one percent) in total of ARI in under five children the two weeks prior to the survey, the results was not analyzed. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Initiative · Among under five children who were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the MICS, 20 percent received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMCI programme. · Seventy four percent of mothers know at least two of the signs that a child should be taken immediately to a health facility. HIV/AIDS · Seventy four percent of women in Uzbekistan have heard of AIDS. Only 18 percent of women aged 15-49 know all three of the main ways to prevent HIV transmission – having only one uninfected sex partner, using a condom every time, and abstaining from sex. · Only nine percent of women correctly identified three misconceptions about HIV transmission – that HIV can be transmitted through supernatural means, that it can be transmitted through mosquito bites, and that a healthy looking person cannot be infected. · Fifty five percent of women of reproductive age in Uzbekistan know a place to get tested for AIDS and about 41 percent have been tested. Contraception · Current use of contraception was reported by 67 percent of married or in union women. The most popular method is the IUD, which is used by more than half of married women. Prenatal Care · Virtually all women (97 percent) in Uzbekistan receive prenatal care from skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife). Assistance at Delivery · A doctor, nurse, or midwife assisted at the delivery of 96 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MICS survey. Birth Registration · The births of 99.5 percent of children under five years in Uzbekistan have been registered. There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex, age, or education categories. Orphanhood and Living Arrangements of Children · Overall, 93 percent of children aged 0-15 are living with both parents. Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise less than one percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to three percent of all children aged 0-15. Dec. 05, 2000 7 Child Labor About one percent of children aged 5-15 years engages in paid work. 4.8% of children participate in unpaid work for someone other than a household member. Almost 70 percent of children engage in domestic tasks, such as cooking, fetching water, and caring for other children, for less than four hours a days while nine percent spend more than four hours a day on such tasks. Dec-5, 2000 Summary Indicators World Summit for Children Indicators Use of safe drinking water Proportion of population who use a safe drinking water source 84 percent Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal Proportion of population who use a sanitary means of excreta disposal 89 percent Children reaching grade five Proportion of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade five 89 percent Net primary school attendance rate Proportion of children of primary school age attending primary school 91 percent Literacy rate Proportion of population aged 15+ years who a re able to read a letter or newspaper 97 percent Antenatal care Proportion of women aged 15-49 attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled personnel 97 percent Contraceptive prevalence Proportion of married women aged 15-49 who are using a contraceptive method 67 percent Childbirth care Proportion of births attended by skil led health personnel 96 percent Birth weight below 2.5 kg Proportion of l ive births that weigh below 2500 grams 6 percent Iodized salt consumption Proportion of households con suming adequately iodized salt 19 percent Exclusive breastfeeding rate Proportion of infants aged less than 4 months who are exclusively breastfed 22 percent Timely complementary feeding rate Proportion of infants aged 6 -9 months who are receiving breast milk and complementary food 45 percent Continued breastfeeding rate Proportion of children aged 12 -15 months and 20-23 months who are breastfeeding 76 percent (12 -15) 36 percent (20 -23) DPT immunization coverage Proportion of children immunized agains t diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus by age one 94 % – DTP-1 98% - DTP-2 96% - DTP-3 Measles immunization coverage Proport ion of chi ldren immunized against measles by age one 92 percent Polio immunization coverage Proport ion of chi ldren immunized against polio by age one OPV-0 – 96% OPV-1 – 98% OPV-2 – 97% OPV-3 – 94% Tuberculosis immunization coverage Proportion of chi ldren immunized against tuberculosis by age one 98 percent ORT use Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks who were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution 94 percent Home management of diarrhea Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks and received increased fluids and continued feeding during the episode 19 percent Preschool development Proportion of children aged 36 -59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education program 20 percent Indicators for Monitoring Children’s Rights Birth registration Proportion of under -f ive children whose births are reported registered 99.5 percent Children’s l iving arrangements Proportion of children aged 0 -15 years in households not living with a biological parent 0.8 percent Orphans in household Proportion of children aged 0 -15 years who are orphans l iv ing in households 0.1 percent Dec. 05, 2000 9 (both parents) 2.7 percent (one parent) Chi ld labor Proportion of children aged 5 -14 years who are currently working 1% is engaged in unpaid labor and 4.8% in paid labor Indicators for Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Home management of i l lness Proportion of under-five children reported ill during the last 2 weeks who received increased f luids and continued feeding 20 percent Care seeking knowledge Proportion of caretakers of under-five children who know a t least 2 signs for seeking care immediately 74 percent Indicators for Monitoring HIV/AIDS Knowledge of preventing HIV/AIDS Proportion of women who correctly state the 3 main ways of avoiding HIV infection 18 percent Knowledge of misconceptions of HIV/AIDS Proportion of women who correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV/AIDS 9 percent Knowledge of mother to child t ransmiss ion Proportion of women who correctly identify 3 means of transmission of HIV from mother to chi ld 44 percent Attitude to people with HIV//AIDS Proportion of women expressing a discriminatory attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS 8 percent Women who know where to be tested for HIV Proportion of women who know where to get a HIV test 55 percent Women who have been tested for HIV Proportion of women who have been tested for HIV 41 percent Dec-5, 2000 I. Introduction Background of the Survey The Republic of Uzbekistan became independent on August 31st, 1991. The new government joined the global declaration set at the World Summit for Children, and committed itself to follow the principles mentioned in the declaration and the Plan of Action for children. Consequently, a number of programmes were developed aimed at improving the situation of women and children, in health, education and other areas. The plan of action also called for the establishment of mechanisms for monitoring progress toward the goals and objectives set for the year 2000. Toward this end, UNICEF has developed a core set of 75 indicators of specific aspects of the situation of children in coordination with other international organizations. In the framework of this process, in the year 2000, the government of Uzbekistan as a state party carried out the MICS to obtain information for the preparation of the End Decade report. For this purpose, other information sources were also used. MICS was conducted by the State Department of Statistics of the Ministry of Macro- Economy and Statistics with the technical and financial support of Unicef Uzbekistan. This report presents results on the principal topics covered in the survey and on the World Summit indicators. Uzbekistan Background The Republic of Uzbekistan is situated in the middle of Central Asia. Its territory is 448.9 thousand square kilometres. To the north, it is bordered by Kazakhstan, to the south and east by the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, to the south by Afghanistan, and to the west by Turkmenistan. Uzbekistan is divided into 14 administrative units, including 12 provinces (oblasts), the Republic of Karakalpakstan and the city of Tashkent (the capital). The population of the Republic on January 1, 2000 constituted 24,487,700 people, out of whom 50.2 percent were female and 15,322.2 thousand (or 62.6 percent) lived in rural areas. Uzbekistan has the largest population of the central Asian countries. Uzbekistan has a high natural growth rate, explained by a high birth rate – 22.2 per 1000 – in 1999, and a low death rate – 5.3 per 1000. As a result, 41 percent of the total population is children under 15, and 12 percent of the population is children under five years of age. Uzbekistan’s health system is a network of medical establishments at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, all working under the Ministry of Health. The primary health care system consists of polyclinics, rural ambulatory units, feldsher posts, family medicine practices, enterprise-based medical points, and maternity houses. The main goal of these establishments is the prevention and treatment of disease. The secondary level of the health system is made up of specialized hospitals, departments in polyclinics, in which necessary diagnosis and disease treatment is carried out. The third level of the health care system provides specialized medical assistance in rural and urban hospitals, medical institution clinics, and scientific research institutes. Dec. 05, 2000 11 The primary level establishments are the main providers of maternal and child protection on the Republic. The majority of all deliveries take place in maternity houses. Antenatal assistance is provided from the first term of pregnancy until delivery, by doctors specializing in women’s health in polyclinics, rural ambulatory units, doctor stations, feldsher posts and family medicine practices. Child protection in Uzbekistan starts with neonatal help in the first days of life when the mother and child stay in the maternity house. After checking out of the maternity house, a social patronage nurse visits the house of the baby. Primary level health care units provide pediatric advice. In the first two years of life, the baby is seen regularly by a pediatrician and gets their vaccinations according to the established schedule. The vaccination protocol in the Republic of Uzbekistan requires that BCG and polio vaccines be given in the first three to four days of life, in the maternity house. The first series of oral polio is given in the second, third and fourth month. The vaccination protocol for diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus is similar to the polio one, but the first vaccine is given in the second month of the child’s life. Vaccinations against measles are given in the ninth month. The maternal and child protection system is presently working well throughout the Republic, including rural and remote areas. Nonetheless, to be effective, the system demands significant financial resources and highly qualified managers, and this necessitates reforms in the health system. The State health reform program adopted in Uzbekistan in November 1998 created a new model. Every inhabitant of the Republic has the right to receive free basic health care, including: primary medical services and disease prevention, immunization and vaccination against infectious diseases, treatment of diseases, and medical services for children, adolescents and pregnant women. This program is also creating a system of providing certain services through the private sector, by privatizing some of the existing establishments and creating new private establishments. The rate and range of this progress will depend on population income growth and the creation of a medical insurance system that should be introduced in phases beginning in 2001. There are three essentials – to have a long and healthy life, to get knowledge and to have access to resources – which are necessary for a good lifestyle, and without them many other things are inaccessible. For this reason access to basic education for all children in the world and finishing primary education were set as the most important objectives at the World Summit for Children. In Uzbekistan, education plays an important role in social policy because of three key reasons: · Education is the main factor in the human right of participation in building the society, based on the law and democracy · Education is an important part of social capital and the basis of the recovery of wealth intellectual and cultural heritage of the Uzbek nation · Education supports economic growth, giving people the skills necessary to contribute to the economy The Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan began an educational reform in 1997. It is aimed at increasing the level of academic and professional education of the growing generation and provides for 12 years of compulsory secondary education, which not only increases the term of study but also improves the knowledge of young people entering the job market. Dec. 05, 2000 12 At the moment the educational system of the Republic of Uzbekistan involves pre-school, primary and basic education, followed by compulsory secondary and professional education. Higher education and getting an academic degree are the next steps in education. In addition to this a program of continuing education for adults based on their professional needs is being established currently. As a result of the reform, some positive achievements are already underway. Survey Objectives The 2000 Uzbekistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey had as its primary objectives: · To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Uzbekistan at the end of the decade and for looking forward to the next decade; · To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and a basis for future action; · To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Uzbekistan and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems. II. Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the Uzbekistan MICS was designed to provide estimates of health indicators at the national level, and for urban and rural areas. Five administrative regions were chosen. The sample was proportional to population, so the following distribution was made: Region Oblasts Percent Region 1 Fergana, Andijan, and Namangan 27.7 Region 2 Samarkand, Jizak Kashkadraya and Surkaydarya 30.8 Region 3 Tashkent Oblast, Sirdarya and Tashkent City 21.0 Region 4 Bukhara and Navoi 9.0 Region 5 Khorezm and Karakalpakstan 11.5 In the first stage census enumeration areas were chosen from a national listing of population distribution by cities, rayons, collective farms and rural areas, which were selected with probability proportional to size were selected with probability proportional to size. The standard segment size was 500, the total number of standard segments was 48463. The sampling interval was 212, and 228 primary sampling units or clusters of 24 households each were selected. Within the selected enumeration areas, a household listing was carried out, and a systematic sample of 5478 households were chosen, in 228 clusters of 24 households each. The sample was self- weighting. Although the sample size calculations called for 24 households per cluster, 28 households were selected, and a list of four reserve households made in each cluster. Selection was done using the household listing provided by the khokimiyat and/or the SSA. At least three callback visits were Dec. 05, 2000 13 made to each of the first 24 households, before moving to the additional four households selected. Due to the fact that khokimiyats keep comprehensive and up-to-date household listings, the use of replacement households was not necessary in rural areas, and was rarely necessary in urban areas. Questionnaires In the MICS, three modules were used: 1. Household Questionnaire 2. Individual Questionnaire for Women 3. Questionnaire for Children Under Five The questionnaires for the Uzbekistan MICS were based on the MICS Model Questionnaire with some modifications and additions. A household questionnaire was administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age, literacy, marital status, and orphaned status. The household questionnaire also includes education, child labor, water and sanitation, and salt iodization modules. The individual questionnaire for women between 15 and 49 years asked questions on the following issues: General information Child mortality Maternal and newborn health Contraceptive use HIV/AIDS The questionnaire for children under age five includes modules on: Birth registration and early learning Breastfeeding Care of illness Immunization For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother or caretaker of the child. The questionnaires were translated into two languages: Russian and Uzbek. Fieldwork and Processing The questionnaire was pre-tested in July and August, 2000. Fifty six employees of the State Statistical Department of the Ministry of Macro-Economy and Statistics of the Republic of Uzbekistan attended a three day training. Fourteen were chosen to be supervisors and had a further two days training. Pre-testing of questionnaire included a series of interviews carried out in Tashkent City and Tashkent Oblast. 14 field teams conducted data collection, each team was made up of four people, with one supervisor and three interviewers. All interviewers were female. The MICS Coordinator was responsible for monitoring all stages of MICS. The fieldwork began on July 24, 2000 and concluded on August 15, 2000. Skilled computer programmers and operators carried out data entry and processing. For this purpose 12 microcomputers were used. Data entry was done using ISSA, and computer analysis was done using the SPSS software. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under MICS and adapted to the Uzbekistan questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began on August 20, 2000 and finished on September 15, 2000. Dec. 05, 2000 14 III. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality Response Rates Of the 5478 households selected for the Uzbekistan MICS sample, 5313 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 97 percent. Thus the household response rate was 100%. (Table 1). This perfect response rate is explained by the fact that for each cluster 28 households were selected, with the first 24 being approached. If any of the first 24 households were not available, a replacement household was taken from the last four of the 28 selected. In rural areas, where local khokimiyats keep excellent household listings, replacement was not practiced. In urban areas, replacement was still infrequent, but occasionally necessary. In the interviewed households, 7859 eligible women aged 15-49 were identified. In addition, 3349 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. The total response rate for women was 99.1% and for children 100%. The main reason of non-response for women was absence during the interview. The percentage of response rate in rural areas was higher – 99.4% than in the city – 98.4%. Age Distribution As shown in Table 2 and Figure 1, the single year age distribution of household members by sex exhibits some heaping on ages 14 and 50 for females, and at age 6 and 7 for both sexes. As the detailed survey for women was aimed at those aged 15-49,this suggests that certain interviewers may have wanted to reduce their workload by reducing the number of eligible women. For both sexes, some digit preference is evident for ages ending in 0 and 5, a pattern typical of populations in which ages are not always known. Figure 1: Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, Uzbekistan, 2000 Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, 2000 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Age P er ce n t Male Female Dec. 05, 2000 15 Missing Data As a basic check on the quality of the survey data, the percentage of cases missing information on selected questions is shown in Table 3, and demonstrates a very low level of unanswered questions. Only 0.1 percent of household members have missing information on their level of education. Among female respondents, 0.3 percent did not report if they had been tested for AIDS. These low levels of missing data suggest that there were not significant problems with the questions and that the fieldwork was well organized. Characteristics of the Household Population Information on the characteristics of the household population and the survey respondents is provided to assist in the interpretation of the survey findings and to serve as a basic check on the sample implementation. Table 4 presents the percent distribution of households in the sample by background characteristics. In 81.1 percent of the interviewed families, there was at least one child under 15, and in 43.1 percent at least one child under five. 90.3 percent of families had at least one woman between 15 and 49 years of age. Of the sampled households, 37.7 percent were situated in urban areas, and 62.3 percent in urban areas. 36.2 percent of households had between four and five members, 30.1 percent had six to seven members, 14.1 percent had two to three members, ten percent had eight to nine members, and 6.4 percent had ten or more members. Table 5 shows the characteristics of female respondents aged 15-49. The largest group – 22 percent –was in the age bracket 15-19. This percentage declines with age, with 18.8 percent of women being in the bracket 20-24, and only 7.5 percent in the bracket 45-49. Of the total amount of interviewed women, 65.3 percent were married, 28.1 percent never married, and 6.6 percent divorced. The overwhelming majority of women have secondary or higher education – 99. 2 percent, with only 0.7 percent having only primary education. Table 6 shows the characteristics of children under age five. In the surveyed population, boys made up the higher proportion of children under five – 51.7 percent to 48.3 percent for girls. The mothers of children under five years of age also had very high education – 99.5 percent had secondary or higher education. Dec. 05, 2000 16 IV. Results A. Education Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the most important goals of the World Summit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labor and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. Early childhood education A system of “kindergarten-school” exists to provide early childhood education sector of Uzbekistan. The MICS results show that 20% of children aged 36-59 months are attending an organized early childhood education programme, such as kindergarten or community childcare with organized learning activities (Table 9). Approximately 18 percent of boys and 23 percent of girls are attending these programmes. Attendance of children who live in urban areas is 37 percent, while in rural areas it is 12 percent. The attendance rate of children aged 36-47 months is slightly less than those of 48-59 months (19 versus 21 percent). Basic education Overall, 90.7 percent of children of primary school age in Uzbekistan are attending primary school (Table 10). In urban areas, 74.3 percent of children attend school while in rural areas 73 percent attend. As the survey was done in July, however, most children who were seven at the time of the survey, would have been only six in September 1999, when school began, and thus would not have been eligible for primary school. For eleven year olds, of whom only 54 percent were reported as attending primary school, a significant percent of them would actually have been in secondary school/grade five, and thus attending school. A more accurate measure is to look at the percentage of eight to ten year olds attending primary school. Overall 90.7 percent of eight to ten year olds attend school. Literacy Ninety seven percent of the population over age 16 years in Uzbekistan is literate (Table 12). The literate population includes those who are reported to read ‘easily or with difficulty’. Overall, females are slightly less likely than males to be literate (96 versus 98 percent). For people 55-64, this rate drops to 93 percent, and for those older than 65, only 77 percent are literate, and for 13 percent of responses the answer was unknown. B. Water and Sanitation Use of drinking water Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as: cholera, typhoid, dysentery and other infectious diseases. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, particularly in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances. Dec. 05, 2000 17 In Uzbekistan, 19 percent of the population uses drinking water that is piped into their dwelling, 28 percent used water piped into their yard or plot, and 24 percent from public taps, which gives a total of 71 percent using piped water. In urban areas 90 percent of the population use piped water; 43 percent of the total population have water piped into their dwelling, 41 percent in their yard and 7 percent rely on public taps. In rural areas, eight percent of the population has water piped into their dwelling, 21 percent into the yard, and 32 percent use public taps; thus in total 61 percent rely on piped water. Thirteen percent of the rural population uses water from tubewells and boreholes, and four percent use protected dug wells. In total, in Uzbekistan, 84 percent have access to safe drinking water, of which 94 percent of those in urban areas, and 79 percent in rural areas. However, 21 percent of those in rural areas and 6 percent of those in urban areas use unsafe sources. Use of sanitation An important characteristic of sanitation is the type of toilet that the population uses. Sanitary means of excreta disposal include: flush toilets connected to sewage systems, other flush toile ts, improved pit latrines, and traditional pit latrines. In Uzbekistan, 89 percent of the population is living in households with sanitary means of excreta disposal (Table 14). This percentage is 97 in urban areas and 85 percent in rural areas. In the cities 32 percent use flush or pour-flush toilets and 65 percent use improved or traditional pit latrines. In rural areas, 85 percent use improved or traditional pit latrines, and less than one percent uses flush toilets. C. Child Malnutrition Breastfeeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon, and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. The World Summit for Children goal states that children should be exclusively breastfed for four to six months, that breastfeeding should be complemented with appropriate foods from the age of around six months, and that children continue to be breastfed for two or more years. In Table 16, breastfeeding status is based on women’s reports of children’s consumption in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusive breastfeeding refers to children who receive only breast milk and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine. Complementary feeding refers to children who receive breast milk and solid or semi-solid food. Early complementary feeding can decrease the production of breast milk. The last two columns of the table include children who are continuing to be breastfed at one and at two years of age. Percentages according to region and mother’s education are not shown due to small sample sizes. For the same reason, the sex and urban-rural residence breakdowns should be interpreted with caution. In Uzbekistan, approximately 22 percent of children aged less than four months are exclusively breastfed. At age 6-9 months, 45 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi- solid foods. By age 12-15 months, 76 percent of children are still being breastfed and by age 20- 23 months, 36 percent are still breastfed. It should be noted that for exclusive breastfeeding, 26 percent of children in rural areas are exclusively breastfed, but for children in urban areas, this figure is only 14 percent. Dec. 05, 2000 18 Figure 3 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding status by the child’s age in months. Even at the earliest ages, the majority of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk. The percentage of children exclusively breastfed diminishes rapidly to less than five percent after three months. While the exclusive breastfeeding rate is low, the rate of continued breastfeeding is high, with more than 80 percent of children still being breastfed at 12 months, and just over 50 percent at 18 months. The cases of children being exclusively breastfed or receiving breast milk and water only after the first six months and continuing even after 26 months are probably due to interviewer or data entry error, and/or the mother’s failure to understand the question. Figure 2. Percent distribution of living children by breastfeeding status, Uzbekistan, 2000 Salt iodization Deficiency of iodine in the diet is the world’s single greatest cause of preventable mental retardation and can lower the average intelligence quotient (IQ) of a population by as much as thirteen points. Salt iodization is an effective, low-cost way of preventing iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Adequately iodized salt contains 15 ppm (parts per million) of iodine or more. In MICS, interviewers tested household salt for iodine levels by means of a testing kit. Approximately 98 percent of households had salt that was tested during the MICS (Table 11). Among households in which salt was tested, 19 percent had adequately iodized salt. Twenty four percent of urban households had adequately iodized salt compared to 16 percent of rural households. Low birth weight Infants who weigh less than 2500 grams (2.5 kg.) at birth are categorized as low birth weight babies. Since many infants are not weighed at birth and those who are weighed may be a biased 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0- 1 2- 3 4- 5 6- 7 8- 9 10 -1 1 12 -1 3 14 -1 5 16 -1 7 18 -1 9 20 -2 1 22 -2 3 24 -2 5 26 -2 7 28 -2 9 30 -3 1 32 -3 3 34 -3 5 Age in months Exclusively breastfed Breast milk and water only Breast milk, liquids and solid/mushy food Not breastfeeding Dec. 05, 2000 19 sample of all births, reported birth weight cannot be used to estimate the prevalence of low birth weight among all children. Therefore, the percentage of births weighing below 2500 grams is estimated from two items in the questionnaire: the mother’s assessment of the child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth. Ninety four percent of births in the Uzbekistan MICS were weighed at birth. First, the two items are cross-tabulated for those children who were weighed at birth to obtain the proportion of births in each category of size who weighed less than 2500 grams. This proportion is then multiplied by the total number of children falling in the size category to obtain the estimated number of children in each size category who were of low birth weight. The numbers for each size category are summed to obtain the total number of low birth weight children. This number is divided by the total number of live births to obtain the percentage with low birth weight. In Uzbekistan, approximately six percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth (Table 20). This figure varies from nine percent in Region 5 (Khorezm and Karakalpakstan) to 4 percent in Region 3 (Tashkent Oblast, Sirdarya and Tashkent City). The prevalence of low birth weight births varies slightly across regions but does not vary much between urban and rural areas or by mother’s education. D. Child Health Immunization coverage According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diptheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. n Uzbekistan, health cards are kept at the local health centre. Interviewers took the names of children from the households, and went to the local health centers to check their health records, and copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS questionnaire. Mothers were also probed to report any vaccinations the child received that did not appear on the card. If the child did not have a card, the mother was read a short description of each vaccine and asked to recall whether or not the child had received it and, for DPT and Polio, how many times. Table 21 shows the percentage of children aged 12 to 23 months who received each of the vaccinations. The denominator for the table is comprised of children aged 12-23 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination card or the mother’s report. In the bottom panel, only those who were vaccinated before their first birthday are included. For children without vaccination cards, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. Approximately 98 percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to 98 percent. The percentage declines for subsequent doses of DPT to 96 percent for the second dose, and 94 percent for the third dose (Figure 4). Similarly, 96 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 94 percent by the third dose. The coverage for measles vaccine by 12 months is lower than for the other vaccines at 92 percent. As a result, the percentage of children who had all eight recommended vaccinations by their first birthday is 85 percent. Dec. 05, 2000 20 Figure 3: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months, Uzbekistan, 2000 In Table 22, the percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases is shown according to background characteristics. Unlike the previous table, the estimates in this table refer to children who received the vaccinations by the time of the survey, even if they did not occur prior to the age of 12 months. This figure rises to 93 percent of children having received all recommended vaccinations. Male and female children are vaccinated at roughly the same rate. Urban children are less likely to be vaccinated than rural children are (90 to 94 percent). Vaccination coverage in Region 3 (Tashkent Oblast, Sirdarya and Tashkent City) is lower than other regions at 86 percent. Diarrhea Dehydration caused by diarrhea is a major cause of mortality among children in Uzbekistan. Home management of diarrhea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) - can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhea. In the MICS questionnaire, mothers (or caretakers) were asked to report whether their child had had diarrhea in the two weeks prior to the survey. If so, the mother was asked a series of questions about what the child had to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually ate and drank. Overall, five percent of under five children had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table 23). Diarrhea prevalence was significantly higher in urban areas at seven percent and lower in rural areas at five percent. The peak of diarrhea prevalence occurs in the weaning period, among children age 6-23 months (10 percent). Table 23 also shows the percentage of children receiving various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhea. Since mothers were able to name more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add to 100. Forty two percent of children received breast milk while they had diarrhea. Children under age 12 months are especially likely to have received breast milk. About 48 percent of children received gruel and 32 percent received ORS. Approximately 94 percent of children with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). 75 80 85 90 95 100 B C G D P T 1 D P T 2 D P T 3 P o lio 0 P o lio 1 P o lio 2 P o lio 3 M ea sl es A ll va cc in a tio n s Dec. 05, 2000 21 Thirty nine percent of under five children with diarrhea drank more than usual while 51 percent drank the same or less (Table 24). About 43 percent ate somewhat less, the same, or more than usual while 52 percent ate much less than usual or none. Overall, only 19 percent of children with diarrhea received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended. Acute respiratory infection In the MICS questionnaire, children with acute respiratory infection are defined as those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were due to a problem in the chest, or both a problem in the chest and a blocked nose, or whose mother did not know the source of the problem. Acute lower respiratory infections, particularly pneumonia, are one of the leading causes of child deaths in Uzbekistan. As there were only seven cases, (or less than one percent) in total of ARI in under five children the two weeks prior to the survey, the results were not analyzed. IMCI initiative The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) is a programme developed by UNICEF and WHO that combines strategies for control and treatment of five major killers of children – acute lower respiratory tract infections, diarrheal dehydration, measles, malaria, and malnutrition. The programmed focuses on the improvement of case management skills by health workers, improvement of the health system, and improvement of family and community practices in the prevention and early management of childhood illnesses. Appropriate home management of illness is one component of IMCI. The approach teaches mothers that appropriate home management of diarrhea or any other illness requires giving more fluids and continuing to feed sick children as they are normally fed. Table 26 presents information on the drinking and eating behavior of sick children. Almost ten percent of children were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these, 41 percent drank more liquids during the illness and 48 percent continued eating (i.e., ate somewhat less, the same, or more). Overall, only 20 percent of ill children received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMCI programme. Promoting knowledge among caretakers about when it is appropriate to seek care for ill children is another important component of the IMCI programme. In the Uzbekistan MICS, mothers or caretakers of children were asked to name all of the symptoms that would cause them to take a child to a health facility right away. The most common response, given by 88 percent of mothers, was that they would take their child to a health facility right away if he/she developed a fever (Table 27). Fifty one percent said that the child becoming sicker would cause them to take the child to a health facility and 35 percent mentioned difficulty breathing, 30 percent fast breathing, 34 percent blood in stool, and 29 percent inability to drink or breastfeed. Overall, 74 percent of mothers knew at least two signs for seeking care immediately. E. HIV/AIDS AIDS knowledge One of the most important strategies for reducing the rate of HIV/AIDS infection is the promotion of accurate knowledge of how AIDS is transmitted and how to prevent transmission. Among women aged 15-49 in Uzbekistan, 74 percent have ever heard of AIDS (Table 30). This Dec. 05, 2000 22 percentage is very high in urban areas (84 percent) and somewhat lower in rural areas (69 percent). Women in the MICS were read several statements about means of HIV/AIDS transmission and asked to state whether they believed the statements were true. Forty three percent believe that having only one uninfected sex partner can prevent HIV transmission. Thirty percent believe that using a condom every time one has sex can prevent HIV transmission and 29 percent agreed that abstaining from sex prevents HIV transmission. Overall, 18 percent knew all three ways and 49 percent were aware of at least one of the means of preventing transmission. Also, education is a very important factor in AIDS knowledge. The percentage of women who have only primary education who have heard of AIDS is less than half of those with secondary education. Awareness differs across age groups, it is lowest for women aged 15-19 (57 percent). The percentage of women who know all three means of prevention varies from nine percent for women 15-19 to 22 percent for those 35-39 years old. Twenty seven percent of women correctly stated that AIDS cannot be transmitted by supernatural means whereas 18 percent stated that AIDS cannot be spread by mosquito bites (Table 31). Almost half of all women correctly believe that a healthy looking person can be infected. Women in rural areas are more likely to believe misconceptions about AIDS transmission than those in urban areas. Sixty percent of women in Uzbekistan know that AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child (Table 32). When asked specifically about the mechanisms through which mother to child transmission can take place, 57 percent said that transmission during pregnancy was possible, 53 percent said that transmission at delivery was possible, and only 49 percent agreed that AIDS can be transmitted through breast milk. Forty four percent of women knew all three modes of transmission from mother to child. Women from 15-19 years of age were the less likely to know three modes than older women. The MICS survey also attempted to measure discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. To this end, respondents were asked whether they agreed with two questions. The first asked whether a teacher who has the AIDS virus but is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching in school. The second question asked whether the respondent would buy food from a shopkeeper or food seller who the respondent knew to be infected with AIDS. The results are presented in Table 33. Six percent of the respondents believe that a teacher with HIV/AIDS should not be allowed to work. Urban women and those with secondary or higher education are more likely to express this discriminatory attitude than rural women and those with no or primary education. Three percent of women would not buy food from a person infected with AIDS. More than 92 percent of women did not agree with either of the discriminatory statements. Table 34 summarizes information from two previous tables on AIDS knowledge (Tables 30 and 31). The second column shows the percentage of women who know all three means of preventing HIV transmission – having on faithful uninfected partner, using a condom every time, and abstaining from sex. Only 18 percent of women know all three ways. The third column of the table shows the percentage of women who correctly identified all three misconceptions about HIV transmission – that HIV can be transmitted through supernatural means, that it can be transmitted through mosquito bites, and that a healthy looking person cannot be infected. Only nine percent of women correctly identified these misconceptions. Finally, the fourth column of Dec. 05, 2000 23 the table shows the percentage of women who have ‘sufficient knowledge’ of HIV/AIDS transmission. These are women who know all three ways of preventing HIV transmission and correctly identified all three misconceptions. Only three percent of women aged 15-49 fall into this category. Figure 4: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission by level of education; Uzbekistan, 2000 AIDS testing Voluntary testing for AIDS, accompanied by counseling, allows those infected to seek health care and to prevent the infection of others. Testing is particularly important for pregnant women who can then take steps to prevent infecting their babies. The indicators shown in Table 35 are designed to monitor whether women are aware of places to get tested for HIV/AIDS, the extent to which they have been tested, and the extent to which those tested have been told the result of the test. In some places, a relatively large proportion of people who are tested do not return to get their results due to fear of having the disease, fear that their privacy will be violated, or other reasons. Fifty five percent of women of reproductive age in Uzbekistan know a place to get tested for AIDS. Women with secondary or higher education are more likely to know of a place to get tested compared to those with only primary education (55 versus 24 percent). About 41 percent of women have been tested for AIDS. Ninety three percent of women who have been tested were told the result. This high rate of testing is due to mandatory testing for pregnant women. Although there have only been 190 official cases of AIDS in Uzbekistan to date, such testing could provide an important early warning system if AIDS were to become a more significant public health problem. Adolescent women (age 15-19) are the least likely of any age group to know a place to get tested and to have been tested. Finally, women with primary education are less likely than women with secondary or higher education to have been tested. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Heard of AIDS Know 3 ways to prevent HIV transmission Correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV transmission Have sufficient knowledge Urban Rural Total Dec. 05, 2000 24 F. Reproductive Health Contraception Current use of contraception was reported by 67 percent of married or in union women (Table 36). The most popular method is the IUD, which is used by 56 percent of married women in Uzbekistan. Seven percent in total used tablets, IUD, indictable, sterilization and the condom. Almost five percent use traditional methods such as periodic abstinence, withdrawal, and the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). Adolescents are far less likely to use contraception than older women. Only about 26 percent of married or in union women aged 15-19 currently use a method of contraception compared to 53 percent of 20-24 year olds and 72 percent of older women. Women’s education level is strongly associated with contraceptive prevalence. The percentage of women using any method of contraception is 45 percent among women with only primary education, and 67 percent among women with secondary or higher education. Prenatal care Quality prenatal care can contribute to the prevention of maternal mortality by detecting and managing potential complications and risk factors, including pre-eclampsia, anemia, and sexually transmitted diseases. Antenatal care also provides opportunities for women to learn the danger signs of pregnancy and delivery, to be immunized against tetanus, to learn about infant care, and be treated for existing conditions, such as malaria and anemia. Female respondents who had had a birth in the year prior to the Uzbekistan MICS were asked whether they had received antenatal care for the birth and, if so, what type of person provided the care. If the woman saw more than one type of provider, all were recorded in the questionnaire. Table 38 presents the percent distribution of women with a birth in the year prior to the MICS by the type of personnel who delivered antenatal care. If more than one provider was mentioned by the respondent, she is categorized as having seen the most skilled person she mentioned. Virtually all women in Uzbekistan receive some type of prenatal care and 97 percent receive antenatal care from skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife). Ninety one percent women with a birth in the year prior to the survey received antenatal care from a doctor, six percent from a nurse. Assistance at delivery The provision of delivery assistance by skilled attendants can greatly improve outcomes for mothers and children by the use of technically appropriate procedures, and accurate and speedy diagnosis and treatment of complications. Skilled assistance at delivery is defined as assistance provided by a doctor, nurse, or midwife. About 96 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MICS survey were assisted by skilled personnel (Table 39). There is no significant regional disparity. Only seven percent of the births in the year prior to the MICS survey were delivered with assistance by a nurse/midwife. Doctors assisted with the delivery of 88 percent of births and auxiliary midwives assisted with less than one percent. For urban women, doctors, and 87 percent of women in rural areas assisted 91 percent of births. In general mid-level health practitioners (nurse/midwives) did not play a significant role, in Region 5 (Khorezm and Dec. 05, 2000 25 Karakalpakstan), 12 of births were assisted by a nurse/midwife, but in other regions this was less than eight percent. G. Child Rights Birth registration The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. Almost 100 percent of births of children fewer than five years in Uzbekistan have been registered (Table 40). There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex, age, or education categories. This high coverage is explained by the fact that the state pays a bonus to parents for registering children. Orphanhood and living arrangements of children Children who are orphaned or living away from their parents may be at increased risk of impoverishment, discrimination, denial of property rights and rights to inheritance, various forms of abuse, neglect, and exploitation of their labor or sexuality. Monitoring the level of orphanhood and the living arrangements of children assists in identifying those who may be at risk and in tracking changes over time. In Uzbekistan, 93 percent of children aged 0-15 are living with both parents (Table 41). Only three percent of children live with their mothers only when their father is still alive, this figure is four times higher in urban areas than rural areas (6.2 versus 1.5 percent). Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise less than one percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to 3 percent of all children aged 0-15. Older children are more likely to live away without their biological parents than younger children. Child labor It is important to monitor the extent to which children work and the type of work in which they participate for several reasons. Children who are working are less likely to attend school and more likely to drop out. This pattern can trap children in a cycle of poverty and disadvantage. Working conditions for children are often unregulated with few safeguards against potential abuse. In addition, many types of work are intrinsically hazardous and others present less obvious hazards to children, such as exposure to pesticides in agricultural work, carrying heavy weights and scavenging in garbage dumps. In Uzbekistan, the MICS survey estimates that only about one percent of children aged 5-14 years engage in paid work (Table 42). 4.8 percent participate in unpaid work for someone other than a household member. ‘Domestic work’ is defined as cooking, shopping, cleaning, washing clothes, fetching water, and caring for children. Almost seventy percent of children do these tasks for less than four hours a days while nine percent spend more than four hours a day on such tasks. Overall, girls are somewhat more likely than boys and older children (aged 10-14) are more likely than younger children (aged 5-9 years) to do domestic work. Dec. 05, 2000 26 Appendix A: Sample Design Appendix B: List of Personnel Involved in the Uzbekistan MICS Appendix C: Questionnaires Table 1: Number of households and women, and response rates, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Area Urban Rural Total Sampled households 2066 3412 5478 Occupied households 2066 3412 5478 Completed households 2066 3412 5478 Household response rate 100,0 100,0 100,0 Eligible women 2595 5264 7859 Interviewed women 2558 5233 7791 Women response rate 98,6 99,4 99,1 Children under 5 999 2350 3349 Interviewed children under 5 999 2350 3349 Child response rate 100,0 100,0 100,0 Table 2: Single year age distribution of household population by sex, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Sex Sex Male Female Male Female Age Number Percent Number Percent Age Number Percent Number Percent 0 351 2,3 313 2 37 204 1,4 202 1,3 1 309 2 318 2,1 38 182 1,2 199 1,3 2 361 2,4 314 2,1 39 170 1,1 205 1,3 3 383 2,5 349 2,3 40 216 1,4 216 1,4 4 328 2,2 323 2,1 41 185 1,2 181 1,2 5 346 2,3 375 2,4 42 172 1,1 170 1,1 6 393 2,6 393 2,6 43 152 1 169 1,1 7 393 2,6 391 2,6 44 138 0,9 123 0,8 8 393 2,6 382 2,5 45 144 1 141 0,9 9 401 2,7 378 2,5 46 117 0,8 135 0,9 10 426 2,8 329 2,1 47 102 0,7 132 0,9 11 361 2,4 347 2,3 48 117 0,8 110 0,7 12 423 2,8 364 2,4 49 103 0,7 83 0,5 13 413 2,7 421 2,7 50 124 0,8 189 1,2 14 397 2,6 432 2,8 51 78 0,5 97 0,6 15 341 2,3 360 2,4 52 95 0,6 96 0,6 16 379 2,5 401 2,6 53 69 0,5 89 0,6 17 319 2,1 349 2,3 54 88 0,6 62 0,4 18 347 2,3 312 2 55 55 0,4 65 0,4 19 293 1,9 318 2,1 56 48 0,3 43 0,3 20 273 1,8 314 2,1 57 29 0,2 40 0,3 21 288 1,9 303 2 58 64 0,4 69 0,5 22 295 2 286 1,9 59 70 0,5 76 0,5 23 253 1,7 274 1,8 60 93 0,6 103 0,7 24 294 1,9 303 2 61 72 0,5 82 0,5 25 285 1,9 263 1,7 62 79 0,5 73 0,5 26 262 1,7 237 1,5 63 89 0,6 85 0,6 27 245 1,6 237 1,5 64 58 0,4 68 0,4 28 238 1,6 253 1,7 65 65 0,4 59 0,4 29 219 1,4 230 1,5 66 41 0,3 48 0,3 30 242 1,6 174 1,1 67 31 0,2 59 0,4 31 212 1,4 212 1,4 68 49 0,3 56 0,4 32 186 1,2 198 1,3 69 29 0,2 37 0,2 33 174 1,2 174 1,1 70+ 403 2,7 522 3,4 34 159 1,1 210 1,4 Missing/DK 4 0 4 0 35 181 1,2 207 1,4 Total 15105 100 15310 100 36 207 1,4 178 1,2 Table 3: Percentage of cases missing information for selected questions, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percent missing Number Level of education ,1 24979 Year of education ,0 24979 Number of hours worked ,0 487 Complete birth date ,0 7791 Date of last tetanus toxoid injection ,0 7791 Ever been tested for HIV ,3 5750 Table 4: Percent distribution of households by background characteristics, Uzbekistan, 2000 Area Urban Rural Total 1 Region 23,2 30,3 27,6 2 Region 20,9 36,6 30,7 3 Region 36,1 12,0 21,1 4 Region 9,3 9,8 9,6 5 Region 10,5 11,3 11,0 Number of HH members 1 6,1 1,6 3,3 2-3 22,7 8,8 14,1 4-5 38,3 34,9 36,2 6-7 23,2 34,2 30,1 8-9 5,7 12,6 10,0 10+ 4,0 7,9 6,4 Total 100,0 100,0 100,0 At least one child age < 15 72,1 86,5 81,1 At least one child age < 5 35,6 47,6 43,1 At least one woman age 15-49 84,5 93,8 90,3 Number 2066 3412 5478 Unweighted 2066 3412 5478 Table 5: Percent distribution of women 15-49 by background characteristics, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percent Number Unweighted 1 Region 27,8 2168 2168 2 Region 31,2 2428 2428 3 Region 19,8 1541 1541 4 Region 8,4 656 656 5 Region 12,8 998 998 Urban 32,8 2558 2558 Rural 67,2 5233 5233 Age 15-19 22,0 1714 1714 20-24 18,8 1465 1465 25-29 15,6 1215 1215 30-34 12,3 960 960 35-39 12,7 987 987 40-44 11,1 866 866 45-49 7,5 584 584 Marital status Currently married 65,3 5087 5087 Formerly married 6,6 512 512 Never married 28,1 2192 2192 Ever given birth Yes 67,0 5221 5221 No 33,0 2570 2570 Woman's education level Primary ,7 58 58 Secondary + 99,2 7726 7726 Missing/DK ,1 7 7 Total 100,0 7791 7791 Table 6: Percent distribution of children under 5 by background characteristics, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percent Number Unweighted Male 51,7 1732 1732 Female 48,3 1617 1617 1 Region 27,4 917 917 2 Region 34,9 1169 1169 3 Region 18,2 608 608 4 Region 7,0 234 234 5 Region 12,6 421 421 Urban 29,8 999 999 Rural 70,2 2350 2350 Age < 6 months 9,4 314 314 6-11 months 9,6 320 320 12-23 months 18,8 630 630 24-35 months 20,1 673 673 36-47 months 21,6 723 723 48-59 months 20,6 689 689 Total 100,0 3349 3349 Table 7: Mean number of children ever born (CEB) and proportion dead by mother's age, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Mother’s age Mean number of CEB Proportion dead Number of women 15-19 ,033 ,036 1714 20-24 ,864 ,057 1465 25-29 2,128 ,063 1215 30-34 2,979 ,062 960 35-39 3,722 ,080 987 40-44 4,370 ,089 866 45-49 4,935 ,096 584 Total 2,196 ,077 7791 Table 7w: Sex ratio at birth by mother's age, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Mother’s age Total number of boys Total number of girls Sex ratio at birth 15-19 31 25 1,24 20-24 636 630 1,01 25-29 1315 1271 1,03 30-34 1526 1334 1,14 35-39 1898 1776 1,07 40-44 1978 1806 1,10 45-49 1462 1420 1,03 Table 8: Infant mortality rate, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Infant mortality rate Under-five Mortality Rate Male .063 .082 Female .042 .056 Urban .056 .074 Rural .051 .067 National .052 .069 Table 9: Percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education programme, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Attending programme Number of children Male 17,6 727 Female 22,5 685 1 Region 22,7 362 2 Region 9,2 511 3 Region 37,2 258 4 Region 40,2 97 5 Region 9,8 184 Urban 37,3 421 Rural 12,6 991 Age 36-47 months 19,4 723 48-59 months 20,6 689 Total 20,0 1412 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 26 Table 10: Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5, Uzbekistan, 2000 Percent in grade 1 reaching grade 2 Percent in grade 2 reaching grade 3 Percent in grade 3 reaching grade 4 Percent in grade 4 reaching grade 5 Percent who reach grade 5 of those who enter grade 1 Male 97,2 98,5 97,5 96,4 90,1 Female 95,9 97,2 95,8 97,7 87,2 1 Region 100,0 100,0 100,0 99,3 99,3 2 Region 91,5 94,0 91,6 94,1 74,1 3 Region 100,0 100,0 99,3 98,1 97,4 4 Region 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 5 Region 98,7 100,0 98,7 100,0 97,4 Urban 97,7 98,8 97,0 97,0 90,8 Rural 96,1 97,5 96,6 97,1 87,8 National 96,6 97,9 96,7 97,0 88,7 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 6 Table 11: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, Uzbekistan, 2000 Male Female Total Attending Number Attending Number Attending Number 1 Region 77,5 475 75,4 475 76,4 950 2 Region 71,9 736 68,5 655 70,3 1391 3 Region 78,0 337 76,0 350 77,0 687 4 Region 64,3 168 73,5 132 68,3 300 5 Region 74,0 258 74,9 215 74,4 473 Urban 76,1 570 72,4 580 74,3 1150 Rural 73,0 1404 73,1 1247 73,0 2651 Age 7 38,2 393 41,7 391 39,9 784 8 89,3 393 90,8 382 90,1 775 9 94,5 401 93,7 378 94,1 779 10 89,0 426 86,6 329 87,9 755 11 55,4 361 52,4 347 54,0 708 Total 7-11 73,9 1974 72,9 1827 73,4 3801 Total 8-10 90,9 1220 90,5 1089 90,7 2309 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 6 Table 12: Percentage of the population aged 16 years and older that is literate, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Male Female Total Literate Not known Number Literate Not known Number Literate Not known Number 1 Region 98,0 1,2 2614 95,1 2,8 2720 96,6 2,0 5334 2 Region 97,8 1,4 2788 95,3 2,8 2881 96,6 2,1 5669 3 Region 98,8 ,6 1843 97,3 1,4 1979 98,0 1,0 3822 4 Region 97,5 1,6 751 96,3 2,5 801 96,8 2,1 1552 5 Region 97,3 1,3 1086 96,0 1,7 1136 96,6 1,5 2222 Urban 98,3 ,9 2986 96,7 1,9 3338 97,5 1,4 6324 Rural 97,9 1,3 6096 95,4 2,6 6179 96,6 2,0 12275 Age 16-24 99,4 ,5 2741 99,3 ,6 2860 99,3 ,5 5601 25-34 99,3 ,5 2222 99,2 ,6 2188 99,3 ,5 4410 35-44 99,4 ,3 1807 99,3 ,5 1850 99,3 ,4 3657 45-54 99,0 ,5 1037 97,3 1,4 1134 98,1 1,0 2171 55-64 96,7 1,7 657 88,9 5,8 704 92,7 3,8 1361 65+ 83,0 9,9 618 69,7 16,0 781 75,6 13,3 1399 Total 98,0 1,2 9082 95,8 2,3 9517 96,9 1,8 18599 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 7 Table 13: Percentage of the population using improved drinking water sources, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Main source of water Piped into dwell- ing Piped into yard or plot Public tap Tubewe ll/bore- hole with pump Protec ted dug well Protec ted spring Rain- water collect ion Unprot ected dug well Unprot ected spring Pond, river or stream Tanker truck vendor Other Missin g/DK Total Total with safe drink- ing water Number of persons 1 Region 5,6 34,2 46,3 5,0 ,2 ,5 ,1 ,0 ,2 6,5 ,9 ,5 ,1 100,0 91,9 8419 2 Region 18,5 24,3 19,8 8,7 4,9 1,2 ,0 ,5 ,1 5,4 13,8 2,8 ,0 100,0 77,4 9939 3 Region 42,2 30,8 14,9 6,2 ,3 ,9 ,0 ,1 ,0 ,7 1,8 1,8 ,2 100,0 95,5 5923 4 Region 15,4 13,7 14,5 7,6 3,5 4,2 ,0 ,4 ,3 11,9 28,4 ,0 ,2 100,0 58,9 2455 5 Region 16,6 25,2 5,5 29,2 7,8 ,0 ,0 4,2 ,4 7,2 3,5 ,1 ,2 100,0 84,3 3679 Urban 42,7 40,7 6,7 2,5 ,3 1,5 ,0 ,1 ,0 3,4 1,9 ,3 ,0 100,0 94,4 9846 Rural 7,7 21,3 32,3 13,0 4,2 ,8 ,0 1,0 ,2 6,6 10,7 2,0 ,1 100,0 79,4 20569 Total 19,1 27,6 24,0 9,6 2,9 1,0 ,0 ,7 ,2 5,5 7,8 1,4 ,1 100,0 84,3 30415 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 4 Table 14: Percentage of the population using sanitary means of excreta disposal, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Kind of toilet facility Flush to sewage system or septic tank Pour flush latrine (water seal type) Improved pit latrine (VIP) Traditiona l pit latrine Open pit Bucket Missing No facilities, bush, field Total Total with sanitary means of excreta disposal Number of persons 1 Region 3,4 1,5 38,9 45,1 10,8 ,0 ,2 ,1 100,0 88,8 8419 2 Region 2,3 ,3 6,1 69,6 20,3 ,1 1,1 ,3 100,0 78,3 9939 3 Region 18,4 14,7 22,0 43,8 ,6 ,0 ,4 ,0 100,0 99,0 5923 4 Region 12,4 1,0 30,0 56,3 ,0 ,0 ,2 ,0 100,0 99,8 2455 5 Region 6,4 ,3 30,0 58,1 3,7 ,0 1,5 ,0 100,0 94,8 3679 Urban 21,1 10,5 25,3 40,0 2,5 ,0 ,6 ,0 100,0 96,9 9846 Rural ,3 ,2 22,0 62,7 13,9 ,0 ,7 ,2 100,0 85,2 20569 Total 7,1 3,5 23,1 55,3 10,2 ,0 ,7 ,1 100,0 89,0 30415 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 5 Table 16: Percent of living children by breastfeeding status, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Exclusive breastfeeding Complementary feeding rate Breastfed Breastfed Children 0-3 months Number of children Children 6-9 months Number of children Children 12- 15 months Number of children Children 20- 23 months Number of children Male 22,1 104 42,5 113 76,0 104 41,1 112 Female 22,1 104 47,8 92 76,0 100 31,5 108 1 Region 16,9 59 50,0 62 75,5 53 39,7 68 2 Region 22,7 66 39,2 79 72,7 66 30,9 68 3 Region 19,0 42 53,6 28 62,9 35 30,8 39 4 Region 57,1 14 38,5 13 85,0 20 37,5 16 5 Region 18,5 27 43,5 23 93,3 30 48,3 29 Urban 14,1 64 47,8 46 72,6 62 33,3 72 Rural 25,7 144 44,0 159 77,5 142 37,8 148 Total 22,1 208 44,9 205 76,0 204 36,4 220 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 16 Table 16w: Percent distribution of children by breastfeeding status, Uzbekistan, 2000 Total Age in months Not breastfeeding Exclusively breastfed Breast milk and water only Breast milk liquids, and solid/mushy food Total Number of children 0-1 1,1 34,4 31,1 33.3 100,0 90 2-3 6,2 13,3 36,3 44.2 100,0 113 4-5 6,8 4,9 22,3 66 100,0 103 6-7 7,8 3,3 13,3 75.5 100,0 90 8-9 10,0 6,4 8,2 75.5 100,0 110 10-11 9,9 2,7 6,3 81.1 100,0 111 12-13 18,6 1,0 7,8 72.6 100,0 102 14-15 27,3 4,0 3,0 65.7 100,0 99 16-17 26,4 2,8 5,7 65.1 100,0 106 18-19 48,9 ,0 2,2 48.9 100,0 90 20-21 53,9 2,0 2,9 41.1 100,0 102 22-23 67,6 ,0 ,0 32.3 100,0 102 24-25 78,1 ,0 ,0 21.9 100,0 114 26-27 78,9 1,8 ,0 19.3 100,0 109 28-29 90,1 3,0 ,0 6.9 100,0 101 30-31 88,9 ,0 ,0 11.1 100,0 90 32-33 94,3 ,0 ,0 5.7 100,0 87 34-35 91,3 ,8 ,8 7.1 100,0 127 Table 17: Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt, Uzbekistan, 2000 Result of test Number of households interviewed Percent of households with no salt Percent of households in which salt was tested < 15 PPM 15+ PPM Total 1 Region ,3 99,5 83,5 16,5 1514 2 Region ,2 99,5 72,7 27,3 1682 3 Region ,3 93,8 83,5 16,5 1154 4 Region ,2 98,3 82,7 17,3 528 5 Region ,0 99,2 90,4 9,6 600 Urban ,2 96,4 75,9 24,1 2066 Rural ,2 99,2 83,7 16,3 3412 Total ,2 98,2 80,8 19,2 5478 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 14 Table 17: Percentage of population consuming adequately iodized salt, Uzbekistan, 2000 Result of test Number of persons Percent of population with no salt Percent of population in which salt was tested < 15 PPM 15+ PPM Total 1 Region ,3 99,5 84,7 15,3 8419 2 Region ,2 99,5 72,9 27,1 9939 3 Region ,3 95,4 86,6 13,4 5923 4 Region ,1 98,0 84,4 15,6 2455 5 Region ,0 98,8 91,1 8,9 3679 Urban ,2 97,2 77,1 22,9 9846 Rural ,2 99,1 84,2 15,8 20569 Total ,2 98,5 81,9 18,1 30415 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 14 Working table for table 20 Size of child at birth Number of weighed births Number of weighed births below 2500 grams Proportion of live births below 2500 grams Total number of births Estimated percent of live births below 2500 grams Very large 44,0 1,0 ,02 46,0 1,0 Larger than average 97,0 ,0 ,00 97,0 ,0 Average 443,0 9,0 ,02 456,0 9,3 Smaller than average 48,0 18,0 ,38 50,0 18,8 Very small 12,0 11,0 ,92 13,0 11,9 Missing 1,0 ,0 ,00 16,0 ,0 DK 1,0 ,0 ,00 8,0 ,0 Table 20: Percentage of live births in the last 12 months that weighed below 2500 grams at birth, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percent of live births below 2500 grams Percent of live births weighed at birth Number of live births 1 Region 7,3 94,4 196 2 Region 4,6 92,3 235 3 Region 4,0 95,3 128 4 Region 7,6 95,2 42 5 Region 9,0 96,5 85 Urban 5,3 94,4 198 Rural 6,3 94,1 488 Total 6,0 94,2 686 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 12 Table 20a. Birth weight and size at birth, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Birth weight Size of child at birth <2500 2500+ DK/Mis sing Not weigh- ed at birth Very large Larger than average Average Smaller than average Very small DK Total Number 1 Region 6,6 87,8 5,6 ,0 5,6 14,8 63,8 8,2 3,1 4,6 100,0 196 2 Region 5,1 87,2 3,8 3,8 8,1 15,7 66,8 6,0 ,9 2,6 100,0 235 3 Region 2,3 93,0 3,9 ,8 6,3 8,6 75,0 6,3 ,0 3,9 100,0 128 4 Region 11,9 83,3 4,8 ,0 4,8 14,3 66,7 4,8 4,8 4,8 100,0 42 5 Region 7,1 89,4 1,2 2,4 7,1 16,5 58,8 11,8 3,5 2,4 100,0 85 Urban 7,1 87,4 4,0 1,5 8,1 12,1 68,2 8,6 ,5 2,5 100,0 198 Rural 5,1 88,9 4,1 1,8 6,1 15,0 65,8 6,8 2,5 3,9 100,0 488 Total 5,7 88,5 4,1 1,7 6,7 14,1 66,5 7,3 1,9 3,5 100,0 686 Table 21 Percentage of children 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey, Republic of Uzbekistan, 2000 Vaccination Card 93,8 Mother's Report 5,1 BCG Not vaccinated 1,1 Vaccination Card 95,1 Mother's Report 3,3 DPT1 Not vaccinated 1,6 Vaccination Card 94,6 Mother's Report 3,0 DPT2 Not vaccinated 2,4 Vaccination Card 92,9 Mother's Report 2,9 DPT3 Not vaccinated 4,3 Vaccination Card 93,8 Mother's Report 2,5 Polio 0 Not vaccinated 3,7 Vaccination Card 95,1 Mother's Report 3,3 Polio 1 Not vaccinated 1,6 Vaccination Card 94,6 Mother's Report 3,0 Polio 2 Not vaccinated 2,4 Vaccination Card 93,7 Mother's Report 2,1 Polio 3 Not vaccinated 4,3 Vaccination Card 91,9 Mother's Report 5,1 Measles Not vaccinated 3,0 Vaccination Card 87,8 Mother's Report 5,2 All vaccinations Doesn't have all vaccinations 7,0 Mother's Report ,6 No vaccinations Has some vaccinations 99,4 Number of children 630,0 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Table 21 Percentage of children 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases before the first birthday, for children who had a complete date on their vaccination card, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 BCG 98.4 DPT 1 97.6 DPT 2 96.3 DPT 3 94.0 Polio 0 96.0 Polio 1 97.9 Polio 2 97.1 Polio 3 93.9 Measles 91.7 All vaccinations 85.0 No vaccinations 0.0 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Table 22: Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percentage of children who received: BCG DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All None Number of children Male 98,4 98,7 97,4 95,5 94,8 98,4 97,7 96,5 96,5 92,3 1,0 310 Female 99,4 98,1 97,8 95,9 97,8 98,4 97,5 95,0 97,5 93,8 ,3 320 1 Region 99,4 100,0 98,8 98,2 97,6 97,6 97,0 95,3 98,8 94,1 ,0 169 2 Region 98,6 97,6 97,6 96,2 94,3 98,6 98,1 96,7 96,2 94,7 1,0 209 3 Region 99,1 98,2 96,4 90,9 97,3 100,0 100,0 95,5 97,3 86,4 ,0 110 4 Region 98,1 96,3 96,3 96,3 98,1 96,3 96,3 96,3 96,3 96,3 1,9 54 5 Region 98,9 98,9 97,7 95,5 96,6 98,9 95,5 94,3 95,5 93,2 1,1 88 Urban 98,0 98,0 96,5 92,0 94,5 99,0 98,0 95,0 96,0 89,9 1,0 199 Rural 99,3 98,6 98,1 97,4 97,2 98,1 97,4 96,1 97,4 94,4 ,5 431 Total 98,9 98,4 97,6 95,7 96,3 98,4 97,6 95,7 97,0 93,0 ,6 630 Table 23: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks and treatment with ORS or ORT, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Children with diarrhea who received: Number of children with diarrhea Had diarrhea in last two weeks Number of children under 5 Breast milk Gruel Local acceptable ORS packet Other milk or infant formula Water with feeding Any recomme nded treatment No treatment 1,00 Male 5,5 1732 42,1 52,6 53,7 31,6 29,5 51,6 94,7 5,3 95 Female 5,1 1617 42,2 43,4 48,2 32,5 19,3 59,0 94,0 6,0 83 1 Region 6,1 917 50,0 67,9 53,6 41,1 28,6 67,9 96,4 3,6 56 2 Region 3,0 1169 40,0 25,7 51,4 34,3 20,0 28,6 88,6 11,4 35 3 Region 6,6 608 27,5 60,0 52,5 20,0 20,0 62,5 92,5 7,5 40 4 Region 4,7 234 45,5 36,4 36,4 27,3 36,4 72,7 90,9 9,1 11 5 Region 8,6 421 47,2 30,6 50,0 30,6 25,0 47,2 100,0 ,0 36 Urban 7,0 999 32,9 51,4 52,9 34,3 22,9 52,9 91,4 8,6 70 Rural 4,6 2350 48,1 46,3 50,0 30,6 25,9 56,5 96,3 3,7 108 Age < 6 months 5,1 314 93,8 18,8 6,3 37,5 18,8 31,3 100,0 ,0 16 6-11 months 9,4 320 80,0 50,0 46,7 43,3 20,0 60,0 100,0 ,0 30 12-23 months 9,8 630 53,2 56,5 54,8 35,5 25,8 62,9 95,2 4,8 62 24-35 months 4,9 673 9,1 63,6 60,6 30,3 21,2 60,6 93,9 6,1 33 36-47 months 3,0 723 ,0 36,4 63,6 13,6 31,8 50,0 95,5 4,5 22 48-59 months 2,2 689 ,0 26,7 53,3 20,0 33,3 33,3 73,3 26,7 15 Total 5,3 3349 42,1 48,3 51,1 32,0 24,7 55,1 94,4 5,6 178 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 23 Table 24: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks who took increased fluids and continued to feed during the episode, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Drinking during diarrhea Eating during diarrhea Number of children with diarrhea Had diarrhea in last two weeks Number of children under 5 More Same/Less Missing/ DK Total somewh at less/sam e/more Much less/none Missing/ DK Total Received increased fluids and continued eating 1,00 Male 5,5 1732 45,3 46,3 8,4 100,0 50,5 47,4 2,1 100,0 25,3 95 Female 5,1 1617 31,3 56,6 12,0 100,0 34,9 57,8 7,2 100,0 10,8 83 1 Region 6,1 917 35,7 53,6 10,7 100,0 44,6 48,2 7,1 100,0 19,6 56 2 Region 3,0 1169 34,3 51,4 14,3 100,0 31,4 60,0 8,6 100,0 17,1 35 3 Region 6,6 608 35,0 52,5 12,5 100,0 60,0 37,5 2,5 100,0 17,5 40 4 Region 4,7 234 27,3 72,7 ,0 100,0 18,2 81,8 ,0 100,0 9,1 11 5 Region 8,6 421 55,6 38,9 5,6 100,0 41,7 58,3 ,0 100,0 22,2 36 Urban 7,0 999 37,1 52,9 10,0 100,0 41,4 55,7 2,9 100,0 11,4 70 Rural 4,6 2350 39,8 50,0 10,2 100,0 44,4 50,0 5,6 100,0 23,1 108 Age < 6 months 5,1 314 12,5 87,5 ,0 100,0 43,8 37,5 18,8 100,0 6,3 16 6-11 months 9,4 320 30,0 56,7 13,3 100,0 36,7 60,0 3,3 100,0 13,3 30 12-23 months 9,8 630 45,2 41,9 12,9 100,0 41,9 54,8 3,2 100,0 22,6 62 24-35 months 4,9 673 51,5 42,4 6,1 100,0 54,5 42,4 3,0 100,0 30,3 33 36-47 months 3,0 723 36,4 59,1 4,5 100,0 31,8 68,2 ,0 100,0 9,1 22 48-59 months 2,2 689 33,3 46,7 20,0 100,0 53,3 40,0 6,7 100,0 13,3 15 Total 5,3 3349 38,8 51,1 10,1 100,0 43,3 52,2 4,5 100,0 18,5 178 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 23 Table 25: Percentage of under-five children with acute respiratory infection in the last two weeks and treatment by health providers, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Children with ARI who were taken to: Number of children with ARI Had acute respir- atory infection Number of children under 5 Hospital Health centre Dispens ary Village health worker MCH clinic Mobile/ outreach clinic Private physician Trad- itional healer Other Any appropri ate provider 1,00 Male ,2 1732 50,0 ,0 25,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 50,0 4 Female ,2 1617 ,0 ,0 ,0 66,7 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 66,7 3 1 Region ,2 917 50,0 ,0 50,0 50,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 2 2 Region ,3 1169 ,0 ,0 ,0 25,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 25,0 4 3 Region ,2 608 100,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 1 4 Region ,0 234 , , , , , , , , , , 0 5 Region ,0 421 , , , , , , , , , , 0 Urban ,3 999 33,3 ,0 33,3 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 33,3 3 Rural ,2 2350 25,0 ,0 ,0 50,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 75,0 4 Age < 6 months ,3 314 100,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 1 6-11 months ,3 320 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 1 12-23 months ,2 630 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 1 24-35 months ,1 673 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 1 36-47 months ,1 723 100,0 ,0 100,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 1 48-59 months ,3 689 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 2 Total ,2 3349 28,6 ,0 14,3 28,6 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 57,1 7 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 24 Table 26: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age reported ill during the last two weeks who received increased fluids and continued feeding,Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Drinking during illness Eating during illness Number of sick children Reported illness in last two weeks Number of children under 5 More Same/ Less Missing/ DK Total somewhat less/same/ more Much less/none Missing/ DK Total Received increased fluids and continued eating 1,00 Male 10,3 1732 44,9 50,0 5,1 100,0 53,4 44,9 1,7 100,0 25,3 178 Female 9,2 1617 36,5 56,1 7,4 100,0 40,5 54,1 5,4 100,0 13,5 148 1 Region 11,0 917 36,6 56,4 6,9 100,0 47,5 47,5 5,0 100,0 18,8 101 2 Region 6,2 1169 45,8 47,2 6,9 100,0 43,1 51,4 5,6 100,0 23,6 72 3 Region 13,7 608 41,0 53,0 6,0 100,0 62,7 36,1 1,2 100,0 22,9 83 4 Region 7,7 234 33,3 66,7 ,0 100,0 16,7 83,3 ,0 100,0 5,6 18 5 Region 12,4 421 46,2 48,1 5,8 100,0 40,4 57,7 1,9 100,0 17,3 52 Urban 14,1 999 42,6 51,8 5,7 100,0 44,0 53,9 2,1 100,0 15,6 141 Rural 7,9 2350 40,0 53,5 6,5 100,0 50,3 45,4 4,3 100,0 23,2 185 Age < 6 months 7,3 314 13,0 82,6 4,3 100,0 52,2 30,4 17,4 100,0 8,7 23 6-11 months 15,6 320 30,0 60,0 10,0 100,0 38,0 58,0 4,0 100,0 12,0 50 12-23 months 15,4 630 49,5 42,3 8,2 100,0 46,4 51,5 2,1 100,0 25,8 97 24-35 months 9,7 673 46,2 50,8 3,1 100,0 58,5 38,5 3,1 100,0 29,2 65 36-47 months 7,3 723 39,6 58,5 1,9 100,0 41,5 58,5 ,0 100,0 13,2 53 48-59 months 5,5 689 44,7 47,4 7,9 100,0 50,0 47,4 2,6 100,0 15,8 38 Total 9,7 3349 41,1 52,8 6,1 100,0 47,5 49,1 3,4 100,0 19,9 326 Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Table 27: Percentage of caretakers of children 0-59 months who know at least 2 signs for seeking care immediately, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Knows child should be taken to health care facility if child: Not able to drink/brea stfeed Becomes sicker Develops a fever Has fast breathing Has difficult breathing Has blood in stool Is drinking poorly Knows at least two signs Number of caretakers 1 Region 35,6 59,0 84,4 31,8 43,0 32,6 14,4 69,6 917 2 Region 23,3 52,7 92,4 21,0 27,0 24,5 10,4 83,7 1169 3 Region 16,3 31,6 85,9 25,3 28,6 42,1 8,1 70,4 608 4 Region 35,0 49,6 95,3 75,6 53,4 73,5 37,6 94,4 234 5 Region 43,7 59,4 81,5 29,7 38,5 28,0 14,3 49,9 421 Urban 21,9 44,4 86,5 26,8 30,8 37,0 10,2 69,4 999 Rural 31,7 54,1 88,4 30,9 36,7 32,4 14,9 75,8 2350 Mother's education level Primary 20,0 66,7 80,0 20,0 13,3 20,0 13,3 60,0 15 Secondary 28,8 51,2 87,9 29,7 35,1 33,8 13,5 74,0 3333 Missing/DK ,0 ,0 100,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 1 Total 28,8 51,2 87,8 29,7 35,0 33,8 13,5 73,9 3349 Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Table 30: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percent who know transmission can be prevented by: Number of women Heard of AIDS Have only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Abstaining from sex Knows all three ways Knows at least one way Doesn't know any way 1,00 1 Region 73,8 43,2 30,5 30,1 19,1 49,8 50,2 2168 2 Region 65,4 40,1 23,1 24,1 15,7 42,8 57,2 2428 3 Region 81,3 47,2 34,1 26,2 15,2 53,7 46,3 1541 4 Region 78,4 36,1 27,9 25,5 15,7 44,2 55,8 656 5 Region 79,6 43,6 42,5 46,1 26,2 59,1 40,9 998 Urban 83,5 49,4 37,4 30,6 19,0 57,0 43,0 2558 Rural 69,1 39,1 26,8 28,4 17,4 45,3 54,7 5233 Age 15-19 56,7 25,7 15,5 16,8 9,3 30,1 69,9 1714 20-24 72,7 40,3 30,0 27,1 18,7 47,0 53,0 1465 25-29 83,0 50,5 37,0 35,6 21,4 58,8 41,2 1215 30-34 81,4 50,0 34,5 34,5 20,4 56,7 43,3 960 35-39 82,1 52,7 36,9 34,4 22,3 59,0 41,0 987 40-44 80,3 49,0 36,5 33,9 20,4 56,8 43,2 866 45-49 71,9 41,6 32,7 31,7 18,5 49,7 50,3 584 Woman's education level Primary 32,8 19,0 15,5 15,5 10,3 20,7 79,3 58 Secondary + 74,1 42,7 30,4 29,2 18,0 49,4 50,6 7726 Missing/DK 71,4 14,3 14,3 28,6 14,3 28,6 71,4 7 Total 73,8 42,5 30,3 29,1 17,9 49,1 50,9 7791 Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Table 31: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who correctly identify misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percent who know that: AIDS cannot be transmitted by: Number of women Heard of AIDS AIDS can't be transmitted by supernatural means AIDS can't be transmitted by mosquito bites A healthy looking person can be infected Knows all three misconcepti ons Knows at least one misconcepti on Doesn't correctly identify any misconcepti on 1,00 1 Region 73,8 24,2 13,1 51,6 7,3 59,1 40,9 2168 2 Region 65,4 23,8 14,3 38,3 4,8 47,9 52,1 2428 3 Region 81,3 36,7 22,3 55,4 13,5 66,0 34,0 1541 4 Region 78,4 27,9 23,6 49,1 14,0 56,1 43,9 656 5 Region 79,6 28,6 25,2 51,4 15,5 59,6 40,4 998 Urban 83,5 37,0 24,3 57,7 14,6 67,9 32,1 2558 Rural 69,1 22,7 14,5 43,2 6,8 51,4 48,6 5233 Age 15-19 56,7 17,5 12,5 35,4 6,0 41,2 58,8 1714 20-24 72,7 27,7 17,5 47,8 9,7 56,2 43,8 1465 25-29 83,0 32,3 21,4 54,7 11,9 65,3 34,7 1215 30-34 81,4 30,3 18,3 54,1 9,4 64,0 36,0 960 35-39 82,1 31,7 18,9 55,1 11,1 63,6 36,4 987 40-44 80,3 31,2 19,5 49,9 8,8 61,7 38,3 866 45-49 71,9 28,3 20,0 46,4 11,1 56,0 44,0 584 Woman's education level Primary 32,8 10,3 6,9 25,9 5,2 25,9 74,1 58 Secondary + 74,1 27,6 17,8 48,1 9,4 57,0 43,0 7726 Missing/DK 71,4 14,3 ,0 57,1 ,0 57,1 42,9 7 Total 73,8 27,4 17,7 48,0 9,4 56,8 43,2 7791 Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Table 32: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percent who know AIDS can be transmitted: Number of women Know AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child Transmission during pregnancy possible Transmission at delivery possible Transmission through breastmilk possible Knows all three Did not know any specific way 1,00 1 Region 63,6 61,3 58,9 57,6 53,4 36,9 2168 2 Region 51,2 48,1 42,8 39,2 32,7 50,1 2428 3 Region 64,3 61,6 58,3 48,2 44,7 36,5 1541 4 Region 65,7 62,0 59,5 52,9 48,9 35,7 656 5 Region 59,5 56,2 51,4 50,2 45,0 41,8 998 Urban 66,7 63,3 59,9 51,4 46,5 34,1 2558 Rural 56,0 53,4 49,4 47,3 42,5 45,1 5233 Age 15-19 41,4 38,5 34,5 33,6 29,1 60,1 1714 20-24 59,2 56,3 51,6 48,9 44,1 41,9 1465 25-29 67,6 64,3 60,3 55,1 49,4 33,4 1215 30-34 67,6 64,5 60,3 55,3 49,3 33,5 960 35-39 67,4 64,9 61,3 55,3 50,1 32,8 987 40-44 66,6 64,1 61,9 54,3 50,2 33,8 866 45-49 59,6 57,2 54,3 47,9 45,4 41,4 584 Woman's education level Primary 22,4 20,7 20,7 22,4 19,0 77,6 58 Secondary + 59,8 56,9 53,1 48,8 44,0 41,2 7726 Missing/DK 57,1 57,1 42,9 42,9 28,6 42,9 7 Total 59,5 56,7 52,9 48,6 43,8 41,5 7791 Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Table 33: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who express a discriminatory attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Percent of women who: Number of women Believe that a teacher with HIV should not be allowed to work Would not buy food from a person with HIV/AIDS Agree with at least one discriminatory statement Agree with neither discriminatory statement 1,00 1 Region 4,7 2,8 6,2 93,8 2168 2 Region 3,7 1,3 4,6 95,4 2428 3 Region 11,5 5,2 13,2 86,8 1541 4 Region 9,5 7,2 11,3 88,7 656 5 Region 4,6 3,8 7,2 92,8 998 Urban 10,6 5,4 12,8 87,2 2558 Rural 3,9 2,2 5,1 94,9 5233 Age 15-19 3,6 2,0 4,8 95,2 1714 20-24 5,9 2,6 7,3 92,7 1465 25-29 7,2 4,2 9,1 90,9 1215 30-34 7,9 4,7 10,1 89,9 960 35-39 6,4 3,2 7,5 92,5 987 40-44 7,7 3,8 9,5 90,5 866 45-49 6,2 3,8 7,4 92,6 584 Woman's education level Primary 1,7 ,0 1,7 98,3 58 Secondary + 6,2 3,3 7,7 92,3 7726 Missing/DK ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 7 Total 6,1 3,3 7,6 92,4 7791 Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Table 34: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Number of women Heard of AIDS Know 3 ways to prevent HIV transmission Correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV transmission Have sufficient knowledge 1,00 1 Region 73,8 19,1 7,3 1,8 2168 2 Region 65,4 15,7 4,8 1,2 2428 3 Region 81,3 15,2 13,5 2,1 1541 4 Region 78,4 15,7 14,0 4,1 656 5 Region 79,6 26,2 15,5 8,7 998 Urban 83,5 19,0 14,6 3,3 2558 Rural 69,1 17,4 6,8 2,4 5233 Age 15-19 56,7 9,3 6,0 1,7 1714 20-24 72,7 18,7 9,7 3,0 1465 25-29 83,0 21,4 11,9 3,4 1215 30-34 81,4 20,4 9,4 2,6 960 35-39 82,1 22,3 11,1 3,2 987 40-44 80,3 20,4 8,8 2,3 866 45-49 71,9 18,5 11,1 3,8 584 Woman's education level Primary 32,8 10,3 5,2 2,7 58 Secondary + 74,1 18,0 9,4 3,4 7726 Missing/DK 71,4 14,3 ,0 ,0 7 Total 73,8 17,9 9,4 2,7 7791 Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Table 35: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who know where to get an AIDS test and who have been tested, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Number of women Know a place to get tested Have been tested If tested, have been told result 1,00 1 Region 58,3 43,8 98,0 2168 2 Region 37,5 24,7 89,8 2428 3 Region 69,0 49,4 89,0 1541 4 Region 59,6 39,8 85,4 656 5 Region 65,3 59,4 96,8 998 Urban 65,0 48,2 92,9 2558 Rural 50,0 36,9 93,1 5233 Age 15-19 32,7 17,4 92,6 1714 20-24 54,2 39,7 93,3 1465 25-29 66,8 53,3 92,9 1215 30-34 64,9 52,9 93,5 960 35-39 63,7 48,3 94,1 987 40-44 62,8 46,9 93,3 866 45-49 54,5 42,0 89,4 584 Woman's education level Primary 24,1 22,4 100,0 58 Secondary + 55,2 40,8 93,0 7726 Missing/DK 28,6 14,3 ,0 7 Total 54,9 40,6 93,0 7791 Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Table 36: Percentage of married or in union women aged 15-49 who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Current method Number of currently married women No method Female steriliza tion Male sterili zation Pill IUD Injecti ons Con dom Female condom Diaphra gm/foa m/jelly LAM Periodic abstinen ce Withdr awal Othe r Total Any mod ern meth od Any traditio nal method Any method 1,00 1 Region 27,7 ,7 ,0 2,6 63,5 ,9 ,7 ,1 ,0 ,3 1,6 1,7 ,1 100,0 68,6 3,7 72,3 1475 2 Region 36,0 1,8 ,1 2,8 53,1 1,3 ,6 ,1 ,0 1,0 2,0 ,3 ,9 100,0 59,9 4,1 64,0 1568 3 Region 40,3 1,6 ,0 3,7 42,2 1,4 1,3 ,2 ,1 3,0 1,3 3,6 1,3 100,0 50,6 9,2 59,7 983 4 Region 30,2 3,7 ,2 2,6 57,4 1,2 ,5 ,0 ,0 2,1 ,9 ,5 ,7 100,0 65,6 4,2 69,8 430 5 Region 26,8 ,0 ,0 ,5 68,9 1,9 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,2 ,5 ,2 1,1 100,0 71,3 1,9 73,2 631 Urban 36,2 1,9 ,1 3,7 49,1 1,5 1,4 ,1 ,1 1,5 1,7 1,7 ,9 100,0 58,0 5,8 63,8 1610 Rural 31,2 1,2 ,1 2,1 59,7 1,2 ,4 ,1 ,0 1,0 1,4 1,1 ,7 100,0 64,6 4,2 68,8 3477 Age 15-19 74,2 ,8 ,0 ,8 21,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 2,4 ,0 ,8 ,0 100,0 22,6 3,2 25,8 124 20-24 46,9 ,3 ,0 2,0 46,1 ,9 ,4 ,0 ,0 1,7 1,1 ,6 ,0 100,0 49,7 3,4 53,1 937 25-49 28,2 1,7 ,1 2,8 59,8 1,4 ,8 ,1 ,0 1,0 1,6 1,5 1,0 100,0 66,7 5,1 71,8 4026 Woman's education level Primary 54,8 ,0 ,0 3,2 35,5 ,0 3,2 ,0 ,0 ,0 3,2 ,0 ,0 100,0 41,9 3,2 45,2 31 Secondary + 32,6 1,4 ,1 2,6 56,5 1,3 ,7 ,1 ,0 1,1 1,5 1,3 ,8 100,0 62,7 4,7 67,4 5053 Missing/DK 66,7 ,0 ,0 ,0 33,3 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 33,3 ,0 33,3 3 Total 32,8 1,4 ,1 2,6 56,3 1,3 ,7 ,1 ,0 1,1 1,5 1,3 ,8 100,0 62,5 4,7 67,2 5087 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 10 Table 38: Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the last year by type of personnel delivering antenatal ccare,Republic of Uzbekistan, 2000 Person delivering antenatal care Number of women Doctor Nurse/midwif e Auxiliary midwife Other/missin g No antenatal care received Total Any skilled personnel 1,00 1 Region 92,3 5,6 ,0 2,0 ,0 100,0 98,0 196 2 Region 88,9 5,5 2,1 ,4 3,0 100,0 96,6 235 3 Region 94,5 3,1 ,0 2,3 ,0 100,0 97,7 128 4 Region 90,5 4,8 ,0 4,8 ,0 100,0 95,2 42 5 Region 91,8 5,9 ,0 1,2 1,2 100,0 97,6 85 Urban 98,0 ,5 ,0 1,0 ,5 100,0 98,5 198 Rural 88,7 7,0 1,0 1,8 1,4 100,0 96,7 488 Total 91,4 5,1 ,7 1,6 1,2 100,0 97,2 686 World Summit for Children Goals => Numbers 9, 11 Table 39: Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the last year by type of personnel assisting at delivery Republic of Uzbekistan, 2000 Person assisting at delivery Number of women Doctor Nurse/ midwife Auxiliary midwife Traditional birth attendant Relative/ friend Other/ missing No assistance received Total Any skilled personnel 1,00 1 Region 89,8 7,1 ,5 ,5 ,0 2,0 ,0 100,0 97,4 196 2 Region 84,7 7,7 1,3 1,7 2,1 ,9 1,7 100,0 93,6 235 3 Region 91,4 4,7 ,0 ,0 ,0 2,3 1,6 100,0 96,1 128 4 Region 95,2 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 4,8 ,0 100,0 95,2 42 5 Region 83,5 11,8 1,2 ,0 2,4 1,2 ,0 100,0 96,5 85 Urban 91,4 4,0 ,5 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 100,0 96,0 198 Rural 86,5 8,2 ,8 ,6 1,0 2,0 ,8 100,0 95,5 488 Woman's education level Primary ,0 33,3 33,3 ,0 ,0 33,3 ,0 100,0 66,7 3 Secondary + 88,3 6,9 ,6 ,7 1,0 1,6 ,9 100,0 95,8 683 Total 87,9 7,0 ,7 ,7 1,0 1,7 ,9 100,0 95,6 686 World Summit for Children Goal => Numbers 11 Table 40: Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reasons for non-registration, Republic of Uzbekistan, 2000 Registration status Number of children Birth registered DK if birth registered Must travel too far Other Total 1,00 Male 99,5 ,1 ,1 ,4 100,0 1732 Female 99,6 ,4 ,0 ,1 100,0 1617 1 Region 99,6 ,3 ,1 ,0 100,0 917 2 Region 99,3 ,0 ,0 ,7 100,0 1169 3 Region 99,8 ,2 ,0 ,0 100,0 608 4 Region 99,6 ,4 ,0 ,0 100,0 234 5 Region 99,5 ,5 ,0 ,0 100,0 421 Urban 99,5 ,3 ,0 ,2 100,0 999 Rural 99,5 ,2 ,0 ,3 100,0 2350 Age < 6 months 97,5 ,6 ,0 1,9 100,0 314 6-11 months 99,7 ,0 ,3 ,0 100,0 320 12-23 months 99,7 ,2 ,0 ,2 100,0 630 24-35 months 99,7 ,3 ,0 ,0 100,0 673 36-47 months 99,6 ,3 ,0 ,1 100,0 723 48-59 months 100,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 100,0 689 Total 99,5 ,2 ,0 ,2 100,0 3349 Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Table 41: Percentage of children 0-15 years of age in households not living with a biological parent,Republic of Uzbekistan 2000 Living arrangement Living with both parents Living with neither: only father alive Living with neither: only mother alive Living with neither: both are alive Living with neither: both are dead Living with mother only: father alive Living with mother only: father dead Living with father only: mother alive Living with father only: mother dead Imposs ible to determi ne Total Not living with a biologica l parent One or both parents dead Number of children Male 92,8 ,1 ,2 ,4 ,1 2,9 2,2 ,3 ,5 ,4 100,0 ,9 3,1 6019 Female 92,9 ,1 ,0 ,4 ,1 2,9 1,9 ,2 ,9 ,6 100,0 ,6 3,0 5789 1 Region 92,8 ,1 ,1 ,6 ,1 3,4 1,9 ,2 ,6 ,3 100,0 ,8 2,8 3083 2 Region 94,3 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,1 1,7 1,8 ,4 ,7 ,4 100,0 ,7 2,8 4265 3 Region 89,8 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,1 5,3 2,9 ,3 ,3 ,7 100,0 ,8 3,5 2101 4 Region 92,5 ,1 ,0 ,3 ,2 3,1 ,8 ,3 1,2 1,4 100,0 ,7 2,3 902 5 Region 93,6 ,1 ,2 ,2 ,1 1,6 2,3 ,1 1,4 ,3 100,0 ,6 4,1 1457 Urban 88,1 ,1 ,2 ,5 ,1 6,2 2,8 ,3 ,7 ,9 100,0 1,0 4,1 3521 Rural 94,9 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,1 1,5 1,7 ,3 ,7 ,3 100,0 ,7 2,6 8287 Age 0-4 years 96,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 2,7 ,8 ,1 ,1 ,1 100,0 ,1 1,0 3349 5-9 years 93,6 ,1 ,2 ,4 ,1 3,0 1,6 ,2 ,7 ,2 100,0 ,7 2,6 3845 10-15 years 90,0 ,2 ,1 ,7 ,2 2,9 3,3 ,4 1,1 1,1 100,0 1,2 4,9 4614 Total 92,9 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,1 2,9 2,0 ,3 ,7 ,5 100,0 ,8 3,1 11808 Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Table 42: Percentage of children 5-15 years of age who are currently working,Republic of Uzbekistan, 2000 Paid work Unpaid work Domestic work: < 4 hours/day Domestic work: 4 or more hours/day Other work Currently working Number of children Male 0,9 5,1 66,9 8,9 14 26,2 4287 Female 1,1 4,4 70 9,6 7,5 20,5 4172 1 Region 0,7 4,2 61,8 13,6 11,5 27,9 2166 2 Region 0,7 5,4 70,2 8,5 5,8 18,8 3096 3 Region 1,1 4 69,6 10,1 13,6 25,2 1493 4 Region 0,4 6,1 69,9 6,3 38,8 45,5 668 5 Region 2,5 4,2 74,7 3 1,8 11 1036 Urban 1,4 3,9 73,4 6,2 4 14,6 2522 Rural 0,8 5,1 66,3 10,5 13,7 27,2 5937 5-9 years 0,5 2,7 58 3,2 5,9 11,2 3845 10-15 years 1,4 6,5 77,2 14,3 14,8 33,6 4614 Total 1 4,8 68,4 9,3 10,8 23,4 8459 Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator

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