Republic of Belarus: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2005

Publication date: 2006

Republic of Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2005 Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 2007 2 Contributors to the report: Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) The Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS-3) was carried by the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus in collaboration with the Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus. Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. The survey has been conducted as part of the third round of MICS surveys (MICS3), carried out around the world in more than 50 countries, in 2005-2006, following the first two rounds of MICS surveys that were conducted in 1995 and the year 2000. Survey tools are based on the models and standards developed by the global MICS project, designed to collect information on the situation of children and women in countries around the world. Additional information on the global MICS project may be obtained from www.childinfo.org. Suggested citation: Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus and Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus 2007. Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2005, Final Report. Minsk, Republic of Belarus: Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus and Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus. 3 Table of Contents Summary Table of Findings . 5 List of Tables . 8 List of Figures .9 Abbreviations and Remarks .10 Acknowledgements .11 Executive Summary .12 I. Introduction.15 Background .15 Survey Objectives .16 II. Sample and Survey Methodology .17 Sample Design .17 Questionnaires .17 Training and Fieldwork .18 Data Processing .18 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents.19 Sample Coverage.19 Characteristics of Households.19 Characteristics of Respondents.20 IV. Nutrition .21 Nutritional Status .21 Breastfeeding .22 Low Birth Weight Infants.24 V. Child Health .25 Immunization .25 Oral Rehydration Treatment .27 Care Seeking with Suspected Pneumonia and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia .29 Solid Fuel Use .30 VI. Environment .31 Water and Sanitation .31 VII. Reproductive Health .35 Contraception .35 Antenatal Care.35 Assistance at Delivery .36 VIII. Child Development .37 4 IX. Education . 38 Pre-School Attendance and School Readiness. 38 Primary and Secondary School Participation. 38 Adult Literacy . 40 X. Child Protection . 41 Child Labour . 41 Child Discipline . 42 Early Marriage . 42 Orphans and Vulnerable Children . 44 XI. HIV/AIDS. 45 Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Condom Use. 45 List of References . 49 Statistical Data Tables . 49 Appendix A. Sample Design . 103 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey . 106 Appendix C. Wealth Index .………107 Appendix D. Estimates of Sampling Errors ….………108 Appendix E. Data Quality Tables . 130 Appendix F. MICS Indicators: Numerators and Denominators . 138 Appendix G. Questionnaires . 143 5 Summary Table of Findings Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, Republic of Belarus, 2005 Topic MICS Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value NUTRITION 6 4 Underweight prevalence 1.0 per cent 7 Stunting prevalence 2.5 per cent Nutritional status 8 Wasting prevalence 1.3 per cent 45 Timely initiation of breastfeeding 21.1 per cent 15 Exclusive breastfeeding rate 9.0 per cent 16 Continued breastfeeding rate at 12-15 months at 20-23 months 18.0 3.6 per cent 17 Timely complementary feeding rate 38.3 per cent 18 Frequency of complementary feeding 27.9 per cent Breastfeeding 19 Adequately fed infants 17.8 per cent 9 Low birth weight infants 3.8 per cent Low birth weight infants 10 Infants weighed at birth 99.3 per cent CHILD HEALTH 25 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 99.2 per cent 26 Polio immunization coverage 96.5 per cent 27 DPT immunization coverage 96.7 per cent 28 15 Measles immunization coverage 96.9 per cent 31 Fully immunized children 93.9 per cent Immunization 29 Hepatitis B immunization coverage 96.9 per cent 33 Use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) 84.9 per cent Care of illness 34 Home management of diarrhoea 15.7 per cent 6 Topic MICS Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value 35 Received ORT or increased fluids, and continued feeding 54.2 per cent 23 Care seeking for suspected pneumonia 89.5 per cent 22 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 67.0 per cent Solid fuel use 24 29 Solid fuels use 3.4 per cent ENVIRONMENT 11 30 Use of improved drinking water sources 99.6 per cent 13 Water treatment 60.5 per cent 12 31 Use of improved sanitation facilities 99.3 per cent Water and Sanitation 14 Disposal of child's faeces 76.4 per cent REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Contraception 21 19c Contraceptive prevalence 72.6 per cent 20 Antenatal care 99.4 per cent 44 Content of antenatal care 99.4 per cent 4 17 Skilled attendant at delivery 100.0 per cent Maternal and newborn health 5 Institutional deliveries 99.9 per cent CHILD DEVELOPMENT 46 Adult’s support for learning 84.1 per cent Child development 47 Father's support for learning 71.0 per cent EDUCATION 52 Pre-school attendance 86.1 per cent 53 School readiness 92.9 per cent 54 Net intake rate in primary education 75.5 per cent 55 6 Net primary school attendance rate 93.2 per cent Education 56 Net secondary school attendance rate 95.9 per cent 7 Topic MICS Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value 57 7 Children reaching grade five 100.0 per cent 58 Transition rate to secondary school 100.0 per cent 59 7b Primary school completion rate 69.0 per cent 61 9 Gender parity index primary school secondary school 1.01 1.02 ratio ratio Literacy 60 8 Adult literacy rate 100.0 per cent CHILD PROTECTION 71 Child labour 5.1 per cent 72 Labourer students 99.7 per cent Child labor 73 Student labourers 5.2 per cent Child discipline 74 Any psychological/physical punishment 82.6 per cent 67 Marriage before age 18 6.5 per cent 68 Young women aged 15-19 currently married/in union 3.7 per cent Early marriage 69 Spousal age difference 8.2 per cent 75 Prevalence of orphans 5.8 per cent Support to orphaned and vulnerable children 78 Children’s living arrangements 1.8 per cent HIV/AIDS 82 19b Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 33.9 per cent 89 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV 61.2 per cent 86 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS 4.6 per cent 87 Women who know where to be tested for HIV 97.4 per cent 88 Women who have been tested for HIV 66.4 per cent 90 Counselling coverage for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 72.8 per cent HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes 91 Testing coverage for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 92.3 per cent 8 List of Tables Table HH.1: Results of household and individual interviews . 49 Table HH.2: Household age distribution by sex . 50 Table HH.3: Household composition . 51 Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics . 52 Table HH.5: Children's background characteristics . 53 Table NU.1: Child malnourishment . 54 Table NU.2: Initial breastfeeding . 55 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding . 56 Table NU.4: Adequately fed infants . 57 Table NU.5: Low birth weight infants . 58 Table CH.1: Vaccinations . 59 Table CH.1c. Vaccinations (continued) . 59 Table CH.2: Vaccinations by background characteristics . 60 Table CH.2c: Vaccinations by background characteristics (continued) . 61 Table CH.3: Oral rehydration treatment . 62 Table CH.4: Home management of diarrhoea . 62 Table CH.5: Care seeking for suspected pneumonia . 63 Table CH.6: Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia . 65 Table CH.6a: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia . 66 Table CH.7: Solid fuel use . 67 Table EN.1: Use of improved water sources . 68 Table EN.2: Household water treatment . 69 Table EN.3: Time to source of water . 70 Table EN.4: Person collecting water . 71 Table EN.5: Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal . 72 Table EN.5w. Joint use of sanitary means . 73 Table EN.6: Disposal of child's faeces . 74 Table EN.7: Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation . 75 Table RH.1: Use of contraception . 76 Table RH.2: Antenatal care provider . 78 Table RH.3: Antenatal care . 79 Table RH.4: Assistance during delivery . 80 Table CD.1: Family support for learning . 81 Table ED.1: Early childhood education . 82 Table ED.2: Primary school entry . 83 Table ED.3: Primary school net attendance ratio . 84 Table ED.4: Secondary school net attendance ratio . 85 Table ED 4w Secondary school age children attending primary school . 86 Table ED.5: Primary school completion and transition to secondary education . 87 9 Table ED.6: Education gender parity .88 Table CP.1: Child labour .89 Table CP.1w. Child labour .90 Table CP.2: Labourer students and student labourers .92 Table CP.3: Child discipline .93 Table CP.4: Early marriage .94 Table CP.5: Spousal age difference .95 Table HA.1: Knowledge of preventing HIV transmission .96 Table HA.2: Identifying misconceptions about HIV/AIDS .97 Table HA.3: Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission .98 Table HA.4: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission .99 Table HA.5: Attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS .100 Table HA.6: Knowledge of a facility for HIV testing .101 Table HA.7: HIV testing and counselling coverage during antenatal care .102 List of Figures Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population .19 Figure NU.1: Percentage of children under-5 who is undernourished .22 Figure NU.2: Percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth .23 Figure NU.3: Infant feeding patterns by age: Percent distribution of children aged under 3 years by feeding pattern by age group .24 Figure NU.4: Percentage of infants weighing less than 2500 grams at birth .25 Figure CH.1: Percentage of children aged 18-29 months who received the recommended vaccination within the first year of life .27 Figure CH.2: Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration treatment .28 Figure EN.1: Percentage distribution of household members by source of drinking water .32 Figure HA.1: Percent of women who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission .46 10 Abbreviations and Remarks AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome BCG Bacillis-Cereus-Geuerin (Tuberculosis) DPT Diphteria Pertussis Tetanus EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus IUD Intrauterine Device MDG Millennium Development Goals MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey NCMS National Centre of Medical Statistics SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund WFFC World Fit For Children WHO World Health Organization ! Percent, counted using nonweighted denominator, less than 25 cases are not shown in the tables. ! Percent, counted using nonweighted denominator, less than 50 cases, are shown in the tables in brackets. 11 Acknowledgements Implementing Agencies Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus According to the decision of the Government of the Republic of Belarus the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis is accountable to organize, conduct and report the implementation of MICS3 in the Republic of Belarus. The Ministry of Health provided technical assistance to the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus in receiving from medical institutions the lists of the households with children under five and the immunization cards. The Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus provided methodological support. Survey Staff Survey Coordinators Galina Galina Gasyuk – The First Deputy Minister-Ministry of Statistics and Analysis. Svetlana Novoselova – Head of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Technical Director Victor Tamashevich – Director of the Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus. Sampling Expert Irina Bulgakova – Deputy Head of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Olga Yakimovich – Chief economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Data Processing Expert Inna Konoshonok – Head of the Data Processing and Analysis Department. 12 Executive Summary Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of children and women aged 15-49 years (MICS3) is a representative sampling survey at the country level, as well as representative survey for a number of indicators at the regional level. The survey of this kind was conducted in the Republic of Belarus for the first time and provided up-to-date information on the most important aspects of life of children and women. The main objectives of the survey were to collect the latest information for the assessment of the situation of children and women in the Republic of Belarus; to get data needed for the monitoring of the progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, the child-specific targets set in the Action Plan “A World Fit for Children” and other international treaties as the basis for future actions. Questionnaires were completed for 6,707 households, 5,895 women (age 15-49) and 3,051 under- 5 children. Nutritional Status ! In the Republic of Belarus the proportion of children under age five with moderate underweight is 1 per cent. ! 2.5 percent of children under age five are too short for their age. ! About 1 per cent of children under age five are thin for their height. ! Around 7 per cent of children under age five have overweight. Breastfeeding ! Every fifth woman (21.1 per cent), who gave birth to a child within 2 years before the survey, started breastfeeding their infants within one hour of birth, and 28.6 per cent of infants were not breastfed within one day of birth. ! Only 9 per cent of children aged less then six months were exclusively breastfed what is considerably lower than recommended. ! About 38 per cent of children aged 6 - 9 months received breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By the age 12-15 months, 18 percent of children were still being breastfed but by age 20- 23 months – only 3.6 percent of children. Low Birth Weight Infants ! According to the results of the survey, in the Republic of Belarus practically all new-born infants were weighed at birth and about 4 per cent of infants had weigh less than 2,500 grams at birth. Immunization ! Almost all children under 5 (99.6 per cent) had vaccination cards. ! Practically all children aged 18-29 months (99.2 per cent) received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months. ! The first dose of DPT by the age of 12 months was received by 99 per cent of children. The percentage of children received the further doses of DPT is getting lower (98 per cent for the second dose and 97 per cent for the third dose). ! Similarly, 98 per cent of children received Polio 1 and Polio 2 by age 12 months and Polio 3 – 97 percent. ! Coverage by measles vaccine is also high and constituted 97 per cent by the age of 18 months. ! Totally, the percentage of children who had all recommended vaccinations during the first year of life (measles vaccination – within first 18 months of life) was 94 per cent. Oral Rehydration Treatment ! Overall in the country, only 4 percent of under-five children had diarrhoea within the two weeks preceding the survey 13 ! Approximately 85 per cent of children with diarrhoea received at least of the recommended home treatments, while 15 per cent of children received no rehydration therapy at home. ! Only 16 per cent children with diarrhoea received sufficient amount of fluids and at the same time were continued feeding according to the recommendations. Care Seeking with Suspected Pneumonia and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia ! Almost 11 per cent of children aged 0-59 months were reported to have had symptoms of pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey. ! From all children with pneumonia-like symptoms 89.5 per cent was taken to appropriate medical institutions. ! Two third of under-5 children with suspected pneumonia had received antibiotics during the two weeks prior to the survey. ! Every third woman, having an under-five child, has knowledge about the two danger signs of pneumonia – fast and difficult breathing. Solid Fuel Use ! Only 3.4 per cent of all households in the Republic of Belarus were using solid fuels (wood) for cooking. ! Among all households using solid fuels for cooking 58 per cent use open stoves with chimneys or smoke pipes and 42 per cent use closed stoves with chimneys. Water and Sanitation ! Almost all population of the country (99.6 per cent) has access to improved source of drinking water (piped water in the dwelling, yard or plot, public tap/standpipe, protected well). ! Three fifth of the country’s population used safe water treatment methods (overwhelming majority used boiling of water) irrespective of the type of the water source which a household used - improved or un-improved sources of drinking water. ! Almost all the population of the country (99.3 per cent) lives in households with improved sanitary and hygienic facilities. ! Totally in the country a child’s faeces of 76.4 per cent of 0-2 year old children are disposed safely. Contraception ! About 73 per cent of women currently married or in union used means of contraception. ! The most popular method is the IUD which is used by one of four married women in the Republic of Belarus 25.7 per cent). Almost every fifth woman indicated the use of condoms and every tenth woman – contraceptive pills. ! Only 16 per cent of married or in union women used traditional contraception methods. Antenatal Care ! Coverage of antenatal care is practically absolute in the Republic of Belarus and percentage of women receiving antenatal care at least once during the pregnancy is 99 per cent. Assistance at Delivery ! All births occurred within the two years prior to the survey were attended by skilled personnel. ! 94 per cent of the deliveries were assisted by doctors. Child Development ! Within 3 days preceding the survey 84 per cent of under-five children were engaged by parents in four and more types of activities that promote learning and school readiness. ! An average number of activities arranged by adults for children was 5.0. ! Father’s involvement with one or more activities that promote learning and school readiness was 71 per cent; average number of activities with a father’s involvement was 2.2. Pre-School Attendance and School Readiness ! Overall in the republic 86 per cent of children aged 36-59 months attended pre-schools. 14 ! About 93 per cent of children aged 6, who attended the first grade of primary school, had been attending pre-school during the previous year. Primary and Secondary School Participation ! In the Republic of Belarus 75.5 per cent of children who are of primary school entry age (age 6) attended the first grade of primary school. ! Totally 93 per cent of primary school age children attended primary or secondary school. ! Only 4 per cent of secondary school age children did not attend secondary educational establishments. ! In the Republic all children, entering first grade, usually reached grade 5. ! 69 per cent of children of primary school completion age (9 years) attended the last (the forth) grade of primary school. ! Gender Parity Index for primary school was 1.01, indicating no difference in the attendance of primary school by girls and boys. For secondary education this index was 1.02. Adult Literacy ! In the Republic of Belarus adult literacy is universal. Child Labour ! About 5 per cent of children aged 5-14 years involved in child labour activities, for majority of those children it was unpaid work. ! Out of this 5 per cent of children, classified as working children, almost all of them attended school (99.7 per cent). Child Discipline ! In the Republic of Belarus 83 per cent of children aged 2-14 years were subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by their parents/caretakers or other household members. Early Marriage ! In the Republic of Belarus at the time of the survey about 4 per cent of women aged 15-19 years were married or in union with a man. ! Among women aged 20-49 years 6.5 per cent of women got married before the age of 18. ! Overall in the republic 8 per cent of women aged 20-24 years, married or in union with a man, had a husband/partner 10 years and more older than a woman. Orphans and Vulnerable Children ! According to the results of the survey 73 per cent of children aged 0-17 years lived with both parents, 25 per cent of children lived with one of the parents and 2 per cent of children separately from their biological parents. Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Condom Use ! From all interviewed women aged 15-49 57 per cent could correctly reject the two most common misconceptions and knew that a healthy-looking person can be infected. ! About 57 per cent of women reported about the knowledge of the two main ways of preventing HIV transmission. ! One third of young mothers (aged 15-24) had comprehensive and precise knowledge about the HIV transmission. ! Overall in the republic 98 per cent of women knew that HIV could be transmitted from mother to child. The share of women who knew all three main ways of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was 61 per cent, at the same time 2 per cent of women did not know of any specific way of HIV transmission from mother to child. ! More than 97 per cent of all women aged 15-49 knew where to be tested for HIV, at the same time two third had already had such a test. 15 I. Introduction Background This report is based on the Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of children and women aged 15-49 years, conducted in 2005 by the institutions under the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis system. The survey was based, in large part, on the needs to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children. In signing these international agreements, governments committed themselves to improving conditions for their children and to monitoring progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task. A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60). “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61). The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action”. Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action”. In the Republic of Belarus a set of National programmes were developed to solve the complex of social problems aimed at the improvement of children’s situation and their social protection: ! The main priorities of the governmental family policy; ! National Plan of Action on Improvement of Women’s Situation; ! Concept of the governmental demography policy in accordance with sustainable economical development; ! National Plan of Actions on Improvement of Children’s Situation and Protection of Their Rights 2004-2010. 16 At present in the Republic of Belarus the main priorities of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy were developed. In the Strategy the main forms of the government support to families with children are provided. The MICS 3 allows the Republic of Belarus to have up-to-date information on the situation of children and women, as the survey of this kind is conducting in our country for the first time. This final report presents the results of the indicators and topics covered in the survey. Survey Objectives The 2005 Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives: ! To provide additional information for assessing the situation of children and women in Belarus; ! To furnish additional data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established by the Millennium Development Goals and the goals of A World Fit For Children (WFFC) as a basis for future policy actions; ! To contribute to the improvement of data collection and data processing systems of the household surveys with application of modern software. 17 II. Sample and Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was designed to provide representative data on a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for Minsk city and 6 regions: Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk (without Minsk city) and Mogilev regions. MICS3 in Belarus was utilizing the existing sample frame of household surveys and, due to limited presentation of children under 5 in the sample, the additional subsample of households with children aged 0-4 years was developed. The additional sample was selected based on the lists of households with under 5 children that were received through the local out-patient health institutions. The sample was stratified by region and was consisted of 7,000 households. For reporting national level results, sample weights were used. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A. Questionnaires Three sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect information on all de jure household members, the household, and the dwelling; 2) a women’s questionnaire administered in each household to all women aged 15-49 years; and 3) an under-5 questionnaire, administered to mothers or caretakers of all children under 5 living in the household. The questionnaires included the following modules: ! Household Questionnaire o Household listing o Education o Water and Sanitation o Household characteristics o Child Labour o Child Discipline ! Questionnaire for Individual Women o Child Mortality o Maternal and Newborn Health o Marriage/Union o Contraception o HIV/AIDS ! Questionnaire for Children Under Five o Early Learning o Breastfeeding o Care of Illness o Immunization o Anthropometry The questionnaires are based on the MICS3 model questionnaire1. From the MICS3 model English version, the questionnaires were translated into Russian and were pre-tested in Minsk city and Minsk region during September 2005. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were 1 The model MICS3 questionnaire can be found at www.childinfo.org, or in UNICEF, 2006. 18 made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires. A copy of the Belarus MICS3 questionnaires is provided in Appendix G. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, fieldwork teams measured the weights and heights of children age under 5 years. Details and findings of these measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report. Training and Fieldwork Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 5 days in early November 2005. The data were collected by 14 teams; each was comprised of 4-5 interviewers, one driver, one editor/measurer and a supervisor. Fieldwork began in November 2005 and concluded in December 2005. Data Processing Data were entered on four computers using the CSPro software. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS3 project and adapted to the Belarus questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began in December 2005 and finished in January 2006. Data were analysed using the SPSS software programme and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed for this purpose. Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data were entered on four computers and carried out by 11 data entry operators and 5 data entry supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in December 2005 and was completed in January 2006. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software programme, Version 14, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF for this purpose. 19 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70+ 02004006008001000 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents Sample Coverage Of the 7,000 households selected for the sample, 100% were found to be occupied. Of these, 6,707 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 95.8% percent. In the interviewed households, 5,906 women (age 15-49) were identified. Of these, 5,895 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 99.8 percent. In addition, 3,051 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Of these, questionnaires were completed for 3,051 which corresponds to a response rate of 100 percent. Overall response rates of 95.6% and 95.8% are calculated for the women’s and under-5’s interviews respectively (Table HH.1). Differentials in household response rates by regions were from 94.4% in Mogilev region to 96.7% in Gomel region. Characteristics of Households The age and sex distribution of survey population is provided in Table HH.2. The distribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1. In the 6,707 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 17,917 household members were listed. These figures also indicate that the survey estimated the average household size at 2.67. Figure HH.1. Age and sex distribution of household population Age, years People Male Female 20 According to the results of the survey, the proportion of males from the whole population was 45.6% (or 8,166 people) and 54.4% (or 9,751) were females. According to the 1999 census the sex distribution was 47 and 53%, as of 1st of January 2006 – 46.7 and 53.3 percent correspondingly. Thus, the sex distribution of sampled household population was not significantly different from the demographic statistical data. The highest proportion accounted to the following age groups 35-39 years (8.8%) and 40-44 years (9.3%) within the structure of the survey population. Children aged 0-17 years made 23% (Table HH.2). Table HH.3 provides basic background information on the sex of the household head, region, area of residence, number of household members. According to the results of the survey, 66.1 % of households successfully interviewed in the survey, lived in urban areas and 33.9% in rural areas. More then half of households (56.8%) consisted of 2-3 members. From the total number of families in the Republic of Belarus, 43% are families with children. Besides, every seventh household had children under 5. Characteristics of Respondents The distribution of women 15-49 years of age according to region, area of residence, age, marital status, motherhood status, education, and wealth index quintiles2 is provided in Table HH.4. From the total number of interviewed women aged 15-49 years, 70.6% lived in urban areas and 29.4% – in rural areas. At the time of the survey 61.9% of women were married or lived in union, 15.7% – were widows or divorced, 22.4% – were never married. Half of the interviewed women had secondary special education, the quarter of women interviewed – the highest education. The distribution of children by sex, region and area of residence, age, mother’s or caretaker’s education, and wealth is presented in Table HH.5. From the total number of children under 5, 51.8% were boys and 48.2% – were girls. Two thirds of these children were lived in rural areas and one third in rural areas. The age distribution of children under 5 is equal: each year group consists of 20% of children. The children under 5 are equally represented in the wealth index quintiles groups with exception of extreme groups: in the wealthiest group of households the number of children under 5 is higher for 6.3% then in least wealthy group. 2 The wealth index methodology can be found in Appendix C. 21 IV. Nutrition Nutritional Status Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. Malnutrition is associated with more than half of all children deaths worldwide. Undernourished children are more likely to die from common childhood ailments, and for those who survive, have recurring sicknesses and faltering growth. Three-quarters of the children who die from causes related to malnutrition were only mildly or moderately malnourished – showing no outward sign of their vulnerability. The Millennium Development target is to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger between 1990 and 2015. The World Fit for Children goal is to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition among children under five years of age by at least one-third (between 2000 and 2010), with special attention to children under 2 years of age. A reduction in the prevalence of malnutrition will assist in the goal to reduce child mortality. In a well-nourished population, there is a reference distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Under-nourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to a reference population. The reference population used in this report is the WHO/CDC/NCHS reference, which was recommended for use by UNICEF and the World Health Organization at the time the survey was implemented. Each of the three nutritional status indicators can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of the reference population. Weight-for-age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Finally, children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. In MICS3, weights and heights of all children under 5 years of age were measured using anthropometric equipment recommended by UNICEF (UNICEF, 2006). Findings in this section are based on the results of these measurements. Table NU.1 shows percentages of children classified into each of these categories, based on the anthropometric measurements that were taken during fieldwork. Additionally, the table includes the percentage of children who are overweight, which takes into account those children whose weight for height is above 2 standard deviations from the median of the reference population. According to the results of the survey, only one percent of children under age five in the Republic of Belarus are moderately underweight, 2.5 percent are too short for their age and 1.3 percent are too thin for their height (Table NU.1). Children in rural areas are more likely to be underweight and stunted than children in urban areas. 22 The children aged 6-11 months are subjected to underweight and stunted. The percent of the underweight children is the highest up to six months (Figure NU.1). Figure NU.1. Percentage of children under-5 who are undernourished (in percent) 0 1 2 3 4 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 Age (in months) P er ce nt Stunted Underweight Wasted The proportion of overweight children in the Republic of Belarus is 6.7%. Among children in rural areas the proportion of overweight children is 7.8%; and in urban areas – 6.2. Among children whose mothers have incomplete secondary education the overweight proportion is higher (12.9 percent), compared to children of mothers with the highest education (5.9 percent). Breastfeeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. The World Fit for Children goal states that children should be exclusively breastfed for 6 months and continue to be breastfed with safe, appropriate and adequate complementary feeding for up to 2 years of age and beyond. WHO/UNICEF have the following feeding recommendations: ! Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months. ! Continued breastfeeding for two years or more. ! Safe, appropriate and adequate complementary foods beginning at 6 months. ! Frequency of complementary feeding: 2 times per day for 6-8 month olds; 3 times per day for 9-11 month olds. It is also recommended that breastfeeding be initiated within one hour of birth. The indicators of recommended child feeding practices are as follows: • Exclusive breastfeeding rate (< 6 months & < 4 months) • Timely complementary feeding rate (6-9 months) • Continued breastfeeding rate (12-15 & 20-23 months) 23 • Timely initiation of breastfeeding (within 1 hour of birth) • Frequency of complementary feeding (6-11 months) • Adequately fed infants (0-11 months) In the Republic of Belarus the proportion of women who started breastfeeding their infants within one hour of birth is 21.1% and women who started breastfeeding within one day of birth (which includes those who started within one hour) is 71.4% (Table NU.2). The proportion of women who started breastfeeding their infants within one hour of birth is 22.5% in urban areas, and 17.5% in rural areas (Figure NU.2). The disparities in this indicator were also found in wealth index quintiles. In the least wealthy quintile group the proportion of women who started breastfeeding their infants within one hour of birth is 16.9 %, but in the wealthiest quintile group – 30 %. The same situation was found among women who started breastfeeding within one day of birth: the least wealthy quintile group the proportion is 69.4% and in the most wealthiest – 77.2%. Figure NU.2. Percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth (in percent) 30.0 22.1 14.717.116.917.5 22.5 77.2 68.769.170.169.471.071.5 0 20 40 60 80 Urban Rural P er ce nt Within one hour Within one day Breastfeeding status is based on the reports of mothers/caretakers of children’s consumption of food and fluids in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusively breastfed refers to infants who received only breast milk (and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine). Table NU.3 shows exclusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life (separately for 0-3 months and 0-5 months), as well as complementary feeding of children 6-9 months and continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 and 20-23 months of age. According to the results of the survey, approximately 12 percent of children aged 0-3 months are exclusively breastfed. Only nine percent of children aged less then six months were exclusively breastfed, in the urban areas the level is 9.7 percent and in rural areas – 6.7% (a level considerably lower than recommended). Among the children aged 0-5 months girls were more exclusively breastfed than boys (11.2 percent and 7 percent). At age 6 months, 38 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By age 12-15 months, 18 percent of children are still being breastfed and by age 20-23 months, 3.6 percent are still breastfed. At the age group 12-15 months, boys were more exclusively breastfed than girls (22.3 percent and 14 percent). Wealth index quintiles: Poorest Second Middle Forth Richest 24 Figure NU.3 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding by the child’s age. Even at the earliest ages, the majority of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk. By the end of the sixth month, the percentage of children exclusively breastfed in the Republic of Belarus is below 10 percent. Only about 2.5 percent of children are receiving breast milk after 2 years. Figure NU.3. Infant feeding patterns by age: Percent distribution of children aged under 3 years by feeding pattern by age group (in percent) 0 20 40 60 80 100 P er ce nt Without breastfeeding Breastfeeding and additional nutrition Breastfeeding and other milk or milk formula Breastfeeding and nonmilky liquids Exclusively breastfeeding and ordinary water Exclusively breastfeeding Age, months According to the results of the survey, only 9 percent of infants aged 0-5 months, 34.4 percent of infants aged 6-8 months and 21 percent of infants aged 9-11 months are being adequately fed in the Republic of Belarus. Adequate feeding among all infants (aged 0-11) drops to 17.8 percent. All these indicators are higher in urban areas and among infants whose mothers have the highest education (Table NU.4). Low Birth Weight Infants Weight at birth is a good indicator not only of a mother's health and nutritional status but also the newborn's chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. Low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams) carries a range of grave health risks for children. Babies who were undernourished in the womb face a greatly increased risk of dying during their early months and years. Those who survive have impaired immune function and increased risk of disease. Low birth weight stems primarily from the mother's poor health and nutrition. Three factors have most impact: the mother's poor nutritional status before conception, short stature (due mostly to under nutrition and infections during her childhood), and poor nutrition during the pregnancy. Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy is particularly important since it accounts for a large proportion of foetal growth retardation. In the industrialized world, cigarette smoking during pregnancy is the leading cause of low birth weight. In developed and developing countries alike, teenagers who give birth when their own bodies have yet to finish growing run the risk of bearing underweight babies. In MICS3, the percentage of new-born infants weighing below 2,500 grams is estimated from two items in the questionnaire: the mother’s assessment of the child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, 0- 1 2- 3 4- 5 6- 7 8- 9 10 -1 1 12 -1 3 14 -1 5 16 -1 7 18 -1 9 20 -2 1 22 -2 3 24 -2 5 26 -2 7 28 -2 9 30 -3 1 32 -3 3 34 -3 5 25 smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth3. According to the results of the survey, 99.3 percent of infants were weighed at birth and 3.8 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2,500 grams at birth (Table NU.5). There were not significant variations by region: from 3 percent in Brest region to 4.6 percent in Grodno region (Figure NU.4). The percentage of low birth weight does not vary much by place of residence or by wealth level. Figure NU.4. Percentage of infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth (in percent) 4.23.73.9 4.6 3.5 4.0 3.0 3.8 0 1 2 3 4 5 Brest Vitebsk Gomel Grodno Minsk city Minsk Mogilev P er ce nt Regions Republic of Belarus 3 For a detailed description of the methodology, see Boerma, Weinstein, Rutstein and Sommerfelt, 1996. 26 V. Child Health Immunization The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. Immunization plays a key part in this goal. Immunizations have saved the lives of millions of children in the three decades since the launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Worldwide there are still 27 million children overlooked by routine immunization and as a result, vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than 2 million deaths every year. A World Fit for Children goal is to ensure full immunization of children under one year of age at 90 percent nationally, with at least 80 percent coverage in every district or equivalent administrative unit. According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. The National expanded vaccination programme is realizing in the Republic of Belarus. The goal of the Programme is to reduce the morbidity, disability and mortality rates from the infectional pathology and as a final result – liquidation a number of infection diseases. The National vaccination calendar guarantees the free of charge vaccination from nine inflectional diseases: tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, whooping-cough, tetanus and hepatitis B, measles, rubella and mumps. Term of vaccination Vaccine 1 day (24 hours) Hep!-1 3-4 day BCG 1 month Hep!-2 3 month DTP-1, Polio-1 4 month DTP-2, Polio-2 5 month DTP-3, Polio-3, Hep!-3 12 month Measles, rubella, mumps During the MICS3 survey the data about vaccination was collected by the interviewers from the vaccination cards of children under 5 in the local health institutions/policlinics. Overall, 99.6 percent of children had immunization cards (Table CH.2). The percentage of children aged 18-29 months who received all vaccinations within the first year of life is shown in Table CH.1.and Table CH.1c. According to the survey, approximately 99 percent of children aged 18-29 months received a BCG vaccination and the first dose of DPT by the age of 12 months. The percentage of children received the second dose of DPT is 98.1 percent, the third dose – 96.7 percent (Figure CH.1). Similarly by the age of 12 months, 98 percent of children received Polio 1 and Polio 3 – 96.5 percent. Coverage by measles vaccine by the age of 18 months constituted 96.7 percent. As a result, the percentage of children who had all recommended vaccinations by their first birthday is 93.9 percent. 27 Figure CH.1. Percentage of children aged 18-29 months who received the recommended vaccination within the first year of life* (in percent) 98.098.5 93.997.7 96.998.199.2 96.596.7 0 20 40 60 80 100 BCG DPT Polio Measles All vaccination P er ce nt 1st dose 2nd dose 3d dose * for measles vaccination – during the first 18 months In the Republic of Belarus, for children by the age of 12 month the Hepatitis B vaccination is also recommended. According to the immunization schedule 99.3 percent of infants aged 18-29 months received the first dose of Hep-B1 within the first year of life (Table CH.1c). The percentage declines for subsequent doses of Hepatitis B vaccine to 98.4 percent for the second dose, and 96.9 percent for the third dose. Tables CH.2 and CH.2c show vaccination coverage rates among children 18-29 months by background characteristics. Thus, all recommended for children of this age vaccinations (three doses of DTP, three doses of Polio, BCG and MMR) were made for 98 percent of boys and for 96.5 percent of girls. The level of vaccination coverage in urban areas is lower than in rural areas. Regionally vaccination coverage rates vary from 95.5 percent in Minsk city to 100.0 percent in Grodno region. The HepB vaccination coverage rate among children 18-29 months in the Republic of Belarus is approximately 99 percent (HepB-1 – 99.3%, HepB-2 – 99.1%, HepB-3 – 98.5%). Oral Rehydration Treatment Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under five worldwide. Most diarrhoea- related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) - can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. The goals are to: 1) reduce by one half death due to diarrhoea among children under five by 2010 compared to 2000 (A World Fit for Children); and 2) reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five by 2015 compared to 1990 (Millennium Development Goals). In addition, the World Fit for Children calls for a reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea by 25 percent. 28 The indicators are: ! Prevalence of diarrhoea ! Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) ! Home management of diarrhoea ! (ORT or increased fluids) AND continued feeding. In the MICS questionnaire, mothers (or caretakers) were asked to report whether their child had had diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. If so, the mother was asked a series of questions about what exactly the child was drinking and eating during the episode and whether that was more or less the same what the child usually ate and drank. Overall in the republic, 4 percent of under-five children had diarrhoea within the two weeks preceding the survey (Table CH.3). Boys and girls had almost equal percentage of diarrhoea; no big differences were registered in diarrhoea prevalence among regions or place of living. From amongst total number of under-five children who had diarrhoea more than 21 percent received fluids from ORS packets; 18.2 percent received pre-packaged ORS fluids, and 61.3 percent received recommended homemade fluids. Approximately 85 percent of children with diarrhoea received one or more of the recommended home treatments, while 15 percent received no rehydration therapy at home. Figure CH.2. Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhea who received oral rehydration treatment (in percent) 87.083.784.885.084.9 0 20 40 60 80 100 Republic of Belarus Male Female Urban area Rural area P er ce nt More than one third (37 percent) of under five children with diarrhoea drank more than usual while 63 percent drank the same or less (Table CH.4). 62 percent ate somewhat less, same or more (continued feeding), but 38 percent ate much less or ate almost none. Recommended diarrhoea treatment at home was received by almost 16 percent of children (they received sufficient amount of fluids and at the same time continued feeding). More than a half of children with diarrhoea (54.2 per cent) received oral rehydration treatment or home treatment. There are some differences in the home management of diarrhoea according to place of living. Thus, in rural settlements 19.5 percent of children were treated at home, as in cities and towns – 13.6 percent of children. 29 Care Seeking for Suspected Pneumonia and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children and the use of antibiotics in under-5s with suspected pneumonia is a key intervention. A World Fit for Children goal is to reduce by one-third the deaths due to acute respiratory infections. The indicators are: ! Prevalence of suspected pneumonia ! Care seeking for suspected pneumonia ! Antibiotic treatment for suspected pneumonia ! Knowledge of the danger signs of pneumonia According to UNICEF, children with suspected pneumonia are those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were NOT due to a problem in the chest and a blocked nose. 10.6 percent of children aged 0-59 months were reported to have had symptoms of pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey (Table CH.5). Of these children, the main part of children (89.5 percent) was taken to appropriate medical institutions. In cities and urban-type settlements 88.9 percent of children with suspected pneumonia sought for help at the state polyclinics. Share of children, taken to hospitals, constituted 10.2 percent. In rural villages 30.1 percent of children with suspected pneumonia sought for medical assistance at a local medical attendant, 29.7 – at polyclinics, 13.4 percent of children were taken to hospitals. Table CH.6 presents the use of antibiotics for the treatment of suspected pneumonia in under-5s by sex, age, region, residence, age, and socioeconomic factors. In Belarus, 67 percent of under-5 children with suspected pneumonia had received an antibiotic during the two weeks prior to the survey, in cities and urban-type settlements – 66.4, in rural areas – 68.6 percent of children. The use of antibiotics rises with the age of a child. Thus, the share of children who had antibiotic treatment in the age group 0-35 months is 60 percent, while in the age group 36-59 months - 74 percent. In the families where mothers/caregivers had special secondary education the share of children with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotic treatment was 71.6 percent and among children whose mothers/caretakers had higher education – 60.9 percent. Issues related to knowledge of danger signs of pneumonia are presented in Table CH.6a. Obviously, mothers’ knowledge of the danger signs is an important determinant of medical care seeking behaviour. Overall, 33.2 percent of women know about the two danger signs of pneumonia – fast and difficult breathing. The most commonly identified symptom for taking a child to a health facility is the developing of fever (noted by 94.6 percent of mothers/caretakers of under- 5s). The second important symptom for taken a child to a medical facility identified by 61.8 percent of mothers/caregivers is heavy/difficult breathing and 41.9 percent of mothers identified fast breathing as the third reason for taking children immediately to a health care provider. The other symptoms considered by women as a reason for seeking help from a medical institution immediately were distributed as follows: a child has blood in stool – 46.1 percent, becomes sicker – 44.1 percent, not able to drink or breastfeed – 18.7 percent, has other symptoms – 28.3 percent. The table also shows that the level of mothers’ knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia and of other symptoms for taking a child immediately to a health facility actually does not depend upon wealth, education, place of mother’s residence. 30 Solid Fuel Use More than 3 billion people around the world rely on solid fuels (biomass and coal) for their basic energy needs, including cooking and heating. Cooking and heating with solid fuels leads to high levels of indoor smoke, a complex mix of health-damaging pollutants. The main problem with the use of solid fuels is products of incomplete combustion, including CO, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, SO2, and other toxic elements. Use of solid fuels increases the risks of acute respiratory illness, pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer, and possibly tuberculosis, low birth weight, cataracts, and asthma. The primary indicator is the proportion of the population using solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking. At the period when the survey was conducted, only 3.4 percent of all households in the Republic of Belarus were using solid fuels (wood) for cooking. Percentage of households using solid fuels in towns and villages is very low – 0.4 percent. In rural settlements this indicator constituted 9.3 percent (Table CH.7). The share of households, using solid fuels for cooking, considerably changes in dependence of the level of prosperity. The richest households do not use at all such type of fuel for cooking, whereas the share amongst poorest households is 14 percent. The main types of fuel for cooking are natural and liquefied gas (noted by 86.8 percent of households). Solid fuel use alone is a poor proxy for indoor air pollution, since the concentration of the pollutants is different when the same fuel is burnt in different stoves or fires. Use of closed stoves with chimneys minimizes indoor pollution, while open stove or fire with no chimney or hood means that there is no protection from the harmful effects of solid fuels. The findings show that in the Republic of Belarus only closed stoves with chimneys and open stoves with chimneys or smoke pipes are used. 31 VI. Environment Water and Sanitation Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, especially in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances. The MDG goal is to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. The World Fit for Children goal calls for a reduction in the proportion of households without access to hygienic sanitation facilities and affordable and safe drinking water by at least one-third. The list of indicators used in MICS are as follows: Water • Use of improved drinking water sources. • Use of safe water treatment method. • Time to source of drinking water. • Person collecting drinking water. The distribution of the population by source of drinking water is shown in Table EN.1 and Figure EN.1. The population using improved sources of drinking water are those using any of the following types of supply: piped water (into dwelling, yard or plot), public tap/standpipe, tubewell/borehole, protected well. Bottled water is considered as an improved water source only if the household is using an improved water source for other purposes, such as handwashing and cooking. The findings show that practically all population of the country has access to improved source of drinking water – 99.6 percent, including 99.8 percent in urban areas and 99.3 per cent in rural areas. All population in the city of Minsk and Brest region is using improved sources of drinking water. The source of drinking water for the population varies strongly by place of residence. On the whole in the country 82.1 percent of the population used drinking water that is piped into their dwelling or into their yard or plot, in urban areas – 92.7 percent, in rural areas – 61.3 percent. In rural areas an important source of drinking water for the population is a protected well (30.7 percent). Besides, rural population used public water-pumps in the street – 7.1 percent. The differences in using of improved sources of drinking water are more significant depending on the population’s wealth and level of education of the head of family. The richest population (according to wealth index) used drinking water piped into dwelling - 98.9 percent and bottled water – 1.1 percent. Only 22.3 percent of the poorest population used drinking water piped into dwelling, yard or plot. The main source of drinking water for them is protected well – 54.4 percent and public water-pumps in the street – 21.6 percent. Population living in a household where the head of family has higher education uses mainly piped drinking water (93.3 percent) and bottled water (1.9 percent). Only 38.6 percent of household population where the head of family has primary education uses piped drinking water. The main source of drinking water for this population is a protected well – 49 percent and public water-pumps in the street – 10.8 percent. 32 Figure EN.1. Percentage distribution of household members by source of drinking water (in percent) Bottled water 0.6% Other 0.4% Public tap 4.8% Tube-well 12.2% Piped into their yards 2.2% Piped into dwelling 79.9% The main part of the population of the Republic of Belarus is covered by centralized water-supply with controlled and adequately high quality of water. Households were asked of the ways they may be treating water at home to make it safer to drink – boiling, adding bleach or chlorine, using a water filter which are considered as proper treatment of drinking water. The findings show that 60.5 per cent of the household population of the country used appropriate water treatment methods to make it safer to drink (Table EN.2). In towns and urban settlements appropriate water treatment methods were used by 72.8 percent and in rural areas only 36.4 percent of the population. On average 35.9 percent of the population of the country used no water treatment methods, in rural areas – 60.6 percent. The largest share of households not using any water treatment methods was observed among the households where the head of family has primary education (60.7 percent) and in the poorest quintile group (64.4 percent). The most common in-house treatment method of drinking water, used by the country’s population, is boiling: 53.3 percent of the population used that treatment method; in urban area – 62.9 percent, in rural area – 34.6 percent. The share of the population which used such treatment methods as “settle water” was 18.6 percent (in urban area – 22.3 percent, in rural area – 11.4 percent), “used a water filter” – 14.6 percent (in urban areas – 20.4 percent, in rural areas – 3.1 percent). The percentage of households using different water treatment methods differs depending on the level of education of the head of household. So, in the households where the head of household has higher education, the share of the population using such treatment method as boiling is 59.7 percent; using a water filter – 26.9 percent, settle water – 18.2 percent. No treatment methods were used by 23.6 percent of this population category. In the households where the head of household has primary education, the following in-house treatment of drinking water was used: 33.8 percent of the population used boiling of water, 2.4 percent were using a water filter, 11.4 percent used “settle water”. More than a half of this population category used no water treatment methods at all (60.7 percent). The methods of water treatment differ considerably depending on the level of wealth of the population. The main share of the richest population (80.2 percent) and only 30.8 percent of the poorest population used proper methods of drinking water treatment. The share of the richest population using boiling of water is 64 percent, what is two times more than the share of the least 33 wealthy population (30.3 percent). Only 1.1 percent of the poorest population used a water filter and one third (33.3 percent) of the richest population. Table EN.3 shows that 80.8 percent of households have a drinking water source on the premises. It takes less than 15 minutes to get to the water source and bring water for 16.8 percent of the households on average in the country, in rural areas – for 38.4 percent, among the poorest households – for 69.6 percent. Excluding those households with water on the premises, the average time to the source of drinking water and back to premises is 7.7 minutes. In Mogilev and Vitebsk regions this index is higher that the average time in the country and constitutes, correspondingly, 10.5 and 9.3 minutes. More than 15 minutes for this purpose spent 2.3 percent of households of the country, among the poorest households this indicator was 8.7 percent. In the households with no source of drinking water on the premises, the person usually collecting water is: 50.3 percent – adult female, 48.6 percent – adult male and boys (Table EN.4). In urban area the share of women collecting water is a bit higher than that of men (52.8 and 45.8 percent), in rural area no difference was revealed (49.5). Among regions the largest share of women collecting water was in Vitebsk region – 57 percent, the smallest in Grodno region – 44.9 percent. Sanitation • Use of improved sanitation facilities • Sanitary disposal of child’s faeces Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene is associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio. Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal include: flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank, or latrine; ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet. The findings show that 99.4 percent of the country’s population is living in households using improved sanitation facilities for disposal of human excreta, in urban area – 99.5 percent, in rural area – 98.9 percent (Table EN.5). The percentage of the population using improved sanitation facilities for disposal of human excreta is profoundly different between urban and rural areas. In urban area the main type of sanitary- hygienic facilities is flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system (mentioned by 85.6 percent of the population), in rural area it is a pit latrine with slab (mentioned by 54.5 percent of the population). Use of different types of improved sanitation facilities is strongly correlated with wealth of households. All of the richest population (according to wealth index) used for disposal of human excreta flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system. Among least wealthy households only 0.2 per cent used flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system. This category of population used mainly a pit latrine with slab (94.9 percent). Differences in the equipment of accommodation with modern services and utilities are considerable depending on the level of education of the head of household. So, in the households where the head of household has higher education 88.5 per cent of the population used flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system. In the households where the head of household had primary education, only 22 per cent use this type of improved sanitation facilities. Safe disposal of a child’s faeces is disposing of the latest child’s faeces using a toilet or by rinsing it into a toilet or latrine. The findings show that 76.4 percent of the population of the Republic of Belarus lives in households using safe disposal of a child’s faeces (Table EN.6). In urban area the share of such population was 78.2 percent, in rural areas – 72.1 percent. The rest of the population 34 used less safe methods of disposal of a child’s faeces (throw away or rinse into dumb well or into ditch – on average 4.9 percent, put into garbage – on average 16.6 percent). An overview of the percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water and sanitary means of excreta disposal is presented in Table EN.7. Total 99 percent of the population in the Republic of Belarus used improved sources of drinking water and sanitary means of excreta disposal (99.3 percent in urban and 98.3 percent in rural areas). Percentage of the household population using improved sources of drinking water and sanitary means does not vary much in different regions. There are no essential distinctions depending on the educational level of the head of household. All households with higher wealth index – 60 percent of the country’s population (middle, fourth and richest quintiles according to wealth index) – use improved sources of drinking water and sanitary means of excreta disposal. 35 VII. Reproductive Health Contraception Appropriate family planning is important to the health of women and children by: 1) preventing pregnancies that are too early or too late; 2) extending the period between births; 3) limiting the number of children. A World Fit for Children goal is access by all couples to information and services to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late or too many. Current use of contraception was reported by 72.6 percent of women of the republic currently married or in union (Table RH.1). The most popular method is the IUD which is used by one of four married women in the Republic of Belarus. The next most popular method is condoms, which accounts for 17.5 percent of women. One of ten married women reported the use of the pills. Modern contraceptive methods are: female and male sterilization, contraceptive pills, IUDs, injectables, implants, condom, diaphragm and spermicidal foam/jellies. Traditional methods are: the lactation amenorrhea method (LAM), periodic abstinence, withdrawal. The findings show that more than a half of married women (56.5 percent) pointed out the modern methods of contraception. 16.1 percent of women reported the usage traditional contraception methods. Among married women lived in urban area 73.6 percent used contraception, in rural areas – 70.6 percent. From the group of married women without children 28.6 percent used one or the other method of contraception. In addition to differences in prevalence, the method mix varies by women’s education level. Among married women with secondary education the percentage of those using modern contraception methods is 52.1 percent, while this indicator among women with higher education is 63.1 percent. The most popular method among women with secondary education is the IUD (25.3 percent of women). Women with higher education more often use condoms (24.3 percent). Different contraceptive methods prevalence among married women depends also upon the level of their wealth. Analysis of the quintile groups according to wealth index shows that the richest women more often use modern contraception methods than the poorest ones (58.6 percent and 49.3 percent). Antenatal Care The antenatal period presents important opportunities for reaching pregnant women with a number of interventions that may be vital to their health and well-being and that of their infants. Better understanding of foetal growth and development and its relationship to the mother's health has resulted in increased attention to the potential of antenatal care as an intervention to improve both maternal and newborn health. For example, if the antenatal period is used to inform women and families about the danger signs and symptoms and about the risks of labour and delivery, it may provide the route for ensuring that pregnant women do, in practice, deliver with the assistance of a skilled health care provider. The antenatal period also provides an opportunity to supply information on birth spacing, which is recognized as an important factor in improving infant survival. Tetanus immunization during pregnancy can be life-saving for both the mother and infant. The prevention and treatment of malaria among pregnant women, management of anaemia during pregnancy and treatment of STIs can significantly improve foetal outcomes and improve maternal health. Adverse outcomes such as low birth weight can be reduced through a combination of interventions to improve women's nutritional status and prevent 36 infections (e.g., malaria and STIs) during pregnancy. More recently, the potential of the antenatal period as an entry point for HIV prevention and care, in particular for the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child, has led to renewed interest in access to and use of antenatal services. WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal visits based on a review of the effectiveness of different models of antenatal care. WHO guidelines are specific on the content on antenatal care visits, which include: ! Blood pressure measurement. ! Urine testing for bateriuria and proteinuria. ! Blood testing to detect syphilis and severe anaemia. ! Weight/height measurement (optional). The findings show that coverage of antenatal care is practically absolute in Belarus with 99.4 percent of women receiving antenatal care at least once during the pregnancy. Antenatal care coverage is practically unaltered in all the regions of the country and does not depend upon the place of residence (Tables RH.2 and RH.3). Irrespective of age, level of education or wealth all pregnant women in the country received antenatal care and passed all tests. Assistance at Delivery Three quarters of all maternal deaths occur during delivery and the immediate post-partum period. The single most critical intervention for safe motherhood is to ensure a competent health worker with midwifery skills is present at every birth, and transport is available to a referral facility for obstetric care in case of emergency. A World Fit for Children goal is to ensure that women have ready and affordable access to skilled attendance at delivery. The indicators are the proportion of births with a skilled attendant and proportion of institutional deliveries. The skilled attendant at delivery indicator is also used to track progress toward the Millennium Development target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. The MICS-3 included a number of questions to assess the proportion of births attended by a skilled attendant. A skilled attendant includes a doctor, nurse, midwife or auxiliary midwife. In the Republic of Belarus 100 percent of births occurring in the two years prior to the MICS-3 survey were attended by skilled personnel (Table RH.4). This indicator is unaltered in all the regions of the country. It does not depend upon age, education or wealth of a woman. At the same time in rural areas 99.5 percent of deliveries were at the medical institutions. 93.9 percent of the births in the two-year period prior to the MICS survey were delivered with assistance of a doctor, 6.1 percent – medical nurses and midwives. In urban area doctors assisted the delivery of 95.7 percent of births, in rural area – of 89.3 percent of deliveries. This indicator could be explained by the place of delivery (in rural area probability of assistance at delivery at home or ambulance car is higher than in urban area). 37 VIII. Child Development It is well recognized that a period of rapid brain development occurs in the first 3-4 years of life, and the quality of home care is the major determinant of the child’s development during this period. In this context, adult activities with children, presence of books in the home, for the child, and the conditions of care are important indicators of quality of home care. A World Fit for Children goal is that “children should be physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally secure, socially competent and ready to learn.” Information on a number of activities that support early learning was collected in the survey. These included the involvement of adults with children in the following activities: reading books or looking at picture books, telling stories, singing songs, taking children outside the home, compound or yard, playing with children, and spending time with children naming, counting, or drawing things. 84.1 percent of under-five children were engaged by an adult in more than four activities that promote learning and school readiness during the 3 days preceding the survey (Table CD.1). The average number of activities that adults engaged with children was 5.0. A father’s involvement in such activities was somewhat limited: average number of activities was 2.2. Father’s involvement with one or more activities was 71 percent. Percent of children living in a household without their fathers was 16.4 from the total number of children. There are no gender differentials in terms of adult activities with children. Percentage of adults engaged in learning and school readiness activities with children in urban areas (85 percent), in rural areas (82.4 percent). The largest differentials were observed by socio-economic status: 86.9 per cent of children living in the richest households, and 79.2 percent of children living in the poorest households were engaged in learning. The share of children whose father was engaged in learning and school readiness activities with children was 78.3 % in the richest households and 61.6% in the poorest households. More educated fathers engaged more in such activities with children than those with less education. 38 IX. Education Pre-School Attendance and School Readiness Attendance to pre-school education in an organized learning or child education programme is important for the readiness of children to school. One of the World Fit for Children goals is the promotion of early childhood education. The findings show that more than 86 percent of children aged 36-59 months are covered by the child education programme and are attending pre-schools or centres of pre-school education and development (Table ED.1). Urban-rural differentials are significant – the figure is as high as 90.1 percent in urban areas, compared to 79.1 percent in rural areas. It is necessary to note that the share of young children attending educational classes at the pre- schools or centres of pre-school education and development is lower in the age group 36-47 months (81.3 percent) than in the age group 48-59 months (90.6 percent). Overall in the republic, 92.9 percent of children who are at the time of the survey reached age 6 and were attending the first grade of primary school were attending pre-school the previous year. The proportion among males is slightly higher (96.1 percent) than females (90 percent). In urban areas 91.6 percent of children of the first grade had attended pre-school during the previous year compared to 95.1 percent of children living in rural areas. Primary and Secondary School Participation Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the most important goals of the Millennium Development Goals and A World Fit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. The indicators for primary and secondary school attendance include: ! Net intake rate in primary education. ! Net primary school attendance rate. ! Net secondary school attendance rate. ! Net primary school attendance rate of children of secondary school age. ! Female to male education ratio (or gender parity index – GPI). The indicators of school progression include: ! Survival rate to grade five. ! Transition rate to secondary school. ! Net primary completion rate. The findings show that in 2005 in the Republic of Belarus, 75.5 percent of children who are of primary school entry age (age 6) were attending the first grade of primary school (ED.2). Besides, it is necessary to note that 22.9 percent of children were attending the first grade at the pre-school establishments. Sex differentials are minor (about 2-3 percentage points). Children’s participation to primary school is timelier in rural areas (79.5 percent) than in urban areas (73 percent). A positive correlation with mother’s education is observed: the higher level of mother’s education – the bigger proportion of children age 6 were attending the first grade. So, 64.7 percent of children age 6 whose mothers had secondary education was attending the first grade and 79.6 percent of children whose mothers had higher education. 39 In 2005 the majority of children aged 6-9 (93.2 percent) were attending primary or secondary school, 6.4 percent attended pre-schools and were enrolled into the primary school education programme, and only 0.4 percent of children did not attend the educational establishments (Table ED.3). 100 percent school attendance was provided for children aged 7-9, 75.5 percent of six year- old children were attending primary schools. In urban areas 92.1 percent of children aged 6-9 were attending primary and secondary schools, in rural areas – 95 percent. The MICS3 findings show that in 2005 secondary school net attendance ratio was 95.9 percent of children age 10-16 (Table ED.4). Of the remaining part some of them were either attending primary school (3.5 percent) or were out of school (0.6 percent). Analysis of the age factor shows that there are children of secondary school age (10-11 years old) who attend primary school when they should be attending secondary school. The primary school net attendance ratio of children of secondary school age in 2005 is presented in Table ED.4W. The results of the survey show that 3.5 per cent of children age 10-11 were attending primary school (children aged 10 – 33.6 percent of children; children age 11 – 0.9 percent of children). In the Republic of Belarus all children starting grade one will, as a rule, reach grade five. At the moment of the survey, on average in the republic only 69 percent of the children of primary school completion age (9 years) were attending the last (the forth) grade of primary education (Table ED.5). This value should be distinguished from the gross primary completion ratio which includes children of any age attending the last grade of primary school. Primary completion rate is directly correlated with the household place of residence. The highest net primary completion rate is in rural areas (75.6 percent of children); in urban areas it is noticeably lower (64.3 percent of children). All children that completed successfully the last grade of primary school in 2004/2005 school year were found at the moment of the survey to be attending the first grade of secondary school (grade 5). The ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education is better known as the Gender Parity Index (GPI). Notice that the ratios included here are obtained from net attendance ratios rather than gross attendance ratios. The last ratios provide an erroneous description of the GPI mainly because a part of children whose age exceeding that of primary school, nevertheless, are attending primary school. Gender parity for primary school is 1.01, indicating no difference in the attendance of girls and boys to primary school (Table ED.6). However, the indicator is slightly rising up to 1.02 for secondary education. The Gender Parity Index (GPI) for rural areas is 1.04 for primary school and 1.05 for secondary school. According to quintiles of wealth index in the poorest households this index for primary school is 1.03 and for secondary school is 1.06, while in the richest households – 1.01 and 0.98 accordingly. Adult Literacy One of the World Fit for Children goals is to assure adult literacy. Adult literacy is also an MDG indicator, relating to both men and women. In MICS, since only a women’s questionnaire was administered, the results are based only on females aged 15-24. Literacy was assessed on the ability of women to read a short simple statement or on school attendance. Favorable socio-economic atmosphere has a very positive impact on the level of education in the country what is vividly seen from the results of the survey. 1,505 women aged 15-24 participated in the survey. Literacy rate of women of this age group is universal. 40 X. Child Protection Child Labour Article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states: "States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.". The World Fit for Children mentions nine strategies to combat child labour and the MDGs call for the protection of children against exploitation. In the MICS 3, a number of questions addressed the issue of child labour, that is, children 5-14 years of age involved in labour activities. A child is considered to be involved in child labour activities at the moment of the survey if during the week preceding the survey: ! Ages 5-11: at least one hour of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week. ! Ages 12-14: at least 14 hours of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week. This definition allows differentiation between child labour and child work to identify the type of work that should be eliminated, as some children may be involved in hazardous labour activities. Table CP.1 and CP.1w presents the results of child labour. According to the results of the survey, 6.1 percent of children aged 5-14 years were involved in unpaid work out of their homes, of these 2.9 percent of children were involved in the types of work that should be eliminated. The percentage of children aged 5-14 years involved in household work was 69.7 percent, in the age group 5-11 years – 59.4 percent, and in the age group 12-14 years – 87 percent. Girls were more involved in household work, as well as children in rural areas. Four percent of children were involved in work in the interests of family business. In urban areas this indicator reached 0.9 percent, in rural areas – 8.7 percent. Throughout the republic the percentage of children aged 5-14 years, who during the week prior to the survey were involved in work out of household or were working in the interest of family business, is 10.1 percent: in the age group 5-11 years – 7.9 percent and in the age group 12-14 – 13.7 percent. The percentage of children involved in the types of work that should be eliminated is 5.1 percent, in rural areas this indicator was almost 4 times higher then in urban areas (9.0 and 2.6 percent). In the capital this indicator is 0.2 percent. Children in the wealthiest households according to the wealth index quintiles are less involved in work out of their households and in interest of the family business (4.8 percent) then children in the least wealthy households – near 15 percent. The percentage of children involved in the types of work that should be eliminated is 1.9 percent of children in higher income households and 8.5 percent in the least wealthy households. Table CP.2 presents the percentage of children classified as student labourers or as labourer students. Student labourers are the children attending school that were involved in child labour activities at the moment of the surveys. From the total number of the children 5-14 years of age attending school, 99.7 percent are also involved in child labour activities, 5.2 percent of students are involved in the types of work that should be eliminated. 41 Child Discipline As stated in A World Fit for Children, “children must be protected against any acts of violence …” and the Millennium Declaration calls for the protection of children against abuse, exploitation and violence. In the Belarus MICS3 survey, parents of children age 2-14 years were asked a series of questions on the ways parents tend to use to discipline their children when they misbehave. The two indicators used to describe aspects of child discipline are: 1) the number of children 2-14 years that experience psychological aggression as punishment or minor physical punishment or severe physical punishment; and 2) the number of parents/caretakers of children 2-14 years of age that believe that in order to raise their children properly, they need to physically punish them. According to the results of the survey in the Republic of Belarus, 82.6 percent of children aged 2- 14 years were subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by their parents/caretakers or other household members (Table CP.3). Severe physical punishment was subjected 2.1 percent of childhood, minor physical punishment – 49.4 percent of children. At the same moment, 15.2 percent of parents/caretakers believed that children should be physically punished. Male children were subjected more to both minor and severe physical discipline (53.8 and 2.3 percent) than female children (44.9 and 1.9 percent). The differentials in terms of severe physical punishment were found with respect to place of residence, education of mothers/caretakers and wealth index. The percentage of children being subjected to severe physical punishment was higher in the wealthiest households with high level of income then in the least wealthy households (3.1 and 1.1 percent). The percentage of children subjected to at least one psychological or physical punishment, in the age group of 5-9 years was 85.2 percent and in the age group of 10-14 years – 79.9 percent. Early Marriage Marriage before the age of 18 is a reality for many young girls. According to UNICEF's worldwide estimates, over 60 million women aged 20-24 were married/in union before the age of 18. Factors that influence child marriage rates include: the state of the country's civil registration system, which provides proof of age for children; the existence of an adequate legislative framework with an accompanying enforcement mechanism to address cases of child marriage; and the existence of customary or religious laws that condone the practice. In many parts of the world parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children in hopes that the marriage will benefit them both financially and socially, while also relieving financial burdens on the family. In actual fact, child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising the development of girls and often resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty. The right to 'free and full' consent to a marriage is recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - with the recognition that consent cannot be 'free and full' when one of the parties involved is not sufficiently mature to make an informed decision about a life partner. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women mentions the right to protection from child marriage in article 16, which states: "The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage.” While marriage is not considered directly in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, child marriage is linked to other rights - such as the right to express their views freely, the right to protection from all forms of abuse, and the right to be protected from harmful traditional practices - and is frequently addressed by the Committee on the Rights of the Child. Other international agreements related to child marriage are the Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages and the African Charter on the Rights 42 and Welfare of the Child and the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa. Child marriage was also identified by the Pan-African Forum against the Sexual Exploitation of Children as a type of commercial sexual exploitation of children. Young married girls are a unique, though often invisible, group. Required to perform heavy amounts of domestic work, under pressure to demonstrate fertility, and responsible for raising children while still children themselves, married girls and child mothers face constrained decision-making and reduced life choices. Boys are also affected by child marriage but the issue impacts girls in far larger numbers and with more intensity. Cohabitation - when a couple lives together as if married - raises the same human rights concerns as marriage. Where a girl lives with a man and takes on the role of caregiver for him, the assumption is often that she has become an adult woman, even if she has not yet reached the age of 18. Additional concerns due to the informality of the relationship - for example, inheritance, citizenship and social recognition - might make girls in informal unions vulnerable in different ways than those who are in formally recognized marriages. Research suggests that many factors interact to place a child at risk of marriage. Poverty, protection of girls, family honour and the provision of stability during unstable social periods are considered as significant factors in determining a girl's risk of becoming married while still a child. Women who married at younger ages were more likely to believe that it is sometimes acceptable for a husband to beat his wife and were more likely to experience domestic violence themselves. The age gap between partners is thought to contribute to these abusive power dynamics and to increase the risk of untimely widowhood. Closely related to the issue of child marriage is the age at which girls become sexually active. Women who are married before the age of 18 tend to have more children than those who marry later in life. Pregnancy related deaths are known to be a leading cause of mortality for both married and unmarried girls between the ages of 15 and 19, particularly among the youngest of this cohort. There is evidence to suggest that girls who marry at young ages are more likely to marry older men which puts them at increased risk of HIV infection. Parents seek to marry off their girls to protect their honour, and men often seek younger women as wives as a means to avoid choosing a wife who might already be infected. The demand for this young wife to reproduce and the power imbalance resulting from the age differential lead to very low condom use among such couples. The percentage of women married at various ages is provided in Table CP.4. According to the law of the Republic of Belarus the marriage is allowed at the age of 18. The main reason for the marriages before 18 is the pregnancy of a woman. According to the results of the survey, 6.5 percent of women in the Republic of Belarus get married before the age of 18. In the urban areas this indicator reached 5.1 percent, in rural are as – 9.8 percent. The significant difference was found in percentage of early marriage of women depending on the level of their education. Thus, if the percentage of women with higher education who got married before the age of 18 was only 2.2 percent, this indicator for women with incomplete secondary education was 29.1 percent. Some disparities in this indicator were found according to wealth index. Among the least wealthy group of women the early marriage was registered two times more often than among the wealthiest group of women (8.4 and 4.3 percent). Another component is the spousal age difference with an indicator being the percentage of married/in union women with a difference of 10 or more years younger than their current spouse. Table CP.5 presents the results of the age difference between husbands and wives. According to the results of the survey, more then a half of women aged 20-24 years (58.4%) were married or in union with men who were 0-4 years older then women. The quarter of women (25.4 percent) had husband/partner who was 5-9 years older then them, and 8.2 percent of women had a husband/partner who was 10 years or more old then a woman. The percentage of women that were elder then their husbands/partners is 7.9 percent. 43 Orphans and Vulnerable Children Children who are orphaned or in vulnerable households may be at increased risk of neglect or exploitation. Monitoring the variations in different outcomes for orphans and vulnerable children and comparing them to their peers gives us a measure of how well communities and governments are responding to their needs. According to the results of the survey in the Republic of Belarus three fourth of children aged 0-17 years (73.4 percent) lived with both parents. Percentage of children living separately from their biological parents is 1.8 percent. One or two parents of 5.8 percent of children aged 0-17 years died. 44 XI. HIV/AIDS Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Condom Use One of the most important prerequisites for reducing the rate of HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and strategies for preventing transmission. Correct information is the first step toward raising awareness and giving young people the tools to protect them from infection. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can confuse young people and hinder prevention efforts. Different regions are likely to have variations in misconceptions although some appear to be universal (for example that sharing food can transmit HIV or mosquito bites can transmit HIV). The UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) called on governments to improve the knowledge and skills of young people to protect themselves from HIV. The indicators to measure this goal as well as the MDG of reducing HIV infections by half include improving the level of knowledge of HIV and its prevention, and changing behaviours to prevent further spread of the disease. The HIV module was administered to women 15-49 years of age. One indicator which is both an MDG and UNGASS indicator is the percentage of young women who have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission. Women were asked whether they knew of the three main ways of HIV transmission – having only one faithful uninfected partner, using a condom every time, and abstaining from sex. The results are presented in Table HA.1. The findings show that in the Republic of Belarus almost all the interviewed women (99.9 percent) have heard of AIDS. However, the percentage of women who know of all three main ways of preventing HIV transmission is only 29.2 percent, in urban areas – 27.9 percent, in rural areas – 32.4 percent. 76.2 percent of women know of having one faithful uninfected sex partner, 66.6 percent know of using a condom every time, and 42.6 percent know of abstaining from sex as the main ways of preventing HIV transmission. While the main part of women (88.4 per cent) know at least one of the three of these ways, at the same time 11.6 percent of women did not know any of the three ways. Among the regions this indicator varies from 6.8 percent in Vitebsk region to 14.4 percent in Gomel region. The biggest percentage of women not knowing any of the three ways is registered in the age group 15-19 years old (15.5 percent) and among those with incomplete secondary education (17.1 percent). The knowledge of preventing HIV transmission does not depend upon the place of women’s residence. So, in urban and rural areas percentage of women knowing at least one of the three ways of preventing HIV transmission (88.2 and 88.7 percent) and those who do not know any of these three ways (11.8 and 11.3 percent) is almost the same. From total number of women 15-49 years of age, the biggest percentage of women knowledgeable about all three main ways of preventing HIV transmission was registered in the age group 35-39 (30.7 percent) and those with secondary special education (31.3 percent). Besides, the poorest women were more informed about the main ways of HIV prevention than the richest ones (35.4 and 25.8 percent). Table HA.2 presents the percentage of women who can correctly identify misconceptions concerning HIV. The indicator is based on the two most common and strong misconceptions in the Republic of Belarus, that HIV can be transmitted through food and mosquito bites or other blood- sucking insects. The table HA.2 also provides information on whether women know that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means, and that HIV can be transmitted through sharing needles. 45 Percent of women know that HIV cannot be transmitted through sharing food constituted 75.8 percent. Among women with higher education the percentage of such women was 81.7 percent, with incomplete secondary education – 64.8 percent. Percent of women knowing that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites and other blood-sucking insects were 72 percent (with higher education – 79.5 percent, with uncompleted secondary education – 61.1 percent). Almost all interviewed women (91.5 percent) convinced that a healthy-looking person could be infected. More than a half of all interviewed women aged 15-49 (56.7 percent) reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy-looking person can be infected. The lowest percentage of such women was registered in Vitebsk region (44.4 percent) and the highest – in Gomel region (62.9 percent). In urban areas women are less influenced by misconceptions about the ways of HIV transmission (58.8 percent) than in rural areas – 51.5 percent. The highest percentage of women rejected the two mostly common misconceptions were registered in age group 20-29 years old (61.2 percent). With the increase in the level of interviewed women’s education, the level of their misconception about the ways of HIV transmission is getting lower. So, the percentage of women with higher education rejecting the two mostly common misconceptions of the ways of HIV/AIDS transmission and knowing that a healthy-looking person can be infected was 68.2 per cent, with special secondary education – 54.9 percent, with incomplete secondary education – 45 percent. With the increase in the level of interviewed women’s wealth, the percentage of women rejecting the two mostly common misconceptions of the ways of HIV/AIDS transmission is getting higher. So, among the richest women the percentage of women who rejected the two mostly common misconceptions was 61.7 percent, among the poorest women – 49.9 percent. Percent of women who know that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means on average in the republic was 92 percent, in urban areas – 93.5 percent, in rural areas – 88.4 percent; among the poorest – 89.6 percent, among the richest – 94.1 percent. More than 99 percent of women know that HIV can be transmitted by sharing needles, and the level of this knowledge does not depend neither on a woman’s age, education level, place of residence nor the level of wealth. The results of answers of women aged 15-49 revealed that differences in the level of comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission depend upon the women’s place of residence and their level of education (Table HA.3). Overall, only 33.9 percent of women pointed out the comprehensive knowledge; this indicator was considerably higher in Brest region (42 percent), but in Vitebsk region it was lower than average level in the republic (23.7 percent). The percent of women with comprehensive knowledge increases with the woman’s education level (Figure HA.1). 46 Figure HA.1. Percent of women who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission (in percent) 54.053.8 59.157.5 54.9 68.2 49.0 45.0 38.4 27.9 33.131.2 0 20 40 60 80 Incomplete secondary Secondary Secondary Special Education High Level of Education P er ce nt Know 2 ways to prevent HIV transmission Correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV transmission Have comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission One of the main indicators, used for assessment of the countermeasures taken by countries to combat HIV/AIDS, is the percentage of young women aged 15-24 years who have knowledge of the two HIV prevention methods, can reject the two mostly common misconceptions of the ways of HIV/AIDS transmission and convinced that a healthy-looking person could be infected. In the Republic of Belarus 33.5 percent of women aged 15-24 years have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission. Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is also an important first step for women to seek HIV testing when they are pregnant to avoid infection in the baby. Women should know that HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, delivery, and through breastfeeding. The level of knowledge among women age 15-49 years concerning mother-to-child transmission is presented in Table HA.4. Overall in the republic almost all women of age 15-49 years (98 percent) know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child and only 2 percent of women did not know of any specific way of HIV transmission from mother to child. Percent of women who know all three ways of mother-to- child HIV transmission (during pregnancy, delivery, and through breastfeeding) was 61.2 percent. Among the richest women this share was 62.3 percent and among the poorest – 58.7 percent. According to interviewed women’s opinion about the ways of HIV transmission from mother to child, the mostly widely believed way of transmission is during pregnancy (94.2 percent), the least prevalent (as believed by 67.3 percent of women) – transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. The indicators on attitudes toward people living with HIV measure stigma and discrimination in the community. Stigma and discrimination are low if respondents report an accepting attitude on the following four questions: 1) would care for family member sick with AIDS; 2) would buy fresh vegetables from a vendor who was HIV positive; 3) thinks that a female teacher who is HIV positive should be allowed to teach in school; 4) would not want to keep HIV status of a family member a secret. 47 Table HA.5 presents the attitudes of women towards people living with HIV/AIDS. The high level of discrimination and stigma of the Belarusian women is seen from the percentage of women aged 15-49 (95.4 percent) consented at least to one of the discriminative statements concerning the HIV-infected people. Overall in the republic only 4.6 percent of the interviewed women did not agree with any of the discriminative statements, in Minsk this indicator is 10.1 percent. Percent of women disagreed with every of the discriminative statements is three times higher among women with higher education than among women with incomplete secondary education (6.1 and 2 percent). Amongst the women interviewed on the issues of stigma and discrimination of HIV-infected people the biggest part of women (81.9 percent) would want to keep HIV status of a family member a secret, 77.1 percent of interviewed women would not buy foodstuff from a HIV positive vendor, 43 percent of women consider that a HIV positive teacher should not be allowed to work at school, 8.3 percent of women would not care for family member sick with AIDS, at that, in rural areas the percentage of such women is almost two times higher than in urban areas (12.1 and 6.7 percent). The share of women who wanted to keep HIV status of a family member a secret in urban areas is 82.9 percent, in rural areas – 78.9 percent. Percentage of such women is growing with the growth of the educational level and the level of wealth. The most secretive on this issue are women with high education (82.7 percent compared to 78.7 percent of women with incomplete secondary education) and the richest women (84.5 percent compared to 78.1 percent of the poorest ones). Other indicators of manifestation of discrimination and stigma towards people living with HIV reveal the inverse proportion: percentage of women rejecting the opportunity of work at school of a HIV- positive teacher or care for family member sick with AIDS is getting lower according to the increase in the level of education and prosperity of the interviewed women. So, for example, among women who would not care for family member sick with AIDS are 4.3 percent with higher education and 18.4 percent with incomplete secondary education, 5.1 percent from the richest and 14.8 percent from the poorest households. Percentage of women who think that a HIV positive teacher should not be allowed to teach in school is 33.1 percent among women with higher education and 56.9 percent among women with incomplete secondary education, among the richest is 35.1 percent and among the poorest is 52.7 percent. Another important indicator is the knowledge of where to be tested for HIV and use of such services (Table HA.6). In the Republic of Belarus the majority of women (97.4 percent) have knowledge of where to be tested for HIV. There is a high level of information distribution among the Belarusian women in all regions of the republic, for all age-groups and all socio-economic groups. 66.4 percent of women have actually been tested; of these a large proportion has received the result (90 percent). The smallest number of women who were tested for HIV was in Brest region – 37.3 percent of women. Among women who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey, the percent who received counselling and HIV testing during antenatal care is presented in Table HA.7. In the Republic of Belarus the majority of women (99.4 percent) received antenatal care at the medical institutions during the period of their latest pregnancy. Counselling on HIV during their visits to a doctor for antenatal care was received by 72.8 percent of Belarusian women. 98 percent of women have actually been tested during antenatal care period, of these 92.3 percent received the result. 48 List of References 1. Boerma J. T., Weinstein K. I., Rutstein S.O. and Sommerfelt A. E., 1996. Data on Birth Weight in Developing Countries: Can Surveys Help? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 74(2), 209-216. 2. Blanc A. and Wardlaw T., 2005. "Monitoring Low Birth Weight: An Evaluation of International Estimates and an Updated Estimation Procedure". WHO Bulletin, 83(3), 178-185. 3. Filmer D. and Pritchett L., 2001. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data – or tears: An application to educational enrolments in states of India. Demography 38(1): 115-132. 4. Rutstein S.O. and Johnson K., 2004. The DHS Wealth Index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro. 5. UNICEF, 2006. Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Manual, New York. 6. United Nations, 1983. Manual X: Indirect Techniques for Demographic Estimation (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.83. XIII.2). 7. United Nations, 1990a. QFIVE, United Nations Program for Child Mortality Estimation. New York, UN Pop Division. 8. United Nations, 1990b. Step-by-step Guide to the Estimation of Child Mortality. New York, UN. 9. WHO and UNICEF, 1997. The Sisterhood Method for Estimating Maternal Mortality. Guidance notes for potential users, Geneva. 10. http://www.childinfo.org. 49 Statistical Data Tables Table HH.1: Results of household and individual interviews Number of households, women, and children under 5 by results of the household, women's and under-five's interviews, and household, women's and under-five's response rates Residence Regions Urban Rural Brest Vitebsk Gomel Grodno Minsk city Minsk Mogilev Total Number of households Sampled 4579 2421 1086 933 1110 901 1043 1074 853 7000 Occupied 4579 2421 1086 933 1110 901 1043 1074 853 7000 Interviewed 4386 2321 1041 897 1073 860 1006 1025 805 6707 Response rate 95,8 95,9 95,9 96,1 96,7 95,4 96,5 95,4 94,4 95,8 Number of women Eligible 4025 1881 929 776 879 789 947 882 704 5906 Interviewed 4016 1879 929 773 877 787 944 882 703 5895 Response rate 99,8 99,9 100,0 99,6 99,8 99,7 99,7 100,0 99,9 99,8 Overall response rate 95,6 95,8 95,9 95,8 96,4 95,2 96,1 95,4 94,2 95,6 Number of children under 5 Eligible 2033 1018 528 378 450 407 505 425 358 3051 Mother/caretaker interviewed 2033 1018 528 378 450 407 505 425 358 3051 Response rate 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 Overall response rate 95,8 95,9 95,9 96,1 96,7 95,4 96,5 95,4 94,4 95,8 50 Table HH.2: Household age distribution by sex Percent distribution of the household population by five-year age groups and dependency age groups, and number of children aged 0-17 years, by sex Males Females Total number percent number percent number percent Age 0-4 512 6,3 475 4,9 987 5,5 5-9 477 5,8 484 5,0 961 5,4 10-14 645 7,9 604 6,2 1249 7,0 15-19 764 9,4 685 7,0 1449 8,1 20-24 638 7,8 636 6,5 1274 7,1 25-29 606 7,4 676 6,9 1282 7,2 30-34 580 7,1 668 6,9 1248 7,0 35-39 599 7,3 699 7,2 1298 7,2 40-44 706 8,7 881 9,0 1587 8,8 45-49 738 9,0 929 9,5 1667 9,3 50-54 551 6,8 697 7,2 1248 7,0 55-59 392 4,8 564 5,8 956 5,3 60-64 246 3,0 382 3,9 628 3,5 65-69 303 3,7 510 5,2 813 4,5 70 + 409 5,0 861 8,8 1270 7,1 Dependency age groups < 15 1634 20,0 1563 16,0 3197 17,9 15-64 5819 71,3 6817 69,9 12636 70,5 65 + 713 8,7 1371 14,1 2084 11,6 Children aged 0-17 2128 26,1 1994 20,5 4122 23,0 Adults ages 18 + 6038 73,9 7757 79,5 13795 77,0 Total 8166 100 9751 100 17917 100 51 !"#$%&" HH.3: Household composition Percent distribution of households by selected characteristics Number of households Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Sex of household head Male 3094 3421 46,1 Female 3613 3286 53,9 Region Brest 980 1041 14,6 Vitebsk 950 897 14,1 Gomel 1052 1073 15,7 Grodno 798 860 11,9 Minsk city 1065 1006 15,9 Minsk 1046 1025 15,6 Mogilev 816 805 12,2 Residence Urban 4431 4386 66,1 Rural 2276 2321 33,9 Number of household members 1 1228 828 18,3 2-3 3808 3495 56,8 4-5 1557 2156 23,2 6-7 101 204 1,5 8 + 13 24 0,2 Total 6707 6707 100 At least one child aged < 18 years 2887 4132 43,0 At least one child aged < 5 years 911 2803 13,6 At least one woman aged 15-49 years 4238 5026 63,2 52 Table HH.4: Women’s background characteristics Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 years by background characteristics Number of women Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Region Brest 879 929 14,9 Vitebsk 813 773 13,8 Gomel 863 877 14,6 Grodno 747 787 12,7 Minsk city 1023 944 17,4 Minsk 885 882 15,0 Mogilev 685 703 11,6 Residence Urban 4162 4016 70,6 Rural 1733 1879 29,4 Age 15-19 781 562 13,3 20-24 724 982 12,3 25-29 772 1252 13,1 30-34 762 947 12,9 35-39 797 704 13,5 40-44 1001 709 17,0 45-49 1058 739 17,9 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 3649 4173 61,9 Formerly married/in union 924 798 15,7 Never married/in union 1322 924 22,4 Motherhood status Ever gave birth 4301 4872 73,0 Never gave birth 1594 1023 27,0 Education* Incomplete secondary 118 159 2,0 Secondary 1370 1266 23,2 Secondary special 2928 2976 49,7 Higher 1470 1485 24,9 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 821 884 13,9 Second 1180 1207 20,0 Middle 1247 1209 21,2 Fourth 1254 1230 21,3 Richest 1393 1365 23,6 Total 5895 5895 100 * 3 unweighted cases with “no education” and 6 unweighted cases with “primary education” not shown 53 !"#$%&" HH.5: Children’s background characteristics Percent distribution of children under five years of age by background characteristics Number of under-five children Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Sex Male 1582 1576 51,8 Female 1469 1475 48,2 Region Brest 513 528 16,8 Vitebsk 352 378 11,5 Gomel 484 450 15,9 Grodno 411 407 13,5 Minsk city 434 505 14,2 Minsk 500 425 16,4 Mogilev 357 358 11,7 Residence Urban 2064 2033 67,7 Rural 987 1018 32,3 Age < 6 months 320 183 10,5 6-11 months 278 295 9,1 12-23 months 643 691 21,1 24-35 months 645 672 21,1 36-47 months 567 594 18,6 48-59 months 598 616 19,6 Mother’s education* Incomplete secondary 124 128 4,0 Secondary 530 514 17,4 Secondary special 1577 1581 51,7 Higher 817 824 26,8 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 505 511 16,5 Second 616 616 20,2 Middle 615 599 20,2 Fourth 619 614 20,3 Richest 696 711 22,8 Total 3051 3051 100 * 4 unweighted cases with “primary education” not shown 54 Table NU.1: Child malnourishment Percentage of children aged 0-59 months who are severely or moderately malnourished % of children Weight for height Weight for age % below -2 SD* Height for age % below -2 SD** % below -2 SD*** % above +2 SD Number of children aged 0-59 months Sex Male 1,0 2,5 1,6 6,6 1562 Female 1,0 2,6 1,0 6,9 1456 Region Brest 1,8 2,0 1,8 3,6 510 Vitebsk 0,8 4,0 2,3 10,4 349 Gomel 1,2 3,3 0,8 8,0 482 Grodno 1,2 2,5 1,0 6,7 409 Minsk city 0,4 0,8 0,9 7,9 431 Minsk 0,6 3,1 1,8 6,0 498 Mogilev 1,1 2,1 0,5 5,6 338 Residence Urban 0,7 1,8 1,6 6,2 2043 Rural 1,7 4,1 0,8 7,8 975 Age < 6 months 0,3 0,9 2,3 3,3 318 6-11 months 1,4 3,4 1,2 10,1 271 12-23 months 1,0 3,1 0,4 12,0 634 24-35 months 1,3 1,8 2,0 4,0 637 36-47 months 1,3 2,9 1,0 4,6 561 48-59 months 0,6 2,8 1,5 6,4 597 Mother’s education**** Incomplete secondary 4,7 6,3 0,7 12,9 122 Secondary 1,2 2,3 1,1 7,5 526 Secondary special 1,0 2,7 1,3 6,5 1559 Higher 0,3 1,7 1,6 5,8 807 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 1,7 5,4 0,7 6,6 500 Second 1,2 2,7 1,4 7,6 607 Middle 0,9 2,2 0,8 6,9 607 Forth 1,0 1,4 1,1 6,5 612 Richest 0,5 1,5 2,3 6,2 692 Total 1,0 2,5 1,3 6,7 3018 * MICS indicator 6; MDG indicator 4 ** MICS indicator 7 *** MICS indicator 8 **** 4 unweighted cases with “primary education” not shown 55 Table NU.2: Initial breastfeeding Percentage of women aged 15-49 years with a birth in the two years preceding the survey who breastfed their baby within one hour of birth and within one day of birth Percentage of women with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey Who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth* Who started breastfeeding within one day of birth Number of women with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey Region Brest 20,1 84,2 79 Vitebsk 20,9 72,3 51 Gomel 14,3 63,8 70 Grodno 11,7 63,9 57 Minsk city 34,3 73,6 80 Minsk 24,8 75,7 72 Mogilev 16,7 60,2 53 Residence Urban 22,5 71,5 330 Rural 17,5 71,0 132 Months since birth < 6 months 20,1 74,7 120 6-11 months 22,7 70,6 104 12-23 months 20,8 70,0 238 Mother’s education** Incomplete secondary (18,9) (73,4) 18 Secondary 17,8 73,0 79 Secondary special 19,4 67,7 231 Higher 26,2 76,7 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 16,9 69,4 67 Second 17,1 70,1 80 Middle 14,7 69,1 95 Fourth 22,1 68,7 97 Richest 30,0 77,2 123 Total 21,1 71,4 462 * '()"*"+,$- ./01 45 ** 2 unweighted cases with “primary education” not shown 56 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at each age group Children 0-3 months Children 0-5 months Children 6-9 months Children 12-15 months Children 20-23 months Percent exclu- sively breast- fed Number of children Percent exclu- sively breast- fed * Number of children Percent receiving breast- milk & solid/ mushy food** Number of children Percent breast- fed *** Number of children Percent breas- tfed *** Number of children Sex Male (8,9) 81 7,0 169 36,2 111 22,3 99 2,9 106 Female (15,4) 87 11,2 151 41,6 74 14,0 108 4,3 102 Residence Urban 11,4 134 9,7 242 41,2 129 17,0 151 4,4 145 Rural (*) 34 (6,7) 78 31,8 57 20,6 57 1,7 63 Total 12,2 168 9,0 320 38,3 185 18,0 207 3,6 208 * MICS indicator 15 ** MICS indicator 17 *** MICS indicator 16 57 Table NU.4: Adequately fed infants Percentage of infants under 6 months of age exclusively breastfed, percentage of infants 6-11 months who are breastfed and who ate solid/semi-solid food at least the minimum recommended number of times yesterday and percentage of infants adequately fed Percent of infants 0-5 months exclusively breastfed 6-8 months who received breastmilk and complementary food at least 2 times in prior 24 hours 9-11 months who received breastmilk and complementary food at least 3 times in prior 24 hours 6-11 months who received breastmilk and complementary food at least the minimum recommended number of times per day* 0-11 months who were appropriately fed** Number of infants aged 0-11 months Sex Male 7,0 29,6 24,5 27,4 16,9 330 Female 11,2 42,7 17,2 28,5 18,8 268 Residence Urban 9,7 36,2 22,5 29,8 18,6 435 Rural 6,7 29,6 18,0 23,4 15,5 163 Mother’s education*** Secondary 0,0 41,2 26,9 32,3 15,3 101 Secondary special 4,5 28,5 15,4 22,2 13,5 292 Higher 19,2 46,1 31,1 39,7 27,1 182 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 13,8 19,6 8,0 13,8 13,8 92 Second 2,2 34,7 27,6 31,5 16,3 104 Middle 0,0 52,1 18,3 35,0 15,6 120 Forth 10,5 33,4 22,4 27,3 17,9 118 Richest 16,2 31,8 26,5 29,5 22,3 164 Total 9,0 34,4 21,0 27,9 17,8 598 * MICS indicator 18 ** MICS indicator 19 *** 1 unweighted case with “primary education” and 19 unweighted cases with "incomplete secondary education" not shown 58 Table NU.5: Low birth weight infants Percentage of live births in the 2 years preceding the survey that weighed below 2500 grams at birth Percent of live births Below 2500 grams* Weighed at birth** Number of live births Region Brest 3,0 100,0 79 Vitebsk 4,0 96,7 51 Gomel 3,5 99,5 70 Grodno 4,6 99,4 57 Minsk city 3,9 99,6 80 Minsk 3,7 100,0 72 Mogilev 4,2 99,4 53 Residence Urban 3,8 99,4 330 Rural 3,7 99,2 132 Mother’s education*** Incomplete secondary (3,8) (98,0) 18 Secondary 4,8 100,0 79 Secondary special 4,1 99,0 231 Higher 2,7 99,8 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 4,4 98,5 67 Second 3,3 100,0 80 Middle 4,4 100,0 95 Forth 3,9 99,7 97 Richest 3,3 98,6 123 Total 3,8 99,3 462 * MICS indicator 9 ** MICS indicator 10 *** 2 unweighted cases with “primary education” not shown 59 Table CH.1: Vaccinations Percentage of children age 18-29 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before the first birthday Percentage of children who received: BCG* DPT1 DPT 2 DPT 3** Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3*** Meas- les**** All***** None Number of children aged 18-29 months Vaccinated at any time before the survey 99,6 99,4 99,6 98,8 99,1 99,1 99,0 98,1 97,2 0,4 633 According to vaccination card 99,4 99,3 99,4 98,7 99,0 99,1 99,0 98,0 97,2 0,2 633 Vaccinated by 12 months of age****** 99,2 98,5 98,1 96,7 98,0 97,7 96,5 96,9 93,9 0,4 633 * MICS indicator 25 ** MICS indicator 27 *** MICS indicator 26 **** MICS indicator 28; MDG indicator 15 ***** MICS indicator 31 ****** For measles vaccination – during the first 18 months Table CH.1c: Vaccinations (continued) Percentage of children age 18-29 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before the first birthday Percentage of children, who received Hep B1 Hep B2 Hep B3* Number of children aged 18-29 months Vaccinated at any time before the survey 99,3 99,1 98,5 633 According to vaccination card 99,3 99,1 98,5 633 Vaccinated by 12 months of age 99,3 98,4 96,9 633 * MICS indicator 29 60 Table CH.2: Vaccinations by background characteristics Percentage of children aged 18-29 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases Percentage of children who received BCG DPT1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All Percent with health card Number of children aged 18-29 months Sex Male 99,7 99,4 99,7 99,0 99,1 99,4 99,4 98,8 97,9 99,7 322 Female 99,4 99,4 99,4 98,6 99,1 98,8 98,5 97,4 96,5 99,5 311 Region Brest 100,0 100,0 100,0 99,2 100,0 100,0 100,0 98,4 98,4 100,0 108 Vitebsk 100,0 100,0 100,0 98,7 100,0 100,0 100,0 96,1 94,8 100,0 69 Gomel 100,0 100,0 100,0 99,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 96,9 96,9 100,0 100 Grodno 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 81 Minsk city 99,1 98,2 99,1 98,2 98,2 98,2 97,3 97,3 95,5 98,2 90 Minsk 99,1 99,1 99,1 98,2 97,4 97,4 97,4 99,1 96,4 100,0 120 Mogilev 98,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 65 Residence Urban 99,6 99,4 99,6 98,5 99,4 99,4 99,2 97,7 96,8 99,4 426 Rural 99,5 99,5 99,5 99,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 99,0 98,0 100,0 207 Mother’s education* Secondary 99,0 99,0 99,0 98,1 98,0 98,0 98,0 98,1 96,2 99,0 101 Secondary special 100,0 100,0 100,0 99,1 100,0 100,0 100,0 98,3 98,0 100,0 335 Higher 99,5 99,1 99,5 99,1 98,5 98,5 98,0 98,1 96,6 99,1 179 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 106 Second 98,3 98,3 98,3 98,3 97,4 97,4 97,4 96,6 95,7 99,2 117 Middle 100,0 100,0 100,0 99,2 100,0 100,0 100,0 98,5 98,5 100,0 130 Forth 99,4 99,4 99,4 98,8 98,7 98,7 98,7 97,5 96,2 99,4 140 Richest 100,0 99,4 100,0 98,0 99,4 99,4 98,8 98,0 96,1 99,4 140 Total 99,6 99,4 99,6 98,8 99,1 99,1 99,0 98,1 97,2 99,6 633 * 20 unweighted cases with "incomplete secondary education" not shown 61 Table CH.22: Vaccinations by background characteristics (continued) Percentage of children aged 18-29 months currently vaccinated Percentage of children who received: Hep B1 Hep B2 Hep B3 Percent with health card Number of children aged 18-29 months Sex Male 99,7 99,4 99,0 99,7 322 Female 98,9 98,9 98,1 99,5 311 Region Brest 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 108 Vitebsk 98,8 98,8 97,5 100,0 69 Gomel 100,0 99,0 99,0 100,0 100 Grodno 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 81 Minsk city 98,2 98,2 96,4 98,2 90 Minsk 99,1 99,1 98,1 100,0 120 Mogilev 98,5 98,5 98,5 98,5 65 Residence Urban 99,4 99,1 98,3 99,4 426 Rural 99,1 99,1 99,1 100,0 207 Mother’s education* Secondary 97,2 97,2 97,2 99,0 101 Secondary special 100,0 99,7 98,8 100,0 335 Higher 99,1 99,1 98,6 99,1 179 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 106 Second 98,5 98,5 97,7 99,2 117 Middle 100,0 99,2 98,3 100,0 130 Forth 98,7 98,7 98,7 99,4 140 Richest 99,4 99,4 98,3 99,4 140 Total 99,3 99,1 98,5 99,6 633 * 20 unweighted cases with "incomplete secondary education" not shown 62 Table CH.3: Oral rehydration treatment Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks and treatment with oral rehydration solution (ORS) or other oral rehydration treatment (ORT) Children with diarrhoea who received Had diarrhoea in last two weeks Number of children aged 0-59 months Fluid from ORS packet Recom- mended homemade fluid Pre- packaged ORS fluid No treatment ORT Use Rate * Number of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea Sex Male 3,6 1582 15,9 57,0 25,4 15,0 85,0 57 Female 4,5 1469 26,3 65,1 12,0 15,2 84,8 66 Residence Urban 3,8 2064 24,9 59,3 17,0 16,3 83,7 79 Rural 4,5 987 (15,2) (65,0) (20,5) (13,0) (87,0) 44 Total 4,0 3051 21,4 61,3 18,2 15,1 84,9 123 * MICS indicator 33 Table CH.4: Home management of diarrhoea Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who took increased fluids and continued to feed during the episode Children with diarrhoea who: Children with diarrhoea who received: Drank more Drank the same or less Ate somewhat less, same or more Ate much less or none Home manage- ment of diarrhoea * Received ORT or increased fluids AND continued feeding ** Number of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea Sex Male 37,2 62,8 69,9 30,1 18,3 65,5 57 Female 36,4 63,6 55,4 44,6 13,5 44,4 66 Residence Urban 34,3 65,7 60,5 39,5 13,6 53,1 79 Rural (41,1) (58,9) (65,0) (35,0) (19,5) (56,2) 44 Total 36,8 63,2 62,1 37,9 15,7 54,2 123 * MICS indicator 34 ** MICS indicator 35 Ta bl e C H .5 : C ar e se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia in th e la st tw o w ee ks ta ke n to a h ea lth p ro vi de r C hi ld re n w ith s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia w ho w er e ta ke n to : P ub lic s ou rc es : P riv at e so ur ce s H ad a cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n N um be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s G ov t. H os pi ta l G ov t. he al th ce nt re G ov t. he al th po st V illa ge he al th w or ke r M ob ile / ou tre ac h cl in ic O th er pu bl ic P riv at e ph ys ic ia n P ha rm ac y R el at iv e/ fri en d A ny ap pr op ria te pr ov id er * N um be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia Se x M al e 11 ,5 15 82 12 ,3 72 ,4 5, 3 8, 8 0, 7 6, 8 0, 4 2, 1 2, 0 89 ,7 18 2 Fe m al e 9, 7 14 69 9, 4 73 ,6 3, 2 7, 3 1, 3 4, 7 1, 4 - 1, 2 89 ,3 14 3 R es id en ce U rb an 11 ,5 20 64 10 ,2 88 ,9 0, 4 0, 0 0, 9 4, 0 1, 2 1, 2 1, 9 93 ,9 23 7 R ur al 8, 9 98 7 13 ,4 29 ,7 15 ,0 30 ,1 0, 9 11 ,1 - 1, 0 0, 9 77 ,7 88 A ge 0- 11 m on th s 5, 1 59 8 (1 9, 6) (5 9, 6) (- ) (2 5, 4) (- ) (2 ,9 ) (- ) (- ) (- ) (9 4, 5) 31 12 -2 3 m on th s 8, 1 64 3 15 ,3 74 ,2 5, 7 5, 0 3, 9 7, 2 2, 3 - - 91 ,6 52 24 -3 5 m on th s 14 ,0 64 5 6, 2 71 ,5 5, 2 3, 7 - 5, 3 1, 8 2, 2 0, 9 86 ,9 91 36 -4 7 m on th s 13 ,2 56 7 10 ,0 78 ,6 4, 9 8, 6 1, 4 2, 3 - 1, 2 3, 5 91 ,8 75 48 -5 9 m on th s 12 ,7 59 8 11 ,4 73 ,4 3, 7 8, 1 - 10 ,5 - 1, 3 2, 5 86 ,9 76 C on tin ue d C hi ld re n w ith s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia w ho w er e ta ke n to : P ub lic s ou rc es : P riv at e so ur ce s H ad a cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n N um be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s G ov t. H os pi ta l G ov t. he al th ce nt re G ov t. he al th po st V illa ge he al th w or ke r M ob ile / ou tre ac h cl in ic O th er pu bl ic P riv at e ph ys ic ia n P ha rm ac y R el at iv e/ fri en d A ny ap pr op ria te pr ov id er * N um be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia M ot he r’s e du ca tio n* * Se co nd ar y 11 ,6 53 0 11 ,7 64 ,4 6, 5 13 ,9 2, 0 6, 8 - - 1, 5 88 ,1 61 Se co nd ar y sp ec ia l 10 ,9 15 77 7, 5 73 ,6 2, 7 7, 2 - 6, 0 0, 7 2, 2 1, 6 87 ,0 17 2 H ig he r 9, 1 81 7 13 ,9 83 ,1 5, 0 1, 2 1, 4 4, 0 2, 2 - 1, 2 94 ,1 74 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 8, 6 50 5 (1 9, 6) (3 6, 8) (1 0, 8) (2 3, 6) - (1 6, 5) - (6 ,6 ) - (7 9, 3) 43 Se co nd 10 ,2 61 6 13 ,8 58 ,9 7, 5 11 ,2 1, 3 8, 0 1, 9 - 1, 3 81 ,2 63 M id dl e 13 ,7 61 5 7, 2 78 ,9 3, 4 10 ,9 - 2, 2 - 1, 2 1, 0 95 ,3 85 Fo rth 9, 9 61 9 9, 7 86 ,6 3, 2 - 2, 0 5, 0 1, 3 - 2, 9 92 ,8 61 R ic he st 10 ,5 69 6 9, 0 88 ,1 - - 1, 4 2, 8 1, 1 - 2, 7 93 ,2 73 To ta l 10 ,6 30 51 11 ,0 72 ,9 4, 4 8, 1 0, 9 5, 9 0, 9 1, 2 1, 7 89 ,5 32 5 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 3 ** 1 8 un w ei gh te d ca se s w ith "i nc om pl et e se co nd ar y ed uc at io n" n ot s ho w n 65 Table CH.6: Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotic treatment Percentage of under fives with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics in the last two weeks* Number of children with suspected pneumonia in the two weeks prior to the survey Sex Male 70,8 182 Female 62,1 143 Residence Urban 66,4 237 Rural 68,6 88 Age 0-11 months (51,5) 31 12-23 months 68,2 52 24-35 months 59,7 91 36-47 months 74,0 75 48-59 months 74,0 76 Mother’s education** Secondary 61,4 61 Secondary special 71,6 172 Higher 60,9 74 Wealth index quintiles Poorest (83,1) 43 Second 62,3 63 Middle 64,2 84 Fourth 66,0 61 Richest 65,4 73 Total 67,0 325 * MICS indicator 22 ** 18 unweighted cases with "incomplete secondary education" not shown 66 Table CH.6a: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia Percentage of mothers/caretakers of children aged 0-59 months by knowledge of types of symptoms for taking a child immediately to a health facility, and percentage of mothers/caretakers who recognize fast and difficult breathing as signs for seeking care immediately Percentage of mothers/caretakers of children aged 0-59 months who think that a child should be taken immediately to a health facility if the child: Is not able to drink or breastfe ed Becomes sicke Develops a fever Has fast breathing Has difficult breathing Has blood in stool Is drinking poorly Has other symp- toms Mothers/ caretakers who recognize the two danger signs of pneumonia Number of mothers/ caretakers of children aged 0-59 months Regions Brest 28,0 59,6 98,8 70,1 80,4 69,8 14,5 17,3 61,4 513 Vitebsk 16,2 31,8 91,0 47,8 67,8 58,3 6,0 36,1 39,9 352 Gomel 12,4 41,7 94,0 29,6 51,1 34,5 3,3 25,0 21,5 484 Grodno 12,0 40,4 94,0 38,0 53,5 25,6 4,6 26,6 24,9 411 Minsk city 13,7 36,5 94,2 29,1 54,5 37,2 4,1 31,3 24,4 434 Minsk 22,0 48,7 96,2 43,7 61,6 45,7 3,8 32,3 32,5 500 Mogilev 25,2 44,8 92,0 29,9 62,6 50,2 8,2 33,8 23,5 357 Residence Urban 18,8 43,5 94,6 43,5 63,1 46,0 6,5 29,6 35,1 2064 Rural 18,3 45,4 94,7 38,5 59,1 46,1 6,3 25,7 29,2 987 Mother’s education* Incomplete secondary 10,3 41,8 88,4 31,8 52,6 33,1 9,0 21,8 25,6 124 Secondary 22,0 45,6 96,0 44,8 63,6 47,4 5,2 26,6 34,7 530 Secondary special 17,5 44,9 94,5 42,4 61,8 45,2 7,3 26,8 33,2 1577 Higher 20,1 42,0 94,9 40,4 62,2 48,7 5,2 33,6 33,4 817 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 19,5 45,3 93,4 40,5 61,9 48,1 8,2 25,0 34,5 505 Second 20,2 47,8 95,7 43,5 63,7 49,7 7,7 28,2 33,1 616 Middle 15,1 46,7 94,2 44,7 61,9 46,0 5,2 27,4 33,5 615 Fourth 18,2 43,1 94,4 39,4 63,9 43,3 6,8 29,8 32,1 619 Richest 20,2 38,8 95,1 41,3 58,1 43,9 4,8 30,3 33,2 696 Total 18,7 44,1 94,6 41,9 61,8 46,1 6,4 28,3 33,2 3051 * 4 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 67 Table CH.7: Solid fuel use Percent distribution of households according to type of cooking fuel, and percentage of households using solid fuels for cooking Percentage of households using: Electricity Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Natural gas Wood Total Solid fuels for cooking* Number of households Regions Brest 6,3 29,4 58,0 6,3 100,0 6,3 980 Vitebsk 5,7 36,3 54,5 3,5 100,0 3,5 950 Gomel 4,4 18,2 70,5 6,9 100,0 6,9 1052 Grodno 6,6 33,9 57,9 1,6 100,0 1,6 798 Minsk city 31,2 1,0 67,8 - 100,0 - 1065 Minsk 7,5 34,1 57,2 1,2 100,0 1,2 1046 Mogilev 3,5 34,5 57,4 4,6 100,0 4,6 816 Residence Urban 13,7 9,2 76,7 0,4 100,0 0,4 4431 Rural 2,0 58,8 29,9 9,3 100,0 9,3 2276 Household head education** Primary 1,3 53,6 27,8 17,3 100,0 17,3 458 Incomplete secondary 4,2 44,6 43,5 7,7 100,0 7,7 510 Secondary 8,9 28,9 59,3 2,9 100,0 2,9 1338 Secondary special 10,5 23,6 63,7 2,2 100,0 2,2 2976 Higher 13,7 11,9 73,9 0,5 100,0 0,5 1407 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 0,4 76,2 9,4 14,0 100,0 14,0 1489 Second 3,7 41,1 53,5 1,7 100,0 1,7 1298 Middle 13,7 5,1 81,2 - 100,0 - 1396 Fourth 12,8 0,4 86,8 - 100,0 - 1376 Richest 20,2 0,0 79,8 - 100,0 - 1148 Total 9,8 26,0 60,8 3,4 100,0 3,4 6707 * MICS indicator 24; MDG indicator 29 ** 13 unweighted cases with "no education" not shown 68 Table EN.1: Use of improved water sources Percent distribution of household members according to main source of drinking water and percentage of household members using improved drinking water sources Percentage of household members using as a main source of drinking water: Improved source Unimproved source Piped into dwelling Piped into yard/ plot Public tap/ stand- pipe Pro- tected well Bottled water Unpro- tected well Other Total Improved source of drinking water** Number of househo ld member s Regions Brest 78,1 5,0 2,1 14,8 - - - 100,0 100,0 2651 Vitebsk 71,5 0,9 8,2 18,8 0,4 0,1 0,1 100,0 99,8 2472 Gomel 82,1 3,6 5,1 8,8 0,2 0,2 0,0 100,0 99,8 2705 Grodno 75,5 2,0 1,1 19,6 0,1 1,6 0,1 100,0 98,3 2232 Minsk city 96,6 - 0,6 - 2,8 - - 100,0 100,0 2849 Minsk 75,1 1,4 5,4 17,2 0,3 0,4 0,2 100,0 99,4 2838 Mogilev 77,5 2,6 12,0 7,4 0,3 0,1 0,1 100,0 99,8 2170 Residence Urban 92,0 0,7 3,5 2,7 0,9 0,1 0,1 100,0 99,8 11852 Rural 56,2 5,1 7,1 30,7 0,1 0,6 0,1 100,0 99,3 6065 Education of household head ** Primary 33,6 5,0 10,8 49,0 - 1,4 0,2 100,0 98,4 782 Incomplete secondary 54,9 3,8 11,6 29,0 - 0,5 0,2 100,0 99,3 1096 Secondary 77,7 2,4 6,2 13,3 0,2 0,3 0,0 100,0 99,7 3796 Secondary special 83,1 2,1 4,1 9,9 0,5 0,3 0,0 100,0 99,7 8522 Higher 92,3 1,0 1,2 3,3 1,9 0,2 0,1 100,0 99,7 3688 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 13,1 9,2 21,6 54,4 - 1,4 0,3 100,0 98,3 3583 Second 91,3 1,6 1,9 4,9 0,1 0,2 - 100,0 99,8 3583 Middle 97,3 0,1 0,2 1,6 0,7 - 0,1 100,0 99,9 3584 Fourth 98,7 - - 0,0 1,3 - - 100,0 100,0 3584 Richest 98,9 - - - 1,1 - 0,0 100,0 100,0 3583 Total 79,9 2,2 4,7 12,2 0,6 0,3 0,1 100,0 99,6 17917 * MICS indicator 11; MDG indicator 30 ** 23 unweighted cases with "no education" not shown Ta bl e EN .2 : H ou se ho ld w at er tr ea tm en t P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to d rin ki ng w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d, a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n th at a pp lie d an ap pr op ria te w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d H ou se ho ld s w hi ch u se d W at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d A ll dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc es Im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es U ni m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es B oi l S tra in th ro ug h a cl ot h U se w at er fil te r Le t i t s ta nd an d se ttl e O th er N on e A pp ro pr ia te w at er tre at m en t m et ho d* N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs A pp ro pr ia te w at er tre at m en t m et ho d N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs A pp ro pr ia te w at er tre at m en t m et ho d* N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs R eg io ns Br es t 60 ,7 0, 9 10 ,4 19 ,9 0, 1 34 ,1 64 ,4 26 51 64 ,4 26 51 - - Vi te bs k 47 ,8 0, 2 11 ,6 15 ,7 0, 4 42 ,3 53 ,6 24 72 53 ,6 24 68 (* ) 4 G om el 59 ,2 0, 2 13 ,4 18 ,4 1, 2 32 ,7 64 ,3 27 05 64 ,2 26 99 (* ) 6 G ro dn o 49 ,2 0, 0 10 ,1 20 ,6 0, 6 41 ,8 55 ,8 22 32 56 ,5 21 95 (1 5, 9) 36 M in sk c ity 62 ,1 0, 2 34 ,5 15 ,9 1, 8 16 ,4 80 ,2 28 49 80 ,2 28 49 - - M in sk 43 ,5 0, 2 8, 5 17 ,1 0, 4 46 ,5 48 ,5 28 38 48 ,6 28 21 (* ) 17 M og ile v 48 ,4 0, 5 10 ,7 24 ,0 0, 6 40 ,8 53 ,2 21 70 53 ,3 21 66 (* ) 4 R es id en ce U rb an 62 ,9 0, 4 20 ,4 22 ,3 1, 1 23 ,3 72 ,8 11 85 2 72 ,9 11 82 8 (3 9, 0) 24 R ur al 34 ,6 0, 2 3, 1 11 ,4 0, 1 60 ,6 36 ,4 60 65 36 ,5 60 21 (2 2, 9) 44 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d* * Pr im ar y 33 ,8 0, 4 2, 4 11 ,4 0, 5 60 ,7 34 ,9 78 2 35 ,4 76 9 (* ) 13 In co m pl et e se co nd ar y 43 ,3 0, 1 5, 2 14 ,4 0, 4 50 ,8 45 ,5 10 96 45 ,5 10 88 (* ) 8 Se co nd ar y 54 ,3 0, 3 10 ,4 21 ,6 0, 5 37 ,3 58 ,9 37 96 59 ,0 37 85 (* ) 11 Se co nd ar y sp ec ia l 53 ,3 0, 4 13 ,5 18 ,7 0, 6 36 ,3 60 ,1 85 22 60 ,1 84 96 (5 2, 4) 26 H ig he r 59 ,7 0, 2 26 ,9 18 ,2 1, 4 23 ,6 73 ,5 36 88 73 ,6 36 77 (* ) 11 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 30 ,3 0, 1 1, 1 15 ,8 0, 3 64 ,4 30 ,8 35 83 30 ,8 35 23 30 ,6 60 Se co nd 45 ,8 0, 1 7, 5 14 ,1 0, 2 46 ,5 50 ,1 35 83 50 ,1 35 77 (* ) 5 M id dl e 60 ,2 0, 4 12 ,3 19 ,1 0, 5 30 ,1 66 ,3 35 84 66 ,4 35 83 (* ) 1 Fo ur th 66 ,1 0, 7 18 ,7 23 ,1 1, 4 21 ,4 74 ,9 35 84 74 ,9 35 84 - - R ic he st 64 ,0 0, 3 33 ,3 20 ,9 1, 3 17 ,4 80 ,2 35 83 80 ,2 35 82 (* ) 1 To ta l 53 ,3 0, 3 14 ,6 18 ,6 0, 8 35 ,9 60 ,5 17 91 7 60 ,6 17 84 9 28 ,6 68 * M IC S in di ca to r 1 3 ** 2 3 un w ei gh te d ca se s w ith "n o ed uc at io n" n ot s ho w n 70 Table EN.3: Time to source of water Percent distribution of households according to time to go to source of drinking water, get water and return, and mean time to source of drinking water Time to source of drinking water Less than 15 minutes 15 minutes to less than 30 minutes Don’t know Water on premises Total Mean time to source of drinking water* Number of househols Regions Brest 18,6 0,6 - 80,8 100,0 6,9 980 Vitebsk 22,6 5,8 - 71,6 100,0 9,3 950 Gomel 14,0 2,7 - 83,3 100,0 8,2 1052 Grodno 23,2 1,9 - 74,9 100,0 6,2 798 Minsk city 0,5 - - 99,5 100,0 4,4 1065 Minsk 24,1 0,6 - 75,3 100,0 5,4 1046 Mogilev 16,8 5,6 0,3 77,3 100,0 10,5 816 Residence Urban 5,6 1,3 0,1 93,0 100,0 9,1 4431 Rural 38,4 4,4 - 57,2 100,0 7,2 2276 Education of household head** Primary 52,8 8,7 - 38,5 100,0 8,5 458 Incomplete secondary 34,9 6,6 - 58,5 100,0 7,7 510 Secondary 18,1 2,4 - 79,5 100,0 7,1 1338 Secondary special 13,0 1,2 - 85,8 100,0 7,1 2976 Higher 4,6 0,8 0,1 94,5 100,0 9,6 1407 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 69,6 8,7 0,1 21,6 100,0 7,4 1489 Second 5,7 1,3 - 93,0 100,0 8,4 1298 Middle 0,7 0,7 0,1 98,5 100,0 16,9 1396 Fourth - - - 100,0 100,0 - 1376 Richest - - - 100,0 100,0 - 1148 Total 16,8 2,4 0,0 80,8 100,0 7,7 6707 * The mean time to source of drinking water is calculated based on those households that do not have water on the premises. ** 13 unweighted cases with "no education" not shown 71 Table EN.4: Person collecting water Percent distribution of households according to the person collecting drinking water used in the household Person collecting drinking water Adult woman Adult man or male child under age 15 Missing Total Number of households Regions* Brest 49,4 50,6 - 100,0 189 Vitebsk 57,0 42,4 0,6 100,0 269 Gomel 48,3 49,9 1,6 100,0 175 Grodno 44,9 53,7 1,4 100,0 200 Minsk 48,1 50,8 1,1 100,0 258 Mogilev 52,7 44,9 2,4 100,0 185 Residence Urban 52,8 45,8 1,4 100,0 307 Rural 49,5 49,5 1,0 100,0 974 Education of household head** Primary 55,1 41,3 3,6 100,0 282 Incomplete secondary 51,1 48,2 0,7 100,0 212 Secondary 49,4 50,0 0,6 100,0 274 Secondary special 45,5 54,2 0,3 100,0 422 Higher 51,3 48,7 - 100,0 76 Wealth index quintiles*** Poorest 51,0 47,7 1,3 100,0 1168 Second 42,9 57,1 - 100,0 92 Middle (41,1) (58,9) - 100,0 20 Total 50,3 48,6 1,1 100,0 1281 * 4 unweighted cases with " Minsk city" not shown ** 11 unweighted cases with "no education" not shown *** 1 unweighted case with "fourth quintile" and 1 unweighted case with "richest quintile" not shown Ta bl e EN .5 : U se o f s an ita ry m ea ns o f e xc re ta d is po sa l P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld m em be rs a cc or di ng to ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by th e ho us eh ol d, a nd th e pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs u si ng s an ita ry m ea ns o f ex cr et a di sp os al Ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ilit y us ed b y ho us eh ol d Im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y U ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y Fl us h/ po ur fl us h to : P it la tri ne w ith : P ip ed se w er sy st em S ep tic ta nk P it la tri ne Ve nt ila tio n S la b O th er P it la tri ne w ith ou t s la b/ op en p it O th er To ta l P er ce nt ag e of p op ul at io n us in g sa ni ta ry m ea ns o f ex cr et a di sp os al * N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs R eg io ns B re st 64 ,4 5, 2 - - 30 ,3 - 0, 1 - 10 0, 0 99 ,9 26 51 Vi te bs k 67 ,4 2, 8 0, 3 1, 9 24 ,1 - 3, 4 0, 1 10 0, 0 96 ,5 24 72 G om el 65 ,8 1, 0 4, 6 0, 4 28 ,1 - 0, 0 0, 0 10 0, 0 99 ,9 27 05 G ro dn o 63 ,2 2, 0 1, 1 0, 3 32 ,4 - 1, 0 - 10 0, 0 99 ,0 22 32 M in sk c ity 99 ,0 - 0, 9 - 0, 1 - - - 10 0, 0 10 0, 0 28 49 M in sk 60 ,6 5, 0 1, 6 0, 1 32 ,5 0, 1 0, 1 - 10 0, 0 99 ,9 28 38 M og ile v 62 ,7 4, 4 0, 2 0, 1 32 ,5 - - 0, 1 10 0, 0 99 ,9 21 70 R es id en ce U rb an 85 ,6 1, 7 1, 6 0, 4 10 ,2 - 0, 4 0, 0 10 0, 0 99 ,5 11 85 2 R ur al 38 ,2 5, 2 0, 6 0, 3 54 ,6 0, 1 1, 0 0, 1 10 0, 0 98 ,9 60 65 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d ** Pr im ar y 22 ,0 0, 6 0, 2 1, 1 75 ,0 0, 0 0, 9 0, 2 10 0, 0 98 ,9 78 2 In co m pl et e se co nd ar y 42 ,2 2, 7 1, 6 1, 2 50 ,4 0, 4 1, 4 0, 1 10 0, 0 98 ,4 10 96 Se co nd ar y 62 ,7 5, 1 1, 9 0, 4 28 ,7 - 1, 2 - 10 0, 0 98 ,8 37 96 Se co nd ar y sp ec ia l 72 ,5 2, 7 1, 4 0, 4 22 ,5 - 0, 5 0, 0 10 0, 0 99 ,5 85 22 H ig he r 88 ,5 1, 6 0, 6 - 9, 2 - 0, 1 - 10 0, 0 99 ,9 36 88 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 0, 2 0, 9 1, 4 0, 7 94 ,9 0, 1 1, 7 0, 1 10 0, 0 98 ,2 35 83 Se co nd 49 ,0 12 ,3 5, 0 1, 1 31 ,1 - 1, 4 0, 0 10 0, 0 98 ,5 35 83 M id dl e 98 ,9 0, 9 0, 1 0, 1 0, 0 - - - 10 0, 0 10 0, 0 35 84 Fo ur th 99 ,7 0, 3 - - - - - - 10 0, 0 10 0, 0 35 84 R ic he st 10 0, 0 - - - - - - - 10 0, 0 10 0, 0 35 83 To ta l 69 ,6 2, 9 1, 3 0, 4 25 ,2 0, 0 0, 6 0, 0 10 0, 0 99 ,3 17 91 7 * M IC S in di ca to r 1 2; M D G in di ca to r 3 1 ** 2 3 un w ei gh te d ca se s w ith "n o ed uc at io n" n ot s ho w n 73 Table EN.5w: Joint use of sanitary means The percentage of household members jointly using improved household sanitation facility Percentage of household members jointly using different number of improved household sanitation facility 1* 2 3 4 5-9 10 and more Total Number of household members using improved sanitation facility Sanitation facility Flush/pour flush to: Piped sewer system 93,1 5,5 0,5 0,2 0,3 0,4 100,0 12462 Septic tank 98,6 1,4 - - - - 100,0 517 Pit latrine 86,9 9,8 - - 1,1 2,2 100,0 232 Pit latrine with: Ventilation 91,3 2,4 - 2,0 4,3 - 100,0 70 Slab 94,8 3,0 0,7 0,3 0,8 0,4 100,0 4513 Regions Brest 93,4 6,1 0,3 0,1 0,1 0,0 100,0 2649 Vitebsk 95,2 3,0 0,3 0,5 0,5 0,5 100,0 2385 Gomel 97,2 1,7 0,4 0,0 0,5 0,2 100,0 2703 Grodno 92,8 3,6 1,9 0,6 0,4 0,7 100,0 2210 Minsk city 88,5 10,9 0,2 - 0,2 0,2 100,0 2849 Minsk 93,9 4,1 0,1 0,3 0,8 0,8 100,0 2834 Mogilev 95,4 2,8 0,6 0,1 0,5 0,6 100,0 2168 Residence Urban 91,6 6,3 0,7 0,3 0,5 0,6 100,0 11797 Rural 97,6 1,6 0,2 0,2 0,3 0,1 100,0 6001 Education of household head** Primary 98,1 1,1 0,6 0,2 - - 100,0 773 Incomplete secondary 95,5 3,1 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,2 100,0 1079 Secondary 93,4 5,5 0,5 0,1 0,1 0,4 100,0 3751 Secondary special 92,5 5,3 0,5 0,4 0,8 0,5 100,0 8480 Higher 95,0 4,1 0,5 0,1 0,0 0,3 100,0 3683 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 93,8 3,8 0,5 0,4 1,0 0,5 100,0 3518 Second 95,6 2,5 0,5 0,2 0,5 0,7 100,0 3529 Middle 90,3 7,1 1,1 0,3 0,5 0,7 100,0 3584 Fourth 94,7 4,4 0,3 0,3 0,2 0,1 100,0 3584 Richest 93,8 6,0 0,2 - 0,0 0,0 100,0 3583 Total 93,7 4,8 0,5 0,2 0,4 0,4 100,0 17798 * Says that the sanitation facility is not used on joint basis with other household’s members. ** 23 unweighted cases with "no education" not shown 74 Table EN.6: Disposal of child's faeces Percent distribution of children aged 0-2 years according to place of disposal of child's faeces, and the percentage of children aged 0-2 years whose stools are disposed of safely Place of disposal of child's faeces Child used toilet Put/ rinsed into toilet Put/ rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into garbage Other/ don’t know Total Proportion of children whose stools are disposed of safely* Number of children aged 0-2 years Regions Brest 11,0 89,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 100,0 100,0 328 Vitebsk 6,5 75,5 5,0 10,1 2,8 100,0 82,0 215 Gomel 6,2 69,6 6,7 12,4 5,1 100,0 75,8 278 Grodno 3,7 50,0 17,2 28,8 0,3 100,0 53,7 259 Minsk city 10,0 65,0 0,5 23,9 0,5 100,0 75,0 303 Minsk 11,3 53,4 3,4 26,7 5,2 100,0 64,7 311 Mogilev 4,1 77,3 3,4 14,0 1,2 100,0 81,4 219 Residence Urban 8,7 69,5 1,5 18,2 2,1 100,0 78,2 1332 Rural 6,1 66,0 12,7 12,7 2,5 100,0 72,1 581 Mother’s education** Incomplete secondary 5,4 50,5 18,8 21,5 3,8 100,0 55,9 71 Secondary 7,0 70,5 4,7 12,3 5,5 100,0 77,5 313 Secondary special 7,6 70,1 5,5 16,0 0,9 100,0 77,7 974 Higher 9,3 66,8 2,2 19,2 2,5 100,0 76,1 553 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 2,0 54,6 23,4 15,6 4,4 100,0 56,6 304 Second 7,5 72,5 5,7 13,2 1,0 100,0 80,0 368 Middle 10,8 75,8 0,0 12,7 0,7 100,0 86,6 377 Fourth 10,9 71,5 0,2 15,0 2,4 100,0 82,4 399 Richest 7,1 65,8 0,2 24,2 2,7 100,0 72,9 465 Total 7,9 68,5 4,9 16,6 2,1 100,0 76,4 1913 * MICS indicator 14 ** 23 unweighted cases with "no education" not shown 75 !able EN.7: Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation Percentage of household population using both improved drinking water sources and sanitary means of excreta disposal Percentage of household population: Using improved sources of drinking water* Using sanitary means of excreta disposal** Using improved sources of drinking water and using sanitary means of excreta disposal Number of household members Regions Brest 100,0 99,9 99,9 2651 Vitebsk 99,8 96,5 96,4 2472 Gomel 99,8 99,9 99,7 2705 Grodno 98,3 99,0 97,4 2232 Minsk city 100,0 100,0 100,0 2849 Minsk 99,4 99,9 99,3 2838 Mogilev 99,8 99,9 99,7 2170 Residence Urban 99,8 99,5 99,3 11852 Rural 99,3 98,9 98,3 6065 Education of household head*** Primary 98,4 98,9 97,3 782 Incomplete secondary 99,3 98,4 98,0 1096 Secondary 99,7 98,8 98,5 3796 Secondary special 99,7 99,5 99,2 8522 Higher 99,7 99,9 99,6 3688 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 98,3 98,2 96,6 3583 Second 99,8 98,5 98,4 3583 Middle 100,0 100,0 100,0 3584 Fourth 100,0 100,0 100,0 3584 Richest 100,0 100,0 100,0 3583 Total 99,6 99,3 99,0 17917 * MICS indicator 11; MDG indicator 30 ** MICS indicator 12; MDG indicator ! 31 *** 23 unweighted cases with "no education" not shown !a bl e R H .1 : U se o f c on tr ac ep tio n P er ce nt ag e of m ar rie d or in u ni on w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d P er ce nt o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho a re u si ng P er ce nt o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho a re u si ng N ot u si ng an y m et ho d Fe m al e st er ili - za tio n P ill IU D C on do m LA M P er io di c ab st in - en ce W ith dr aw al O th er To ta l A ny m od er n m et ho d A ny tr ad i- tio na l m et ho d A ny m et ho d* N um be r of w om en cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n R eg io ns Br es t 27 ,2 0, 5 7, 6 32 ,2 21 ,7 0, 4 3, 8 6, 0 0, 6 10 0, 0 62 ,5 10 ,3 72 ,8 56 6 Vi te bs k 33 ,8 1, 3 9, 2 21 ,9 16 ,9 0, 7 5, 7 10 ,0 0, 5 10 0, 0 49 ,6 16 ,6 66 ,2 52 4 G om el 24 ,6 2, 7 12 ,1 26 ,7 17 ,0 0, 2 7, 7 8, 9 0, 1 10 0, 0 58 ,6 16 ,8 75 ,4 53 0 G ro dn o 24 ,3 3, 1 10 ,7 28 ,7 10 ,4 0, 8 5, 5 15 ,1 1, 4 10 0, 0 52 ,9 22 ,8 75 ,7 50 7 M in sk c ity 24 ,7 3, 6 14 ,6 15 ,1 23 ,6 0, 5 7, 8 8, 1 2, 0 10 0, 0 58 ,2 17 ,1 75 ,3 54 9 M in sk 29 ,4 3, 1 7, 2 30 ,8 15 ,0 0, 2 3, 5 10 ,1 0, 7 10 0, 0 56 ,4 14 ,2 70 ,6 58 0 M og ile v 27 ,6 2, 8 12 ,4 23 ,3 17 ,2 1, 1 4, 5 9, 4 1, 7 10 0, 0 57 ,0 15 ,4 72 ,4 39 2 R es id en ce U rb an 26 ,4 2, 3 11 ,4 24 ,8 19 ,6 0, 5 5, 9 8, 0 1, 1 10 0, 0 58 ,7 14 ,9 73 ,6 24 36 R ur al 29 ,4 2, 7 8, 5 27 ,5 13 ,3 0, 6 4, 6 12 ,8 0, 6 10 0, 0 52 ,3 18 ,3 70 ,6 12 12 A ge 15 -1 9 (3 8, 1) (- ) (1 1, 4) (2 ,3 ) (3 7, 0) (- ) (8 ,9 ) (2 ,3 ) (- ) (1 00 ,0 ) (5 0, 7) (1 1, 2) (6 1, 9) 29 20 -2 4 33 ,4 - 15 ,8 13 ,9 29 ,7 1, 1 2, 0 3, 6 0, 5 10 0, 0 59 ,5 7, 1 66 ,6 31 8 25 -2 9 26 ,3 1, 2 16 ,0 21 ,7 24 ,3 1, 2 2, 0 5, 8 1, 5 10 0, 0 64 ,1 9, 6 73 ,7 57 2 30 -3 4 22 ,0 2, 9 11 ,9 31 ,2 16 ,7 0, 8 4, 3 9, 0 1, 2 10 0, 0 63 ,7 14 ,3 78 ,0 57 7 35 -3 9 18 ,1 4, 4 11 ,7 35 ,5 16 ,9 0, 6 3, 5 7, 7 1, 5 10 0, 0 69 ,2 12 ,7 81 ,9 62 7 40 -4 4 23 ,0 3, 3 7, 9 32 ,2 12 ,6 0, 1 7, 3 12 ,5 1, 1 10 0, 0 56 ,6 20 ,4 77 ,0 75 7 45 -4 9 41 ,2 1, 5 4, 2 15 ,8 12 ,6 - 10 ,2 14 ,4 - 10 0, 0 34 ,2 24 ,6 58 ,8 76 8 C on tin ue d P er ce nt o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho a re u si ng P er ce nt o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho a re u si ng N ot u si ng an y m et ho d Fe m al e st er ili - za tio n P ill IU D C on do m LA M P er io di c ab st in - en ce W ith dr aw al O th er To ta l A ny m od er n m et ho d A ny tr ad i- tio na l m et ho d A ny m et ho d* N um be r of w om en cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n N um be r o f l iv in g ch ild re n 0 71 ,4 - 9, 9 2, 2 14 ,0 - 1, 9 - 0, 6 10 0, 0 26 ,1 2, 5 28 ,6 25 5 1 26 ,4 0, 6 13 ,6 23 ,8 22 ,2 0, 7 4, 1 7, 4 1, 2 10 0, 0 61 ,0 12 ,6 73 ,6 12 48 2 22 ,1 3, 5 8, 9 30 ,0 16 ,1 0, 4 6, 5 11 ,6 0, 9 10 0, 0 58 ,9 19 ,0 77 ,9 17 59 3 25 ,9 3, 6 6, 7 28 ,3 11 ,7 0, 8 7, 6 15 ,2 0, 2 10 0, 0 50 ,5 23 ,6 74 ,1 29 4 4 + 25 ,7 10 ,2 10 ,0 25 ,3 8, 6 2, 6 8, 2 9, 4 - 10 0, 0 54 ,1 20 ,2 74 ,3 92 Ed uc at io n* * In co m pl et e se co nd ar y 35 ,6 1, 6 6, 3 18 ,6 19 ,9 - 1, 7 16 ,3 - 10 0, 0 46 ,4 18 ,0 64 ,4 60 Se co nd ar y 32 ,7 2, 6 8, 1 25 ,3 15 ,8 0, 2 5, 8 9, 1 0, 4 10 0, 0 52 ,1 15 ,2 67 ,3 68 6 Se co nd ar y sp ec ia l 26 ,5 2, 5 10 ,2 27 ,2 15 ,1 0, 6 5, 8 11 ,1 1, 0 10 0, 0 55 ,5 18 ,0 73 ,5 20 38 H ig he r 24 ,8 2, 0 13 ,2 23 ,0 24 ,3 0, 7 4, 9 6, 0 1, 1 10 0, 0 63 ,1 12 ,1 75 ,2 86 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 31 ,6 2, 3 6, 5 27 ,0 12 ,9 0, 8 3, 3 14 ,8 0, 8 10 0, 0 49 ,3 19 ,1 68 ,4 55 0 Se co nd 27 ,0 2, 2 11 ,0 25 ,9 14 ,3 1, 0 5, 1 13 ,1 0, 4 10 0, 0 53 ,4 19 ,6 73 ,0 76 3 M id dl e 29 ,7 2, 6 10 ,4 26 ,7 19 ,3 0, 2 4, 7 6, 0 0, 4 10 0, 0 59 ,1 11 ,2 70 ,3 72 7 Fo ur th 24 ,5 2, 4 10 ,0 27 ,2 19 ,7 0, 7 7, 1 7, 3 1, 1 10 0, 0 60 ,3 15 ,3 75 ,6 73 2 R ic he st 25 ,6 2, 5 12 ,7 22 ,6 19 ,8 0, 2 6, 7 8, 1 1, 8 10 0, 0 58 ,6 15 ,8 74 ,4 87 6 To ta l 27 ,4 2, 4 10 ,4 25 ,7 17 ,5 0, 5 5, 5 9, 6 1, 0 10 0, 0 56 ,5 16 ,1 72 ,6 36 48 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 1; M D G in di ca to r 1 9c ** 1 u nw ei gh te d ca se w ith "p rim ar y ed uc at io n" n ot s ho w n 78 Table RH.2: Antenatal care provider Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey by type of personnel providing antenatal care Person providing antenatal care Medical doctor Nurse/ midwife No antenatal care received Total Any skilled personnel* Number of women who gave birth in the preceding two years Regions Brest 100,0 - - 100,0 100,0 79 Vitebsk 99,4 0,6 - 100,0 100,0 51 Gomel 100,0 - - 100,0 100,0 70 Grodno 99,4 0,6 - 100,0 100,0 57 Minsk city 100,0 - - 100,0 100,0 80 Minsk 94,7 5,3 - 100,0 100,0 72 Mogilev 95,1 - 4,9 100,0 95,1 53 Residence Urban 99,2 0,1 0,7 100,0 99,3 330 Rural 96,6 3,1 0,3 100,0 99,7 132 Age** 15-19 (96,8) (1,5) (1,7) 100,0 (98,3) 21 20-24 97,4 1,5 1,1 100,0 98,9 147 25-29 99,1 0,7 0,2 100,0 99,8 162 30-34 98,7 0,9 0,4 100,0 99,6 87 35-39 100,0 - - 100,0 100,0 37 Education*** Incomplete secondary (100,0) (-) (-) (100,0) (100,0) 18 Secondary 98,6 1,0 0,4 100,0 99,6 79 Secondary special 98,6 1,1 0,3 100,0 99,7 231 Higher 98,0 0,8 1,2 100,0 98,8 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 99,0 - 1,0 100,0 99,0 67 Second 95,8 3,8 0,4 100,0 99,6 80 Middle 98,8 1,2 - 100,0 100,0 95 Fourth 100,0 - - 100,0 100,0 97 Richest 98,4 0,3 1,3 100,0 98,7 123 Total 98,4 1,0 0,6 100,0 99,4 462 * MICS indicator 20 ** 21 unweighted cases in age group "40-44" and 3 unweighted cases in age group "45-49" not shown *** 2 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 79 Table RH.3: Antenatal care Percentage of pregnant women receiving antenatal care among women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in two years preceding the survey and percentage of pregnant women receiving specific care as part of the antenatal care received Percent of pregnant women who had: Percent of pregnant women receiving ANC one or more times during pregnancy Blood test taken* Blood pressure measured* Urine specimen taken* Weight measured* Number of women who gave birth in two years preceding survey Regions Brest 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 79 Vitebsk 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 51 Gomel 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 70 Grodno 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 57 Minsk city 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 80 Minsk 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 72 Mogilev 95,1 95,1 95,1 95,1 95,1 53 Residence Urban 99,3 99,3 99,3 99,3 99,3 330 Rural 99,7 99,7 99,7 99,7 99,7 132 Age** 15-19 (98,3) (98,3) (98,3) (98,3) (98,3) 21 20-24 98,9 98,9 98,9 98,9 98,9 147 25-29 99,8 99,8 99,8 99,8 99,8 162 30-34 99,6 99,6 99,6 99,6 99,6 87 35-39 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 37 Education*** Incomplete secondary (100,0) (100,0) (100,0) (100,0) (100,0) 18 Secondary 99,5 99,5 99,5 99,5 99,5 79 Secondary special 99,7 99,7 99,7 99,7 99,7 231 Higher 98,8 98,8 98,8 98,8 98,8 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 99,0 99,0 99,0 99,0 99,0 67 Second 99,5 99,5 99,5 99,5 99,5 80 Middle 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 95 Fourth 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 97 Richest 98,7 98,7 98,7 98,7 98,7 123 Total 99,4 99,4 99,4 99,4 99,4 462 * MICS indicator 44 ** 21 unweighted cases in age group "40-44" and 3 unweighted cases in age group "45-49" not shown *** 2 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 80 !able RH.4: Assistance during delivery Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in two years preceding the survey by type of personnel assisting at delivery Person assisting at delivery Medical doctor Nurse/ midwife Auxiliary midwife Total Any skilled personnel* Delivered in health facility** Number of women who gave birth in preceding two years Regions Brest 100,0 0,0 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 79 Vitebsk 87,9 12,1 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 51 Gomel 89,7 9,7 0,5 100,0 100,0 99,5 70 Grodno 98,3 1,7 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 57 Minsk city 95,5 4,5 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 80 Minsk 97,8 2,2 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 72 Mogilev 83,3 16,7 - 100,0 100,0 99,4 53 Residence Urban 95,7 4,2 0,1 100,0 100,0 100,0 330 Rural 89,3 10,7 - 100,0 100,0 99,5 132 Age*** 15-19 (89,8) (10,2) (-) (100,0) (100,0) (100,0) 21 20-24 94,2 5,8 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 147 25-29 93,9 6,1 - 100,0 100,0 99,8 162 30-34 94,1 5,5 0,4 100,0 100,0 99,6 87 35-39 92,6 7,4 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 37 Education**** Incomplete secondary (83,7) (16,3) (-) (100,0) (100,0) (98,0) 18 Secondary 93,5 6,0 0,5 100,0 100,0 100,0 79 Secondary special 93,8 6,2 - 100,0 100,0 99,9 231 Higher 95,6 4,4 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 90,2 9,8 - 100,0 100,0 99,0 67 Second 90,8 8,7 0,5 100,0 100,0 100,0 80 Middle 94,3 5,7 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 95 Fourth 95,9 4,1 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 97 Richest 96,0 4,0 - 100,0 100,0 100,0 123 Total 93,9 6,0 0,1 100,0 100,0 99,9 462 * MICS indicator 4; MDG indicator 17 ** MICS indicator 5 *** 21 unweighted cases in age group "40-44" and 3 unweighted cases in age group "45-49" not shown **** 2 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 81 !able CD.1: Family support for learning Percentage of children aged 0-59 months for whom household members are engaged in activities that promote learning and school readiness For whom household members engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness* Mean number of activities household members engage in with the child For whom the father engaged in one or more activities that promote learning and school readiness** Mean number of activities the father engaged in with the child Living in a household without their natural father Number of children aged 0-59 months Sex Male 83,1 5,0 72,1 2,2 17,1 1582 Female 85,3 5,1 69,8 2,2 15,6 1469 Regions Brest 78,9 4,9 75,6 2,0 13,2 513 Vitebsk 84,6 4,9 66,2 2,1 19,5 352 Gomel 84,6 5,0 67,4 2,1 18,0 484 Grodno 85,0 5,1 78,9 2,4 10,8 411 Minsk city 91,3 5,3 76,2 2,9 12,5 434 Minsk 85,6 5,1 66,5 2,0 17,8 500 Mogilev 79,1 4,7 64,9 1,9 24,7 357 Residence Urban 85,0 5,1 72,2 2,4 15,3 2064 Rural 82,4 4,9 68,6 1,8 18,5 987 Age 0-23 months 66,3 4,2 70,2 1,9 13,6 1241 24-59 months 96,4 5,5 71,6 2,4 18,3 1810 Mother’s education*** Incomplete secondary 74,8 4,5 56,3 1,3 27,8 123 Secondary 82,5 4,9 68,4 1,9 17,3 530 Secondary special 84,3 5,0 70,8 2,2 16,9 1577 High 86,2 5,1 75,5 2,6 12,8 817 Father’s education**** Incomplete secondary 86,6 4,8 73,5 1,6 na 84 Secondary 82,3 5,0 80,2 2,2 na 550 Secondary special 84,1 5,0 84,3 2,6 na 1307 Higher 86,4 5,2 88,0 3,2 na 607 Father not in household 83,1 4,9 na na na 499 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 79,2 4,8 61,6 1,5 23,7 505 Second 83,4 5,0 70,5 2,0 16,1 616 Middle 83,5 5,0 70,6 2,2 15,9 615 Fourth 86,4 5,1 71,4 2,4 17,7 619 Richest 86,9 5,1 78,3 2,7 10,4 696 Total 84,1 5,0 71,0 2,2 16,4 3051 * MICS indicator 46 ** MICS indicator 47 *** 4 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown **** 4 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 82 !able ED.1: Early childhood education Percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education program and percentage of first graders who attended pre-school Percentage of children aged 36-59 months currently attending early childhood education* Number of children aged 36-59 months Percentage of children attending first grade who attended preschool program in previous year** Number of children attending first grade Sex Male 87,0 605 96,1 75 Female 85,1 560 90,0 81 Residence Urban 90,1 742 91,6 96 Rural 79,1 423 95,1 60 Child’s age 36-47 months 81,3 567 na na 48-59 months 90,6 598 na na 6 years na na 92,9 156 Mother’s education*** Incomplete secondary 71,5 55 - - Secondary 84,6 218 (98,9) 25 Secondary special 88,2 617 90,0 90 Higher 85,8 272 (95,4) 38 Total 86,1 1165 92,9 156 * MICS indicator 52 ** MICS indicator 53 *** 2 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 83 !able ED.2: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age attending grade 1 Percentage of children of primary school entry age currently attending grade 1* Number of children of primary school entry age Sex Male 74,2 103 Female 76,9 105 Residence Urban 73,0 131 Rural 79,8 77 Child’s age 6 years 75,5 208 Mother’s education** Secondary (65,2) 38 Secondary special 77,1 117 Higher 79,6 50 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 78,1 32 Second 69,3 49 Middle (77,8) 44 Fourth 80,9 48 Richest (71,8) 35 Total 75,5 208 * MICS indicator 54 ** 10 unweighted cases with "incomplete secondary education" not shown 84 Table ED.3: Primary school net attendance ratio Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary or secondary school (NAR) Male Female Total Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio* Number of children Regions Brest 93,1 68 92,4 67 92,8 135 Vitebsk 87,8 48 (97,2) 38 92,0 86 Gomel 94,2 59 98,5 62 96,4 121 Grodno 87,9 36 91,7 57 90,3 94 Minsk city 91,1 54 91,0 53 91,0 107 Minsk 96,4 67 93,4 67 95,0 134 Mogilev 96,0 38 (92,6) 42 94,2 80 Residence Urban 92,5 221 91,7 230 92,1 451 Rural 93,0 149 96,8 157 95,0 306 Age** 6 years 74,2 103 76,9 105 75,5 208 7 years 99,7 93 100,0 98 99,9 191 8 years 100,0 81 100,0 101 100,0 182 9 years 100,0 93 100,0 83 100,0 176 Mother’s education*** Incomplete secondary (100,0) 13 (96,1) 16 97,9 29 Secondary 92,4 77 89,3 70 91,0 147 Secondary special 91,8 199 95,2 222 93,6 421 Higher 94,0 80 93,2 79 93,6 159 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 94,3 91 97,2 70 95,6 161 Second 86,0 76 95,0 88 90,8 164 Middle 96,5 78 91,8 87 94,0 165 Fourth 94,4 71 92,4 71 93,4 142 Richest 91,5 54 92,6 71 92,1 125 Total 92,7 370 93,8 387 93,2 757 * MICS indicator 55; MDG indicator 6 ** Primary school age range corresponds to the classification. *** 1 unweighted case with "primary education" not shown 85 !able ED.4: Secondary school net attendance ratio Percentage of children of secondary school age attending secondary school or higher (NAR) Male Female Total Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio * Number of children Regions Brest 97,1 166 97,0 116 97,0 282 Vitebsk 92,0 140 99,0 144 95,5 284 Gomel 94,1 136 96,8 149 95,5 285 Grodno 97,4 140 96,5 136 96,9 276 Minsk city 94,4 118 94,9 114 94,7 232 Minsk 93,4 164 95,7 127 94,4 291 Mogilev 95,4 127 98,4 125 96,9 252 Residence Urban 95,8 623 96,3 580 96,1 1203 Rural 93,2 368 98,0 331 95,5 699 Age 10 years 63,2 102 68,1 87 65,4 189 11 years 97,2 124 100,0 108 98,5 232 12 years 98,9 136 100,0 136 99,5 272 13 years 100,0 155 100,0 123 100,0 278 14 years 100,0 128 100,0 150 100,0 278 15 years 99,6 166 100,0 145 99,8 311 16 years 95,6 180 100,0 162 97,7 342 Mother’s education** Incomplete secondary (91,6) 24 (100,0) 17 95,0 41 Secondary 90,3 205 96,7 168 93,2 373 Secondary special 96,1 523 97,3 531 96,7 1054 Higher 96,2 225 95,6 179 95,9 404 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 92,0 185 97,7 162 94,7 347 Second 94,0 238 98,6 215 96,2 453 Middle 96,6 192 95,8 203 96,2 395 Fourth 94,2 196 97,0 152 95,4 348 Richest 97,7 180 95,6 179 96,7 359 T(tal 94,9 991 96,9 911 95,9 1902 * MICS indicator 55; MDG indicator 6 ** 1 unweighted case with "primary education" and 24 unweighted cases with "mother not in household" not shown 86 Table ED.4w: Secondary school age children attending primary school Percentage of children of secondary school age attending primary school Male Female Total Percent attending primary school Number of children Percent attending primary school Number of children Percent attending primary school Number of children Regions Brest 1,9 166 3,0 116 2,3 282 Vitebsk 5,5 140 1,0 144 3,3 284 Gomel 4,0 136 3,2 149 3,6 285 Grodno 2,6 140 3,5 136 3,1 276 Minsk city 3,9 118 5,1 114 4,5 232 Minsk 5,6 164 4,3 127 5,0 291 Mogilev 3,4 127 1,6 125 2,5 252 Residence Urban 3,8 623 3,7 580 3,8 1203 Rural 3,8 368 2,0 331 3,0 699 Age 10 35,1 102 31,9 87 33,6 189 11 1,8 124 - 108 0,9 232 12 - 136 - 136 - 272 13 - 155 - 123 - 278 14 - 128 - 150 - 278 15 - 166 - 145 - 311 16 - 180 - 162 - 342 Mother’s education* Incomplete secondary (8,4) 24 (-) 17 5,0 41 Secondary 5,8 205 3,3 168 4,7 373 Secondary special 3,0 523 2,7 531 2,9 1054 Higher 3,8 225 4,4 179 4,1 404 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 6,0 185 2,3 162 4,3 347 Second 3,6 238 1,4 215 2,5 453 Middle 2,5 192 4,2 203 3,4 395 Fourth 4,9 196 3,0 152 4,0 348 Richest 2,3 180 4,4 179 3,3 359 Total 3,8 991 3,1 911 3,5 1902 * 1 unweighted case with "primary education" and 24 unweighted cases with "mother not in household" not shown 87 Table ED.5: Primary school completion and transition to secondary education Primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary education Net primary school completion rate* Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary education** Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Sex Male 66,5 93 100,0 110 Female 71,8 83 100,0 99 Residence Urban 64,3 103 100,0 117 Rural 75,6 73 100,0 92 Total 69,0 176 100,0 209 * MICS indicator 59; MDG indicator 7b ** MICS indicator 58 88 !able ED.6: Education gender parity Ratio of girls to boys attending primary education and ratio of girls to boys attending secondary education Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school NAR * Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school NAR* Regions Brest 92,4 93,1 0,99 97,0 97,1 1,00 Vitebsk 97,2 87,8 1,11 99,0 92,0 1,08 Gomel 98,5 94,2 1,05 96,8 94,1 1,03 Grodno 91,7 87,9 1,04 96,5 97,4 0,99 Minsk city 91,0 91,1 1,00 94,9 94,4 1,01 Minsk 93,4 96,4 0,97 95,7 93,4 1,02 Mogilev 92,6 96,0 0,96 98,4 95,4 1,03 Residence Urban 91,7 92,5 0,99 96,3 95,8 1,01 Rural 96,8 93,0 1,04 98,0 93,2 1,05 Mother’s education Incomplete secondary (96,1) (100,0) (0,96) (100,0) (91,6) (1,09) Secondary 89,3 92,4 0,97 96,7 90,3 1,07 Secondary special 95,2 91,8 1,04 97,3 96,1 1,01 Higher 93,2 94,0 0,99 95,6 96,2 0,99 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 97,2 94,3 1,03 97,7 92,0 1,06 Second 95,0 86,0 1,1 98,6 94,0 1,05 Middle 91,8 96,5 0,95 95,8 96,6 0,99 Fourth 92,4 94,4 0,98 97,0 94,2 1,03 Richest 92,6 91,5 1,01 95,6 97,7 0,98 Total 93,8 92,7 1,01 96,9 94,9 1,02 * MICS indicator 61; MDG indicator 9 89 Table CP.1: Child labour Percentage of children aged 5-14 years who are involved in child labour activities by type of work Working outside household Paid work Unpaid work Household chores for 28+ hours/week Working for family business Percentage of children whose labour should be liquidated* Number of children aged 5-14 years Sex Male 1,1 3,2 - 2,3 5,8 1122 Female 0,7 2,6 0,0 1,7 4,4 1088 Region Brest 0,1 1,7 - 0,5 1,9 367 Vitebsk 1,5 1,2 - 1,5 3,8 309 Gomel 0,7 4,4 0,1 0,3 5,3 344 Grodno 2,9 1,0 - 7,2 10,0 323 Minsk city - 0,2 - - 0,2 262 Minsk 0,2 3,7 - 3,5 5,6 331 Mogilev 0,5 8,3 - 0,7 9,0 274 Residence Urban 0,4 1,9 - 0,2 2,6 1337 Rural 1,5 4,4 0,0 4,8 9,0 873 Age 5-11 1,4 4,5 - 3,0 7,9 1382 12-14 - 0,2 0,0 0,3 0,5 828 School participation Yes 0,9 2,9 0,0 2,0 5,2 2181 No (-) (1,1) (-) (-) (1,1) 29 Mother’s education** Incomplete secondary - 2,6 0,4 2,9 5,9 70 Secondary 1,2 1,8 - 1,7 4,1 439 Secondary special 0,6 3,3 - 1,9 5,2 1235 Higher 1,5 2,8 - 2,2 5,6 463 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 1,5 3,8 0,1 4,0 8,3 456 Second 1,8 4,0 - 4,5 8,5 508 Middle 0,4 2,2 - 0,6 2,9 482 Fourth - 2,8 - - 2,8 401 Richest 0,4 1,4 - 0,1 1,9 363 Total 0,9 2,9 0,0 2,0 5,1 2210 * MICS indicator 71 ** 3 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown !a bl eC P. 1w : C hi ld la bo ur P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 5 -1 4 ye ar s w ho se la bo ur s ho ul d be e lim in at ed W or ki ng o ut si de h ou se ho ld W or ki ng fo r f am ily b us in es s D oi ng d iff er en t k in ds o f j ob s P ai d w or k U np ai d w or k To ta l w ho se la bo ur sh ou ld b e liq ui da te d To ta l w ho se la bo ur sh ou ld b e liq ui da te d D oi ng a ny ki nd o f h ou se w or k H ou se ho ld ch or es fo r 2 8+ ho ur s/ w ee k To ta l w ho se la bo ur sh ou ld b e liq ui da te d To ta l w ho se la bo ur sh ou ld b e liq ui da te d* N um be r of c hi ld re n ag ed 5- 14 y ea rs Se x M al e 1, 6 1, 1 6, 3 3, 2 65 ,6 - 4, 3 2, 3 10 ,6 5, 8 11 22 Fe m al e 0, 8 0, 7 5, 9 2, 6 74 ,1 0, 0 3, 7 1, 7 9, 5 4, 4 10 88 R eg io n Br es t 0, 1 0, 1 2, 1 1, 7 51 ,8 - 0, 5 0, 5 2, 3 1, 9 36 7 Vi te bs k 2, 6 1, 5 4, 4 1, 2 70 ,0 - 2, 0 1, 5 8, 3 3, 8 30 9 G om el 0, 7 0, 7 10 ,2 4, 4 70 ,8 0, 0 1, 5 0, 3 11 ,9 5, 3 34 4 G ro dn o 3, 9 2, 9 7, 6 1, 0 79 ,0 - 15 ,7 7, 2 24 ,8 10 ,0 32 3 M in sk c ity - - 0, 3 0, 2 67 ,7 - - - 0, 3 0, 2 26 2 M in sk 0, 6 0, 2 7, 2 3, 7 75 ,0 - 6, 3 3, 5 10 ,1 5, 6 33 1 M og ile v 0, 5 0, 5 10 ,8 8, 3 76 ,7 - 1, 3 0, 7 12 ,0 9, 0 27 4 R es id en ce U rb an 0, 6 0, 4 4, 6 1, 9 66 ,4 - 0, 9 0, 2 6, 0 2, 6 13 37 R ur al 2, 2 1, 5 8, 3 4, 4 74 ,9 0, 0 8, 7 4, 8 16 ,3 9, 0 87 3 A ge 5- 11 1, 4 1, 4 4, 5 4, 5 59 ,4 - 3, 0 3, 0 7, 9 7, 9 13 82 12 -1 4 1, 0 - 8, 7 0, 2 87 ,0 0, 0 5, 6 0, 3 13 ,7 0, 5 82 8 C on tin ue d W or ki ng o ut si de h ou se ho ld W or ki ng fo r f am ily b us in es s D oi ng d iff er en t k in ds o f j ob s P ai d w or k U np ai d w or k To ta l w ho se la bo ur sh ou ld b e liq ui da te d To ta l w ho se la bo ur sh ou ld b e liq ui da te d D oi ng a ny ki nd o f h ou se w or k H ou se ho ld ch or es fo r 2 8+ ho ur s/ w ee k To ta l w ho se la bo ur sh ou ld b e liq ui da te d To ta l w ho se la bo ur sh ou ld b e liq ui da te d* N um be r of c hi ld re n ag ed 5- 14 y ea rs Sc ho ol p ar tic ip at io n Ye s 1, 2 0, 9 6, 2 2, 9 70 ,2 0, 0 4, 0 2, 0 10 ,2 5, 2 21 81 N o (- ) (- ) (1 ,1 ) (1 ,1 ) (3 6, 2) (- ) (- ) (- ) (1 ,1 ) (1 ,1 ) 29 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n* * In co m pl et e se co nd ar y - - 2, 6 2, 6 62 ,6 0, 4 4, 0 2, 9 7, 1 5, 9 70 Se co nd ar y 1, 9 1, 2 5, 1 1, 8 68 ,9 - 3, 2 1, 7 9, 0 4, 1 43 9 Se co nd ar y sp ec ia l 1, 0 0, 6 6, 6 3, 3 70 ,6 - 4, 6 1, 9 11 ,0 5, 2 12 35 H ig he r 1, 5 1, 5 6, 2 2, 8 69 ,7 - 3, 2 2, 2 9, 2 5, 6 46 3 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 2, 4 1, 5 7, 5 3, 8 76 ,4 0, 1 6, 6 4, 0 14 ,6 8, 3 45 6 Se co nd 2, 2 1, 8 8, 2 4, 0 73 ,2 - 7, 3 4, 5 15 ,3 8, 5 50 8 M id dl e 0, 4 0, 4 5, 0 2, 2 65 ,0 - 3, 4 0, 6 7, 9 2, 9 48 2 Fo ur th 0, 4 - 5, 3 2, 8 62 ,3 - 0, 1 - 5, 7 2, 8 40 1 R ic he st 0, 4 0, 4 3, 7 1, 4 71 ,1 - 1, 0 0, 1 4, 8 1, 9 36 3 To ta l 1, 2 0, 9 6, 1 2, 9 69 ,7 0, 0 4, 0 2, 0 10 ,1 5, 1 22 10 * M IC S in di ca to r 7 1 ** 3 u nw ei gh te d ca se s w ith "p rim ar y ed uc at io n" n ot s ho w n 92 Table CP.2: Labourer students and student labourers Percentage of children aged 5-14 years who are labourer students whose labour should be liquidated Percentage of children attending school Number of children 5-14 years of age Percentage of children labourers whose labour should be liquidated Number of children 5-14 years of age whose labour should be liquidated Percentage of children labourers who are also attending school* Percentage of students labourers whose labour should be liquidated** Number of students aged 5-14 Sex Male 98,4 1122 5,8 66 99,5 5,9 1104 Female 99,0 1088 4,4 47 100,0 4,4 1077 Region Brest 98,7 367 1,9 7 (*) 2,0 362 Vitebsk 98,4 309 3,8 12 (*) 3,8 304 Gomel 98,5 344 5,3 18 (*) 5,3 339 Grodno 99,5 323 10,0 32 (*) 10,0 321 Minsk city 98,5 262 0,2 1 (*) 0,2 258 Minsk 98,1 331 5,6 19 (*) 5,7 325 Mogilev 99,1 274 9,0 25 (*) 9,0 272 Residence Urban 99,1 1337 2,6 34 (100,0) 2,6 1325 Rural 98,0 873 9,0 79 99,6 9,2 856 Age 5-11 98,0 1382 7,9 109 99,7 8,0 1355 12-14 99,8 828 0,5 4 (*) 0,5 826 Mother’s education*** Incomplete secondary 97,3 70 5,9 4 (*) 5,6 68 Secondary 98,7 439 4,1 18 (*) 4,2 433 Secondary special 98,6 1235 5,2 65 100,0 5,3 1218 Higher 99,3 463 5,6 26 (100,0) 5,6 460 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 98,5 456 8,3 38 (99,2) 8,3 449 Second 97,6 508 8,5 43 100,0 8,7 496 Middle 99,4 482 2,9 14 (*) 2,9 479 Fourth 98,7 401 2,8 11 (*) 2,8 396 Richest 99,4 363 1,9 7 (*) 1,9 361 Total 98,7 2210 5,1 113 99,7 5,2 2181 * MICS indicator 72 ** MICS indicator 73 *** 3 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 93 Table CP.3: Child discipline Percentage of children aged 2-14 years according to method of disciplining the child Percentage of children 2-14 years of age who experience: Only non- violent discipline Psycho- logical punish- ment Minor physical punish- ment Severe physical punish- ment Any psycho- logical or physical punish- ment* No discip- line or punis- hment Mother/ caretaker believes that the child needs to be physically punished Number of children aged 2-14 years Sex Male 11,5 80,5 53,8 2,3 85,8 2,3 18,2 1083 Female 15,7 73,6 44,9 1,9 79,2 4,8 12,1 1044 Region Brest 16,3 79,2 49,7 1,1 82,7 1,0 17,4 334 Vitebsk 9,5 79,6 45,0 3,4 82,8 7,7 16,4 312 Gomel 12,3 79,1 56,7 2,9 84,9 2,7 14,6 329 Grodno 14,3 75,5 50,4 0,4 80,4 5,2 21,8 285 Minsk city 13,6 75,6 46,2 4,6 82,4 2,7 14,2 284 Minsk 15,3 70,0 50,0 0,8 80,4 3,7 9,8 323 Mogilev 13,6 81,4 47,2 1,9 84,5 1,9 11,8 260 Residence Urban 14,3 76,5 50,6 2,4 82,7 2,7 14,5 1395 Rural 12,3 78,4 47,2 1,7 82,5 5,2 16,5 732 Age 2-4 12,9 73,6 67,7 1,1 84,3 2,5 13,9 445 5-9 13,0 79,8 57,2 3,1 85,2 1,8 17,6 719 10-14 14,3 76,8 35,2 1,9 79,9 5,3 13,9 962 Mother’s education** Incomplete secondary 9,5 82,2 61,1 - 86,5 1,0 22,9 61 Secondary 9,9 81,9 52,9 2,2 86,8 3,2 16,4 393 Secondary special 13,5 76,5 51,1 2,1 82,3 3,9 15,8 1166 Higher 16,9 74,6 41,9 2,4 79,8 3,2 12,0 503 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 9,7 80,2 49,1 1,1 84,9 5,4 17,9 377 Second 15,0 76,2 50,1 2,5 81,4 3,2 12,8 441 Middle 10,6 79,2 52,7 1,8 85,3 4,1 16,1 474 Fourth 16,9 73,7 44,5 2,0 79,4 2,9 13,9 429 Richest 15,6 76,7 50,5 3,1 82,1 2,2 15,5 405 Total 13,6 77,2 49,4 2,1 82,6 3,5 15,2 2127 * MICS indicator 74 ** 5 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 94 Table CP.4: Early marriage Percentage of women aged 15-49 years in marriage or union before their 15th birthday, percentage of women aged 20-49 years in marriage or union before their 18th birthday, percentage of women aged 15- 19 years currently married or in union, and the percentage of married or in union women Number of women aged 15-49 years Percentage married before age 18* Number of women aged 20-49 years Percentage of women 15-19 married/in union** Number of women aged 15-19 years Region Brest 879 7,2 788 4,7 91 Vitebsk 813 7,4 713 5,0 100 Gomel 863 8,3 741 6,0 122 Grodno 747 6,1 647 3,1 100 Minsk city 1023 3,8 860 0,7 163 Minsk 885 5,0 770 4,1 115 Mogilev 685 8,9 594 3,9 91 Residence Urban 4162 5,1 3580 2,4 582 Rural 1733 9,8 1533 7,5 200 Age 15-19 781 na na 3,7 781 20-24 724 6,6 724 na na 25-29 772 9,5 772 na na 30-34 762 8,8 762 na na 35-39 797 6,0 797 na na 40-44 1001 5,0 1001 na na 45-49 1058 4,6 1058 na na Education*** Incomplete secondary 118 29,1 101 (*) 17 Secondary 1370 11,5 914 2,9 456 Secondary special 2928 6,2 2723 5,8 205 Higher 1470 2,2 1369 0,8 101 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 821 8,4 721 5,8 100 Second 1180 9,9 1035 2,9 145 Middle 1247 6,8 1092 5,4 155 Fourth 1254 4,3 1100 3,9 154 Richest 1393 4,3 1165 2,1 228 Total 5895 6,5 5114 3,7 781 * MICS indicator 67 ** MICS indicator 68 *** 3 unweighted cases with "no education" and 6 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 95 Table CP.5: Spousal age difference Percent distribution of currently married/in union women aged 20-24 years according to the age difference with their husband or partner Percentage of currently married/in union women aged 20-24 years whose husband or partner is: younger 0-4 years older 5-9 years older 10+ years older * No data about age Total Number of women aged 20-24 years currently married/ in union Region Brest 4,8 50,5 37,6 7,1 - 100,0 50 Vitebsk 20,7 53,7 12,7 12,9 - 100,0 49 Gomel 4,3 70,3 22,3 3,1 - 100,0 35 Grodno 7,1 62,8 24,3 5,8 - 100,0 39 Minsk city 8,0 57,1 24,2 10,7 - 100,0 65 Minsk 5,5 62,8 25,5 6,3 - 100,0 52 Mogilev 1,2 54,3 33,9 9,5 1,1 100,0 28 Residence Urban 7,3 58,3 25,0 9,2 0,1 100,0 243 Rural 9,9 58,4 26,8 4,8 - 100,0 75 Education** Secondary 8,9 51,7 29,2 10,3 - 100,0 67 Secondary special 7,4 56,7 26,4 9,3 0,2 100,0 156 Higher 9,0 68,7 18,4 3,9 - 100,0 86 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 10,6 51,7 27,1 10,6 - 100,0 43 Second 5,7 58,8 32,9 2,6 - 100,0 51 Middle 8,3 62,5 23,4 5,8 - 100,0 71 Fourth 6,3 63,1 21,2 8,9 0,5 100,0 67 Richest 8,9 54,3 24,9 11,9 - 100,0 86 Total 7,9 58,4 25,4 8,2 0,1 100,0 318 * MICS indicator 69 ** 1 unweighted case with "primary education" and 21 unweighted cases with "incomplete secondary education" not shown 96 !able HA.1: Knowledge of preventing HIV transmission Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by: Percentage of women, who: Heard of AIDS Having only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Abstaining from sex Knows all three ways Knows at least one way Doesn’t know any way Number of women aged 15-49 years Region Brest 100,0 77,4 70,4 48,4 36,8 86,6 13,4 879 Vitebsk 100,0 77,5 64,7 38,9 21,6 93,2 6,8 813 Gomel 99,8 70,1 66,7 36,8 24,0 85,6 14,4 863 Grodno 100,0 74,3 66,9 46,7 35,3 85,9 14,1 747 Minsk city 100,0 75,1 62,1 41,5 26,4 87,8 12,2 1023 Minsk 99,8 80,2 67,6 39,2 27,7 89,8 10,2 885 Mogilev 100,0 79,6 69,5 48,7 34,6 90,3 9,7 685 Residence Urban 100,0 75,5 65,6 41,8 27,9 88,2 11,8 4162 Rural 99,9 78,0 69,2 44,7 32,4 88,7 11,3 1733 Age 15-19 100,0 70,1 63,7 41,3 27,2 84,5 15,5 781 20-24 99,8 76,7 66,2 42,0 28,7 87,6 12,4 724 25-29 100,0 78,0 68,6 41,6 29,4 89,7 10,3 772 30-34 100,0 79,0 65,2 43,3 30,1 88,5 11,5 762 35-39 99,8 78,2 71,7 42,3 30,7 91,5 8,5 797 40-44 100,0 76,0 67,3 42,4 29,8 87,4 12,6 1001 45-49 100,0 75,9 64,2 44,8 28,5 89,3 10,7 1058 Education* Incomplete secondary 100,0 71,1 65,0 39,4 30,3 82,9 17,1 118 Secondary 100,0 75,7 66,5 43,5 28,7 88,0 12,0 1370 Secondary special 100,0 77,4 68,6 45,0 31,3 89,7 10,3 2928 Higher 100,0 75,0 63,2 37,4 25,6 86,6 13,4 1470 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 100,0 80,6 73,1 46,0 35,4 91,0 9,0 821 Second 99,7 75,8 68,3 46,1 31,8 88,8 11,2 1180 Middle 100,0 74,8 66,0 44,2 30,2 86,9 13,1 1247 Fourth 100,0 76,7 65,1 39,8 25,5 89,5 10,5 1254 Richest 100,0 74,8 63,5 38,9 25,8 86,8 13,2 1393 Total 99,9 76,2 66,6 42,6 29,2 88,4 11,6 5895 * 3 unweighted cases with "no education" and 6 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 97 Table HA.2: Identifying misconceptions about HIV/AIDS Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who correctly identify misconceptions about HIV/AIDS Percent who know that: Percent who know that: HIV cannot be transmitted by: Mosquito bites by sharing food A healthy looking person can be infected Reject two most common misconcep- tions and know a healthy looking person can be infected HIV cannot be transmitted by super- natural means HIV can be transmitted by sharing needles Number of women aged 15- 49 years Region Brest 78,8 79,0 93,9 64,2 99,7 100,0 879 Vitebsk 57,6 69,2 90,7 44,4 88,9 99,6 813 Gomel 78,9 82,2 89,9 62,9 91,8 96,9 863 Grodno 71,4 79,8 88,5 57,1 90,0 99,5 747 Minsk city 72,9 74,8 93,2 56,7 91,3 99,9 1023 Minsk 74,2 70,6 91,9 54,7 90,0 99,0 885 Mogilev 67,7 75,2 91,7 55,7 91,9 99,5 685 Residence Urban 73,4 77,9 91,4 58,8 93,5 99,1 4162 Rural 68,5 70,7 91,6 51,5 88,4 99,4 1733 Age 15-19 74,7 77,3 89,6 57,5 92,4 99,2 781 20-24 75,3 79,4 91,9 61,2 90,9 99,3 724 25-29 73,7 78,9 93,7 61,2 93,3 98,8 772 30-34 72,5 74,5 92,4 57,0 92,2 99,5 762 35-39 72,5 76,1 91,3 58,1 92,0 98,9 797 40-44 68,2 74,4 91,5 53,6 92,2 99,2 1001 45-49 69,2 71,9 90,6 51,1 91,1 99,4 1058 Education* Incomplete secondary 61,1 64,8 84,6 45,0 80,1 98,5 118 Secondary 68,8 71,3 89,2 49,0 89,8 99,2 1370 Secondary special 70,1 75,4 91,0 54,9 92,1 99,3 2928 Higher 79,5 81,7 95,4 68,2 94,9 99,2 1470 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 66,5 73,8 90,7 49,9 89,6 99,4 821 Second 68,8 72,6 90,9 53,9 90,0 99,0 1180 Middle 71,9 75,6 91,2 55,7 92,3 99,3 1247 Fourth 73,6 77,6 91,8 59,0 92,9 98,8 1254 Richest 76,4 78,2 92,5 61,7 94,1 99,5 1393 Total 72,0 75,8 91,5 56,7 92,0 99,2 5895 * 3 unweighted cases with "no education" and 6 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 98 !able HA.3: Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission Percentage of women, who: Know 2 ways to prevent HIV transmission Correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV transmission Have comprehensive knowledge (identify 2 prevention methods and 3 misconceptions)* Number of women aged 15-49 years Region Brest 63,7 64,2 42,0 879 Vitebsk 51,2 44,4 23,7 813 Gomel 53,7 62,9 36,5 863 Grodno 59,3 57,1 33,6 747 Minsk city 53,1 56,7 31,6 1023 Minsk 60,2 54,7 34,1 885 Mogilev 61,4 55,7 35,9 685 Residence Urban 55,9 58,8 34,0 4162 Rural 60,7 51,5 33,6 1733 Age 15-19 52,6 57,5 31,9 781 20-24 57,9 61,2 35,2 724 15-24 55,1 59,3 33,5* 1505 25-29 59,4 61,2 37,0 772 30-34 57,6 57,0 35,4 762 35-39 60,8 58,1 37,7 797 40-44 58,8 53,6 33,6 1001 45-49 54,8 51,1 28,6 1058 Education** Incomplete secondary 53,8 45,0 27,9 118 Secondary 57,5 49,0 31,2 1370 Secondary special 59,1 54,9 33,1 2928 Higher 54,0 68,2 38,4 1470 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 64,4 49,9 33,8 821 Second 58,6 53,9 33,6 1180 Middle 56,5 55,7 32,3 1247 Fourth 55,5 59,0 33,9 1254 Richest 54,4 61,7 35,6 1393 Total 57,3 56,7 33,9 5895 * MICS indicator 82; MDG indicator 19b ** 3 unweighted cases with "no education" and 6 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 99 Table HA.4: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child Percent who know AIDS can be transmitted: Know AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child During pregnancy At delivery Through breastmilk All three ways* Did not know any specific way Number of women aged 15-49 years Region Brest 99,4 97,9 93,4 67,3 64,7 0,6 879 Vitebsk 98,4 95,2 88,9 71,4 66,2 1,6 813 Gomel 97,9 95,8 82,4 67,7 60,7 1,9 863 Grodno 96,1 91,7 88,4 64,5 59,3 3,9 747 Minsk city 97,5 89,6 82,2 62,6 50,7 2,5 1023 Minsk 98,4 95,5 91,2 76,6 72,6 1,4 885 Mogilev 98,1 94,3 81,8 60,2 54,5 1,9 685 Residence Urban 98,0 93,9 86,0 67,5 60,8 2,0 4162 Rural 98,1 95,1 89,0 66,8 62,2 1,9 1733 Age 15-19 96,6 92,8 78,6 69,4 58,5 3,4 781 20-24 97,5 91,5 85,9 74,1 65,5 2,3 724 25-29 98,3 94,4 88,2 72,0 65,7 1,7 772 30-34 98,6 94,3 89,7 68,5 63,8 1,4 762 35-39 98,6 96,0 88,9 61,2 56,2 1,2 797 40-44 98,0 94,6 88,7 61,1 57,0 2,0 1001 45-49 98,2 95,2 87,5 67,4 63,0 1,8 1058 Education** Incomplete secondary 96,8 91,5 83,7 70,5 62,5 3,2 118 Secondary 97,2 94,0 82,5 64,7 57,2 2,8 1370 Secondary special 98,4 95,1 88,7 67,5 62,7 1,6 2928 Higher 98,3 93,2 88,1 69,4 62,0 1,7 1470 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 97,7 96,2 85,5 62,3 58,7 2,3 821 Second 98,6 94,8 87,0 63,1 57,6 1,1 1180 Middle 97,8 93,2 88,7 69,4 63,2 2,2 1247 Fourth 97,4 94,4 86,6 69,1 63,0 2,6 1254 Richest 98,3 93,3 86,3 70,5 62,3 1,7 1393 Total 98,0 94,2 86,9 67,3 61,2 2,0 5895 * MICS indicator 89 ** 3 unweighted cases with "no education" and 6 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 100 !able HA.5: Attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS who express a discriminatory attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS Percent of women who: Would not care for a family member who was sick with AIDS If a family member had HIV would want to keep it a secret Believe that a teacher with HIV should not be allowed to work Would not buy food from a person with HIV/AIDS Agree with at least one discrimi- natory statement Agree with none of the discrimi- natory statements* Number of women aged 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS Region Brest 11,3 83,3 48,7 81,3 97,1 2,9 879 Vitebsk 6,9 82,3 39,6 76,9 95,2 4,8 813 Gomel 6,1 87,0 44,2 77,6 96,8 3,2 862 Grodno 13,5 84,4 53,6 90,0 98,9 1,1 747 Minsk city 5,2 78,2 34,1 63,4 89,9 10,1 1023 Minsk 7,8 80,3 45,2 78,3 96,6 3,4 883 Mogilev 8,6 76,9 37,4 76,0 94,3 5,7 685 Residence Urban 6,7 82,9 40,8 73,4 94,7 5,3 4161 Rural 12,1 78,9 48,4 86,0 97,0 3,0 1731 Age 15-19 10,3 79,5 39,4 76,0 93,5 6,5 781 20-24 10,0 80,9 41,8 76,3 96,4 3,6 722 25-29 7,5 80,6 38,5 71,0 93,0 7,0 772 30-34 9,5 83,7 45,0 76,0 96,4 3,6 762 35-39 7,7 79,4 43,2 77,7 94,3 5,7 796 40-44 8,2 83,9 45,1 80,4 96,6 3,4 1001 45-49 5,9 83,2 46,4 80,1 96,6 3,4 1058 Education** Incomplete secondary 18,4 78,7 56,9 88,2 98,0 2,0 118 Secondary 9,1 79,9 49,4 81,7 95,4 4,6 1370 Secondary special 9,5 82,2 44,5 78,9 96,0 4,0 2928 Higher 4,3 82,7 33,1 68,2 93,9 6,1 1470 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 14,8 78,1 52,7 85,8 98,0 2,0 821 Second 10,7 79,6 44,8 79,8 95,3 4,7 1177 Middle 7,5 81,7 46,2 77,4 95,0 5,0 1247 Fourth 6,1 83,2 40,8 77,6 95,3 4,7 1254 Richest 5,1 84,5 35,1 68,9 94,3 5,7 1393 Total 8,3 81,8 43,0 77,1 95,4 4,6 5892 * MICS indicator 86 ** 2 unweighted cases with "no education" and 5 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 101 !able HA.6: Knowledge of a facility for HIV testing Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who know where to get an HIV test, percentage of women who have been tested and, of those tested the percentage who have been told the result Percentage of women, who: Know a place to get tested* Have been tested** Number of women aged 15-49 years Number of women who have been tested and told the result Number of women aged 15-49 years who have been tested Region Brest 99,4 37,3 879 99,1 328 Vitebsk 96,5 74,0 813 92,8 601 Gomel 96,9 66,9 863 90,3 577 Grodno 96,7 70,3 747 87,5 525 Minsk city 96,0 65,5 1023 84,4 670 Minsk 98,5 79,7 885 91,9 705 Mogilev 97,8 74,5 685 88,2 511 Residence Urban 97,1 64,5 4162 90,2 2685 Rural 98,0 71,1 1733 89,6 1232 Age 15-19 91,1 24,7 781 86,3 193 20-24 98,2 68,7 724 90,8 497 25-29 99,4 81,5 772 93,0 629 30-34 99,5 82,4 762 90,3 628 35-39 97,9 76,5 797 88,4 610 40-44 97,7 68,8 1001 90,2 689 45-49 98,0 63,4 1058 88,7 671 Education*** Incomplete secondary 97,9 71,4 118 87,3 85 Secondary 94,7 51,3 1370 89,9 702 Secondary special 98,0 72,3 2928 88,9 2116 Higher 98,8 69,0 1470 92,8 1014 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 96,7 69,6 821 88,7 571 Second 97,5 67,6 1180 89,9 797 Middle 98,7 66,8 1247 90,3 833 Fourth 96,3 66,5 1254 91,9 834 Richest 97,5 63,3 1393 89,0 882 Total 97,4 66,4 5895 90,0 3917 * MICS indicator 87 ** MICS indicator 88 *** 3 unweighted cases with "no education" and 6 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 102 !able HA.7: HIV testing and counseling coverage during antenatal care Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey who were offered HIV testing and counseling with their antenatal care Percent of women who: Received antenatal care from a health care profes- sional for last pregnancy Were provided information about HIV prevention during ANC visit* Were tested for HIV at ANC visit Received results of HIV test at ANC visit** Number of women who gave birth in the 2 years preceding the survey Regions Brest 100,0 99,2 98,3 97,4 79 Vitebsk 100,0 51,2 96,0 90,4 51 Gomel 100,0 59,6 98,9 89,1 70 Grodno 100,0 75,0 98,8 92,7 57 Minsk city 100,0 59,8 98,1 90,6 80 Minsk 100,0 88,9 100,0 95,5 72 Mogilev 95,1 67,2 94,4 88,1 53 Residence Urban 99,3 72,1 97,8 92,9 330 Rural 99,7 74,6 98,5 90,7 132 Age 15-19 years (98,3) (56,9) (98,3) (98,3) 21 20-24 years 98,9 72,6 96,4 89,2 147 25-29 years 99,8 74,7 98,4 93,3 162 30-34 years 99,6 69,6 99,2 92,5 87 35-49 years 100,0 80,6 99,3 95,1 45 Education*** Incomplete secondary (100,0) (76,0) (98,4) (92,9) 18 Secondary 99,5 72,6 97,4 89,1 79 Secondary special 99,7 76,4 98,4 92,7 231 Higher 98,8 66,3 97,6 93,3 133 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 99,0 79,6 98,0 89,6 67 Second 99,5 74,7 98,3 93,5 80 Middle 100,0 76,0 98,9 95,5 95 Fourth 100,0 75,1 98,6 93,6 97 Richest 98,7 63,7 96,6 89,4 123 Total 99,4 72,8 98,0 92,3 462 * MICS indicator 90 ** MICS indicator 91 *** 2 unweighted cases with "primary education" not shown 103 Appendix A. Sample Design The major features of sample design are described in this appendix. Sample design features include target sample size, sample allocation, sampling stages, and the calculation of sample weights. The primary objective of the sample design for the Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for Minsk city and the six regions: Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk (without Minsk city) and Mogilev. Urban and rural areas in each region were defined as the sampling domains. A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. Sample Size and Sample Allocation The target sample size for the Belarus MICS3 was calculated as 7,000 households. MICS3 is utilizing the sample frame of household surveys that is being used in the republic. To provide uniform distribution of the sample allocation of the households in the republic the selection was carried out in Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev regions and in Minsk city. Three stage sampling has been carried out. At the first stage in each of the regions (oblasts) three sampling strata has been created: big cities, small towns and rural areas (selskie sovety); at the second stage – polling stations in urban areas and rural settlements in selskie sovety; at the third stage in the selected settlements the households were selected. Within the strata of big cities, at first stage, 20 big cities were selected with the probability equaling to 1. Within the strata of small towns 29 small towns were sampled systematically with pps and the measure of size was total population of the small towns. The number of small towns in every region (oblast) was selected based on division of the total number of population of all small towns of each region into average household size (2,6), sample share (1/600) and average load of interviewer (40). Within the strata of rural settlements (selskie sovety) at the first stage of sampling 53 rural settlements were selected systematically with pps and the measure of size was number of households in the rural settlement. On the second stage of sampling within the big cities and the small towns the polling stations were selected as sampling unit, in the rural settlements – settlements in rural area (selskie sovety). To cover the whole territory of the selected city the cartographical materials were used on the second stage of sampling within the big cities. The number of the polling stations was calculated based on division of the population of the city into the average size of the family (2,6), sample share (1/600) and estimated number of the households in each polling station (20). Three polling stations were selected in each small town from the list of the polling stations, ranking by number of voters. In rural areas, taking into account the difficulty of access and scattered nature of settlements, the territories of the rural areas (selskie sovety) were divided into zones and the closest rural settlements were grouped. One zone was selected in each rural area (selskie sovety) and within this zone all settlements were investigated. 104 Throughout the Republic of Belarus there were 304 polling stations and the rural zones in selskie sovery selected in 2005. The distribution of clusters by each oblast and sampling domain: Region (Oblast) Big cities Small towns Rural (selskie sovety) Total Brest 19 15 10 44 Vitebsk 21 12 8 41 Gomel 27 11 8 46 Grodno 13 15 8 36 Minsk city 55 - - 55 Minsk (oblast) 11 21 13 45 Mogilev 19 12 6 37 Total 165 86 53 304 On the third stage of sampling, households were selected from the updated lists systematically taking into account the size of the cluster. In big cities the size of the cluster which is selected from the updated list households within the territory of polling station is 19-20 households, in small towns the size of the cluster is 13-14 households, and in rural areas the size of the cluster is 39-40 households. The size of clusters is not uniform. Variation in cluster sizes for urban and rural settlements was done on purpose since existing sampling plan was considering load of one interviewer, as one of the parameters, and distribution of sampled population into the sampling domains - proportionally to the distribution in general population. Besides, taking into account the limited representation of children under 5 in the household sample, the additional sub-sample of households with children aged 0-4 was formed. For this purpose, in each of the 304 clusters the lists of households was updated with the information on households with under 5 children through local out-patient health institutions. From these lists with higher probability then for households without children, the households with children aged 0-4 were selected. The resulting number of households for MICS3 sample in the Republic of Belarus was 7,000, including 2,857 households with children aged 0-4. Calculation of Sample Weights The Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey sample is not self-weighted. Essentially, by allocating equal numbers of households to each of the regions, different sampling fractions were used in each region since the size of the regions varied. For this reason, sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data. The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling domain: W = 1 / f The term f, the sampling fraction at the household stratum. Since all households selected for the survey were occupied in the republic, a second component which has to be taken into account in the calculation of sample weights is the level of non- 105 response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RR = Number of interviewed households / Number of occupied households listed After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling domain. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster. Response rates in the Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey are shown in Table HH.1 in this report. Similarly, the adjustment for non-response at the individual level (women aged 15-49 and under-5 children) is equal to the inverse value of: RR = Completed women’s (or under-5’s) questionnaires / Eligible women (or under-5s) Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the household listing in the Household Questionnaire in households where interviews were completed. The unadjusted weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is performed by multiplying the aforementioned unadjusted weights by the ratio of the number of completed households to the total unadjusted weighted number of households. Adjusted (normalized) weights varied in 19 strata between 0,263363 in households with children to 1,749831 in households without children. A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the women’s and under-5’s questionnaires. 106 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey Survey Coordinators Galina Galina Gasyuk – The First Deputy Minister-Ministry of Statistics and Analysis. Svetlana Novoselova – Head of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Technical Director Victor Tamashevich – Director of the Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus. Sampling Expert Irina Bulgakova – Deputy Head of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Olga Yakimovich – Chief economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Data Entry and Processing specialists Inna Konoshonok – Head of the Data Processing and Analysis Department. Zanna Izvekova – Chief Economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Tatyana Schvedova – Chief Economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Galina Kravchuk – Chief Economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Yanina Careva – Chief Economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Iryna Kanarskaya – Chief Economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Tatyana Maksimenko – Leading Economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Iryna Buinevich – Leading Chief Economist of the Living Standard Statistics and the Household Survey Department. Work with interviewers Maria Kozinskaya – Head of the Household Statistics Department of Brest Region Statistical Board. Svetlana Obrazova – Head of the Household Statistics Department of Vitebsk Region Statistical Board. Maria Zinkevich – Head of the Household Statistics Department of Gomel Region Statistical Board. Galina Moroz – Head of the Household Statistics Department of Grodno Region Statistical Board. Valentina Zapolskaya – Head of the Household Statistics Department of Minsk City Statistical Board. Tatyana Kasinskaya – Head of the Household Statistics Department of Minsk Region Statistical Board. Valentina Chausova – Head of the Household Statistics Department of Mogilev Region Statistical Board. 107 Appendix C. Wealth index Wealth Index reflects the main long-term wealth of a household and " meant for households ranking according to the level of wealth – from the least wealthy to the wealthiest. Analysis of the main wealth components was realized by means of information about the housing conditions and the availability of the household goods. Indicators used for calculation of Wealth Index are the following: • main material of floor, roof and walls of a household’s dwelling; • number of rooms used as a bedroom; • source of domestic energy for cooking; • main source of drinking water and water for cooking at the household; • type of sanitation facilities for disposal of human excreta; • availability at the household of: " electricity, " TV-set, " personal computer, " refrigerator, " microwave, " laundry washer, " vacuum cleaner, " sewing-machine, " mobile and stationary telephones, " watches, " bicycle, " motorcycle/motor scooter, " cartage, " car. Each piece of household goods received its weight and on the basis of this the estimate (in points) of the wealth of every household was made. Then, the members of the household were divided into five equal groups (quintiles) – from the least wealthy to the wealthiest – in accordance with the aggregated amount of points of the wealth level of a household where these people live. Wealth Index does not provide the information about absolute poverty, current gains or expenses level; and estimation of Wealth Index applicable only for concrete aggregate of indicators which it is based on. Additional information on building of the Wealth Index can be found in Rutstein and Johnson, 2004, and Filmer and Pritchett, 2001. 108 Appendix D. Estimates of Sampling Errors The sample of respondents selected in the Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey results. The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators: ! Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors. ! Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator ! Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design. ! Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistics will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (p + 2.se or p – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 14 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national total, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions. Table SE.1 shows the list of indicators for which sampling errors are calculated, including the base population (denominator) for each indicator. Tables SE.2 to SE.11 show the calculated sampling errors. 109 !"ble SE.1. Indicators selected for sampling error calculations List of indicators selected for sampling error calculations, and base populations (denominators) for each indicator MICS indicator Base population HOUSEHOLDS 74 Child discipline Children aged 2-14 years selected HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS 11 Use of improved drinking water sources All household members 12 Use of improved sanitation facilities All household members 55 Net primary school attendance rate Children of primary school age 56 Net secondary school attendance rate Children of secondary school age 59 Primary completion rate Children of primary school completion age 71 Child labour Children aged 5-14 years WOMEN 4 Skilled attendant at delivery Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years 20 Antenatal care Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years 21 Contraceptive prevalence Women aged 15-49 currently married/in union 67 Marriage before age 18 Women aged 20-49 years 82 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people Women aged 15-24 years 86 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS Women aged 15-49 years 88 Women who have been tested for HIV Women aged 15-49 years 89 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV Women aged 15-49 years UNDER 5-S 6 Underweight prevalence Children under age 5 25 Tuberculosis immunization coverage Children aged 18-29 months 26 Polio immunization coverage Children aged 18-29 months 27 Immunization coverage for DPT Children aged 18-29 months 28 Measles immunization coverage Children aged 18-29 months 31 Fully immunized children Children aged 18-29 months - Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks Children under age 5 22 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia Children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the last 2 weeks - Diarrhoea in last two weeks Children under age 5 35 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding Children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks 46 Support for learning Children under age 5 !" bl e SE .2 . S am pl in g er ro rs : T ot al s am pl e S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 82 6 0, 01 0 0, 01 3 2, 35 3 1, 53 4 21 27 30 97 0, 80 5 0, 84 7 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es EN .1 0, 99 6 0, 00 1 0, 00 1 3, 18 1 1, 78 3 17 91 7 67 07 0, 99 4 0, 99 9 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 99 3 0, 00 2 0, 00 2 5, 58 6 2, 36 4 17 91 7 67 07 0, 98 9 0, 99 8 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 93 2 0, 01 0 0, 01 1 1, 50 6 1, 22 7 75 7 94 8 0, 91 2 0, 95 2 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 95 9 0, 00 5 0, 00 6 1, 30 5 1, 14 2 19 02 17 74 0, 94 8 0, 96 9 Pr im ar y co m pl et io n ra te ED .5 0, 69 0 0, 02 9 0, 04 2 0, 87 9 0, 93 7 17 5 22 3 0, 63 1 0, 74 8 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 05 1 0, 00 7 0, 14 5 2, 74 3 1, 65 6 22 10 24 23 0, 03 6 0, 06 6 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 46 2 11 79 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 An te na ta l c ar e R H .2 0, 99 4 0, 00 4 0, 00 4 2, 85 5 1, 69 0 46 2 11 79 0, 98 7 1, 00 2 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 72 6 0, 01 0 0, 01 4 2, 04 7 1, 43 1 36 48 41 73 0, 70 7 0, 74 6 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 06 5 0, 00 4 0, 06 4 1, 54 1 1, 24 1 51 14 53 33 0, 05 7 0, 07 4 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 33 5 0, 01 9 0, 05 5 2, 37 9 1, 54 2 15 05 15 44 0, 29 8 0, 37 2 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 04 6 0, 00 4 0, 07 9 1, 79 8 1, 34 1 58 92 58 93 0, 03 9 0, 05 4 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 66 4 0, 01 3 0, 01 9 4, 18 8 2, 04 7 58 95 58 95 0, 63 9 0, 69 0 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 61 2 0, 01 4 0, 02 3 4, 88 5 2, 21 0 58 95 58 95 0, 58 4 0, 64 0 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 01 0 0, 00 2 0, 21 0 1, 36 7 1, 16 9 30 18 30 14 0, 00 6 0, 01 4 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 6 0, 00 3 0, 00 3 1, 01 6 1, 00 8 63 3 66 5 0, 99 0 1, 00 1 Po lio im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 0 0, 00 5 0, 00 5 1, 33 1 1, 15 4 63 3 66 5 0, 98 1 0, 99 9 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 98 8 0, 00 4 0, 00 4 0, 85 4 0, 92 4 63 3 66 5 0, 98 0 0, 99 6 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 98 1 0, 00 5 0, 00 5 0, 91 5 0, 95 6 63 3 66 5 0, 97 1 0, 99 1 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 97 2 0, 00 6 0, 00 7 0, 98 5 0, 99 3 63 3 66 5 0, 95 9 0, 98 5 Ac ut e re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .5 0, 10 6 0, 00 7 0, 06 6 1, 59 6 1, 26 3 30 51 30 51 0, 09 2 0, 12 1 An tib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .6 0, 67 0 0, 02 2 0, 03 2 0, 71 7 0, 84 7 32 5 33 9 0, 62 6 0, 71 3 D ia rrh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks C H .3 0, 04 0 0, 00 4 0, 10 2 1, 32 7 1, 15 2 30 51 30 51 0, 03 2 0, 04 9 R ec ei ve d O R T or in cr ea se d flu id s an d co nt in ue d fe ed in g C H .4 0, 54 2 0, 03 1 0, 05 7 0, 46 8 0, 68 4 12 3 12 4 0, 48 1 0, 60 4 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 84 1 0, 00 9 0, 01 1 1, 91 0 1, 38 2 30 51 30 51 0, 82 3 0, 86 0 !a bl e SE .3 . S am pl in g er ro rs : U rb an a re as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 82 7 0, 01 1 0, 01 4 1, 83 9 1, 35 6 13 95 20 04 0, 80 4 0, 85 0 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es EN .1 0, 99 8 0, 00 1 0, 00 1 2, 92 5 1, 71 0 11 85 2 43 86 0, 99 6 1, 00 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 99 5 0, 00 2 0, 00 2 4, 23 8 2, 05 9 11 85 2 43 86 0, 99 1 1, 00 0 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 92 1 0, 01 3 0, 01 5 1, 27 7 1, 13 0 45 1 51 4 0, 89 4 0, 94 8 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 96 1 0, 00 7 0, 00 7 1, 41 8 1, 19 1 12 03 10 63 0, 94 7 0, 97 5 Pr im ar y co m pl et io n ra te ED .5 0, 64 3 0, 02 9 0, 04 4 0, 41 7 0, 64 6 10 3 11 9 0, 58 6 0, 70 0 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 02 6 0, 00 5 0, 18 5 1, 21 8 1, 10 4 13 37 13 61 0, 01 6 0, 03 5 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 33 0 83 3 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 An te na ta l c ar e R H .2 0, 99 3 0, 00 5 0, 00 5 3, 10 9 1, 76 3 33 0 83 3 0, 98 3 1, 00 3 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 73 6 0, 01 1 0, 01 5 1, 85 0 1, 36 0 24 37 27 66 0, 71 4 0, 75 9 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 05 1 0, 00 5 0, 09 4 1, 72 3 1, 31 3 35 80 36 26 0, 04 2 0, 06 1 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 33 2 0, 02 0 0, 06 1 2, 01 2 1, 41 8 11 46 10 90 0, 29 1 0, 37 2 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 05 3 0, 00 5 0, 09 3 1, 95 3 1, 39 7 41 61 40 15 0, 04 3 0, 06 3 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 64 5 0, 01 3 0, 02 0 2, 93 7 1, 71 4 41 62 40 16 0, 61 9 0, 67 1 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 60 8 0, 01 2 0, 02 0 2, 56 9 1, 60 3 41 62 40 16 0, 58 3 0, 63 3 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 00 7 0, 00 2 0, 27 2 1, 01 5 1, 00 8 20 43 20 09 0, 00 3 0, 01 0 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 6 0, 00 3 0, 00 3 0, 94 0 0, 97 0 42 6 44 5 0, 99 0 1, 00 2 Po lio im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 2 0, 00 4 0, 00 4 0, 90 2 0, 95 0 42 6 44 5 0, 98 4 1, 00 0 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 98 5 0, 00 5 0, 00 5 0, 79 3 0, 89 1 42 6 44 5 0, 97 4 0, 99 5 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 97 7 0, 00 7 0, 00 7 0, 87 0 0, 93 3 42 6 44 5 0, 96 3 0, 99 0 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 96 8 0, 00 8 0, 00 8 0, 81 6 0, 90 3 42 6 44 5 0, 95 3 0, 98 3 Ac ut e re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .5 0, 11 5 0, 00 8 0, 06 5 1, 12 6 1, 06 1 20 64 20 33 0, 10 0 0, 13 0 An tib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .6 0, 66 4 0, 02 5 0, 03 7 0, 66 7 0, 81 7 23 7 24 7 0, 61 4 0, 71 3 D ia rrh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks C H .3 0, 03 8 0, 00 5 0, 12 3 1, 22 2 1, 10 6 20 64 20 33 0, 02 9 0, 04 8 R ec ei ve d O R T or in cr ea se d flu id s an d co nt in ue d fe ed in g C H .4 0, 53 1 0, 02 1 0, 04 0 0, 14 5 0, 38 1 79 81 0, 48 8 0, 57 3 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 85 0 0, 01 2 0, 01 4 2, 11 4 1, 45 4 20 64 20 33 0, 82 7 0, 87 3 !" bl e SE .4 . S am pl in g er ro rs : R ur al a re as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 82 5 0, 02 1 0, 02 6 3, 35 5 1, 83 2 73 2 10 93 0, 78 2 0, 86 7 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es EN .1 0, 99 3 0, 00 3 0, 00 3 3, 39 0 1, 84 1 60 65 23 21 0, 98 6 0, 99 9 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 98 9 0, 00 6 0, 00 6 6, 88 6 2, 62 4 60 65 23 21 0, 97 8 1, 00 1 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 95 0 0, 01 5 0, 01 5 1, 92 6 1, 38 8 30 7 43 4 0, 92 0 0, 97 9 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 95 5 0, 00 8 0, 00 9 1, 11 5 1, 05 6 69 9 71 1 0, 93 8 0, 97 1 Pr im ar y co m pl et io n ra te ED .5 0, 75 6 0, 05 8 0, 07 6 1, 85 5 1, 36 2 73 10 4 0, 64 1 0, 87 2 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 09 0 0, 01 7 0, 19 3 3, 91 9 1, 98 0 87 3 10 62 0, 05 5 0, 12 5 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 13 2 34 6 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 An te na ta l c ar e R H .2 0, 99 7 0, 00 3 0, 00 3 0, 87 7 0, 93 7 13 2 34 6 0, 99 2 1, 00 3 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 70 6 0, 01 9 0, 02 7 2, 42 9 1, 55 9 12 12 14 07 0, 66 9 0, 74 5 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 09 8 0, 00 8 0, 08 3 1, 29 2 1, 13 7 15 33 17 07 0, 08 2 0, 11 4 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 34 4 0, 04 3 0, 12 5 3, 72 7 1, 93 1 35 9 45 4 0, 25 8 0, 43 1 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 03 0 0, 00 4 0, 12 5 0, 90 0 0, 94 9 17 31 18 78 0, 02 2 0, 03 7 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 71 1 0, 03 0 0, 04 2 8, 03 3 2, 83 4 17 33 18 79 0, 65 2 0, 77 0 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 62 2 0, 03 8 0, 06 0 11 ,2 38 3, 35 2 17 33 18 79 0, 54 7 0, 69 7 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 01 7 0, 00 5 0, 30 9 1, 70 3 1, 30 5 97 5 10 05 0, 00 7 0, 02 8 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 5 0, 00 5 0, 00 5 1, 15 1 1, 07 3 20 7 22 0 0, 98 5 1, 00 5 Po lio im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 98 5 0, 01 1 0, 01 1 1, 78 6 1, 33 6 20 7 22 0 0, 96 3 1, 00 7 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 99 5 0, 00 5 0, 00 5 1, 15 1 1, 07 3 20 7 22 0 0, 98 5 1, 00 5 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 0 0, 00 7 0, 00 7 1, 10 4 1, 05 1 20 7 22 0 0, 97 6 1, 00 4 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 98 0 0, 01 2 0, 01 2 1, 58 3 1, 25 8 20 7 22 0 0, 95 6 1, 00 4 Ac ut e re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .5 0, 08 9 0, 01 5 0, 17 2 2, 93 7 1, 71 4 98 7 10 18 0, 05 8 0, 12 0 An tib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .6 0, 68 6 0, 04 4 0, 06 4 0, 81 5 0, 90 3 88 92 0, 59 8 0, 77 4 D ia rrh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks C H .3 0, 04 5 0, 00 8 0, 17 9 1, 53 8 1, 24 0 98 7 10 18 0, 02 9 0, 06 1 R ec ei ve d O R T or in cr ea se d flu id s an d co nt in ue d fe ed in g C H .4 0, 56 2 0, 07 6 0, 13 4 0, 97 3 0, 98 6 44 43 0, 41 1 0, 71 3 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 82 4 0, 01 5 0, 01 8 1, 55 9 1, 24 9 98 7 10 18 0, 79 4 0, 85 4 !" bl e SE .5 . S am pl in g er ro rs : B re st re gi on S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 82 7 0, 02 1 0, 02 5 1, 59 5 1, 26 3 33 4 51 4 0, 78 5 0, 87 0 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es E N .1 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 26 51 10 41 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 99 9 0, 00 1 0, 00 1 0, 55 2 0, 74 3 26 51 10 41 0, 99 8 1, 00 1 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 92 8 0, 02 8 0, 03 0 2, 23 3 1, 49 4 13 5 18 9 0, 87 1 0, 98 4 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 97 0 0, 01 2 0, 01 3 1, 52 3 1, 23 4 28 2 28 2 0, 94 6 0, 99 5 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 01 9 0, 00 7 0, 35 8 1, 11 4 1, 05 6 36 7 44 1 0, 00 6 0, 03 3 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 79 21 3 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e R H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 79 21 3 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 72 8 0, 02 6 0, 03 6 2, 35 0 1, 53 3 56 6 69 0 0, 67 6 0, 78 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 07 2 0, 01 0 0, 13 4 1, 19 4 1, 09 3 78 8 85 8 0, 05 2 0, 09 1 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 43 7 0, 05 3 0, 12 1 2, 66 6 1, 63 3 19 4 23 5 0, 33 1 0, 54 3 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 02 9 0, 00 9 0, 29 9 2, 48 7 1, 57 7 87 9 92 9 0, 01 2 0, 04 7 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 37 3 0, 04 2 0, 11 2 6, 91 2 2, 62 9 87 9 92 9 0, 28 9 0, 45 6 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 64 7 0, 04 6 0, 07 2 8, 77 0 2, 96 1 87 9 92 9 0, 55 4 0, 74 0 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 01 8 0, 00 6 0, 35 6 1, 19 4 1, 09 2 51 0 52 5 0, 00 5 0, 03 0 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 10 8 11 5 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 10 8 11 5 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 99 2 0, 00 8 0, 00 8 0, 94 3 0, 97 1 10 8 11 5 0, 97 6 1, 00 8 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 98 4 0, 01 2 0, 01 2 0, 97 4 0, 98 7 10 8 11 5 0, 96 0 1, 00 7 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 98 4 0, 01 2 0, 01 2 0, 97 4 0, 98 7 10 8 11 5 0, 96 0 1, 00 7 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 78 9 0, 02 0 0, 02 6 1, 30 4 1, 14 2 51 3 52 8 0, 74 8 0, 82 9 !" bl e SE .6 . S am pl in g er ro rs : V ite bs k re gi on S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 82 8 0, 02 2 0, 02 6 1, 39 7 1, 18 2 31 2 41 7 0, 78 4 0, 87 2 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es EN .1 0, 99 8 0, 00 1 0, 00 1 0, 97 5 0, 98 8 24 72 89 7 0, 99 6 1, 00 1 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 96 5 0, 01 6 0, 01 7 6, 83 1 2, 61 4 24 72 89 7 0, 93 3 0, 99 7 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 92 0 0, 02 7 0, 03 0 0, 98 4 0, 99 2 86 99 0, 86 6 0, 97 4 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 95 5 0, 01 3 0, 01 4 1, 09 7 1, 04 7 28 3 25 9 0, 92 8 0, 98 2 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 03 8 0, 01 7 0, 45 2 2, 43 4 1, 56 0 30 9 30 6 0, 00 4 0, 07 1 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 51 13 5 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e R H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 51 13 5 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 66 2 0, 02 4 0, 03 6 1, 39 5 1, 18 1 52 4 55 0 0, 61 4 0, 71 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 07 4 0, 01 1 0, 14 8 1, 23 2 1, 11 0 71 3 70 2 0, 05 2 0, 09 6 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 23 7 0, 03 3 0, 14 0 1, 22 0 1, 10 5 19 5 20 2 0, 17 1 0, 30 3 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 04 8 0, 01 2 0, 24 6 2, 37 3 1, 54 1 81 3 77 3 0, 02 5 0, 07 2 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 74 0 0, 03 1 0, 04 2 3, 86 6 1, 96 6 81 3 77 3 0, 67 8 0, 80 2 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 66 2 0, 02 3 0, 03 4 1, 78 5 1, 33 6 81 3 77 3 0, 61 6 0, 70 7 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 00 8 0, 00 4 0, 56 7 0, 94 5 0, 97 2 34 9 37 4 -0 ,0 01 0, 01 7 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 69 79 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 69 79 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 98 7 0, 01 3 0, 01 3 1, 05 2 1, 02 6 69 79 0, 96 1 1, 01 3 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 96 1 0, 02 3 0, 02 4 1, 12 9 1, 06 3 69 79 0, 91 4 1, 00 7 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 94 8 0, 02 7 0, 02 9 1, 17 4 1, 08 4 69 79 0, 89 3 1, 00 2 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 84 6 0, 02 8 0, 03 3 2, 30 1 1, 51 7 35 2 37 8 0, 78 9 0, 90 2 !" bl e SE .7 . S am pl in g er ro rs : G om el re gi on S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 84 9 0, 02 2 0, 02 6 1, 81 9 1, 34 9 32 9 48 1 0, 80 5 0, 89 3 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es EN .1 0, 99 8 0, 00 2 0, 00 2 1, 75 6 1, 32 5 27 05 10 73 0, 99 4 1, 00 2 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 99 9 0, 00 1 0, 00 1 0, 51 9 0, 72 1 27 05 10 73 0, 99 8 1, 00 0 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 96 4 0, 01 8 0, 01 8 1, 35 5 1, 16 4 12 1 15 4 0, 92 9 0, 99 9 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 95 5 0, 01 4 0, 01 4 1, 18 1 1, 08 7 28 5 27 6 0, 92 8 0, 98 2 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 05 3 0, 01 4 0, 25 7 1, 42 4 1, 19 3 34 4 38 4 0, 02 6 0, 08 1 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 70 15 9 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e R H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 70 15 9 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 75 4 0, 02 2 0, 02 9 1, 52 6 1, 23 5 53 0 60 6 0, 71 1 0, 79 7 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 08 3 0, 01 5 0, 18 0 2, 30 6 1, 51 9 74 1 78 3 0, 05 3 0, 11 3 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 36 1 0, 03 1 0, 08 7 0, 90 4 0, 95 1 20 8 21 3 0, 29 8 0, 42 4 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 03 2 0, 00 6 0, 17 4 0, 88 6 0, 94 1 86 2 87 6 0, 02 1 0, 04 3 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 66 9 0, 02 8 0, 04 1 3, 02 3 1, 73 9 86 4 87 7 0, 61 3 0, 72 4 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 60 7 0, 03 8 0, 06 2 5, 16 7 2, 27 3 86 4 87 7 0, 53 2 0, 68 2 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 01 2 0, 00 9 0, 70 5 2, 76 0 1, 66 1 48 2 44 8 -0 ,0 05 0, 03 0 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 10 0 98 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 10 0 98 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 99 0 0, 01 0 0, 01 0 0, 98 6 0, 99 3 10 0 98 0, 96 9 1, 01 0 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 96 9 0, 01 4 0, 01 4 0, 60 6 0, 77 8 10 0 98 0, 94 2 0, 99 7 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 96 9 0, 01 4 0, 01 4 0, 60 6 0, 77 8 10 0 98 0, 94 2 0, 99 7 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 84 6 0, 02 3 0, 02 7 1, 82 0 1, 34 9 48 4 45 0 0, 80 0 0, 89 2 !" bl e SE .8 . S am pl in g er ro rs : G ro dn o re gi on S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 80 4 0, 04 7 0, 05 9 6, 08 6 2, 46 7 28 5 42 9 0, 71 0 0, 89 9 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es EN .1 0, 98 3 0, 00 9 0, 00 9 4, 55 4 2, 13 4 22 32 86 0 0, 96 5 1, 00 2 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 99 0 0, 00 7 0, 00 7 3, 92 6 1, 98 1 22 32 86 0 0, 97 7 1, 00 4 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 90 3 0, 03 7 0, 04 0 2, 05 2 1, 43 2 94 13 6 0, 83 0 0, 97 6 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 96 9 0, 01 1 0, 01 1 1, 12 5 1, 06 1 27 6 27 4 0, 94 7 0, 99 1 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 10 0 0, 02 8 0, 28 1 3, 31 1 1, 82 0 32 3 37 9 0, 04 4 0, 15 6 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 58 14 1 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e R H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 58 14 1 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 75 7 0, 02 5 0, 03 3 2, 07 4 1, 44 0 50 7 59 7 0, 70 6 0, 80 8 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 06 1 0, 01 1 0, 18 4 1, 57 3 1, 25 4 64 7 71 3 0, 03 9 0, 08 4 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 32 0 0, 06 4 0, 20 0 3, 57 2 1, 89 0 19 0 19 1 0, 19 2 0, 44 8 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 01 1 0, 00 5 0, 41 5 1, 51 6 1, 23 1 74 7 78 7 0, 00 2 0, 02 0 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 70 3 0, 03 3 0, 04 7 4, 08 6 2, 02 1 74 7 78 7 0, 63 7 0, 76 9 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 59 3 0, 04 1 0, 07 0 5, 52 6 2, 35 1 74 7 78 7 0, 51 0 0, 67 5 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 01 2 0, 00 4 0, 35 5 0, 60 6 0, 77 8 40 9 40 5 0, 00 3 0, 02 0 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 81 85 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 81 85 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 81 85 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 81 85 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 81 85 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 85 0 0, 03 3 0, 03 8 3, 37 7 1, 83 8 41 1 40 7 0, 78 5 0, 91 5 !" bl e SE .9 . S am pl in g er ro rs : M in sk c ity S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 82 4 0, 03 0 0, 03 7 2, 69 6 1, 64 2 28 4 42 9 0, 76 3 0, 88 4 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es E N .1 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 28 49 10 06 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 28 49 10 06 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 91 0 0, 03 3 0, 03 6 1, 57 0 1, 25 3 10 7 12 0 0, 84 5 0, 97 6 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 94 7 0, 01 6 0, 01 6 0, 88 2 0, 93 9 23 2 18 5 0, 91 6 0, 97 8 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 00 2 0, 00 1 0, 72 3 0, 27 6 0, 52 5 26 3 26 3 -0 ,0 01 0, 00 5 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 80 24 3 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e R H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 80 24 3 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 75 3 0, 02 6 0, 03 5 2, 37 1 1, 54 0 54 9 64 2 0, 70 0 0, 80 5 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 03 8 0, 01 0 0, 26 0 2, 25 5 1, 50 2 86 0 84 8 0, 01 8 0, 05 8 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 33 0 0, 03 5 0, 10 6 1, 53 7 1, 24 0 33 4 28 0 0, 26 0 0, 40 0 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 10 1 0, 01 3 0, 12 8 1, 72 1 1, 31 2 10 23 94 4 0, 07 5 0, 12 6 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 65 5 0, 02 6 0, 04 0 2, 92 5 1, 71 0 10 23 94 4 0, 60 2 0, 70 8 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 50 7 0, 02 3 0, 04 5 1, 98 4 1, 40 8 10 23 94 4 0, 46 2 0, 55 3 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 00 4 0, 00 4 0, 99 8 1, 89 1 1, 37 5 43 1 50 1 -0 ,0 04 0, 01 1 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 1 0, 00 9 0, 00 9 1, 00 3 1, 00 2 90 11 0 0, 97 3 1, 00 9 Po lio im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 97 3 0, 01 6 0, 01 6 1, 03 8 1, 01 9 90 11 0 0, 94 1 1, 00 4 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 98 2 0, 01 3 0, 01 3 1, 02 5 1, 01 2 90 11 0 0, 95 6 1, 00 8 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 97 3 0, 01 6 0, 01 6 1, 05 7 1, 02 8 90 11 0 0, 94 1 1, 00 5 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 95 5 0, 02 0 0, 02 1 1, 04 6 1, 02 3 90 11 0 0, 91 4 0, 99 5 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 91 3 0, 02 2 0, 02 5 3, 20 2 1, 78 9 43 4 50 5 0, 86 8 0, 95 8 !" bl e SE .1 0. S am pl in g er ro rs : M in sk re gi on S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 80 4 0, 02 2 0, 02 8 1, 42 1 1, 19 2 32 3 44 8 0, 76 0 0, 84 9 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es EN .1 0, 99 4 0, 00 4 0, 00 4 2, 30 1 1, 51 7 28 38 10 25 0, 98 7 1, 00 1 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 99 9 0, 00 1 0, 00 1 1, 48 1 1, 21 7 28 38 10 25 0, 99 6 1, 00 1 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 95 0 0, 01 6 0, 01 7 0, 76 8 0, 87 7 13 4 15 1 0, 91 8 0, 98 1 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 94 4 0, 01 9 0, 02 0 1, 73 9 1, 31 9 29 1 26 4 0, 90 6 0, 98 1 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 05 6 0, 02 2 0, 38 7 3, 12 5 1, 76 8 33 1 35 3 0, 01 3 0, 09 9 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 72 15 7 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e R H .2 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 - - 72 15 7 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 70 6 0, 02 8 0, 04 0 2, 43 2 1, 56 0 58 0 63 4 0, 64 9 0, 76 2 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 05 0 0, 00 8 0, 15 2 0, 96 3 0, 98 1 77 0 79 6 0, 03 5 0, 06 5 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 31 2 0, 05 1 0, 16 3 2, 79 2 1, 67 1 21 4 23 4 0, 21 1 0, 41 4 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 03 4 0, 00 5 0, 16 0 0, 79 0 0, 88 9 88 3 88 1 0, 02 3 0, 04 5 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 79 7 0, 03 2 0, 04 0 5, 55 5 2, 35 7 88 5 88 2 0, 73 3 0, 86 1 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 72 6 0, 03 5 0, 04 8 5, 36 2 2, 31 6 88 5 88 2 0, 65 7 0, 79 6 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 00 6 0, 00 4 0, 55 8 0, 83 5 0, 91 4 49 8 42 4 -0 ,0 01 0, 01 3 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 1 0, 00 9 0, 00 9 0, 98 1 0, 99 0 12 0 10 6 0, 97 3 1, 00 9 Po lio im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 97 4 0, 01 9 0, 01 9 1, 44 5 1, 20 2 12 0 10 6 0, 93 6 1, 01 1 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 98 2 0, 00 9 0, 01 0 0, 51 5 0, 71 8 12 0 10 6 0, 96 3 1, 00 1 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 99 1 0, 00 9 0, 00 9 0, 98 1 0, 99 0 12 0 10 6 0, 97 3 1, 00 9 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 96 4 0, 01 9 0, 01 9 1, 04 9 1, 02 4 12 0 10 6 0, 92 7 1, 00 1 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 85 6 0, 02 2 0, 02 5 1, 58 9 1, 26 0 50 0 42 5 0, 81 3 0, 89 9 !" bl e SE .1 1. S am pl in g er ro rs : M og ile v re gi on S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e H O U SE H O LD S C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 3 0, 84 5 0, 02 2 0, 02 6 1, 43 9 1, 19 9 26 0 37 9 0, 80 1 0, 89 0 H O U SE H O LD M EM B ER S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es EN .1 0, 99 8 0, 00 1 0, 00 1 0, 48 6 0, 69 7 21 70 80 5 0, 99 6 1, 00 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s E N .5 0, 99 9 0, 00 1 0, 00 1 0, 53 0 0, 72 8 21 70 80 5 0, 99 8 1, 00 1 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce ra te ED .3 0, 94 2 0, 02 6 0, 02 8 1, 24 9 1, 11 7 79 99 0, 88 9 0, 99 5 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce ra te ED .4 0, 96 9 0, 01 3 0, 01 3 1, 21 5 1, 10 2 25 2 23 4 0, 94 4 0, 99 4 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 1 0, 09 0 0, 03 3 0, 37 3 4, 06 6 2, 01 6 27 4 29 7 0, 02 3 0, 15 7 W O M EN S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .4 1, 00 0 0, 00 0 0, 00 0 . . 53 13 1 1, 00 0 1, 00 0 An te na ta l c ar e R H .2 0, 95 1 0, 03 2 0, 03 4 2, 81 2 1, 67 7 53 13 1 0, 88 7 1, 01 4 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .1 0, 72 4 0, 02 9 0, 03 9 1, 87 4 1, 36 9 39 2 45 4 0, 67 1 0, 78 6 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 4 0, 08 9 0, 01 2 0, 13 9 1, 19 9 1, 09 5 59 4 63 3 0, 06 5 0, 11 4 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A. 3 0, 35 2 0, 07 6 0, 21 6 4, 77 1 2, 18 4 17 0 18 9 0, 20 0 0, 50 4 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S H A. 5 0, 05 7 0, 01 5 0, 25 7 2, 78 9 1, 67 0 68 5 70 3 0, 02 8 0, 08 6 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV H A. 6 0, 74 5 0, 03 1 0, 04 1 3, 49 3 1, 86 9 68 5 70 3 0, 68 3 0, 80 6 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A. 4 0, 54 5 0, 04 9 0, 09 0 6, 74 1 2, 59 6 68 5 70 3 0, 44 7 0, 64 2 C on tin ue d C on fid en ce li m its Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r (s e) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) Sq ua re ro ot o f de si gn (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t r - 2 s e r + 2 s e U N D ER -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0, 01 1 0, 00 6 0, 51 7 0, 98 1 0, 99 0 33 8 33 7 0, 00 0 0, 02 2 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 98 5 0, 01 5 0, 01 5 1, 02 5 1, 01 2 65 72 0, 95 6 1, 01 4 Po lio im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 98 5 0, 01 5 0, 01 5 1, 02 5 1, 01 2 65 72 0, 95 6 1, 01 4 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0, 98 5 0, 01 5 0, 01 5 1, 02 5 1, 01 2 65 72 0, 95 6 1, 01 4 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0, 98 5 0, 01 5 0, 01 5 1, 02 5 1, 01 2 65 72 0, 95 6 1, 01 4 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0, 98 5 0, 01 5 0, 01 5 1, 02 5 1, 01 2 65 72 0, 95 6 1, 01 4 Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng C D .1 0, 79 1 0, 02 2 0, 02 8 1, 06 4 1, 03 1 35 7 35 8 0, 74 6 0, 83 5 130 Appendix E. Data Quality Tables Table DQ.1. Age distribution of household population Single-year age distribution of household population by sex (weighted) Males Females Males Females Age, years number per cent number per cent Age, years number per cent number percent 0 112 1,4 91 0,9 41 121 1,5 178 1,8 1 104 1,3 103 1,1 42 144 1,8 163 1,7 2 105 1,3 104 1,1 43 171 2,1 142 1,5 3 93 1,1 89 0,9 44 159 1,9 212 2,2 4 99 1,2 88 0,9 45 162 2,0 200 2,0 5 108 1,3 96 1,0 46 146 1,8 191 2,0 6 104 1,3 105 1,1 47 154 1,9 176 1,8 7 93 1,1 98 1,0 48 145 1,8 179 1,8 8 81 1,0 102 1,0 49 130 1,6 184 1,9 9 92 1,1 83 0,8 50 126 1,5 176 1,8 10 102 1,2 87 0,9 51 112 1,4 115 1,2 11 124 1,5 108 1,1 52 104 1,3 136 1,4 12 136 1,7 136 1,4 53 112 1,4 127 1,3 13 155 1,9 123 1,3 54 97 1,2 144 1,5 14 127 1,6 151 1,5 55 93 1,1 134 1,4 15 166 2,0 145 1,5 56 96 1,2 105 1,1 16 180 2,2 162 1,7 57 78 1,0 128 1,3 17 148 1,8 124 1,3 58 59 0,7 105 1,1 18 143 1,7 113 1,2 59 66 0,8 92 0,9 19 127 1,5 141 1,4 60 43 0,5 67 0,7 20 125 1,5 127 1,3 61 43 0,5 65 0,7 21 133 1,6 132 1,3 62 40 0,5 59 0,6 22 143 1,7 123 1,3 63 51 0,6 94 1,0 23 132 1,6 125 1,3 64 69 0,8 98 1,0 24 106 1,3 128 1,3 65 46 0,6 89 0,9 25 131 1,6 158 1,6 66 55 0,7 97 1,0 26 125 1,5 125 1,3 67 65 0,8 131 1,3 27 102 1,2 119 1,2 68 70 0,9 115 1,2 28 113 1,4 142 1,5 69 66 0,8 77 0,8 29 135 1,7 132 1,3 70 55 0,7 88 0,9 30 124 1,5 135 1,4 71 32 0,4 67 0,7 31 108 1,3 142 1,5 72 31 0,4 58 0,6 32 114 1,4 115 1,2 73 38 0,5 78 0,8 33 121 1,5 127 1,3 74 47 0,6 60 0,6 34 113 1,4 148 1,5 75 42 0,5 68 0,7 35 122 1,5 148 1,5 76 28 0,3 81 0,8 36 124 1,5 140 1,4 77 30 0,4 59 0,6 37 103 1,3 138 1,4 78 18 0,2 34 0,3 38 128 1,6 132 1,3 79 18 0,2 41 0,4 39 121 1,5 142 1,5 40 112 1,4 185 1,9 80 and elder 70 0,9 226 2,3 Total 8166 100 9751 100 131 Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women Household population of women age 10-54, interviewed women age 15-49, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed (weighted), by five-year age group Household population of women age 10-54 Interviewed women age 15-49 number number per cent Percentage of eligible women interviewed Age, years 10-14 604 na na na 15-19 685 685 13,3 99,9 20-24 636 634 12,3 99,7 25-29 676 676 13,1 100,0 30-34 667 667 12,9 100,0 35-39 699 699 13,5 100,0 40-44 881 877 17,0 99,6 45-49 929 927 17,9 99,7 50-54 697 na na na 15-49 5173 5165 100 99,8 na: not applicable Note: Weights for both household population of women and interviewed women are household weights. Age is based on the household schedule. Table DQ.3: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed under-5s Household population of children age 0-4, children whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed, and percentage of under-5 children whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed (weighted), by five-year age group Household population of children age 0-7 Interviewed children age 0-4 number number per cent Percentage of eligible children interviewed Age, years 0 203 203 20,6 100,0 1 207 207 21,0 100,0 2 209 209 21,1 100,0 3 182 182 18,4 100,0 4 186 186 18,9 100,0 5 203 na na na 6 209 na na na 7 191 na na na 0-4 987 987 100 100 na: not applicable Note: Weights for both household population of children and interviewed children are household weights. Age is based on the household schedule. 132 Table DQ.4: Age distribution of under-5 children Age distribution of under-5 children by 3-month groups (weighted) Males Females Total Age, months number per cent number per cent number per cent 0-2 32 2,0 63 4,3 95 3,1 3-5 136 8,6 89 6,0 225 7,4 6-8 90 5,7 52 3,6 142 4,6 9-11 71 4,5 65 4,4 136 4,4 12-14 68 4,3 87 5,9 155 5,1 15-17 89 5,6 81 5,5 170 5,6 18-20 95 6,0 72 4,9 167 5,4 21-23 70 4,4 82 5,6 152 5,0 24-26 79 5,0 67 4,6 146 4,8 27-29 78 5,0 90 6,1 168 5,5 30-32 89 5,6 83 5,7 172 5,7 33-35 80 5,0 78 5,3 158 5,2 36-38 71 4,5 73 5,0 144 4,7 39-41 74 4,7 73 5,0 147 4,8 42-44 76 4,8 68 4,6 144 4,7 45-47 68 4,3 64 4,3 132 4,3 48-50 56 3,6 47 3,2 103 3,4 51-53 73 4,6 64 4,3 137 4,5 54-56 89 5,6 75 5,1 164 5,4 57-59 98 6,2 96 6,6 194 6,4 Total 1582 100 1469 100 3051 100 133 Table DQ.5: Heaping on ages and periods Age and period ratios at boundaries of eligibility by type of information collected (weighted) Age and period ratios** Male Female Total Eligibility boundary (lower-upper) Module or questionnaire Age in household questionnaire 1 0,97 1,04 1,00 2 1,04 1,05 1,05 Lower Child discipline 3 0,94 0,95 0,95 4 0,99 0,97 0,98 Upper Under-5 questionnaire 5 1,04 1,00 1,02 Lower Child labour and education 6 1,02 1,05 1,04 8 0,91 1,08 1,00 9 1,01 0,91 0,96 10 0,96 0,94 0,95 13 1,11 0,90 1,01 14 0,85 1,08 0,96 Upper Child discipline and child labour 15 1,05 0,95 1,00 Lower Women's questionnaire 16 1,09 1,13 1,11 17 0,95 0,93 0,94 Upper Orphaned and vulnerable children 18 1,07 0,99 1,03 23 1,04 1,00 1,02 24 0,86 0,93 0,90 Upper Education 25 1,08 1,15 1,12 48 1,01 1,00 1,00 49 0,97 1,03 1,00 Upper Women's questionnaire 50 1,02 1,11 1,07 Age in women's questionnaire 23 na 0,99 na 24 na 0,94 na 25 na 1,15 na Months since last birth in women's questionnaire 6-11 na 0,92 na 12-17 na 1,03 na 18-23 na 1,03 na Upper maternal and child health 24–29 na 0,96 na 30–35 na 1,06 na * Age or period ratios are calculated as x / ((xn-1 + xn + xn+1) / 3), where x is age or period. na: not applicable 134 Table DQ.6: Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations missing information for selected questions and indicators (weighted) Questionnaire and Subject Reference group Percent with missing information** Number of cases Women Date of Birth All women age 15-49 Month only - 5895 Month and year missing - 5895 Date of first birth All women age 15-49 with at least one live birth Month only 0,0 4301 Month and year missing 0,0 4301 Completed years since first birth All women age 15-49 with at least one live birth 0,0 2 Date of last birth All women age 15-49 with at least one live birth Month only - 4301 Month and year missing - 4301 Date of first marriage/union All ever married women age 15-49 Month only 0,4 4573 Month and year missing 1,2 4573 Age at first marriage/union All ever married women age 15-49 0,1 4573 Children under 5 Date of Birth All under five children surveyed Month only - 3051 Month and year missing - 3051 Anthropometry All under five children surveyed Height 0,6 3051 Weight 0,6 3051 Height or Weight 0,7 3051 * Includes "Don't know" responses Table DQ.7: Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under- 5 questionnaire Distribution of children under five by whether the mother lives in the same household, and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire (weighted) Mother in the household Mother not in the household Mother interviewed Father interviewed Other adult female interviewed Total Number of children aged 0-4 years Age, years 0 99,9 - 0,1 100,0 203 1 99,4 - 0,6 100,0 207 2 98,5 - 1,5 100,0 209 3 97,9 - 2,1 100,0 182 4 98,2 0,3 1,5 100,0 186 Total 98,8 0,1 1,1 100,0 987 Ta bl e D Q .8 : S ch oo l a tte nd an ce b y si ng le a ge D is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ag e 5- 24 b y ed uc at io na l l ev el a nd g ra de a tte nd ed in th e cu rr en t y ea r ( w ei gh te d) P rim ar y S ch oo l S ec on da ry s ch oo l P re sc ho ol G ra de 1 G ra de 2 G ra de 3 G ra de 4 G ra de 5 G ra de 6 G ra de 7 G ra de 8 G ra de 9 G ra de 10 G ra de 11 G ra de 12 Se co nd ar y sp ec ia l H ig he r N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs A ge , ye ar s 5 88 ,5 0, 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 ,6 10 0, 0 20 4 6 22 ,9 74 ,7 0, 8 0, 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 1, 5 10 0, 0 20 9 7 0, 1 32 ,7 65 ,6 1, 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 0, 0 19 1 8 - 2, 2 33 ,4 64 ,2 0, 2 - - - - - - - - - - - 10 0, 0 18 3 9 - 0, 2 0, 2 30 ,6 68 ,7 0, 3 - - - - - - - - - - 10 0, 0 17 5 10 - - - 2, 5 31 ,1 64 ,6 0, 9 - - - - - - - - 0, 9 10 0, 0 18 9 11 - - - - 0, 9 33 ,9 63 ,7 0, 9 - - - - - - - 0, 6 10 0, 0 23 2 12 - - - - - 2, 7 31 ,1 65 ,6 0, 1 - - - - - - 0, 5 10 0, 0 27 2 13 - - - - - 0, 1 2, 6 34 ,9 62 ,4 - - - - - - - 10 0, 0 27 8 14 - - - - - - 0, 7 3, 3 57 ,2 38 ,8 - - - - - - 10 0, 0 27 8 15 - - - - - - 0, 6 0, 9 4, 6 61 ,8 26 ,4 0, 4 - 5, 1 - 0, 2 10 0, 0 31 1 16 - - - - - - - - - 6, 0 46 ,2 27 ,9 - 17 ,7 - 2, 3 10 0, 0 34 2 17 - - - - - - 0, 1 - - 0, 5 3, 3 45 ,9 0, 5 35 ,3 4, 4 10 ,0 10 0, 0 27 2 18 - - - - - - - - - - - 1, 9 3, 5 46 ,3 18 ,0 30 ,3 10 0, 0 25 6 19 - - - - - - - - - - - 2, 0 2, 2 16 ,2 36 ,0 43 ,6 10 0, 0 26 8 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8, 9 33 ,8 57 ,3 10 0, 0 25 2 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4, 0 34 ,2 61 ,8 10 0, 0 26 5 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2, 6 21 ,3 76 ,1 10 0, 0 26 6 23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1, 9 19 ,4 78 ,7 10 0, 0 25 7 24 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1, 4 12 ,0 86 ,6 10 0, 0 23 4 To ta l 4, 6 4, 6 3, 8 3, 6 3, 7 4, 2 5, 0 5, 9 7, 0 6, 5 5, 1 4, 7 0, 3 7, 8 9, 4 23 ,8 10 0, 0 49 34 Ta bl e D Q .9 : S ex ra tio a t b irt h am on g ch ild re n ev er b or n an d liv in g S ex ra tio a t b irt h am on g ch ild re n ev er b or n, c hi ld re n liv in g, a nd d ec ea se d ch ild re n, b y ag e of w om en (w ei gh te d) C hi ld re n E ve r B or n C hi ld re n Li vi ng C hi ld re n de ce as ed N um be r of s on s ev er bo rn N um be r of d au gh te rs ev er b or n Se x ra tio N um be r of s on s liv in g N um be r of d au gh te rs liv in g Se x ra tio N um be r of d ec ea se d so ns N um be r of d ec ea se d da ug ht er s S ex ra tio N um be r of w om en A ge , y ea rs 15 -1 9 16 8 2, 01 16 8 2, 01 - - - 78 1 20 -2 4 16 7 15 2 1, 10 16 5 15 2 1, 09 2 0 5, 29 72 4 25 -2 9 41 6 39 3 1, 06 40 8 38 7 1, 05 8 6 1, 46 77 2 30 -3 4 56 5 54 8 1, 03 55 0 54 1 1, 02 15 7 2, 36 76 2 35 -3 9 72 8 66 5 1, 09 70 0 65 0 1, 08 28 15 1, 87 79 7 40 -4 4 98 1 96 2 1, 02 95 8 93 7 1, 02 23 25 ,9 2 10 01 45 -4 9 10 60 10 10 1, 05 10 17 98 9 1, 03 43 21 2, 00 10 58 To ta l 39 33 37 38 1, 05 38 14 36 64 1, 04 11 9 74 1, 61 58 95 No te : S ex ra tio s ar e ca lc ul at ed a s nu m be r o f m al es / n um be r o f f em al es 137 Table DQ.10: Distribution of women by time since last birth Distribution of women aged 15-49 with at least one live birth, by months since last birth (weighted), Number of women Percent Number of women Percent Months since last birth Months since last birth 0 6 0,9 18 22 3,3 1 16 2,3 19 19 2,8 2 17 2,5 20 21 3,1 3 36 5,2 21 17 2,5 4 30 4,4 22 20 3,0 5 16 2,4 23 17 2,5 6 15 2,3 24 18 2,6 7 19 2,9 25 14 2,1 8 18 2,6 26 17 2,5 9 18 2,6 27 18 2,7 10 16 2,4 28 21 3,1 11 18 2,7 29 21 3,1 12 19 2,9 30 22 3,2 13 18 2,6 31 18 2,7 14 18 2,7 32 20 3,0 15 20 3,0 33 18 2,7 16 18 2,7 34 17 2,4 17 22 3,2 35 16 2,4 Total 676 100 A pp en di x F. M IC S In di ca to rs : N um er at or s an d D en om in at or s IN D IC A TO R N U M ER A TO R D EN O M IN A TO R 4 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t de liv er y N um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ith a b irt h in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey th at w er e at te nd ed d ur in g ch ild bi rth b y sk ille d he al th p er so nn el To ta l n um be r o f w om en s ur ve ye d ag ed 1 5- 49 ye ar s w ith a b irt h in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 5 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s N um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ith a b irt h in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey th at de liv er ed in a h ea lth fa ci lit y To ta l n um be r o f w om en s ur ve ye d ag ed 1 5- 49 ye ar s w ith a b irt h in 2 y ea rs p re ce di ng th e su rv ey 6 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge fi ve th at fa ll be lo w m in us tw o st an da rd d ev ia tio ns fr om th e m ed ia n w ei gh t f or a ge o f t he N C H S /W H O s ta nd ar d (m od er at e an d se ve re ); nu m be r t ha t f al l b el ow m in us th re e st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (s ev er e) To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge fi ve th at w er e w ei gh ed 7 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge fi ve th at fa ll be lo w m in us tw o st an da rd d ev ia tio ns fr om th e m ed ia n he ig ht fo r a ge o f t he N C H S /W H O s ta nd ar d (m od er at e an d se ve re ); nu m be r t ha t f al l b el ow m in us th re e st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (s ev er e) To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge fi ve m ea su re d 8 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge fi ve th at fa ll be lo w m in us tw o st an da rd d ev ia tio ns fr om th e m ed ia n w ei gh t f or h ei gh t o f t he N C H S /W H O s ta nd ar d (m od er at e an d se ve re ); nu m be r t ha t f al l b el ow m in us th re e st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (s ev er e) To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge fi ve w ei gh ed an d m ea su re d 9 Lo w -b irt hw ei gh t i nf an ts N um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ei gh in g be lo w 2 ,5 00 g ra m s To ta l n um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 10 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey th at w er e w ei gh ed a t b irt h To ta l n um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 11 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in h ou se ho ld s us in g im pr ov ed s ou rc es o f d rin ki ng w at er To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in ho us eh ol ds s ur ve ye d 12 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs u si ng im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in ho us eh ol ds s ur ve ye d 13 W at er tr ea tm en t N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs u si ng w at er th at h as b ee n tre at ed To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in ho us eh ol ds s ur ve ye d 14 D is po sa l o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge th re e w ho se (l as t) st oo ls w er e di sp os ed o f s af el y To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge th re e su rv ey ed 15 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g ra te N um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 0- 5 m on th s th at a re e xc lu si ve ly b re as tfe d To ta l n um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 0- 5 m on th s su rv ey ed 16 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g ra te N um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 12 -1 5 m on th s, a nd 2 0- 23 m on th s, th at a re c ur re nt ly b re as tfe ed in g To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 2- 15 m on th s an d 20 -2 3 m on th s su rv ey ed 17 Ti m el y co m pl em en ta ry fe ed in g ra te N um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 6- 9 m on th s th at a re re ce iv in g br ea st m ilk a nd c om pl em en ta ry fo od s To ta l n um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 6- 9 m on th s su rv ey ed IN D IC A TO R N U M ER A TO R D EN O M IN A TO R 18 Fr eq ue nc y of co m pl em en ta ry fe ed in g N um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 6- 11 m on th s th at re ce iv e br ea st m ilk a nd c om pl em en ta ry fo od a t l ea st th e m in im um re co m m en de d nu m be r o f t im es p er d ay (t w o tim es p er d ay fo r i nf an ts a ge d 6- 8 m on th s, th re e tim es p er d ay fo r i nf an ts a ge d 9- 11 m on th s) To ta l n um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 6- 11 m on th s su rv ey ed 19 Ad eq ua te ly fe d in fa nt s N um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 0- 11 m on th s th at a re a pp ro pr ia te ly fe d: in fa nt s ag ed 0 -5 m on th s th at ar e ex cl us iv el y br ea st fe d an d in fa nt s ag ed 6 -1 1 m on th s th at a re b re as tfe d an d at e so lid o r s em i- so lid fo od s th e a pp ro pr ia te n um be r o f t im es (s ee a bo ve ) y es te rd ay To ta l n um be r o f i nf an ts a ge d 0- 11 m on th s su rv ey ed 20 An te na ta l c ar e N um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s th at w er e at te nd ed a t l ea st o nc e du rin g pr eg na nc y in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey b y sk ille d he al th p er so nn el To ta l n um be r o f w om en s ur ve ye d ag ed 1 5- 49 ye ar s w ith a b irt h in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 21 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce N um be r o f w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s th at a re u si ng (o r w ho se pa rtn er is u si ng ) a c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d (e ith er m od er n or tr ad iti on al ) To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s th at a re cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on 22 An tib io tic tr ea tm en t o f su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks re ce iv in g an tib io tic s To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks 23 C ar e- se ek in g fo r su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks th at ar e ta ke n to a n ap pr op ria te h ea lth p ro vi de r To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks 24 S ol id fu el s N um be r o f r es id en ts in h ou se ho ld s th at u se s ol id fu el s (w oo d, c ha rc oa l, cr op re si du es a nd d un g) as th e pr im ar y so ur ce o f d om es tic e ne rg y to c oo k To ta l n um be r o f r es id en ts in h ou se ho ld s su rv ey ed 25 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s re ce iv in g B C G v ac ci ne b ef or e th ei r f irs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s su rv ey ed 26 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s re ce iv in g O P V 3 va cc in e be fo re th ei r f irs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s su rv ey ed 27 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r di ph th er ia , p er tu ss is a nd te ta nu s (D P T) N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s re ce iv in g D P T3 v ac ci ne b ef or e th ei r f irs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s su rv ey ed 28 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s re ce iv in g m ea sl es v ac ci ne b ef or e th ei r f irs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s su rv ey ed 29 H ep at iti s B im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s im m un iz ed a ga in st h ep at iti s be fo re th ei r f irs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s su rv ey ed 31 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s re ce iv in g D P T1 -3 , O P V -1 -3 , B C G a nd m ea sl es #$ va cc in es b ef or e th ei r f irs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s su rv ey ed 33 U se o f o ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y (O R T) N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rrh oe a in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks th at re ce iv ed o ra l re hy dr at io n sa lts a nd /o r a n ap pr op ria te h ou se ho ld s ol ut io n To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith di ar rh oe a in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks 34 H om e m an ag em en t o f di ar rh oe a N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rrh oe a in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks th at re ce iv ed m or e flu id s A N D c on tin ue d ea tin g so m ew ha t l es s, th e sa m e or m or e fo od To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith di ar rh oe a in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks #$ F or M M R (m ea sl es v ac ci na tio n) – d ur in g th e fir st 1 8 m on th s. IN D IC A TO R N U M ER A TO R D EN O M IN A TO R 35 R ec ei ve d O R T or in cr ea se d flu id s an d co nt in ue d fe ed in g N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rrh oe a th at re ce iv ed O R T (o ra l r eh yd ra tio n sa lts or a n ap pr op ria te h ou se ho ld s ol ut io n) o r r ec ei ve d m or e flu id s A N D c on tin ue d ea tin g so m ew ha t le ss , t he s am e or m or e fo od To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith di ar rh oe a in th e pr ev io us 2 w ee ks 44 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e N um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey th at re ce iv ed a nt en at al ca re d ur in g th e la st p re gn an cy To ta l n um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 45 Ti m el y in iti at io n of br ea st fe ed in g N um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey th at p ut th e ne w bo rn in fa nt to th e br ea st w ith in 1 h ou r o f b irt h To ta l n um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e 2 ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 46 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s liv in g in h ou se ho ld s in w hi ch a n ad ul t h as e ng ag ed in fo ur or m or e ac tiv iti es to p ro m ot e le ar ni ng a nd s ch oo l r ea di ne ss in th e pa st 3 d ay s To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s su rv ey ed 47 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r le ar ni ng N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ho se fa th er h as e ng ag ed in o ne o r m or e ac tiv iti es to pr om ot e le ar ni ng a nd s ch oo l r ea di ne ss in th e pa st 3 d ay s To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s 52 P re -s ch oo l a tte nd an ce N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 3 6- 59 m on th s th at a tte nd s om e fo rm o f e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n pr og ra m m e To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 3 6- 59 m on th s su rv ey ed 53 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss N um be r o f c hi ld re n in fi rs t g ra de th at a tte nd ed s om e fo rm o f p re -s ch oo l t he p re vi ou s ye ar To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n in th e fir st g ra de su rv ey ed 54 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n N um be r o f c hi ld re n of s ch oo l-e nt ry a ge th at a re c ur re nt ly a tte nd in g fir st g ra de To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n of p rim ar y- s ch oo l e nt ry ag e su rv ey ed 55 N et p rim ar y sc ho ol at te nd an ce ra te N um be r o f c hi ld re n of p rim ar y- sc ho ol a ge c ur re nt ly a tte nd in g pr im ar y or s ec on da ry s ch oo l To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n of p rim ar y- s ch oo l a ge su rv ey ed 56 N et s ec on da ry s ch oo l at te nd an ce ra te N um be r o f c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry -s ch oo l a ge c ur re nt ly a tte nd in g se co nd ar y sc ho ol o r h ig he r To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry -s ch oo l a ge su rv ey ed 57 C hi ld re n re ac hi ng g ra de fiv e P ro po rti on o f c hi ld re n en te rin g th e fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y sc ho ol th at e ve nt ua lly re ac h gr ad e fiv e 58 Tr an si tio n ra te to se co nd ar y sc ho ol N um be r o f c hi ld re n th at w er e in th e la st g ra de o f p rim ar y sc ho ol d ur in g th e pr ev io us s ch oo l y ea r th at a tte nd s ec on da ry s ch oo l To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n th at w er e in th e la st gr ad e of p rim ar y sc ho ol d ur in g th e pr ev io us sc ho ol y ea r s ur ve ye d 59 P rim ar y co m pl et io n ra te N um be r o f c hi ld re n (o f a ny a ge ) a tte nd in g th e la st g ra de o f p rim ar y sc ho ol (e xc lu di ng re pe at er s) To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol co m pl et io n ag e (a ge a pp ro pr ia te to fi na l g ra de o f pr im ar y sc ho ol ) s ur ve ye d 60 A du lt lit er ac y ra te N um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -2 4 ye ar s th at a re a bl e to re ad a s ho rt si m pl e st at em en t a bo ut ev er yd ay li fe To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -2 4 ye ar s su rv ey ed 61 G en de r p ar ity in de x P ro po rti on o f g irl s in p rim ar y an d se co nd ar y ed uc at io n P ro po rti on o f b oy s in p rim ar y an d se co nd ar y ed uc at io n 67 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r o f w om en th at w er e fir st m ar rie d or in u ni on b y th e ex ac t a ge o f 1 5 an d th e ex ac t a ge o f 18 , b y ag e gr ou ps To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s an d 20 - 49 y ea rs s ur ve ye d, b y ag e gr ou ps IN D IC A TO R N U M ER A TO R D EN O M IN A TO R 68 Yo un g w om en a ge d 15 -1 9 ye ar s cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on N um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -1 9 ye ar s cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -1 9 ye ar s su rv ey ed 69 S po us al a ge d iff er en ce N um be r o f w om en m ar rie d/ in u ni on a ge d 15 -1 9 ye ar s an d 20 -2 4 ye ar s w ith a d iff er en ce in a ge of 1 0 or m or e ye ar s be tw ee n th em a nd th ei r c ur re nt s po us e To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -1 9 an d 20 -2 4 ye ar s su rv ey ed th at a re c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n 71 C hi ld la bo ur N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 5 -1 4 ye ar s th at a re in vo lv ed in c hi ld la bo ur To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 5 -1 4 ye ar s su rv ey ed 72 La bo ur er s tu de nt s N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 5 -1 4 ye ar s in vo lv ed in c hi ld la bo ur a ct iv iti es th at a tte nd s ch oo l To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 5 -1 4 ye ar s in vo lv ed in c hi ld la bo ur a ct iv iti es 73 S tu de nt la bo ur er s N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 5 -1 4 ye ar s at te nd in g sc ho ol th at a re in vo lv ed in c hi ld la bo ur a ct iv iti es To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 5 -1 4 ye ar s at te nd in g sc ho ol 74 C hi ld d is ci pl in e N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 2 -1 4 ye ar s th at (1 ) e xp er ie nc e on ly n on -v io le nt a gg re ss io n, (2 ) ex pe rie nc e ps yc ho lo gi ca l a gg re ss io n as p un is hm en t, (3 ) e xp er ie nc e m in or p hy si ca l p un is hm en t, (4 ) e xp er ie nc e se ve re p hy si ca l p un is hm en t To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 2 -1 4 ye ar s se le ct ed an d su rv ey ed 75 P re va le nc e of o rp ha ns N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 1 8 w ith a t l ea st o ne d ea d pa re nt To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 1 8 su rv ey ed 78 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -1 7 ye ar s no t l iv in g w ith a b io lo gi ca l p ar en t To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -1 7 ye ar s su rv ey ed 82 C om pr eh en si ve kn ow le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le N um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -2 4 ye ar s th at c or re ct ly id en tif y tw o w ay s of a vo id in g H IV in fe ct io n an d re je ct th re e co m m on m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV tr an sm is si on To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 -2 4 ye ar s su rv ey ed 86 At tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e w ith H IV /A ID S N um be r o f w om en e xp re ss in g ac ce pt an ce o n al l f ou r q ue st io ns a bo ut p eo pl e w ith H IV o r A ID S To ta l n um be r o f w om en s ur ve ye d 87 W om en w ho k no w w he re to b e te st ed fo r H IV N um be r o f w om en th at s ta te k no w le dg e of a p la ce to b e te st ed To ta l n um be r o f w om en s ur ve ye d 88 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV N um be r o f w om en th at re po rt be in g te st ed fo r H IV To ta l n um be r o f w om en s ur ve ye d 89 K no w le dg e of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV N um be r o f w om en th at c or re ct ly id en tif y al l t hr ee m ea ns o f v er tic al tr an sm is si on To ta l n um be r o f w om en s ur ve ye d 90 C ou ns el lin g co ve ra ge fo r th e pr ev en tio n of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV N um be r o f w om en th at g av e bi rth in th e pr ev io us 2 4 m on th s an d re ce iv ed a nt en at al c ar e re po rti ng th at th ey re ce iv ed c ou ns el lin g on H IV /A ID S d ur in g th is c ar e To ta l n um be r o f w om en th at g av e bi rth in th e pr ev io us 2 4 m on th s su rv ey ed 91 Te st in g co ve ra ge fo r t he pr ev en tio n of m ot he r-t o- ch ild tr an sm is si on o f H IV N um be r o f w om en th at g av e bi rth in th e pr ev io us 2 4 m on th s an d re ce iv ed a nt en at al c ar e re po rti ng th at th ey re ce iv ed th e re su lts o f a n H IV te st d ur in g th is c ar e To ta l n um be r o f w om en th at g av e bi rth in th e pr ev io us 2 4 m on th s su rv ey ed 142 143 Appendix G. Questionnaires Scientific and Research Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus jointly with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE I AM FROM THE MINISTRY OF STATISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS, AT PRESENT WE ARE WORKING ON A PROJECT CONCERNED WITH FAMILY HEALTH AND EDUCATION. IN THIS RESPECT I WANT TO ASK SEVERAL QUESTIONS. THE INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT 40 MINUTES. ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND YOUR ANSWERS WILL NEVER BE IDENTIFIED. I WOULD LIKE TO SPEAK WITH THE HOUSEHOLD HEAD AND ALL MOTHERS OR OTHERS WHO TAKE CARE OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLD. MAY I START NOW? If permission is given, begin the interview. HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION PANEL HH HH1. Cluster number: HH2. Household number: __ __ __ __ __ HH3. Interviewer number: HH4. Supervisor’s (department staff) number: __ __ __ __ HH5. Day/Month/Year of interview: __ __ / __ __ / __ __ __ __ HH6. Place of Residence: Cities, towns and settlements. 1 Villages . 2 HH7. Region (Oblast): Brest Oblast.1 Vitebsk Oblast .2 Gomel Oblast.3 Grodno Oblast .4 Minsk city.5 Minsk Oblast.6 Mogilev Oblast.7 HH8. Name of head of household: ___________________________________ After all questionnaires for the household have been completed, fill in the following information: HH10. Name and line No.of Respondent to HH questionnaire: Name: Line No.: __ __ HH11. Total number of household members: HH9. Result of HH interview: Completed . 1 Not at home . 2 Refused . 3 HH not used for living . 4 Other (specify) ____________________ 6 __ __ HH12. No.of women of 15-49 years old: HH13. No.of women questionnaires completed: __ __ __ __ HH14. No.of children under age 5: HH15. No.of under-5 questionnaires completed: __ __ __ __ Interviewer/supervisor notes: HH 16. Data entry clerk number: __ __ 144 HOUSEHOLD LISTING FORM HL FIRST, PLEASE TELL ME THE NAME OF EACH PERSON WHO USUALLY LIVES HERE, STARTING WITH THE HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD. List the head of the household in line 01. List all household members (HL2), their relationship to the household head (HL3), and their sex (HL4). Then ask: ARE THERE ANY OTHERS WHO LIVE HERE, EVEN IF THEY ARE NOT AT HOME NOW? (THESE MAY INCLUDE CHILDREN IN SCHOOL OR AT WORK). If yes, complete listing. Then, ask questions starting with HL5 for each person at a time. Eligible for: WOMEN’S INTERVIEW CHILD LABOUR MODULE UNDER-5 INTERVIEW For children age 0-17 years HL1. Line no. HL2. Name HL3. WHAT IS THE RELATION- SHIP OF (name) TO THE HEAD OF THE HOUSE- HOLD? See codes below HL4. IS (name) MALE OR FEMALE? 1 MALE 2 FEM. HL5. HOW OLD IS (name)? HOW OLD WAS (name) ON HIS/HER LAST BIRTHDAY? If age is 97 and over, record ‘97’ 98 = DK* HL6. Circle Line no. if woman is age 15- 49 HL7. For each child age 5-14: WHO IS THE MOTHER OR PRIMARY CARETAKER OF THIS CHILD? Record Line no. of mother/ caretaker HL8. For each child under 5: WHO IS THE MOTHER OR PRIMARY CARETAKER OF THIS CHILD? Record Line no. of mother/ caretaker HL9. IS (name’s ) NATURAL MOTHER ALIVE? 1 YES 2 NO" HL11 8 DK" HL11 HL10. If alive: DOES (name’s) NATURAL MOTHER LIVE IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? Record Line no. of mother or 00 for ‘No’ HL11. IS (name’s ) NATURAL FATHER ALIVE? 1 YES 2 NO# NEXT LINE 8 DK# NEXT LINE HL12. If alive: DOES (name’s) NATURAL FATHER LIVE IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? Record Line no. of father or 00 for ‘No’ LINE NAME REL. M F AGE 15-49 MOTHER MOTHER Y N DK MOTHER Y N DK FATHER 01 0 1 1 2 ___ ___ 01 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 02 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 02 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 03 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 03 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 04 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 04 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 05 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 05 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 06 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 06 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 07 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 07 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 08 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 08 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 09 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 09 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 10 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 10 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ Women15-49 Children 5-14 Children under-5s Totals ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Codes for HL3: Relationship to head of household 01 = HEAD 07 = PARENT-IN-LAW 13 = OTHER RELATIVE 02 = WIFE OR HUSBAND 08 = BROTHER OR SISTER 14 = ADOPTED/FOSTER/STEPCHILD 03 = SON OR DAUGHTER 09 = BROTHER OR SISTER-IN-LAW 15 = NOT RELATED 04 = SON OR DAUGHTER IN-LAW 10 = UNCLE/AUNT 98 = DON'T KNOW 05 = GRANDCHILD 11 = NIECE/NEPHEW BY BLOOD 06 = PARENT 12 = NIECE/NEPHEW BY MARRIAGE * Used only for elderly household members (code meaning “Do not know/over age 50”). 145 EDUCATION MODULE ED NOW PLEASE LET ME ASK SEVERAL QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE EDUCATION OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS For household members age 5 and above For household members age 5-24 years ED1. Line no. ED1A. Name ED2. HAS (name) EVER ATTENDED SCHOOL OR PRES- CHOOL? 1 YES 2 NO # NEXT LINE ED3. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOL (name) ATTENDED? WHAT IS THE HIGHEST GRADE (name) COMPLETED AT THIS LEVEL? LEVEL: # See codes below GRADE: 98 = DK ED4. DURING THE (2005/ 2006) SCHOOL YEAR, DID (name) ATTEND SCHOOL OR PRESCHOOL AT ANY TIME? 1 YES 2 NO " ED7 ED5. SINCE LAST (day of the week), HOW MANY DAYS DID (name) ATTEND SCHOOL? Insert number of days in space below. ED6. DURING THIS/THAT SCHOOL YEAR, WHICH LEVEL AND GRADE IS/WAS (name) ATTENDING? LEVEL: # See codes below GRADE: 98 = DK ED7. DID (name) ATTEND SCHOOL OR PRESCHOOL AT ANY TIME DURING THE PREVIOUS SCHOOL YEAR, THAT IS (2004/ 2005) 1 YES 2 NO # NEXT LINE 8 DK # NEXT LINE ED8. DURING THAT PREVIOUS SCHOOL YEAR, WHICH LEVEL AND GRADE DID (name) ATTEND? LEVEL: # See codes below GRADE: 98 = DK LINE NAME YES NO LEVEL GRADE YES NO DAYS LEVEL GRADE Y N DK LEVEL GRADE 01 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 02 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 03 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 04 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 05 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 06 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 07 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 08 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 09 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 10 1 2 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 6 8 __ __ Codes for ED3, ED6, ED8 0 = PRESCHOOL 1 = PRIMARY 2 = AVERAGE 3 = HIGHER 4 = INCOMPLETE SECONDARY 5 = SECONDARY SPECIAL 6 = NON-STANDARD CURRICULUM 8 = DK If less than 1 level, enter 00 146 WATER AND SANITATION MODULE W WS1. WHAT IS THE MAIN SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER FOR MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Piped water Piped into dwelling. 11 Piped into yard or plot. 12 Public tap/standpipe . 13 Dug well Protected well . 31 Unprotected well . 32 Bottled water . 91 Other (specify) _________________________96 11"WS5 12"WS5 13"WS3 31"WS3 32"WS3 96"WS3 WS2. WHAT IS THE MAIN SOURCE OF WATER USED BY YOUR HOUSEHOLD FOR OTHER PURPOSES SUCH AS COOKING AND HANDWASHING? Piped water Piped into dwelling . 11 Piped into yard or plot. 12 Public tap/standpipe . 13 Dug well Protected well . 31 Unprotected well . 32 Other (specify) _________________________96 11"WS5 12"WS5 WS3. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO GO THERE, GET WATER, AND COME BACK? No. of minutes. __ __ __ Water on premises. 995 DK. 998 995"WS5 WS4. WHO USUALLY GOES TO THIS SOURCE TO FETCH THE WATER FOR YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Probe: WHAT SEX AND AGE OF THIS PERSON? Adult woman………………………………………. 1 Adult man…………………………………………. 2 Female child (under 15) ……………………………3 Male child (under 15)……………………………… 4 DK.8 WS5. DO YOU TREAT YOUR WATER IN ANY WAY TO MAKE IT SAFER TO DRINK? Yes.1 No .2 DK.8 2"WS7 8"WS7 WS6. WHAT DO YOU USUALLY DO TO THE WATER TO MAKE IT SAFER TO DRINK? ANYTHING ELSE? Record all items mentioned. Boil .A Add bleach/chlorine .B Strain it through a cloth .C Use water filter (ceramic, sand, composite, etc.) D Let it stand and settle. F Other (specify) _________________________ X DK. Z WS7. WHAT KIND OF TOILET FACILITY DO MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD USUALLY USE? If “flush” or “pour flush”, probe: WHERE DOES IT FLUSH TO? Flush / pour flush Flush to piped sewer system. 11 Flush to septic tank. 12 Flush to pit . 13 Flush to somewhere else . 14 Flush to unknown place/not sure/DK where. 15 Pit Ventilated . 21 With slab . 22 Pit without slab / open pit . 23 Composting toilet . 31 Bucket . 41 No facilities or bush or field . 95 Other (specify) _________________________96 95 $ HC2A 147 WS8. DO YOU SHARE THIS FACILITY WITH OTHER HOUSEHOLDS? Yes. 1 No . 2 2 $ HC2A WS9. HOW MANY HOUSEHOLDS IN TOTAL USE THIS TOILET FACILITY? No. of households (if less than 10) . 0 __ Ten or more households . 10 DK.98 HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS MODULE HC HC2A. WHAT IS THE TYPE OF YOUR HOSEHOLD? Apartment/flat. 1 Private dwelling house. 2 Common apartment/flat . 3 A part of private dwelling house. 4 Hostel . 5 HC2. HOW MANY ROOMS IN THIS HOUSEHOLD ARE USED FOR SLEEPING? No. of rooms . __ __ HC3. Main material of the dwelling floor of the household. Record observation Rudimentary floor Wood planks . 21 Finished floor Parquet or polished wood . 31 Vinyl or asphalt strips. 32 Ceramic tiles . 33 Cement . 34 Carpet . 35 Linoleum . 36 Laminated floor . 37 Other (specify) ______________________ 96 HC4. Main material of the roof. Record observation Rudimentary Roofing Wood planks . 23 Finished roofing #$tal . 31 Wood. 32 Calamine/cement fiber . 33 Ceramic tiles . 34 Cement . 35 roofing slate . 37 Tile . 38 Ruberoid . 39 Other (specify) ______________________ 96 HC5. Main material of the of the walls. Record observation Finished walls Bricks . 33 Cement blocks . 34 Wood planks/shingles . 36 Wall panel . 37 Concrete (reinforced concrete) . 38 Other (specify) ______________________ 96 148 HC6. WHAT TYPE OF FUEL DOES YOUR HOUSEHOLD MAINLY USE FOR COOKING? Electricity .01 Liquid Propane Gas (LPG) .02 Natural gas .03 Kerosene .05 Coal .06 Wood .08 Other (specify) ________________________96 01"HC8 02"HC8 03"HC8 HC7. IN THIS HOUSEHOLD, IS FOOD COOKED ON AN OPEN FIRE, AN OPEN STOVE OR A CLOSED STOVE? Open fire .1 Open stove .2 Closed stove .3 Other (specify) _________________________6 3"HC8 6"HC8 HC7A. DOES THE FIRE/STOVE HAVE A CHIMNEY OR A HOOD? Yes.1 No .2 HC8. IS THE COOKING USUALLY DONE IN THE HOUSE, IN A SEPARATE BUILDING, OR OUTDOORS? In the house .1 In a separate building .2 Outdoors .3 Other (specify) _________________________6 HC9. DOES YOUR HOUSEHOLD HAVE: Yes No Electricity . 1 2 Radio . 1 2 Television . 1 2 Mobile Telephone . 1 2 Non-Mobile Telephone . 1 2 Refrigerator . 1 2 Vacuum cleaner . 1 2 Sewing-machine . 1 2 Microwave. 1 2 Personal computer. 1 2 Laundry washer . 1 2 HC10. DOES ANY MEMBER OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD OWN: Yes No Watch .1 2 Bicycle .1 2 Motorcycle/Scooter .1 2 Animal drawn-cart .1 2 Car/Truck .1 2 Boat with motor .1 2 149 NOW LET US TALK ABOUT CHILDREN, WHO LIVE IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD. FIRST I WOULD LIKE TO ASK A QUESTION ABOUT ANY WORK CHILDREN IN THIS HOUSEHOLD MAY DO. CHILD LABOUR MODULE CL To be administered to mother/caretaker of each child in the household age 5 through 14 years. Write down the line No. of each relevant for the survey child from Household Listing Form. CL1. Line ! CL2. Name CL3. DURING THE PAST WEEK, DID (name) DO ANY KIND OF WORK FOR SOMEONE WHO IS NOT A MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD? If yes: FOR PAY IN CASH OR KIND? 1 YES, FOR PAY (CASH OR KIND) 2 YES, UNPAID 3 NO "TO CL5 CL4. SINCE LAST (day of the week), ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID HE/SHE DO THIS WORK FOR SOMEONE WHO IS NOT A MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD? If more than one job, include all hours at all jobs. Record response then " CL.6 CL5. AT ANY TIME DURING THE PAST YEAR, DID (name) DO ANY KIND OF WORK FOR SOMEONE WHO IS NOT A MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD? If yes: FOR PAY IN CASH OR KIND? 1 YES, FOR PAY (CASH OR KIND) 2 YES, UNPAID 3 NO CL6. DURING THE PAST WEEK, DID (name) HELP WITH HOUSEHOLD CHORES SUCH AS SHOPPING, COLLECTING FIREWOOD, CLEANING, FETCHING WATER, OR CARING FOR CHILDREN? 1 YES 2 NO "CL8 CL7. SINCE LAST (day of the week), ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID HE/SHE SPEND DOING THESE CHORES? CL8. DURING THE PAST WEEK, DID (name) DO ANY OTHER FAMILY WORK (ON THE FARM OR IN A FAMILY BUSINESS, ETC.)? 1 YES 2 NO # NEXT LINE CL9. SINCE LAST (day of the week), ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID HE/SHE DO THIS WORK? YES YES LINE NO. NAME PAID UNPAID NO NO. HOURS PAID UNPAID NO YES NO NO. HOURS YES NO NO. HOURS 01 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 02 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 03 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 04 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 05 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 06 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 07 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 08 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 09 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 10 1 2 3 ___ ___ 1 2 3 1 2 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ 150 CHILD DISCIPLINE MODULE CD TABLE 1: CHILDREN AGED 2-14 YEARS ELIGIBLE FOR CHILDREN DISCIPLINE QUESTIONS Review the household listing and list each of the children aged 2-14 years below in order according to their line number (HL1). Do not include other household members outside of the age range 2-14 years. Record the line number, name, sex, age, and the line number of the mother or caretaker for each child. Then record the total number of children aged 2-14 in the box provided (CD7). CD1. Rank % CD2. Line no. from HL1 CD3. Name from HL2 CD4. Sex from HL4. CD5. Age from HL5 CD6. Line no. of mother/ caretaker from HL7 or HL8 LINE LINE NAME M F AGE MOTHER/CARETAKER 01 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ ___ ___ 02 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ ___ ___ 03 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ ___ ___ 04 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ ___ ___ 05 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ ___ ___ 06 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ ___ ___ 07 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ ___ ___ 08 ___ ___ 1 2 ___ ___ ___ ___ CD7. TOTAL CHILDREN AGED 2-14 YEARS ___ IF THERE IS ONLY ONE CHILD AGE 2-14 YEARS IN THE HOUSEHOLD, THEN GO TO CD1I, IN OTHER CASE CONTINUE FROM CD8. TABLE 2: SELECTION OF RANDOM CHILD FOR CHILD DISCIPLINE QUESTIONS Use this table to select one child between the ages of 2 and 14 years, if there is more than one child in that age range in the household. Look for the last digit of the household number from the cover page. This is the number of the row you should go to in the table below. Check the total number of eligible children in CD7 above. This is the number of the column you should go to. Find the box where the row and the column meet and circle the number that appears in the box. This is the rank number of the child about whom the questions will be asked. Record the rank number in CD9 below. Finally, record the line number and name of the selected child in CD11. Then, find the mother or primary caretaker of that child, and ask the questions, beginning with CD12. CD8. TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLD Last digit of the household questionnaire number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ 0 1 2 2 4 3 6 5 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 6 5 2 1 2 1 2 5 2 7 6 3 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 7 4 1 2 3 4 2 4 2 8 5 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 1 6 1 2 2 2 4 6 4 2 7 1 1 3 3 5 1 5 3 8 1 2 1 4 1 2 6 4 9 1 1 2 1 2 3 7 5 CD9. Record the rank number of the selected child from Table 2 Rank number of child .___ 151 CD11. Write name and line no. of the child selected for the module from CD3 and CD2, based on the rank number in CD9. Name ___________________________________ LINE NUMBER __ __ CD12. ALL ADULTS USE CERTAIN WAYS TO TEACH CHILDREN THE RIGHT BEHAVIOUR OR TO ADDRESS A BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM. I WILL READ VARIOUS METHODS THAT ARE USED AND I WANT YOU TO TELL ME IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD HAS USED THIS METHOD WITH (name) IN THE PAST MONTH. Yes No CD12A. TOOK AWAY PRIVILEGES, FORBADE SOMETHING (name) LIKED OR DID NOT ALLOW HIM/HER TO LEAVE HOUSE ? 1 2 CD12B. EXPLAINED WHY SOMETHING (THE BEHAVIOR) WAS WRONG ? 1 2 CD12C. SHOOK HIM/HER ? 1 2 CD12D. SHOUTED, YELLED AT HIM/HER ? 1 2 CD12E. GAVE HIM/HER SOMETHING ELSE TO DO ? 1 2 CD12F. SPANKED, HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE BOTTOM WITH BARE HAND ? 1 2 CD12G. HIT HIM/HER ON THE BOTTOM OR ELSEWHERE ON THE BODY WITH SOMETHNIG HARD OBJECTS LIKE A BELT? 1 2 CD12H. CALLED HIM/HER DUMB, LAZY, OR ANOTHER NAME LIKE THAT ? 1 2 CD12I. HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE FACE, HEAD OR EARS ? 1 2 CD12J. HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE HAND, ARM, OR LEG ? 1 2 CD12K. BEAT HIM/HER UP WITH AN IMPLEMENT (HIT OVER AND OVER AS HARD AS ONE COULD)? 1 2 CD13. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT IN ORDER TO BRING UP (RAISE, EDUCATE) (name) PROPERLY, YOU NEED TO PHYSICALLY PUNISH HIM/HER ? Yes.1 No .2 Don’t know/no opinion .8 152 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAL WOMEN WOMEN’S INFORMATION PANEL WM This module is to be administered to all women age 15 through 49 (see column HL6 of Household Listing Form). Fill in one form for each eligible woman WM1. Cluster number: WM2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ WM3. Woman’s Name: WM4. Woman’s Line Number: ___ ___ WM5.Interviewer number: WM6. Day/Month/Year of interview: ___ ___ ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ WM7. Result of women’s interview Completed . 1 Not at home. 2 Refused . 3 Partly completed. 4 Incapacitated . 5 Other (specify) ______________________________6 WM8. IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR WERE YOU BORN? Date of birth: Month. ___ ___ DK month. 98 Year .___ ___ ___ ___ DK year. 9998 WM9. HOW OLD WERE YOU AT YOUR LAST BIRTHDAY? Age (in completed years) . ___ ___ WM10. HAVE YOU EVER ATTENDED SCHOOL? Yes .1 No.2 2"WM14 WM11. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOL YOU ATTENDED: PRIMARY, SECONDARY, OR HIGHER? Primary . 1 Secondary . 2 Higher. 3 Incomplete secondary . 4 Secondary special . 5 Non-standard curriculum. 6 WM12. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST GRADE YOU COMPLETED AT THAT LEVEL? GRADE.___ ___ WM13. Check WM11 % Secondary, incomplete secondary, secondary special or higher. " CM1 % Primary or non-standard curriculum. " WM14 WM14. NOW I WOULD LIKE YOU TO READ THIS SENTENCE TO ME. Show sentences to respondent. If respondent cannot read whole sentence, probe: CAN YOU READ PART OF THE SENTENCE TO ME? Example sentences for literacy test: 1. It has started to rain late this year. 2. Parents must love their children. 3. A child is reading a book. Cannot read at all . 1 Able to read only parts of sentence. 2 Able to read whole sentence. 3 No sentence in required language_______________ 4 (specify language) Blind/mute, visually/speech impaired . 5 153 CHILD MORTALITY MODULE CM This module is to be administered to all women age 15-49. All questions refer only to LIVE births. CM1. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK ABOUT ALL THE BIRTHS YOU HAVE HAD DURING YOUR LIFE. HAVE YOU EVER GIVEN BIRTH? If “No” probe by asking: I MEAN, TO A CHILD WHO EVER BREATHED OR CRIED OR SHOWED OTHER SIGNS OF LIFE – EVEN IF HE OR SHE LIVED ONLY A FEW MINUTES OR HOURS? Yes.1 No.2 2 $ MA1 CM2A. WHAT WAS THE DATE OF YOUR FIRST BIRTH? I MEAN THE VERY FIRST TIME YOU GAVE BIRTH, EVEN IF THE CHILD IS NO LONGER LIVING, OR WHOSE FATHER IS NOT YOUR CURRENT PARTNER. Date of first birth Day.___ ___ DK day .98 Month . ___ ___ DK month .98 Year . ___ ___ ___ ___ DK year .9998 "CM3 $CM2B CM2B. HOW MANY YEARS AGO DID YOU HAVE YOUR FIRST BIRTH? Completed years since first birth .___ ___ CM3. DO YOU HAVE ANY SONS OR DAUGHTERS TO WHOM YOU HAVE GIVEN BIRTH WHO ARE NOW LIVING WITH YOU? Yes.1 No.2 2"CM5 CM4. HOW MANY SONS LIVE WITH YOU? HOW MANY DAUGHTERS LIVE WITH YOU? Sons at home.___ ___ Daughters at home .___ ___ CM5. DO YOU HAVE ANY SONS OR DAUGHTERS TO WHOM YOU HAVE GIVEN BIRTH WHO ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? Yes.1 No.2 2"CM7 CM6. HOW MANY SONS ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? HOW MANY DAUGHTERS ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? Sons elsewhere .___ ___ Daughters elsewhere.___ ___ CM7. HAVE YOU EVER GIVEN BIRTH TO A BOY OR GIRL WHO WAS BORN ALIVE BUT LATER DIED? Yes.1 No.2 2"CM9 CM8. HOW MANY BOYS HAVE DIED? HOW MANY GIRLS HAVE DIED? Boys dead .___ ___ Girls dead.___ ___ CM9. Sum answers to CM4, CM6, and CM8. Total .___ ___ CM10. JUST TO MAKE SURE THAT I HAVE THIS RIGHT, YOU HAVE HAD IN TOTAL (TOTAL NUMBER) BIRTHS DURING YOUR LIFE. IS THIS CORRECT? % Yes. " CM11 % No. " Check responses and make corrections before proceeding to CM11 CM11. OF THESE (total number) BIRTHS YOU HAVE HAD, WHEN DID YOU DELIVER THE LAST ONE (EVEN IF HE OR SHE HAS DIED)?. If day is not known, enter ‘98’ in space for day. Date of last birth: Day/Month/Year . __ __/__ __/__ __ __ __ 154 CM12. Check CM11: Did the woman’s last birth occur within the last 2 years, that is, since (day and month of interview in 2003)? If child has died, take special care when referring to this child by name in the following modules. Yes, live birth in last 2 years .1 No live birth in last 2 years .2 1"CM13 2 $ MA1 CM13. AT THE TIME YOU BECAME PREGNANT WITH (name), DID YOU WANT TO BECOME PREGNANT THEN, DID YOU WANT TO WAIT UNTIL LATER, OR DID YOU WANT NO (MORE) CHILDREN AT ALL? Then .1 Later .2 No more.3 MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH MODULE MN This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding date of interview. Check Child Mortality Module CM12 and record name of last-born child ____________________ Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. MN2. DID YOU SEE ANYONE FOR ANTENATAL CARE FOR THIS PREGNANCY? If yes: WHOM DID YOU SEE? ANYONE ELSE? Probe for the type of person seen and circle all answers given. Health professional: Doctor .A Nurse/midwife .B Auxiliary midwife .C Other person Community health worker . G Relative/friend.H Other (specify) ____________________ X No one .Y Y"MN7 MN3. AS PART OF YOUR ANTENATAL CARE, WERE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING DONE AT LEAST ONCE? Yes No MN3A. WERE YOU WEIGHED? 1 2 MN3B. WAS YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED? 1 2 MN3C. DID YOU GIVE A URINE SAMPLE? 1 2 MN3D. DID YOU GIVE A BLOOD SAMPLE? 1 2 MN4. DURING ANY OF THE ANTENATAL VISITS FOR THE PREGNANCY, WERE YOU GIVEN ANY INFORMATION OR COUNSELED ABOUT AIDS OR THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes. 1 No . 2 DK. 8 MN5. I DON’T WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT WERE YOU TESTED FOR HIV/AIDS AS PART OF YOUR ANTENATAL CARE? Yes. 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2"MN7 8"MN7 MN6. I DON’T WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT DID YOU GET THE RESULTS OF THE TEST? Yes. 1 No . 2 DK. 8 155 MN7. WHO ASSISTED WITH THE DELIVERY OF YOUR LAST CHILD (NAME)? ANYONE ELSE? Probe for the type of person assisting and circle all answers given. Health professional: Doctor. A Nurse/midwife. B Auxiliary midwife. C Other person Community health worker. G Relative/friend . H Other (specify) _____________________ X No one. Y MN8. WHERE DID YOU GIVE BIRTH TO (name)? If source is hospital, health center, or clinic, write the name of the place below. Probe to identify the type of source and circle the appropriate code. (Name of place) Home Your home.11 Other home.12 Public sector Gov. hospital.21 Gov. clinic/health center .22 Other public (specify) _____________ 26 Private Medical Sector Private hospital .31 Private clinic .32 Private maternity home .33 Other private medical (specify) ______ 36 Other (specify) ____________________ 96 MN9. WHEN YOUR LAST CHILD (name) WAS BORN, WAS HE/SHE VERY LARGE, LARGER THAN AVERAGE, AVERAGE, SMALLER THAN AVERAGE, OR VERY SMALL? Very large .1 Larger than average.2 Average .3 Smaller than average .4 Very small.5 DK.8 MN10. WAS (name) WEIGHED AT BIRTH? Yes .1 No.2 DK.8 2"MN12 8"MN12 MN11. HOW MUCH DID (name) WEIGHT? Record weight from health card, if available. From card (grams).1 __.__ __ __ From recall (grams) .2 __.__ __ __ DK. 9 9998 MN12. DID YOU EVER BREASTFEED (name)? Yes .1 No.2 2 $ MA1 MN13. HOW LONG AFTER BIRTH DID YOU FIRST PUT (name) TO THE BREAST? If less than 1 hour, record ‘00’ hours. If less than 24 hours, record hours. Otherwise, record days. Immediately . 0 00 Hours.1 __ __ or Days .2 __ __ DK/remember .9 98 156 MARRIAGE/UNION MODULE MA MA1. ARE YOU CURRENTLY MARRIED OR LIVING TOGETHER WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? Yes, currently married .1 Yes, living with a man.2 No, not in union .3 3"MA3 MA2. HOW OLD WAS YOUR HUSBAND/PARTNER ON HIS LAST BIRTHDAY? Age in years .__ __ DK.98 "MA5 98"MA5 MA3. HAVE YOU EVER BEEN MARRIED OR LIVED TOGETHER WITH A MAN? Yes, formerly married.1 Yes, formerly lived with a man .2 No.3 3 $ CP1 MA4. WHAT IS YOUR MARITAL STATUS NOW: ARE YOU WIDOWED, DIVORCED OR SEPARATED? Widowed.1 Divorced .2 Separated.3 MA5. HAVE YOU BEEN MARRIED OR LIVED WITH A MAN ONLY ONCE OR MORE THAN ONCE? Only once .1 More than once .2 MA6. IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR DID YOU FIRST MARRY OR START LIVING WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? Month .__ __ DK month .98 Year.__ __ __ __ DK year .9998 MA7. Check MA6: % Month and year of marriage/union known? " CP1 % Either month or year of marriage/union not known? "MA8 MA8. HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU STARTED LIVING WITH YOUR FIRST HUSBAND/PARTNER? Age (in years) .__ __ CONTRACEPTION MODULE CP CP1. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT ANOTHER SUBJECT – FAMILY PLANNING – AND YOUR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH. ARE YOU PREGNANT NOW? Yes, currently pregnant . 1 No . 2 DK/unsure. 8 1"CP4B CP2. SOME PEOPLE USE VARIOUS WAYS OR METHODS TO DELAY OR AVOID A PREGNANCY. ARE YOU CURRENTLY DOING SOMETHING OR USING ANY METHOD TO DELAY OR AVOID GETTING PREGNANT? Yes. 1 No . 2 2"CP4A CP3. WHICH METHOD ARE YOU USING? DO NOT PROMPT. If more than one method is mentioned, circle each one. Female sterilization. A Male sterilization. B Pill .C IUD.D Injections. E Implants . F Condom .G Female condom.H Diaphragm .I Foam/jelly .J Lactational amenorrhoea method (LAM). K Periodic abstinence . L Withdrawal . M Other (specify) _____________________ X 157 CP4A. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE. WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE (A/ANOTHER) CHILD, OR WOULD YOU PREFER NOT TO HAVE ANY (MORE) CHILDREN? CP4B. If currently pregnant: NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE. AFTER THE CHILD YOU ARE NOW EXPECTING, WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE ANOTHER CHILD, OR WOULD YOU PREFER NOT TO HAVE ANY (MORE) CHILDREN? Have (a/another) child .1 No more/none.2 Says she cannot get pregnant .3 DK/undecided.8 2 $ HA1 3 $ HA1 8 $ HA1 CP4C. HOW LONG WOULD YOU LIKE TO WAIT BEFORE THE BIRTH OF (A/ANOTHER) CHILD? Months.1 __ __ Years .2 __ __ Soon/now . 993 Says she cannot get pregnant . 994 After marriage. 995 Other . 996 DK. 998 HIV/AIDS MODULE HA HA1. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT SOMETHING ELSE. HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF THE VIRUS HIV OR AN ILLNESS CALLED AIDS? Yes.1 No.2 2" HA19 HA2. CAN PEOPLE PROTECT THEMSELVES FROM GETTING INFECTED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS BY HAVING ONE SEX PARTNER WHO IS NOT INFECTED AND ALSO HAS NO OTHER PARTNERS? Yes.1 No.2 DK .8 HA3. CAN PEOPLE GET INFECTED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS BECAUSE OF WITCHCRAFT OR OTHER SUPERNATURAL MEANS? Yes.1 No.2 DK .8 HA4. CAN PEOPLE REDUCE THEIR CHANCE OF GETTING THE AIDS VIRUS BY USING A CONDOM EVERY TIME THEY HAVE SEX? Yes.1 No.2 DK .8 HA5. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS FROM MOSQUITO BITES? Yes.1 No.2 DK .8 HA6. CAN PEOPLE REDUCE THEIR CHANCE OF GETTING INFECTED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS BY NOT HAVING SEX AT ALL? Yes.1 No.2 DK .8 HA7. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS BY SHARING FOOD WITH A PERSON WHO HAS AIDS? Yes.1 No.2 DK .8 HA7A. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS BY GETTING INJECTIONS WITH A NEEDLE THAT WAS ALREADY USED BY SOMEONE ELSE? Yes.1 No.2 DK .8 HA8. IS IT POSSIBLE FOR A HEALTHY-LOOKING PERSON TO HAVE THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes.1 No.2 DK .8 158 HA9. CAN THE AIDS VIRUS BE TRANSMITTED FROM A MOTHER TO A BABY? Yes No DK HA9A. DURING PREGNANCY? 1 2 8 HA9B. DURING DELIVERY? 1 2 8 HA9C. BY BREASTFEEDING? 1 2 8 HA10. IF A FEMALE TEACHER HAS THE AIDS VIRUS BUT IS NOT SICK, SHOULD SHE BE ALLOWED TO CONTINUE TEACHING IN SCHOOL? Yes .1 No.2 DK/not sure/depends.8 HA11. WOULD YOU BUY FRESH VEGETABLES FROM A SHOPKEEPER OR VENDOR IF YOU KNEW THAT THIS PERSON HAD THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes .1 No.2 DK/not sure/depends.8 HA12. IF A MEMBER OF YOUR FAMILY BECAME INFECTED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS, WOULD YOU WANT IT TO REMAIN A SECRET? Yes .1 No.2 DK/not sure/depends.8 HA13. IF A MEMBER OF YOUR FAMILY BECAME SICK WITH THE AIDS VIRUS, WOULD YOU BE WILLING TO CARE FOR HIM OR HER IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Yes .1 No.2 DK/not sure/depends.8 HA14. Check MN5: Tested for HIV during antenatal care? % Yes. " HA18A % No. " HA15 HA15. I DO NOT WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT HAVE YOU EVER BEEN TESTED TO SEE IF YOU HAVE HIV, THE VIRUS THAT CAUSES AIDS? Yes .1 No.2 2"HA18 HA16. I DO NOT WANT YOU TO TELL ME THE RESULTS OF THE TEST, BUT HAVE YOU BEEN TOLD THE RESULTS? Yes .1 No.2 HA17. DID YOU, YOURSELF, ASK FOR THE TEST, WAS IT OFFERED TO YOU AND YOU ACCEPTED, OR WAS IT REQUIRED? Asked for the test .1 Offered and accepted.2 Required.3 1$ HA19 2$ HA19 3$ HA19 HA18. AT THIS TIME, DO YOU KNOW OF A PLACE WHERE YOU CAN GO TO GET SUCH A TEST TO SEE IF YOU HAVE THE AIDS VIRUS? HA18A. If tested for HIV during antenatal care: OTHER THAN AT THE ANTENATAL CLINIC, DO YOU KNOW OF A PLACE WHERE YOU CAN GO TO GET A TEST TO SEE IF YOU HAVE THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes .1 No.2 HA19. Do any children under 5 years of age reside in this household, for whom the respondent is mother/caretaker (see column HL8 of Household Listing Form). % Yes. " Pass on to the Questionnaire for children under 5 years of age. % No. " Finish the interview with the respondent, having thanked her for her co-operation. 159 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE UNDER-FIVE CHILD INFORMATION PANEL UF This questionnaire is to be administered to all mothers or caretakers (see Household Listing Form, column HL8) who care for a child that lives with them and is under the age of 5 years (see Household Listing Form, column HL5). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible child. UF1. Cluster number: UF2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ UF3. Child’s Name: UF4. Child’s Line Number: ___ ___ UF5. Mother’s/Caretaker’s Name: UF6. Mother’s/Caretaker’s Line Number: ___ ___ UF7. Interviewer number: UF8. Day/Month/Year of interview: ___ ___ ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ UF9. Result of interview for children under 5: (Codes refer to mother/caretaker.) Completed .1 Not at home.2 Refused .3 Partly completed.4 Incapacitated .5 Other (specify) _______________________________6 UF10. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE HEALTH OF EACH CHILD UNDER THE AGE OF 5 IN YOUR CARE, WHO LIVES WITH YOU NOW. NOW I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT (name). IN WHAT DAY, MONTH AND YEAR WAS (name) BORN? (WHAT IS HIS/HER BIRTHDAY?) Date of birth: Day .___ ___ DK day.98 Month.___ ___ Year .___ ___ ___ ___ UF11. HOW OLD WAS (name) AT HIS/HER LAST BIRTHDAY? AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS. ___ ___ 160 BIRTH REGISTRATION AND EARLY LEARNING MODULE BR BR5. Check age of child IN UF11: Child is 3 or 4 years old? % Yes. " BR6 % No. " BR8 BR6. DOES (name) ATTEND ANY ORGANIZED LEARNING OR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMME, SUCH AS A PRIVATE OR GOVERNMENT FACILITY, INCLUDING KINDERGARTEN OR COMMUNITY CHILD CARE? Yes.1 No .2 DK.8 2"BR8 8"BR8 BR7. WITHIN THE LAST SEVEN DAYS, ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID (name) ATTEND? No. of hours . ___ ___ BR8. IN THE PAST 3 DAYS, DID YOU OR ANY HOUSEHOLD MEMBER OVER 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGE IN ANY OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES WITH (name): If ‘Yes’, ask: WHO ENGAGED IN THIS ACTIVITY WITH THE CHILD - THE MOTHER, THE CHILD’S FATHER OR ANOTHER ADULT MEMBER OF THE HOUSEHOLD (INCLUDING THE CARETAKER/RESPONDENT)? Circle all that apply. Mother Father Other No one BR8A. READ BOOKS OR LOOK AT PICTURE BOOKS WITH (name)? A B X Y BR8B. TELL STORIES TO (name)? A B X Y BR8C. SING SONGS WITH (name)? A B X Y BR8D. TAKE (name) OUTSIDE THE HOME, COMPOUND, YARD OR ENCLOSURE? A B X Y BR8E. PLAY WITH (name)? A B X Y BR8F. SPEND TIME WITH (name) NAMING, COUNTING, AND/OR DRAWING THINGS? A B X Y BREASTFEEDING MODULE BF BF1. HAS (name) EVER BEEN BREASTFED? Yes.1 No .2 DK.8 2"BF3 8"BF3 BF2. IS HE/SHE STILL BEING BREASTFED? Yes.1 No .2 DK.8 BF3. SINCE THIS TIME YESTERDAY, DID HE/SHE RECEIVE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: Read each item aloud and record response before proceeding to the next item. Yes No DK BF3A. VITAMIN, MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS OR MEDICINE? 1 2 8 BF3B. PLAIN WATER? 1 2 8 BF3C. SWEETENED, FLAVOURED WATER OR FRUIT JUICE OR TEA OR INFUSION? 1 2 8 BF3D. ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTION (ORS)? 1 2 8 BF3E. INFANT FORMULA? 1 2 8 BF3F. TINNED, POWDERED OR FRESH MILK? 1 2 8 BF3G. ANY OTHER LIQUIDS? 1 2 8 BF3H. SOLID OR SEMI-SOLID (MUSHY) FOOD? 1 2 8 BF4. Check BF3H: CHILD RECEIVED SOLID OR SEMI-SOLID (MUSHY) FOOD? % Yes. " BF5 % No or DK. " CA1 161 BF5. SINCE THIS TIME YESTERDAY, HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) EAT SOLID, SEMISOLID, OR SOFT FOODS OTHER THAN LIQUIDS? If 7 or more times, record ‘7’. No. of times .___ DK.8 CARE OF ILLNESS MODULE CA CA1. HAS (name) HAD DIARRHOEA IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, THAT IS, SINCE (day of the week) OF THE WEEK BEFORE LAST? Yes .1 No.2 DK.8 2"CA5 8"CA5 Diarrhoea is determined as perceived by mother or caretaker, or as three or more loose or watery stools per day, or blood in stool. CA2. DURING THIS LAST EPISODE OF DIARRHOEA, DID (name) DRINK ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: Read each item aloud and record response before proceeding to the next item. Yes No DK CA2A. A FLUID MADE FROM A SPECIAL PACKET CALLED (e.g. gastrolit, eralit, etc.)? 1 2 8 CA2B. GOVERNMENT-RECOMMENDED HOMEMADE FLUID? 1 2 8 CA2C. A PRE-PACKAGED ORS FLUID FOR DIARRHOEA? 1 2 8 CA3. DURING (name’s) ILLNESS, DID HE/SHE DRINK MUCH LESS, ABOUT THE SAME, OR MORE THAN USUAL? Much less or none.1 About the same (or somewhat less).2 More .3 DK.8 CA4. DURING (name’s) ILLNESS, DID HE/SHE EAT LESS, ABOUT THE SAME, OR MORE FOOD THAN USUAL? If ‘Less, probe: MUCH LESS OR A LITTLE LESS? None.1 Much less .2 Somewhat less .3 About the same .4 More .5 DK.8 CA5. HAS (name) HAD AN ILLNESS WITH A COUGH AT ANY TIME IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, THAT IS, SINCE (day of the WEEK) OF THE WEEK BEFORE LAST? Yes .1 No.2 DK.8 2"CA12 8"CA12 CA6. WHEN (name) HAD AN ILLNESS WITH A COUGH, DID HE/SHE BREATHE FASTER THAN USUAL WITH SHORT, QUICK BREATHS OR HAVE DIFFICULTY BREATHING? Yes .1 No.2 DK.8 2"CA12 8"CA12 CA7. WERE THE SYMPTOMS DUE TO A PROBLEM IN THE CHEST OR A BLOCKED NOSE? Problem in chest.1 Blocked nose.2 Both .3 Other (specify) ______________________ 6 DK.8 2"CA12 6"CA12 CA8. DID YOU SEEK ADVICE OR TREATMENT FOR THE ILLNESS OUTSIDE THE HOME? Yes .1 No.2 DK.8 2"CA10 8"CA10 162 CA9. FROM WHERE DID YOU SEEK CARE? ANYWHERE ELSE? Circle all providers mentioned, but DO NOT PROMPT with any suggestions. If source is hospital, health center, or clinic, write the name of the place below. Probe to identify the type of source and circle the appropriate code. (Name of place) Public sector Gov. hospital . A Gov. health centre . B Gov. health post.C Village health worker .D Mobile/outreach clinic . E Other public (specify) ________________________ H Private medical sector Private hospital/clinic .I Private physician.J Private pharmacy . K Mobile clinic . L Other private medical (specify) ________________________O Other source Relative or friend. P Traditional practitioner .R Other (specify) _____________________ X CA10. WAS (name) GIVEN MEDICINE TO TREAT THIS ILLNESS? Yes. 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2"CA12 8"CA12 CA11. WHAT MEDICINE WAS (name) GIVEN? Circle all medicines given. Antibiotic . A Paracetamol/Panadol/Acetaminophen . P Aspirin.Q Ibupropfen.R Other (specify) _____________________ X DK. Z CA12. Check UF11: Child aged under 3? % Yes. " CA13 % No. " CA14 CA13. THE LAST TIME (name) PASSED STOOLS, WHAT WAS DONE TO DISPOSE OF THE STOOLS? Child used toilet/latrine . 01 Put/rinsed into toilet or latrine . 02 Put/rinsed into drain or ditch. 03 Thrown into garbage (solid waste) . 04 Buried . 05 Left in the open. 06 Other (specify) ____________________ 96 DK. 98 Ask the following question (CA14) only once for each mother/caretaker. CA14. SOMETIMES CHILDREN HAVE SEVERE ILLNESSES AND SHOULD BE TAKEN IMMEDIATELY TO A HEALTH FACILITY. WHAT TYPES OF SYMPTOMS WOULD CAUSE YOU TO TAKE YOUR CHILD TO A HEALTH FACILITY RIGHT AWAY? Keep asking for more signs or symptoms until the mother/caretaker cannot recall any additional symptoms. Circle all symptoms mentioned, but DO NOT PROMPT with any suggestions. Child not able to drink or breastfeed. A Child becomes sicker . B Child develops a fever .C Child has fast breathing.D Child has difficult breathing . E Child has blood in stool . F Child is drinking poorly .G Other (specify) _____________________ X Other (specify) _____________________ Y Other (specify) _____________________ Z 163 IMMUNIZATION MODULE IM If an immunization card is available, copy the dates in IM2-IM6 for each type of immunization recorded on the card. IM10-IM18 are for recording vaccinations that are not recorded on the card. IM10-IM18 will only be asked when a card is not available. IM1. IS THERE A VACCINATION CARD FOR (name)? Yes, seen .1 Yes, not seen .2 No.3 2"IM10 3"IM10 (a) Copy dates for each vaccination from the card. (b) Write ‘44’ in day column if card shows that vaccination was given but no date recorded. Date of Immunization Day Month Year IM2. BCG __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM3B. POLIO 1 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM3C. POLIO 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM3D. POLIO 3 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM4A. DPT1 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM4B. DPT2 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM4C. DPT3 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM5A. HEPB1 (OR DPTHEPB1) __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM5B. HEPB2 (OR DPTHEPB2) __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM5C. HEPB3 (OR DPTHEPB3) __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ IM6. MMR __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Yes .1 IM9. IN ADDITION TO THE VACCINATIONS AND VITAMIN A CAPSULES SHOWN ON THIS CARD, DID (name) RECEIVE ANY OTHER VACCINATIONS – INCLUDING VACCINATIONS RECEIVED IN CAMPAIGNS OR IMMUNIZATION DAYS? Probe for vaccinations and write ‘66’ in the corresponding day column on IM2 to IM6. Record ‘Yes’ only if respondent mentions BCG, Polio 1-3, DPT 1-3, HepB 1-3 or MMR No.2 DK.8 1"IM19 2"IM19 8"IM19 IM10. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED ANY VACCINATIONS TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING DISEASES, INCLUDING VACCINATIONS RECEIVED IN A CAMPAIGN OR IMMUNIZATION DAY? Yes .1 No.2 DK.8 2"IM19 8"IM19 IM11. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN A BCG VACCINATION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS – THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE ARM OR SHOULDER THAT CAUSED A SCAR? Yes .1 No.2 DK.8 IM12. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN ANY “VACCINATION DROPS IN THE MOUTH” TO PROTECT HIM/HER FROM GETTING DISEASES – THAT IS, POLIO? Yes .1 No.2 DK.8 2"IM15 8"IM15 IM13. HOW OLD WAS HE/SHE WHEN THE FIRST DOSE WAS GIVEN – JUST AFTER BIRTH (WITHIN TWO WEEKS) OR LATER? Just after birth (within two weeks) .1 Later .2 IM14. HOW MANY TIMES HAS HE/SHE BEEN GIVEN THESE DROPS? No. of times .__ __ 164 IM15. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN INJECTIONS OF DPT – THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE THIGH OR BUTTOCKS – TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING TETANUS, WHOOPING COUGH, DIPHTHERIA? (SOMETIMES GIVEN AT THE SAME TIME AS POLIO) Yes.1 No .2 DK.8 2"IM17 8"IM17 IM16. HOW MANY TIMES? No. of times.__ __ IM17. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN INJECTIONS OF MMR – THAT IS, A SHOT IN THE ARM AT THE AGE OF 9 MONTHS OR OLDER – TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING MEASLES? Yes.1 No .2 DK.8 IM19. PLEASE TELL ME IF (name) HAS PARTICIPATED IN ANY OF THE FOLLOWING CAMPAIGNS, NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION DAYS AND/OR VITAMIN A OR CHILD HEALTH DAYS: Yes No DK IM19&. _______________________________ (Date/type of campaign) 1 2 8 IM19B. _______________________________ (Date/type of campaign) 1 2 8 IM19C. _______________________________ (Date/type of campaign) 1 2 8 M20. Does another eligible child reside in the household for whom this respondent is mother/caretaker? (See Household Listing Form, column HL8). % Yes. " End the current questionnaire and then go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE to administer the questionnaire for the next eligible child. % No. " End the interview with this respondent by thanking him/her for his/her cooperation. If this is the last eligible child in the household, go on to ANTHROPOMETRY MODULE. ANTHROPOMETRY MODULE AN After questionnaires for all children are complete, the measurer weighs and measures each child. Record weight and length/height below, taking care to record the measurements on the correct questionnaire for each child. Check the child’s name and line number on the Household Listing Form before recording measurements. AN1. CHILD’S WEIGHT. Kilograms . __ __ . __ AN2. CHILD’S LENGTH OR HEIGHT. Check age of child in UF11: % Child under 2 years old. " Measure length (lying down). % Child age 2 or more years. " Measure height (standing up). Length (cm) Lying down.1 __ __ __ . __ Height (cm) Standing up.2 __ __ __ . __ AN3. MEASURER’S IDENTIFICATION CODE. Code.__ __ AN4. RESULT OF MEASUREMENT. Measured . 1 Not present. 2 Refused. 3 Other (specify) ___________________ 6 AN5. Is there another child in the household who is eligible for measurement? % Yes. " Record measurements for next child. % No. " End the interview with this household by thanking all participants for their cooperation. Gather together all questionnaires for this household and check that all identification numbers are inserted on each page. Record on the Household Information Panel the number of interviews completed. 01_Belarus Final Report MICS3 Engl 27.12.2007 02_Belarus MICS3 Final Report Engl Tables 26.12.2007 03_Belarus Final Report Engl Appendices 26.12.2007 Mics Logo

View the publication

You are currently offline. Some pages or content may fail to load.