Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 1995

Publication date: 1996

Federtd Republic of Nigeria MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY March 1995 unicef 1, . ,- ·~·· Fedeml Repablic of Nigeria MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY March 1995 unicef ., . ,- . TABLE OF CONTENTS . i LIST OF TABLES . iii LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . iv LIST OF MAPS . v ACRONYMS . vi PREP ACE . . . . . viii PROFILE OF NIGERIA . ix INDICATOR SUMMARY TABLE . x CHAPTER 1 . . 1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE SURVEY . 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . 1 1.2 OBJECTIVES . 2 CHAPTER2 . . . 3 SURVEY RESULTS . 3 2.1 DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE POPULATION: . 3 2.2 WATER AND SANITATION . 7 2.3 IODIZATION OF SALT: . 8 2.4 EDUCATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN: . 9 2.5 SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION: . 10 2.6 DIARRHOEA INCIDENCE WITHIN LAST 2 WEEKS OF SURVEY:. 10 2.7 IMMUNIZATION STATUS FOR 12-23 MONTH OLDS: 1994 . 11 2.8 TETANUS TOXOID VACCINATIONS (TT) . 12 2.9 BREASTFEEDING STATUS: . 12 2.10 CHILD MORTALITY: . 13 2.11 KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT USE OF FAMILY PLANNING: . 13 CHAPTER 3 . . . . . 15 THE SURVEY DESIGN . . . 15 3.1 COVERAGE AND SCOPE: . 15 3.2 SAMPLE DESIGN: . 15 3.3 SAMPLE ACHIEVED: . 16 CHAPTER 4 . 17 FIELD WORK . 17 4.1 FIELD ARRANGEMENT: . 17 4.2 TRAINING: . 17 4.3 QUALITY CONTROL: . 17 4.4 SURVEY INSTRUMENTS: . 18 4.5 PRETEST: . 19 4.6 DATA COLLECTION: . 19 CHAPTER 5 . 20 DATA PROCESSING . 20 5.1 DATA PREPARATION: . 20 5.2 DATA ENTRY: . 20 5.3 DATA CLEANING: . 20 5.4 TABULATION: . 20 APPENDIX A . 22 DEFINITIONS . 22 - 23 APPENDIX B . 24 MAPS . 24-33 TABLES . 34-54 ADDENDUM . 55 EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING . 55 - 58 ii TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLD POPULATION BY 5 YEAR AGE GROUP AND BY SEX . 6 TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION BY BROAD AGE GROUPS . 6 TABLE 3: REPEATER RATES BY GRADE AND GENDER . 9 TABLE 4: GROSS PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT RATES 1990-1995 . 10 TABLE 5: INCIDENCE OF DIARRHOEA AMONG UNDER-5 CHILDREN IN THE LAST 2-WEEKS BY AGE, GENDER AND BY RESIDENCE10 TABLE 6: BREASTFEEDING STATUS OF UNDER TWO CHILDREN EVER AND CURRENTLY BREASTFED . 13 TABLE 7: DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN AGE 15-49 YEARS BY CHILDREN EVER BORN . 13 TABLE 8: RESPONSE RATES . 16 iii FIGURE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY GENDER OF HEAD AND BY SECTOR . 3 FIGURE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY MARITAL STATUS OF THE HEAD AND BY GENDER . 3 FIGURE 3: POLYGAMY AMONG MALE HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS . 4 FIGURE 4: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF HEAD AND BY GENDER . 4 FIGURE 5: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY AGE GROUP OF THE HEAD BY GENDER . 4 FIGURE 6: AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE . 5 FIGURE 7: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLD POPULATION BY AGE . 5 FIGURE 8: DISTRIBUTION OF SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER . 7 FIGURE 9: HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER BY SECTOR . 7 FIGURE 10: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO TOILET FACILITIES . 8 FIGURE 11: DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO SANITARY TOILET FACILITIES BY SECTOR . 8 FIGURE 12: PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODISED SALT . 8 FIGURE 13: NET AND GROSS ENROLMENT AMONG CHILDREN 6-11 YEARS BY GENDER . 9 FIGURE 14: NET AND GROSS ENROLMENT AMONG CHILDREN 6-11 YEARS BY RESIDENCE . 9 FIGURE 15: GROSS PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT RATES 1992-1995 . 10 FIGURE 16: DIARRHOEA PREY ALENCE AMONG UNDER-FIVES BY AGE GROUPS IN MONTHS . 11 FIGURE 17: DIARRHOEA PREY ALENCE AMONG UNDER-FIVES BY GENDER AND SECTOR . 11 FIGURE 18: IMMUNISATION COVERAGE BY GENDER (1994)- CARD AND HISTORY . 11 FIGURE 19: VACCINATION BY SOURCE OF INFORMATION . 11 FIGURE 20: BREASTFEEDING STATUS OF CHILDREN AGED 12-23 MONTHS BY GENDER . 12 FIGURE 21: KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF FAMILY PLANNING . 14 IV MAP 1: GROSS PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT BY STATE . 24 MAP 2: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO SANITARY TOILET FACILITIES . 25 MAP 3: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODIZED SALT . 26 MAP 4: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO POTABLE WATER . 27 MAP 5: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF UNDER FIVE FEMALE CHILDREN WITH DIARRHOEA INCIDENCE . 28 MAP 6: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF UNDER FIVE MALE CHILDREN WITH DIARRHOEA INCIDENCE . 29 MAP 7: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF MALE CHILDREN AGED 0-11 MONTHS CURRENTLY BREASTFED . 30 MAP 8: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALE CHILDREN AGED 0-11 MONTHS CURRENTLY BREASTFED . 31 MAP 9: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF MALE ADULTS BY KNOWLEDGED OF CONTRACEPTION . 32 MAP 10: PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALE ADULTS BY KNOWLEDGED OF CONTRACEPTION . 33 v CSPD EA FOS FCT ORS NDHS NISH MICS UNICEF Child Survival, Protection and Development Enumeration Areas Federal Office of Statistics Federal Capital Territory Oral Rehydration Solution Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey National Integrated Survey of Households Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey United Nations Children's Fund VI T he Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was designed by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to assist developing countries to rapidly conduct a survey to measure and review progress towards achievement of the mid-decade and decade goals in such areas as health, nutrition, education, water and sanitation and progress of women. The global design was however adapted to Nigerian situation after an exhaustive review at the country level. Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) being the National Statistical Agency with mandate for data production, implemented the survey in March 1995 with technical assistance from UNICEF. The survey was implemented as a supplemental module of the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH) which has now become an efficient vehicle for household survey taking. In subsequent years, the survey will be integrated into the regular NISH Core Survey, the General Household Survey so as to provide annual social statistics to measure the progress towards the Summit goals. FOS used its NISH infrastructures to implement the survey including production of the report. However, FOS greatly appreciates the assistance given by UNICEF in terms of funds for the field work and computer processing of survey data. The training for data processing in EPI INF0-6 software provided by a UNICEF consultant significantly helped FOS subject-matter staff in data processing, tabulation and analysis. In fact, the survey turned out to be a major capacity building exercise. This report shows results disaggregated by state in line with the overall objective of the survey. Tabulation has been reduced to a few variables. However, users can have access to the micro data-set for further analysis. FOS is equally ready to assist any researcher and any further analysis of the data-set of the survey. The report is commended to Chief Executives at various levels of government programme management, policy formulators and evaluators in area of social development. Mr. 0. 0. Ajayi Director -General Federal Office of Statistics vii PROFilE OF f'IIGERIJ.\ N igeria is the largest country in West Africa. It is situated on the shores of the Gulf of Guinea along the Coast of West Africa. It extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the South to the Southern fringes of the Sahara Desert in the North. It is bordered to the West by the Republic of Benin, to the east by the Republic of Cameroon and to the north by the Republic of Niger. Nigeria, which is a Federation, consists of 30 states with Abuja as the Federal Capital Territory. Each state is subdivided into Local Government Areas. According to the 1991 National Population Census, Nigeria had a population of 88.5 million persons occupying a land area of 923,768 square kilometers. The disaggregation of the population by sex showed that 44.5 million were males while 44.0 million were females. Before the discovery of oil Nigeria's economy was primarily agricultural. Despite its decreased role as a component of GDP, agriculture continues to employ about three quarter (72%) of the country's labour force. Major crops grown in the country are cocoa, groundnut, palm oil, rubber, cotton, cassava, yam, corn, millet and rice while the mineral resources include petroleum, coal, tin, columbite, and gold. The incidence of poverty in the country in 1992 showed that about 71 percent of Nigerians were poor, out of which 36 percent were core poor while about 35 percent were moderately poor. For all adults (15 years and above) the literacy rate was 49.5 percent in 1994, while further sex disaggregation showed that male and female literacy rates were about 58 percent and 41 percent respectively showing a gender gap of 17 percent. The under-5 mortality rate which was found to be 192 deaths per thousand live births in 1990 stood at 147 deaths per thousand in 1995 which implies a 20 percent drop in the 5 year period. viii INDICATORS SUMMARY TABLE ~-Mo ~~ MMI- .__ --- 1"11 . ---- -.,. ~ -- - --- ~ State Access to Access to Households Net Gross Ch~dren with Currently All Adults Use of Modern Safe Sanitary Using Iodized Primcry School Primary School diarrhoea. Breastfed By Method water Toilet Salt Enrolment Enrolment Last2 wks 12-23 Months Knowledge of For Family ;;;.;.;.;. ~ ,.,.,. ---- . . .__ ·--· -~ - ~ = - §~ 11_yrs_ .•. 6-11 YLS= __ . ~ . -~ fCJI!il¥ P~n~ing Plan!l_in9_,. ~ Abia 51.7 41.8 100.0 90.8 120.0 9.5 33.3 76.6 7.0 Adamawa 44.8 55.2 100.0 60.5 80.9 20.6 84.1 74.2 2.7 Nlbom 20.9 75.2 100.0 95.0 128.9 5.2 48.1 74.1 11.0 Anambra 39.7 79.7 99.5 96.8 122.4 10.9 16.7 96.5 4.3 Bauchi 48.7 60.5 98.7 43.3 53.9 14.5 85.7 58.8 1.1 Benue 30.3 39.7 1W 81 .6 115.0 16.7 78.3 73.3 7.9 Borno 50.7 32.3 .9 34.2 49.5 13.2 84.5 62.5 3.0 C/River 35.7 34.6 89.1 86.9 116.0 9.7 70.0 81 .8 1.0 Delta 68.2 78.7 98.9 97.5 109.0 5.9 36.4 87.0 24.8 Edo 72.5 94.7 98.9 96.5 112.7 4.1 70.6 87.4 15.1 Enugu 37.3 32.6 66.3 89.9 129.1 4.7 40.0 96.7 21 .0 lmo 23.4 66.3 94.5 92.9 128.3 12.0 37.8 94.8 20.0 Jigawa 61.2 46.3 46.3 36.9 48.1 29.3 87.8 34.4 0.1 Kaduna 84.1 76.8 82.7 53.3 67.2 14.4 70.4 51.2 3.5 Kano 41 .0 86.9 34.9 18.5 24.6 15.5 91 .6 55.5 0.3 Katsina 67.7 62.4 48.1 30.4 35.0 19.7 89.2 30.5 1.1 Kebbi 63.2 54.3 58.5 17.5 24.7 13.4 80.5 14.3 1.0 Kogi 29.9 43.0 64.6 85.6 122.4 6.0 78.8 74.2 10.4 Kwara 73.4 49.1 99.2 89.8 113.7 2.8 53.6 94.2 5.3 Lagos 84.9 94.1 95.3 94.5 102.0 4.7 28.3 94.4 11 .6 Niger 49.2 29.6 99.4 39.1 49.7 18.3 90.0 54.2 1.8 Ogun 64.9 61 .5 100.0 97.4 116.7 3.7 60.7 97.5 15.6 Ondo 44.6 55.0 99.4 94.7 117.9 4.5 58.1 94.9 8.6 Osun 67.8 54.3 97.2 94.3 116.5 10.3 71.7 96.2 6.2 Oyo 81 .3 70.3 96.6 85.9 100.8 6.1 38.6 92.8 11.1 Plateau 34.3 57.9 90.6 61 .9 89.2 7.5 82.1 56.4 11 .0 Rivers 36.5 27.8 98.8 92.8 117.4 7.7 35.5 82.0 5.6 Sokoto 18.0 37.1 62.5 10.1 14.2 21.3 33.8 8.3 3.1 Taraba 37.1 65.1 90.0 61 .8 80.5 21 .1 71.7 66.5 5.4 Yobe 47.2 45.7 44.1 11 .1 14.6 18.4 91 .3 31 .4 0.0 Abuja {FCT) 75.5 91.9 99.7 86.4 106.6 13.3 68.4 44.9 10.4 NIGERIA ~) 49.9 57.3 64.2 84.01 13.4 67.9 67.7 7.1 GENDER Male Female 65.5 86.8 14.0 68.3 RESIDENCE 62.7 81 .5 12.8 67.2 Urban Rural 79.5 82.1 80.3 97.1 11 .0 39.1 48.2 58.6 79.9 14.3 - . ----- - ---- ·---~ --- -~----~ -~ -----'- -----Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey , Nigeria, 1995 . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE SURVEY 1.1 INTRODUCTION The 1991 population census put the Nigerian population at 88.6 million. Age distribution from various household surveys shows that children aged 0 - 15 years account for about 46 percent of the total population. Also, women aged 15-49 years constitute another 20 percent. Thus, children and mothers make up about two thirds ( 66%) of the population which makes monitoring of their welfare a very important concern. This informs the participation of Nigeria in the World Summit for Children organized by the UN secretariat in 1990 where targets were set to be achieved in this decade. In line with the decision of the Summit, Nigeria has since prepared a National Programme of Action (NP A) part of which concerns the production of data for monitoring progress towards the set goals which include: • reduction of 1990 under-5 child mortality rates by one third or to a level of 70 per 1,000 live births, whichever is the greater reduction; • reduction of maternal mortality rates by half of 1990 levels; • reduction of severe and moderate malnutrition among under-5 children by one half of 1990 levels; • universal access to basic education and completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of primary school age children; • reduction of the adult illiteracy rate to at least half its 1990 level (the appropriate age group to be determined in each country), with emphasis on female literacy; • protection of children in especially difficult circumstances, particularly in situations of armed conflicts. UNICEF's concern to assist countries to generate data especially in developing countries led to the development of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). Training workshops were held in various regional offices of UNICEF for countries that could implement the survey. Nigeria participated in the Abidjan workshop of December 1994 and, subsequently, UNICEF provided further technical assistance in- country to run the survey between March and May 1995. Rapid implementation of MICS in Nigeria was made possible by the fact that the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) has for several years been running an on-going 1 programme of household survey called the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH). It was therefore easy to run MICS as a module of NISH. Accordingly, basic socio-economic characteristics of household members were added to the MICS questionnaire adapted to the national context. It was also found necessary to link a family planning survey with MICS. Further details of the design are given in Chapter 3. Data collection was carried out by FOS field staff; data processing was done using EPI INFO package. Chapter 4 contains more detailed description of the survey implementation process. 1.2 OBJECTIVES The objectives of the survey were: • to produce current assessment of progress of the set goals (in terms of achievements and failures) in a focused, rapid and cost effective fashion; • to measure and review progress towards the goals of the National Programme of Action; • to raise awareness, foster dialogue between health workers, community leaders, public officers, various governments and agencies and empower them to take informed corrective action; • serve as regular input into The Progress of Nigerian Children (PONC), which is a joint annual publication of FOS and UNICEF (Nigeria). 2 SURVEY RESULTS 2.1 DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE POPULATION: Response: A total of 17,539 households were canvassed, while 160,120 responded fully which gave about 95 percent response rate. Sectoral distribution gave response rate of 93 percent in the urban sector and 95.5 percent in rural sector. Further disaggregation by gender of the heads of household showed response rates of 94.9 percent for male headed households and 94.4 percent for female headed households. Of those households that responded, 26 percent lived in urban areas, compared to 74 Figure 1: Distribution of Households by percent in the rural areas. Since a random Gender of Head and by Sector sample across urban and rural sectors was Ngeria R.lral chosen, the figure 26 percent estimates the level of urbanization in Nigeria. Headship of Household: Of the households that responded 13 percent were headed by women. When disaggregated by sector, the figure became 16 percent for urban and 12 percent for rural, indicating a higher prevalence of female headed households in urban areas. Marital status: There were clear gender differences in the marital status of the heads of household. Almost nine out of ten (88 percent) male heads of household were married, 7 percent had never been married while 2 percent were widowed and 3 percent either separated or divorced. For female heads of household however, more than half Figure 2: Distribution of Households by Marital (52 percent) were widowed, 30 percent Status of the Head and by Gender were married, 12 percent were separated or divorced while 6 percent had never been married. Incidence of Polygamy: Of the male headed households, about a quarter (24 percent) had no spouses living with them, 58 percent had one wife, 13 percent had two wives, 2 percent had 3 wives while 3 percent had 4 or more WIVeS. 3 Married Divorced Separated Wdowed Niver • Male • Female Education of Heads of Household: Figure 3: Incidence of Polygamy among Male There were no significant gender Heads of Households differences in the education status of the One Wife No Spouse heads; only the slight gender differences in the education status of the general population were reflected in the sample. While 56 percent of male heads had not been to school, the corresponding figure TWowives for female heads was 63 percent. Also, WiVes one fifth (20 percent) of male heads had gone beyond primary education to secondary and higher, but only one seventh ( 14 percent) of female heads were in this category. Figure 4: Distribution of Households by Educational Level of Head and by Gender Never Attended 7% Males Secondary 10% Females Never Attended Primary 22% Figure 5: Distribution of Households Age Distribution of Heads of Household: The by Age Group of the Head average age of the female heads of household was by Gender slightly higher than that of male heads. The figures were 49.6 years for females and 44.5 years for males. Consequently, the proportions of female heads in the lower age groups (15-44 years) were smaller than those of male heads whereas the reverse was the case for the higher age groups (45 years and above). This age difference can be explained by the fact' that most female heads of household were widows as shown in Male Female figure 2 above. 4 Figure 6: Average Household Size Household Size: Average household size was found to be 4.74. There was very little difference between the average household size for urban areas (4.65 persons) and that of the rural areas (4.77 persons). However, there was significant difference when disaggregated by the gender of the head of household. The average size of male headed households was 5.0, whereas that of female headed households was 3.1. This difference Urban Rural a Male Headed 11 Female Headed was more clearly brought out in the distribution of households by size of household. While only one in ten male headed households was single person household, for female headed households over a quarter (26 percent) fell in the group of single person households. On the other hand, over one quarter (25. 6 percent) of the male headed households contained 7 or more persons whereas the corresponding figure for female headed households was 6 percent. Age and Sex Distribution of the Population: The graph below presents age distribution of the population by five-year age groups according to sex. The population pyramid shows a wide base and narrow top which is typical of a population with high fertility . It appears, however, that males in the age group 20-29 years were under-enumerated. The result showed that the number of children under five was slightly less than the number aged 5-9 years which is a possible evidence of recent decline in fertility. About half (49.5 percent) of the female population were in the reproductive age group (15-49 years), compared to 41 percent for the male population in the same cohort. Figure 7: Distribution of Household Popuhltion by Age Age8G+ Age75-78 Age70.74 Age!!S-69 Age60.64 Age 55-59 Age 50-54 Age45-49 Age 4G-44 Age35-311 Age3Q.34 Age25-29 Age20-24 Age\5-111 Age1l).14 Age 5-9 AgeU-4 Male Population Pyramid Female 11116!115!114!113!1 lnllli l O!Ii 91 8!1 7!1 6!1 51 41 3!1 Z!li 11 0!1 11 21 31 41 51 Sl 7!1 8!1 91 10'1i11!112!1i13!114!i 1!ii1B'Ai Per ce nt otTotaiPopu l;al:lon 5 The survey also revealed (Table 1) that there were more males than females. Overall ratio of males to females was 102, that is 102 males for every 100 females. Comparing this sample with the 1990 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) sample, it also appears that the lower age group is becoming smaller. In 1990, persons aged 0-14 years constituted 47 percent of the population whereas the corresponding figure for 1995 is 44 percent. On the other hand, the age group 15-64 years rose from 49 percent in 1990 to 53 percent in 1995. The dependency ratio, calculated as the ratio of persons in the "dependent" ages (under 15, and 65 and over) to those in the "economically active" ages (15-64) based on these figures , decreased from 1.06 in 1990 to 0.86 in 1995. Table 1: Distribution of Household Population by 5 year Age Group and by Sex Age Group 0·4 Male 14.3 17.0 14.2 10.2 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.1 5.0 4.4 4.2 2.2 2.6 1.4 1.4 0.5 0.9 Female 13.9 15.3 12.8 10.1 7 .7 9.3 7 .3 6 .3 5.3 3 .5 3.0 1.5 .J <!!.h §exes 14.3 5·9 10·14 15·19 20·24 25·29 30-34 35·39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65·69 70-74 75-79 80+ TOTAL 100.0 1. 7 1.0 0.7 0 .2 0 .5 100.0 16.2 13.5 10.2 6 .6 7.4 6 .4 5 .7 5.2 3 .9 3.6 1.9 2.2 1.2 1.0 0.4 0 .5 100.0 Table 2: Distribution of the Household Population by Broad Age Groups ~ Age Gr~~P ___ ~- ___ -~D_H~_ 19~~L . ~J£.~1 ~9~ _. Less than 15 47.1 43.8 15-64 48.5 53.1 65+ 4.3 3 .1 Total 1 00 1 00 Dependency Ratio 1.06 0 .86 6 2.2 WATER AND SANITATION Water: Households reporting piped water, public tap, handpump/borehole and Figure 8: Distribution of Sources of protected dug-well or protected spring as Drinking Water source of drinking water were categorised as Protected Well 19% Public Tap 11% U nprotec:ted wen 11% Piped 9% Pond 21% having access to safe/potable water and the remaining were grouped as having unsafe sources of water. Protected dug-wells or springs were the main source of drinking water for 19 percent of the households in the sample. Water that was piped into the residence, water obtained from public taps and water from handpump/ boreholes recorded 9, 11 and 12 percent respectively. Nationally, about half ( 49.9 percent) of the population had access to safe water, although there was a significant difference between the urban and rural sectors. Overall, 80 percent of households in urban areas had access to safe water, compared with 39 percent in rural areas. Nine of every ten households indicated a distance of less Figure 9: Households with Access to Safe Drinking Water than one kilometer to the by Sector source of drinking water. Women and children are particularly affected by the distance of water source because it is usually their task to fetch water. The greater the distance to water the less time a woman has for child care and other domestic chores, and the more the calories she expends. The survey showed that where the source of water was more than one kilometer away, Safe Water Unsafe Water • Nigeria • Urban D Rural women were responsible 39 percent of the time for fetching water for use in the household. In 23 percent of the households, fetching water was the responsibility of children (both males and females), whereas in another 23 percent men were responsible. In 10 percent of the households, only female children fetched water while male children were found to be responsible for this household chore in only 6 percent of the households. The time spent fetching water was considerable in most cases. In more than half of those cases where the source of water was not less than one kilometer, the time spent was a little more than one and a half hours. Only in less than a quarter of the cases was the time less than half an hour. 7 Toilet: Access to toilet facilities was categorised as sanitary or not. Sanitary excreta disposal facilities comprised flush latrine systems either linked to a sewage or to septic tanks, VIP latrines and covered pit latrines. Those reporting other types of latrine were grouped as having unsanitary facilities. The situation on the use of toilet facilities was only slightly better than for water. Fifty seven percent (57%) of all households had satisfactory excreta disposal facilities, out of which the covered pit toilet was the most common. A little over a quarter (27 percent) of all households in the country reported having no toilet facilities. There were significant urban-rural differentials. In urban areas 82 percent of the households had access to sanitary toilet facilities compared with 48 percent in the rural areas. About one in eight toilets were located inside the dwelling unit, about two out of three were located less than 50 meters away while one in six were more than 50 meters away. Two percent did not specify distance. Pit Uncovered 13% 01he< 3% No Facilities 27% Sewage 8% Figure 10: Distribution of Households with Access to Toilet Facilities 2.3 IODIZA TION OF SALT: • National • Urban o Rural Sanitary Unsanitary Figure 11: Distribution of Households with Access to Sanitary Toilet Facilities by Sector Overall, 84 percent of the households covered in the survey used iodized salt to prepare the last major meal eaten before the interview. While more than 80 percent was recorded for twenty-one states, three Figure 12: Percent Distribution of Households states recorded figures between 65 and 72 using Iodised Salt percent and the remaining seven states had figures below 65 percent. It was found that the latter seven were border states in which infiltration of salts from neighbouring countries probably affected the status of salt consumed. 8 D Nigeria 0 Urban • Rural 2.4 EDUCATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN: Sixty-four (64) percent of primary school age children (6-11 years) reported ever attending school. There was a small differential in the educational enrolment (Net) among boys and girls. Sixty-six (66) percent was recorded for males while the figure for female children was 63 percent. Urban-rural disaggregation gave the following figures: 80 percent for urban and 59 percent for rural as shown in figure 14. Gross primary school enrolment was 86.8 percent for boys and 81.5 percent for girls, giving an overall rate of 84 percent for both sexes. The rate for urban areas was 97.1 percent while that for rural areas was 79.9 percent. __ Ta~l~ 1 ~ Ree_~a~ ~~~ by ~~~<!e and §_~der Grade/Sex 1 2 3 4 5 6 Male 8.0 3.4 4.3 2.8 3.7 4.4 Female 8.2 4.5 3. 7 5.0 1.9 5.2 Both Sexes 8.1 3.9 4.1 3.7 2.9 4.6 1995 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey The table above gives repeater rates at the primary level by grade and by sex. Repeater rate at grade one(1) was double the rate in other grades. • Male • Female Figure 13: Net and Gross Enrolment among Children 6-11 years by Gender 9 Not Grou o Urban • Rural Figure 14: Net and Gross Enrolment among Children 6-11 years by Residence Table 4: Gross Primary School Enrolment Rates 1990-1995 - _,. . .,_-_,;.,.,._~~ . - . _.__."""' ~·'-.-"".;~;;.;.;._.;,.~ • .m-.~.- Year Total Boys Girls 1990 67.7 76.4 59.1 1991 77 .7 84.6 69.1 1992 81 .1 90.3 71.9 1993 84.1 93 .6 74.7 1994 86.5 89.4 83 .2 1995 84.0 86.8 81.5 Figure 15: Gross Primary School Enrolment Rates 1992-1995 1992 1993 1994 1995 • Boys • Girls 2.5 SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION: Information about knowledge of the symptoms of acute respiratory infection among under 5 children was collected from mothers and caretakers. Overall, only about a third (31.5 percent) of mothers and caretakers reported the correct symptom i.e. fast breathing or difficult breathing. 2.6 DIARRHOEA INCIDENCE WITHIN LAST 2 WEEKS OF SURVEY: Table 5 shows the percentage of children under the age of five reported as having had diarrhoea during the 2-week period prior to the survey. According to their mothers and caretakers, 13 percent of _.,_.,._._,._.,._,. children in this age group had at least Table 5: Incidence of Diarrhoea Among Under-5 Children in the last 2-weeks by Age, Gender and one episode of diarrhoea during the . .P.vR.!'§.l9.ence . ~ "' ~·--· ,,_"~· '-~··"-·=·- -~·--- ·-··· period in question. Background Diarrhoea incidence in Diarrhoea prevalence rates varied with the age of the child, with the highest rate of 20 percent among children aged 12-23 months. The sex differential was insignificant - 14 percent of boys compared to 13 percent of girls. A higher prevalence of diarrhoea was found among rural children ( 14 percent) than urban children with 11 percent incidence. Information was also collected about treatment of diarrhoea. The survey Characteristics the last 2-weeks Age 0-11 Months 12-23 Months 24-35 Months 36-47 Months 48-59 Months Gender Boy Girl Residence Urban Rural All Children 17.7 20.4 15.4 10.1 6.5 14.0 12.8 11.0 14.3 13.4 revealed that nine out of ten mothers and caretakers with children under five years of age used ORT to manage diarrhoea. 10 0 to 11 12to 23 24 to 35 36 to47 48 to 59 Figure 16: Diarrhoea Prevalence Among Under-fives by Age Groups in Months Gender Sector Figure 17: Diarrhoea Prevalence Among Under-fives by Gender and Sector 2.7 IMMUNIZATION STATUS FOR 12-23 MONTH OLDS: 1994 The presence of a health card in the child's home is important, because the purpose is to enable the mother monitor the child's growth and keep a record of the immunizations received. In this survey, a large proportion of children aged 12-23 months were found to have no cards. Overall, about 20 percent of the children had immunization cards. There were little gender differences in immunization card coverage of the child for the four antigens reported in the survey. The highest coverage rate of 18 percent was for BCG followed by 12 percent for DPT3, 11 percent for both Polio3 and measles. The overall immunization coverage through card and history for the six ( 6) antigens showed that about 22 percent of the children aged 12-23 months in the survey had received the recommended vaccinations. The coverage rate was found to be slightly higher for females (23 percent) than male children (21 percent). • Both ,._ Sexes • Male o F em ale ,._ ·- .,. ,. ,. BCG DPTJ OPV3 M oasles All TT2 Figure 18: Immunisation coverage by Gender (1994) - Card and History 11 BCG DPTJ OPV3 Measles All TT2 a vaccln ation card • Card & History Figure 19: Vaccination by Source of Infonnation Immunization coverage rates based on mothers' reports were considerably higher than those based on cards. For example, BCG coverage from history was 34 percent, DPT3 15 percent, Polio3 17 percent and measles immunization coverage 29 percent. There were no significant differences in the immunization status by sex of child. 2.8 TETANUS TOXOID VACCINATIONS (TT) Antenatal care is important to both the mother and the child. Tetanus toxoid injections are given during pregnancy for prevention of neonatal tetanus among newborns. For full protection, it is recommended that pregnant women receive two or more doses of the toxoid. In order to estimate the extent of tetanus toxoid coverage, the MICS collected data through history and card from all mothers of children aged below 5 years as to whether the mother had received TT vaccinations during pregnancy and, if so the number of injections. The result showed a coverage of about 21 percent for TT2 vaccination. 2.9 BREASTFEEDING STATUS: Mothers were asked about the breastfeeding status of children under age five years. Virtually all (99.5 percent) infants aged 0-11 months were reported ever breastfed. There was negligible urban-rural difference in the initial breastfeeding status. Of these children aged 0-11 months, 94 percent were being currently breastfed. The survey showed that overall, there was no significant gender variation (94 percent for each sex) in the breastfeeding status of children under one year. The prevalence of breastfeeding among Figure 20: Breastfeeding Status of Children children aged 12-23 months showed that Aged 12-23 Months by Gender only 68 percent of the children were being currently breastfed. It was found that more female than male children were breastfed, the figure being 66 percent for males and 70 percent for females . The proportion of children 12-23 months who were being breastfed m the rural areas was significantly different from those in the urban areas. It was also found that 7 4 percent of the children in rural areas were currently being breastfed compared to 51 percent for those in the urban areas. Ever Current • Both Sexes • Male D Female A brief discussion of exclusive breastfeeding status is presented as an addendum to this report. 12 Table 6: Breastfeeding Status of Under Two Children ever and Currently Breastfed _ _ __ -- ··--- --r--. - ·-- - - - ·- - -- . 1 i Ever Breastfed Currently Breastfed - ~--- - -~ . - -------· 1'- ----·-··- - .•. - --- -· --- -·~ --·- _. ·- ___ j0-1 '!_~ont~!.~ •. .l 12-23 __ M~nthE._ _. L ~11_~~nths -· _, } 2.:~3 -.M~~!h~ ___ j Gender: Boy Girl Residence: Urban Rural Nigeria 99.6 99.3 99.8 99.3 99.5 98.8 99.8 98.9 99.4 ~ 93.8 93.9 93.7 93.9 93.8 66.0 69.8 50.6 73.8 67 .8 2.10 CHILD MORTALITY: Child mortality and infant mortality can be measured indirectly using data on children ever born by women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years). Table 7: Distribution of Women Age 15-49 Years EY. ~hildren Ev~B~rn _ Age Group No. of Children Ever Born 1 Children Dead 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-44 45-49 1 Women • I ______ 1 Both · -_·1 ~j1~ _ _;F~Ie- J J??th:_:_, -M~-~r ~i!nai~ ---J 519 792 430 362 81 45 36 1455 3027 1587 1440 364 203 161 2795 847 4515 3956 946 518 428 2171 10294 5621 4673 1248 681 567 1840 9639 5169 4470 1546 809 737 1186 6806 3659 3147 1042 573 49 ==;:;====-""= =--==------ . =---.,.,.= =---'-----"".:.• =-· - -~.,.--= "" == Total 12367 48723 26199 22524 6580 3583 2997 ----------------- ---- The infant mortality estimate however, is usually less reliable than the child mortality estimate because under-reporting of infant deaths is usually most serious for deaths which occur in infancy. The MICS incorporated a module on children ever born by women in the sample households. The results are summarised in Table 7. The figures give under-5 mortality estimates of 147 for both sexes, 153 for males and 139 for females. The above rates indicate a significant decline in child mortality. The Under-5 mortality rate was found to be 192 deaths per thousand live births in 1990; the current figure of 147 therefore implies a 23 percent drop in the 5 year period. 2.11 KNOWLEDGE AND PLANNING: CURRENT USE OF FAMILY Knowledge of family planning methods and of places to obtain service is crucial in the decision whether to use contraceptive method and which method to use. In the survey, data on knowledge of family planning methods and sources of supply were obtained from all adults (men and women). Two thirds (68%) of all adults reported knowing about contraception. It was found that there was no gender difference in the 13 level of awareness among adults, the survey recorded 68 percent for men and 67 percent for women. But there were significant differences in the state figures on knowledge of contraceptive methods among women at risk of pregnancy, that is, women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) not currently pregnant. Eleven (11) percent of all women at risk of pregnancy reported current use of any contraceptive methods while only 7 percent was found to be using modern methods of contraception. The most widely used methods were pills, IUD, condom, and injection, used by 28, 12, 11, 10 percent of women respectively. In contrast, the least used methods were Norplant, male sterilization and diaphragm. Figure 21: Knowledge and Use of Family Planning All Adults Females Any Method Modem Knowledge Use 14 THE SURVEY DESIGN 3.1 COVERAGE AND SCOPE: The survey covered all states in the Federation, including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Subject areas covered in the survey included basic household and housing characteristics, education, water and sanitation, salt iodization, tetanus toxoid, care of acute respiratory illness, diarrhoea, vitamins A, breastfeeding, immunization, child mortality and family planning. 3.2 SAMPLE DESIGN: The Nigerian MICS was run as a separate module of the National Integrated Survey of Household (NISH) currently implemented by FOS. The NISH is multi-subject household-based survey system run in line with the United Nations Household Survey Capability Programme. The decision to run the MICS as a module under the NISH was informed by the MICS global design which anticipated a sample of 300-500 households per district (domain) drawn from about 10 clusters of 40-45 households per cluster. The 40-45 households are obtained either by segmentation of clusters into small areas of approximately 40-45 households and randomly selecting one so that all households within such an area are covered or using the random walk method in the cluster to select the 40-45 households. The NISH, on the other hand, uses a master sample of Enumeration Areas (EAs) designed to last 5 years. The master sample consists of 200 EAs per state (domain) chosen in 10 independent replicates of 20 EAs. Six replicates of 120 EAs are covered in one year and a rotation of 1/6 applied. In any one year, the 120 EAs are randomly allocated to the 12 months of the year. Thus every month, 10 EAs are covered for the General Household Survey (GHS), the core survey under the NISH. For the supplemental modules of the NISH, subsets of the GHS sample are used. To achieve the sample size anticipated by the MICS global design, a uniform sample per state of 600 housing units was decided upon. Although non-response estimated at about 5 percent from previous surveys is expected to reduce this sample further, it was expected that most states have 550 or more households. The sample was drawn from 30 EAs and a sub-sample of 20 housing units systematically selected from the listing of housing units within the selected EAs. All households within the selected housing units were interviewed. Compared with the MICS global design which anticipates a cluster sub-sample size of 40-45 households per cluster, the NISH 15 design was considered more efficient both in terms of number of clusters selected per domain and the reduction of clustering effects. Hence its adoption. Usually, when the sub-sample size is reduced by half and the number of clusters doubled, a reduction of at least 20 percent in the design effect is achieved. 3.3 SAMPLE ACHIEVED: The response situation is shown in Table 8 below. No state (domain) recorded a sample figure below the MICS global design's lower limit of 300 households. . . "l., . - .~ . ',., • ~ . - . Table 8: Response Rates .-.-:, . .,__,~, -'-" ·--- ~····· . ~ . ~-~--. -~., _._,.,. .,.:--· ~_.,.,. . ._~.,;. . ~~-., ., - . ~~~"" ·'--"'~.:-.-.-.-. ,.,.,. __ State Number of Number of EAs house- holds Expected Received Out- Non- Received Out- Non- stand- Respo stand- Response ing nse ing (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1.Abia 30 30 598 2 2.Adamawa 30 29 534 20 46 3.A/Ibom 30 28 2 560 40 4.Anambra 30 25 5 579 21 5.Bauchi 30 28 2 525 75 6.Benue 30 27 3 505 95 7.Borno 30 26 4 595 105 8.C/Rivers 30 27 3 527 13 9.Delta 30 28 2 575 30 25 10.Edo 30 22 6 2 628 40 11.Enugu 30 29 1 565 20 35 12.lmo 30 28 2 644 49 13.Jigawa 30 30 599 1 14.Kaduna 30 29 568 32 15.Kano 30 29 1 548 52 16.Katsina 30 28 1 526 0 17.Kebbi 30 29 2 602 40 42 18.Kogi 30 27 1 649 51 19.Kwara 30 27 3 510 90 20.Lagos 30 26 1 2 441 69 21 .Niger 30 28 4 547 0 22.0gun 30 29 2 594 20 6 23.0ndo 30 28 1 403 80 37 24.0sun 30 29 2 602 91 25.0yo 30 28 1 579 21 26.Piateau 30 20 1 597 0 27.Rivers 30 25 10 385 215 28.Sokoto 30 30 4 489 20 91 29.Taraba 30 25 591 9 30.Yobe 30 15 5 496 20 104 31.Fct 15 310 0 Nigeria 885 838 24 53 16012 420 1527 -~· 16 FIELD WORK 4.1 FIELD ARRANGEMENT: In each State, apart from FCT, the field work was conducted using two teams, each comprising 2 enumerators and 1 supervisor. Only one team operated in the FCT because 15 EAs were covered instead of 30 EAs covered in each State. Each team operated in a roving manner. Both the interviewers and supervisors were FOS female staff, with considerable experience in collecting data on family planning. On average, a team spent 3 days canvassing an EA. 4.2 TRAINING: The training of the field staff-enumerators, supervisors and other field staff was carried out at the four FOS zonal centres and in two phases, one each in the North and South. Training in the Northern zone took place in February while that of the South was conducted in March 1995. Two teams each consisting of 2 Lagos office staff conducted the training in the North and South. Each training session lasted 5 days. The training programme covered discussions on roles of enumerators and supervisors, interview techniques, classroom sessions on questionnaires and manuals, role playing, field practice, review of field work and questionnaire editing. Class demonstrations were also given on the use of the salt iodization test kit. 4.3 QUALITY CONTROL: Apart from the elaborate training programme for the field staff, there were other programmes designed to control the quality of field work. At the State level, each State Officer monitored field work within his/her State. In addition, independent quality checks were conducted by the State Scrutiny Officer. At the Zonal level, the Zonal Controllers were equally responsible for monitoring the work within their respective Zones. Officers from Lagos also carried out monitoring tours to inspect the work of the interviewing teams. UNICEF staff also participated in quality control through deployment of their Zonal staff. 17 4.4 SURVEY INSTRUMENTS: The main instruments for the survey the Household Questionnaire and the Children Questionnaire. The contents of these questionnaires were based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey model questionnaire which was modified jointly by FOS and UNICEF to the country context. Additions and modifications to the model questionnaire were made during a series of meetings with representatives of UNICEF (Nigeria and New York) and local survey officers. The MICS Questionnaires consisted of the following:- A. Household Questionnaire (i) Household Listing - used to list all the members and visitors of the households within the selected housing units, some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed including age, sex, relationship to the head of household, education and occupation. (ii) Children Listing - information was collected on all mothers and others who cared for children aged 15 years and below as well as on the children they cared for. (iii) Water and Sanitation - the module was used to find out the type of water and toilet facility used by the household who fetches water and from what distance. (iv) Salt Iodization - this was included to find out whether the salt used in the respondent's household was iodized or not. The salt used to prepare the last main meal by the household was tested using the salt iodination test kit provided by UNICEF. (v) Children Education- was completed for all children in the household who were aged 5 years but not more than 15 years. Key information collected here was the ever and current attendance of school status. (vi) Tetanus Toxoid - all mothers of under 5' s in the household were asked how many times they received the injection. (vii) Care of Acute Respiratory Illness- questions on knowledge of the symptoms of this illness were asked of all mothers and caretakers of under 5s. (viii) Mortality Module - was to collect information on children ever born and fertility history for all women 15 years and above and married women below 15 years. (ix) Family Planning- the module was designed to provide basic information on the level of contraceptive knowledge, source and practice among all adults and married women who were below age 15 years in Nigeria. The data will be useful as an independent monitoring source of family planning programmes performance. 18 B. Children Questionnaire: The children questionnaire was completed for all under 5 Is cared for by a mother or caretaker within the household. It consisted of 4 modules as follows:- (i) Diarrhoea Module - information on the episodes of diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks, treatment, drinks and foods given were collected here. (ii) Vitamin A - Information on knowledge of vitamin A and the type of vitamin A rich food were sought in this module. (iii) Breastfeeding - the information was obtained from mother or caretaker on whether the child was ever breast-fed, given first milk or bottle fed or given only breastmilk in the last 24 hours prior the interview. (iv) Immunization - the immunization status of the children was sought in the module. 4.5 PRETEST: The MICS questionnaires were pretested in January, 1995 in Lagos State. Four enumerators and two supervisors, all females, were trained for 3 days by two Headquarters staff. The interviewers and supervisors had participated in earlier family planning surveys. After training, the teams spent 3 days conducting interviews in one urban and one rural enumeration areas. The teams were monitored in the field by the State officer, Scrutiny officer, and the trainers to ensure quality data collection and to assess the training. Due to non-availability of measuring instruments it was decided that the anthropometry module be excluded from the questionnaire. The questionnaire was not translated into local language because of the urgency of the survey and time factor. 4.6 DATA COLLECTION: Field work started immediately after the training, with the mobile teams moving from EA to EA. The supervisors moved with teams to supervise the work and edit completed questionnaires while in the field. Each team was expected to spend two days in each EA and one day traveling between EA Is. Thus, the 30 EAs were estimated to be covered in 45 days by the two teams. Therefore, a period of about 6 weeks was earmarked for the data collection. Eventually, data collection took about 2 months to complete in most States. In two States (Ondo and Edo) which had exceptional difficulties field work was not completed until the fourth month. 19 DATA PROCESSING 5.1 DATA PREPARATION: The MICS data processing consisted of four stages, namely:- Manual (Office) editing, data entry, Computer editing and tabulations. The completed questionnaires started arriving in FOS Lagos Office in April 1995. Twelve editors and three supervisors were trained on editing and coding of the questionnaires. They were taken through on how the questionnaires were completed in the field and how to check for errors such as omissions, inconsistencies, illegible entries, and failure to follow skip instructions etc. The supervisors, who were senior offices, reviewed the edited questionnaires and provided periodic assistance to the editing staff. The edited questionnaires were batched on EA and state basis in readiness for data entry. 5.2 DATA ENTRY: Data entry started in May, 1995 after a 6-day training workshop on EPI-INFO, the package program selected for processing of MICS. The workshop which was organized by UNICEF and facilitated by a Consultant from their New York Office, was attended by FOS Senior officers who were involved in the survey and together with some UNICEF staff. The data entry operators were trained on data entry and editing procedures for the survey following the workshop. Six IBM-Compatible micro-computers were used to process the questionnaires. Working six days per week in two shifts, the data entry was completed within three months. 5.3 DATA CLEANING: The computer editing began immediately data entry was completed for a State. Senior officers checked for inconsistencies during the data entry, and affected corrections (where possible) by going back to the original questionnaires. This exercise was completed for all States by end of September 1995. 5.4 TABULATION: Tables were generated by Senior project staff. Draft tables were reviewed several times within FOS, with UNICEF Section staff, WHO and relevant line Ministry 20 staff. Maps were produced using the GIS package at the UNICEF Country Office while other charts were produced by FOS. 21 DEFINITIONS (A) Access to safe drinking water: Proportion of households reporting piped water, public tap, hand pump/borehole and protected dug-well or protected spring as source of drinking water. (B) Access to Sanitary toilet facility: Proportion of households using flush latrine systems linked to a sewage, or to septic tanks, VIP latrines or covered pit latrines. (C) Age Dependency Ratio: Ratio of the number of persons age 0-14 years and 65 years and above divided by the number of persons age 15 to 64 years. (D) Child Mortality: Child Mortality Rate, defined as the probability of dying between the first and the fifth birth-day. (E) Contraceptive prevalence: Percentage of women at risk of pregnancy (women not currently pregnant aged 15-49 years) currently using contraception. (F) Diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks: The proportion of under five year children who suffered from diarrhoea within the reference period. Number of under five year children with episode of diarrhoea Total number of under five year children. (G) Exclusive Breastfeeding: Proportion of children aged 0-5 months who received only breastmilk in the preceding 24 hours of the interview. (As indicated in the addendum, this probably led to an over-estimate of exclusive breastfeeding status in this report.) (H) Gross Primary School Enrolment: Proportion of all children in primary school irrespective of age. Number of all children in primary school Total number of children age 6-11 years. (I) Household: Household is a person or group of people that share common eating arrangement but not necessarily living under the same roof. (J) Head of Household: The Head of Household is the person in the household acknowledged as head by the other members. The head has primary authority and responsibility for household affairs. 22 (K) Net primary school enrolment: Proportion of children 6-11 years old currently in school. Number of children 6-11 years old currently in school Total number of children age 6-11 years. (L) Persons in the Household: The number of persons who slept in the household the night before the interview. (M) Sex Ratio: Proportion of all Males in the sample population to the total number of Females. Number of Males in the sample population Number of Females sample population (N) Use of Iodized Salt: Proportion of households that used iodized salt to prepare the last major meal eaten by the members before the interview. (0) Under-five Mortality Rate: Under-five mortality rate is defined as the probability of dying before the fifth birth-day. 23 ~\PPE~IDI/{ a~ MAPS TABLES 24 Gross Primary School Enrolment by State xi % of Enrolment Up to 15% 16-30% 31-50% 51 -70% 71 - 90% 91 -129% KM -==:J 0 100 200 0/o Distribution of Households with Access to Sanitary Toilet Facilities % Distribution D Upto30% 70.5 and above KM -==:J 0 100 200 o/o Distribution of Households U sin Iodized Salt Iodized Salt Upto 40% 41 -60% 61 -80% KM -==:J 0 100 200 0/o Distribution of Households with Access to Potable Water Safe Water Upto 60% 60.5-70% 70.5-80% KM ~ 0 100 200 0/c, Distribution of Under5 Female Children with Diarrhoea Incidence Female Diarrhoea Incidence Upto 10.0% 10.5- 15.0% 15.5-20.0% KM --==:1 0 100 200 % Distribution of Under5 Male Children with Diarrhoea Incidence Male Diarrhoea Incidence Upto 10.0% 10.5- 15.0% 15.5-20.0% KM -==:1 0 100 200 0/o Distribution of Male Children Aged 0 - 11 Months Correnti Breastfed Male 0 - 11 Months Upto 85% 85.5-90% 90.5-95% KM -=:=J 0 100 200 % Distribution of Female Children Aged 0 - 11 Months Correnti Breastfed Female 0 -11 Months Upto 85% 85.1-90% 90.5-95% KM -===:J 0 100 200 0/o Distribution of Male Adults by Know led e of Contrace tion Male Adults Upto 56% 56.1 -76% 76.1-93% KM -=:=1 0 100 200 0/o Distribution of Female Adults by Know led e of Con trace tion Female Adults Upto 50% 50.1 -73% 73 .1-95% KM -=:=J 0 100 200 TABLE 1.1 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HF~DS OF HOUSEHOLD BY STATE, GENDER AND RESIDENCE --------------------------------------- BACKGROUND I VARIABLES MALE FEMALE I TOTAL ---------------+---------------+------- ABIA I 70.2 29.8 I 3.6 ADAMAWA 94.3 5.7 I 3.2 AKWA-IBOM 73.2 26.8 I 3.3 ANAMBRA 83.2 16.8 I 2.9 BAUCH I 97.2 2.8 I 3.2 BENUE 92.1 7.9 I 3.0 BORNO 94.7 5.3 I 3.0 C/RIVER 80.9 19.1 I 3.5 DELTA 76.9 23.1 I 3.5 EDO 83.9 16.1 I 2.8 ENUGU 79.9 20.1 I 3.3 IMO 64.4 35.6 I 3.3 JIGAWA 97.7 2.3 I 3.6 KADUNA 97.3 2.7 I 3.4 KANO 98.6 1.4 I 3.3 KATSINA 98.3 1.7 I 3.6 KEBBI 98.2 1.8 I 3.6 KOGI 74.9 25.1 I 3.9 KWARA 80.4 19.6 I 3.1 LAGOS 91.6 8.4 I 2.6 NIGER 97.4 2.6 I 3.4 OGUN 79.7 20.3 I 3.5 ONDO 77.0 23.0 I 3.1 OSUN 73.4 26.6 I 3.3 OYO 74.9 25.1 I 3.5 PLATEAU 97.3 2.7 I 3.6 RIVERS 77.8 22.2 I 2.3 SOKOTO 98.4 1.6 I 3.0 TARABA 97.0 3.0 I 3.6 YOBE 99.0 1.0 I 3.1 FCT 93.5 6.5 I 1.8 --------------+---------------+------ NIGERIA I 86.8 13.2 I 100 --------------+---------------+------ RESIDENCE I I URBAN I 8 3 . 9 16 . 1 I 1 0 0 RURAL I 87.8 12.2 I 100 34 1 TABLE 1.2 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY MARITAL STATUS OF THE HEAD BY STATE AND BY GENDER ------------------------------------------------------------ I MARRIED DIVOR- SEPA- NEVER I STATE I CED RATED WIDOWED MARRIED I TOTAL -----------+-------------------------------------+---------- ABIA I 57.2 0.9 5.9 23.2 12.8 100 ADAMAWA I 87.8 1.0 1.8 5.3 4.1 100 AKWA-IBOM I 64.7 0.9 4.7 20.4 9.3 100 ANAMBRA I 74.2 0.6 0.8 14.2 10.2 100 BAUCH I I 93.4 1.0 1.7 2.5 1.4 100 BENUE I 77.4 2.5 6.3 5.9 8.0 100 BORNO I 86 . 2 1.8 2.6 5.7 3.7 100 CROSS RIVER I 73.1 1.5 6.1 6.6 12.6 100 DELTA I 68.3 3.3 3.7 9.3 15.3 100 EDO I 74.8 1.8 2.9 7.6 12.9 100 ENUGU I 71.7 0.6 0.4 19.1 8.2 100 IMO I 67.8 0.4 0.6 27.7 3.5 100 JIGAWA I 92.7 1.8 0.7 3.2 1.7 100 KADUNA I 87.5 0.0 3.1 1.5 7.9 100 KANO I 95.2 1.3 0.0 2.0 1.5 100 KATSINA I 92.8 3.0 0.0 2.1 2.1 100 KEBBI I 95.3 1.3 0.5 2.0 0.8 100 KOGI I 71.5 1.9 7.6 11.8 7.2 100 KWARA I 74.8 1.0 5.3 13.1 5.9 100 LAGOS I 81. 8 1.6 4.6 4.4 7.6 100 NIGER I 89.1 2.4 0.5 2.7 5.3 100 OGUN I 65.7 2.7 6.5 14.2 10.9 100 ONDO I 72.2 0.4 8.2 10.5 8.8 100 OSUN I 68.8 0.6 5.4 17.3 7.9 100 OYO I 85.1 0.3 0.7 9.9 4.0 100 PLATEAU I 90.2 0.4 1.4 1.4 6.7 100 RIVERS I 68.1 0.9 4.8 13.3 13.0 100 SOKOTO I 96.4 0.4 0.8 1.7 0.6 100 TARABA I 87.9 2.1 1.9 2.9 5.3 100 YOBE I 95.8 1.0 0.2 1.2 1.8 100 ABUJA(FCT) I 77.7 0.7 1.6 2.6 17.4 100 -----------+-----------------------------------------+------ NIGERIA I 80.6 1.3 2.8 8.5 6.8 I 100 ------------------------------------------------------------ GENDER MALE 88.2 1.1 1.9 1.9 6.9 100 FEMALE 29.6 2.6 9.0 52.4 6.4 100 ------------------------------------------------------------ 35 1 TABLE 1.3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF HEAD BY STATE AND BY GENDER BACKGROUND I NEVER PRY PRY SEC SEC POST VARIABLES I UNCOMP COMP UNCOMP COMP SEC TOTAL ------------+------------------------------------------- ------ ABIA ADAMAWA AKWA-IBOM ANAMBRA BAUCH I BENUE BORNO CROSS RIVER DELTA EDO ENUGU IMO JIGAWA KADUNA KANO KATSINA KEBBI KOGI KWARA LAGOS NIGER OGUN ONDO OSUN OYO PLATEAU RIVERS SOKOTO TARABA YOBE ABUJA (FCT) 37.6 63.7 27.3 20.1 79.8 41.5 79.3 32.5 20.1 23.4 48.3 44.8 79.9 59.0 90.9 91.1 92.4 48.3 54.0 11.3 81.1 46.7 40.9 50.9 42.5 62.0 24.7 94.9 66.3 96.0 34.1 5.4 3.2 21.5 14.2 6.6 12.4 2.0 14.3 7.7 4.5 16.2 15.6 2.5 3.5 0.6 0.9 1.5 3.8 1.4 2.3 0.7 3.8 5.6 5.5 7.5 2.8 6.0 1.7 5.1 0.0 1.6 36.2 13.2 32.4 43.9 8.7 20.5 12.0 28.3 33.5 30.8 22.5 25.1 8.6 14.2 3.9 3.0 1.7 17.9 19.6 29.3 6.0 18.0 26.7 14.8 20.6 18.9 26.2 1.9 8.9 1.8 10.2 2.2 0.8 3.3 4.2 0.2 5.5 0.0 6.0 3.9 6.0 2.0 1.4 1.2 2.3 0.2 0.5 0.3 3.4 0.8 7.8 0.9 5.7 6.8 4.8 4.5 1.9 5.7 0.0 2.9 0.6 2.0 12.6 13.0 8.9 10.0 3.5 12.2 4.9 13.3 26.9 24.3 5.9 5.3 4.2 13.8 3.3 2.8 2.0 13.7 11.4 34.8 8.4 13.4 13.2 11.6 17.7 7.9 23.5 1.1 14.4 0.6 32.1 6.1 6.1 6.6 7.6 1.2 8.0 1.8 5.6 7.9 10.9 5.0 7.8 3.7 7.3 1.1 1.7 2.0 12.9 12.9 14.5 2.9 12.3 6.8 12.4 7.3 6.5 13.9 0.4 2.4 1.0 20.0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 ------------+-------------------------------------------+------ NIGERIA I 55.7 5.9 17.8 2.8 11.3 6.5 I 100 GENDER MALE FEMALE 54.6 62.9 5.7 18.3 7.3 14.8 36 2.8 11.9 6.7 100 2.6 7.4 5.0 100 TABLE 2.1 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND BY STATE ----------------------------------------------------------------- I PIPED PUBLIC HAND PROT. UNPROT. I STATE TAP PUMP D/WELL D/WELL POND VENDOR OTHERI TOTAL -------+-------------------------------------------------+------- ABIA 5.0 9.0 37.2 0.5 3.4 36.6 7.3 1.1 100 ADAMAWA 6.3 4.4 14.4 19.6 2.7 51.5 0.0 1.0 100 A/IBOM 9.6 6.4 0.0 4.8 8.2 70.9 0.0 0.0 100 ANAMBRA 8.9 4.4 13.1 13.3 15.2 33.3 11.8 0.0 100 BAUCH I 2.4 0.4 14.8 31.1 38.6 12.2 0.6 0.0 100 BENUE 2.2 1.0 1.4 25.7 2.6 65.8 0.0 1.2 100 BORNO 4.7 26.2 19.7 0.0 40.6 7.9 0.4 0.4 100 C/RIVER 1.7 5.0 26.5 2.5 0.2 64.1 0.0 0.0 100 DELTA 9.4 12.6 18.2 28.1 20.4 10.8 0.5 0.0 100 EDO 28.8 10.3 1.8 31.6 11.4 16.0 0.0 0.0 100 ENUGU 5.0 12.3 17.6 2.3 10.0 47.2 5.5 0.0 100 IMO 3.8 15.0 3.6 1.0 18.0 48.1 3.8 6.8 100 JIGAWA I 11.3 18.3 25.4 6.2 33.1 5.6 0.2 0.0 100 KADUNA I 29.4 5.0 1.2 48.4 6.9 8.5 0.6 0.0 100 KANO I 9.9 8.2 9.3 13.6 47.2 7.8 0.2 3.7 100 KAT SINAl 8.1 9.6 1.5 48.5 23.4 8.4 0.5 0.0 100 KEBBI I 3.5 0.3 2.3 57.1 25.7 10.3 0.5 0.3 100 KOGI I 8.5 13.1 2.7 5.6 16.8 48.8 4.5 0.0 100 KWARA I 25.6 25.0 19.0 3.7 8.5 17.3 0.8 0.0 100 LAGOS I 11.6 33.2 38.4 1.7 0.7 0.0 11.4 3.1 100 NIGER I 4.2 3.1 22.1 19.8 13.9 34.6 0.3 1.9 100 OGUN I 7.9 13.1 29.5 14.4 2.0 33.1 0.0 0.0 100 ONDO I 2.4 17.9 0.6 23.7 26.4 29.0 0.0 0.0 100 OSUN I 14.9 25.0 4.6 23.3 14.8 16.6 0.9 0.0 100 OYO I 14.1 22.8 7.2 37.2 5.2 12.8 0.7 0.0 100 PLATEAU I 6.6 7.6 0.7 19.4 7.0 58.1 0.7 0.0 100 RIVERS I 2.9 17.3 5.3 11.1 9.1 54.4 0.0 0.0 100 SOKOTO I 0. 8 2.0 3.9 11.3 70.1 11.3 0.2 0.4 100 TARABA I 0.2 0.0 9.2 28.0 10.3 47.3 5.1 0.0 100 YOBE I 6.7 14.2 1.0 25.3 43.1 9.5 0.0 0.2 100 ABUJA I 58.4 16.1 0.0 1.0 0.3 23.9 0.3 0.0 100 -------+-------------------------------------------------+------ NIGERIA I 9.4 11.4 11.6 18.6 17.4 29.2 1.8 0.6 I 100 -------+-------------------------------------------------+------ 37 TABLE 2.2 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER BY STATE AND BY RESIDENCE BACKGROUND I VARIABLES I SAFE I UNSAFE I TOTAL -----------+------------------+------- ABIA I 51.7 48.3 100 ADPJ:I!AWA I 44.8 55.2 100 AKWA-IBOM I 20.9 79.1 100 AN AM BRA I 39.7 60.3 100 BAUCH I I 48.7 51.3 100 BENUE I 30.3 69.7 100 BORNO I 50.7 49.3 100 C/RIVER I 35.7 64.3 100 DELTA I 68.2 31.8 100 EDO I 72.5 27.5 100 ENUGU I 37.3 62.7 100 IMO I 23.4 76.6 100 JIGAWA I 61.2 38.8 100 KADUNA I 84.1 15.9 100 KANO I 41.0 59.0 100 KATSINA I 67.7 32.3 100 KEBBI I 63.2 36.8 100 KOGI I 29.9 70.1 100 KWARA I 73.4 26.6 100 LAGOS I 84.9 15.1 100 NIGER I 49.2 50.8 100 OGUN I 64.9 35.1 100 ONDO I 44.6 55.4 100 OSUN I 67.8 32.2 100 OYO I 81.3 18.7 100 PLATEAU I 34.3 65.7 100 RIVERS I 36.5 63.5 100 SOKOTO I 18.0 82.0 100 TARABA I 37.3 62.7 100 YOBE I 47.2 52.8 100 ABUJA (FCT) I 75.5 24.5 100 -----------+------------------+------ NIGERIA I 49.9 50.1 I 100 ------------------------------------- RESIDENCE URBAN 79.5 21.5 100 RURAL 39.1 60.9 100 -------------------------------------- 38 TABLE 2.3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF DISTANCE TO THE SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER BY STATE -------------------------------------- I GREATER LESS I STATE I THAN 1KM THAN 1KMI TOTAL ----------+--------------------+------ ABIA I 14.5 85.5 I 100 ADAMAWA I 2.1 97.9 I 100 AKWA-IBOM I 9.6 90.4 I 100 ANAMBRA I 6.8 93.2 I 100 BAUCH I I 4.9 95.1 I 100 BENUE I 24.6 75.4 I 100 BORNO I 0.2 99.8 I 100 C/RIVER I 3.5 96.5 I 100 DELTA I 2.1 97.9 I 100 EDO 8.8 91.2 I 100 ENUGU 19.3 80.7 I 100 IMO 15.2 84.8 I 100 JIGAWA 2.1 97.9 I 100 KADUNA 1.8 98.2 I 100 KANO 14.4 85.6 I 100 KATSINA 45.9 54.1 I 100 KEBBI 2.2 97.8 I 100 KOGI 12.8 87.2 I 100 KWARA 1.4 98.6 I 100 LAGOS 11.1 88.9 I 100 NIGER 13.7 86.3 I 100 OGUN 0.7 99.3 I 100 ONDO 5.6 94.4 I 100 OSUN 3.1 96.9 I 100 OYO 6.9 93.1 I 100 PLATEAU 19.0 81.0 I 100 RIVERS 12.3 87.7 I 100 SOKOTO 6.8 93.2 I 100 TARABA I 18.5 81.5 I 100 YOBE I 7.9 92.1 I 100 ABUJA(FCT) I 0.0 100.0 I 100 ----------+--------------------+------- TOTAL I 9.8 90.2 I 100 --------------------------------------- 39 TABLE 2.4 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS WHO FETCH WATER BY STATE -------------------------------------------------- STATE I MALE FEMALE BOTH MEN WOMEN TOTAL ICHDRN CHDRN M+F I ONLY ONLY CHDRN -----------+-------------------------------+------ ABIA I 17.6 21.6 27.0 5.4 28.4 I 100 ADAMAWA I 0.0 27.3 54.5 18.2 0.0 I 100 AKWA-IBOM I 9.3 31.5 40.7 1.9 16.7 I 100 ANAMBRA I 3.8 46.2 34.6 0.0 15.4 I 100 BAUCH I I ll. 5 3.8 3.8 50.0 30.8 I 100 BENUE I 0.8 5.0 10.0 7.5 76.7 I 100 BORNO I 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 I 100 C/RIVER I 0.0 0.0 66.7 0.0 33.3 100 DELTA I 5.3 10.5 47.4 18.4 18.4 100 EDO I 2.6 2.9 5.4 2.1 1.3 100 ENUGU I 5.6 16.8 45.8 7.5 24.3 100 IMO I 22.1 27.9 22.1 11.8 16.2 100 JIGAWA I 7.7 0.0 46.2 46.2 0.0 100 KADUNA 0.0 22.2 33.3 11.1 33.3 100 KANO 14.0 2.3 0.0 79.1 4.7 100 KATSINA 2.0 2.0 11.2 49.4 35.5 100 KEBBI 14.3 14.3 0.0 14.3 57.1 100 KOGI 1.3 2.7 78.7 8.0 9.3 100 KWARA 0.0 33.3 50.0 0.0 16.7 100 LAGOS 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100 NIGER 5.6 8.3 6.9 0.0 79.2 100 OGUN 0.0 0.0 66.7 33.3 0.0 100 ONDO 7.1 3.6 28.6 25.0 35.7 100 OSUN 0.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 90.0 100 OYO 5.1 12 .8 20.5 12.8 48.7 100 PLATEAU 0.0 1.0 14.9 4.0 80.2 100 RIVERS 16.7 26.2 21.4 16.7 19.0 100 SOKOTO 3.2 6.5 6.5 25.8 58.1 100 TARABA 1.8 1.8 20.2 31.2 45.0 100 YOBE 0.0 0.0 10.0 56.7 33.3 100 -----------+-------------------------------+------ TOTAL I 5.5 9.6 23.4 23.0 38.5 I 100 -------------------------------------------------- 40 TABLE 2.5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH TOILET FACILITIES BY STATE ------------------------------------------------------------- I PIT PIT NO I STATE I SEWAGE SEPTIC VIP cov UNCOV OTHER FACIL. I TOTAL -----------+-------------------------------------------+------ ABIA 01 I 21.6 0.4 1.2 18.6 45.7 8.8 3.7 I 100 ADAMAWA 02 I 1.2 0.2 0.2 53.7 12.1 0.0 32.7 I 100 AKWA-IBOM3 I 0.5 4.1 0.2 70.4 23.5 0.0 1.2 I 100 ANAMBRA 04 I 1.3 20.0 0.0 58.4 10.1 0.0 10.1 I 100 BAUCH I 05 I 0.9 0.2 0.0 59.4 32.8 5.2 1.5 I 100 BENUE 06 I 1.2 0.6 0.0 37.9 7.1 10.0 43.2 I 100 BORNO 07 I 0.0 0.8 0.4 31.2 67.7 0.0 0.0 I 100 C/RIVER 08 I 4.2 1.2 0.5 28.7 18.4 18.9 28.2 I 100 DELTA 09 I 12.4 8.0 6.1 52.2 20.1 0.0 1.2 I 100 EDO 10 I 9.0 0.2 0.2 85.3 2.6 0.0 2.6 I 100 ENUGU 11 11.2 0.0 0.0 21.4 10.9 0.0 56.5 I 100 IMO 12 7.0 0.4 0.2 58.7 9.0 0.0 24.8 100 JIGAWA 13 0.7 0.2 0.0 45.5 19.1 3.4 31.1 100 KADUNA 14 7.5 0.4 0.2 68.8 9.1 0.0 14.1 100 KANO 15 1.9 0.0 0.0 85.1 7.3 0.4 5.4 100 KATSINA 16 8.1 0.0 0.2 54.1 1.9 0.3 35.4 100 KEBBI 17 0.8 0.2 0.0 53.3 16.1 1.5 28.1 100 KOGI 18 6.8 0.0 0.0 36.2 1.0 0.0 56.0 100 KWARA 19 22.7 0.4 0.0 26.0 8.3 0.2 42.3 100 LAGOS 20 55.5 3.5 2.6 32.5 2.6 0.0 3.3 100 NIGER 21 0.2 0.3 0.2 28.9 5.9 0.2 64.3 100 OGUN 22 11.7 0.0 0.0 49.8 0.4 0.2 37.9 100 ONDO 23 I 2.3 0.0 0.6 52.2 0.2 0.2 44.6 100 OSUN 24 I 8.9 1.5 0.0 43.9 0.2 1.3 44.3 100 OYO 25 I 24.8 0.2 0.2 45.2 5.7 1.3 22.6 100 PLATEAU 26 I 2.9 0. 2 0.2 54.7 3.1 28.7 10.4 100 RIVERS 27 I 0.6 17.0 0.6 9.6 5.3 5.6 61.4 100 SOKOTO 28 I 0.0 0.2 0.0 36.9 30.3 1.8 30.7 100 TARABA 29 I 1.0 0.0 0.5 63.6 6.6 8.1 20.2 100 YOBE 30 I 0.0 0.0 0.0 45.7 3.6 0.0 50.8 100 ABUJA (FCT) I 46.8 0.0 0.0 45.2 0.3 0.0 7.7 100 -----------+-------------------------------------------+------ NIGERIA I 8.2 1.7 0.5 47.1 12.7 3.3 26.5 I 100 -------------------------------------------------------------- 41 TABLE 2.6 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO SANITARY TOILET FACILITIES BY STATE AND BY RESIDENCE BACKGROUND I I VARIABLES I SANITARY NON-SANIT. I TOTAL -----------+-------------------+------- ABIA I 41. 8 58.2 I 100 ADAMAWA I 55.2 44.8 I 100 AKWA-IBOM I 75.2 24.8 I 100 AN AM BRA I 79.7 20.3 I 100 BAUCH I I 60.5 39.5 I 100 BENUE I 39.7 60.3 I 100 BORNO I 32.3 67.7 I 100 C/RIVER 34.6 65.4 I 100 DELTA 78.7 21.3 I 100 EDO 94.7 5.3 I 100 ENUGU 32.6 67.4 I 100 IMO 66.3 33.7 I 100 JIGAWA 46.3 53.7 I 100 KADUNA 76.8 23.2 I 100 KANO 86.9 13.1 100 KATSINA 62.4 37.6 100 KEBBI 54.3 45.7 100 KOGI 43.0 57.0 100 KWARA 49.1 50.9 100 LAGOS 94.1 5.9 100 NIGER 29.6 70.4 100 OGUN 61.5 38.5 100 ONDO 55.0 45.0 100 OSUN 54.3 45.7 100 OYO 70.3 29.7 100 PLATEAU 57.9 42.1 100 RIVERS 27.8 72.2 100 SOKOTO 37.1 62.9 100 TARABA 65.1 34.9 100 YOBE I 45.7 54.3 100 ABUJA (FCT) I 91.9 8.1 100 -----------+-------------------+------ NIGERIA I 57.3 42.8 I 100 RESIDENCE URBAN RURAL 82.1 48.2 17.9 51.8 100 100 TABLE 2.7 DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY DISTANCE OF TOILET FACILITIES FROM THE DWELLING --------------------------------------------- I IN LESS 50M OR I STATE I DWELL 50M MORE DK I TOTAL ------------+-------------------------+------ ABIA I 20.0 71.0 8.5 0.6 100 ADNIIA.WA I 0.6 65.7 33.1 0.6 100 AKWA-IBOM I 4.2 94.6 1.3 0.0 100 AN AM BRA I 21.6 50.5 27.9 0.0 100 BAUCH I I 0.6 91.1 7.4 1.0 100 BENUE I 2.1 74.3 22.1 1.4 100 BORNO I 0.0 98.6 1.4 0.0 100 CROSS RIVER I 7.0 60.7 30.5 1.9 100 DELTA I 20.8 58.7 20 .3 0.2 100 EDO I 8.1 39.7 41.3 10.8 100 ENUGU I 25.8 62.7 ll. 5 0.0 100 IMO I 8.5 87.8 3.7 0.0 100 JIGAWA I 1.2 78.1 19.7 1.0 100 KADUNA I 8.7 62.9 21.4 7.0 100 KANO I 2.0 75.9 20.3 1.8 100 KATSINA I 12.2 77.7 7.4 2 .7 100 KEBBI I 1.2 68.2 26.0 4.6 100 KOGI I 15.1 72.1 12.5 0.4 100 KWARA I 39.1 47.5 12.8 0.7 100 LAGOS I 52.4 42.2 4.5 0.9 100 NIGER I 1.0 89.8 7.8 1.5 100 OGUN I 18.8 58.3 19.7 3.2 100 ONDO I 4.4 77.6 18.0 0.0 100 OSUN I 18.0 63.1 18.0 1.0 100 OYO I 30.1 60.4 8.1 1.5 100 PLATEAU I 3.4 62.5 15.7 18.4 100 RIVERS I 40.9 52.3 6.8 0.0 100 SOKOTO I 0.3 78.7 18.3 2.7 100 TARABA I 1.3 74.9 23.1 0.6 100 YOBE I 0.0 91.2 8.4 0.4 100 ABUJA (FCT ) I 50.3 45.1 4.2 0.3 100 ------------+-------------------------+------- NIGERIA I 12.5 69.3 15.8 2.4 I 100 --------------------------------------------- 43 TABLE 3.1 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE OF SALT BY STATE AND BY RESIDENCE BACKGROUND VARIABLES I NOT !IODIZED IODIZED! TOTAL -------------+-------------------+------- ABIA 100.0 0.0 100 ADAMAWA 100.0 0.0 100 AKWA-IBOM 100.0 0.0 100 ANAMBRA 99.5 0.5 100 BAUCH I 98.7 1.3 100 BENUE 7~ 22.1 100 BORNO 57.9 42.1 100 CROSS RIVERS 89.1 10.9 100 DELTA 98.9 1.1 100 EDO 98.9 1.1 100 ENUGU 66.3 33.7 100 IMO 94.5 5.5 100 JIGAWA 46.3 53.7 100 KADUNA 82.7 17.3 100 KANO 34.9 65.1 100 KATSINA 48.1 51.9 100 KEBBI 58.5 41.5 100 KOGI 64.6 35.4 100 KWARA 99.2 0.8 100 LAGOS 95.3 4.7 100 NIGER 99.4 0.6 100 OGUN 100.0 0.0 100 ONDO 99.4 0.6 100 OSUN 97.2 2.8 ·100 OYO 96.6 3.4 100 PLATEAU 90.6 9.4 100 RIVERS 98.8 1.2 100 SOKOTO 62.5 37.5 100 TARABA 90.0 10.0 100 YOBE 44.1 55.9 100 ABUJA (FCT) 99.7 0.3 100 -------------+-----~-------------+------ NIGERIA I ~ 16.8 I 100 ----------------- --------------------- I I RESIDENCE I I URBAN I 92.8 7.2 I 100 RURAL I 79.7 20.3 I 100 44 TABLE 4.1 NET PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT OF CHILDREN AGE 6-11 BY STATE, GENDER AND BY RESIDENCE BACKGROUND I EVER ATTENDED I VARIABLES INEVER 1---------------------1 IATTENDEDICURRENT NOT CURRENT I TOTAL ------------+----------------------+-------------- ABIA ADAMAWA AKWA-IBOM ANAMBRA BAUCH I BENUE BORNO CROSS RIVER DELTA EDO ENUGU IMO JIGAWA KADUNA KANO KATSINA KEBBI KOGI KWARA LAGOS NIGER OGUN ONDO OSUN OYO PLATEAU RIVERS SOKOTO TARABA YOBE ABUJA (FCT) 9.2 38.9 4.6 2.2 54.8 17.5 65.3 11.8 2.5 3.2 9.7 6.6 59.8 46.6 81. 0 66.1 81. 8 13.8 9.7 4.4 59.9 1.9 5.0 5.0 13.5 38.1 6.9 81. 5 37.6 88.9 12.7 I 90.8 I 60.5 I 95.0 I 96.8 I 43.3 I 81.6 I 34.2 I 86.9 I 97.5 I 96.5 I 89.9 I 92.9 I 36.9 53.3 18.5 30.4 17.5 85.6 89.8 94.5 39.1 97.4 94.7 94.3 85.9 61.9 92.8 10.1 61.8 11.1 86.4 0.0 0.6 0.4 1.0 2.0 1.0 0.6 1.3 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 3.3 0.2 0.6 3.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.0 0.3 8.3 0.6 0.0 0.9 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 10 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 ------------+----------------------+------------- NIGERIA I 33.6 I 64.2 2.1 I 100 GENDER MALE FEMALE RESIDENCE URBAN RURAL 32.2 35.3 17.5 39.3 65.5 62.7 80.3 58.6 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.1 45 100 100 100 100 TABLE 4.2 GROSS PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT FOR CHILDREN AGED 6-11 YEARS BY STATE, SECTOR AND GENDER STATE PERCENTAGE ABIA 120.0 ADAMAWA 80.9 AKWA-IBOM 128.9 ANAMBRA 122.4 BAUCH I 53.9 BENUE 115.0 BORNO 49.5 CROSS RIVER 116.0 DELTA 109.0 EDO 112.7 ENUGU 129.1 IMO 128.3 JIGAWA 48.1 KADUNA 67.2 KANO 24.6 KATSINA 35.0 KEBBI 24.7 KOGI 122.4 KWARA 113.7 LAGOS 102.0 NIGER 49.7 OGUN 116.7 ONDO 117.9 OSUN 116.5 OYO 100.8 PLATEAU 89.2 RIVERS 117.4 SOKOTO 14.2 TARABA 80.5 YOBE 14.6 ABUJA (FCT) 106.6 NIGERIA 84.01 GENDER MALE 86.8 FEMALE 81.5 SECTOR URBAN 97.1 RURAL 79.9 46 TABLE 6.1 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF UNDER5 CHILDREN WITH DIARRHOEA INCIDENCE IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS ----------------------------------- BACKGROUND VARIABLES YES NO TOTAL -------------+-------------+------- ABIA 9.5 90.5 100 ADAMAWA 20.6 79.4 100 AKWA-IBOM 5.2 94.8 100 ANAMBRA 10.9 89.1 100 BAUCH I 14.5 85.5 100 BENUE 16.7 83.3 100 BORNO 13.2 86.8 100 CROSS RIVER 9.7 90.3 100 DELTA 5.9 94.1 100 EDO 4.1 95.9 100 ENUGU 4.7 95.3 100 IMO 12.0 88.0 100 JIGAWA 29.3 70.7 100 KADUNA 14.4 85.6 100 KANO 15.4 84.6 100 KATSINA 19.7 80.3 100 KEBBI 13.4 86.6 100 KOGI 6.0 94.0 100 KWARA 2.8 97.2 100 LAGOS 4.7 95.3 100 NIGER 18.3 81.7 100 OGUN 3.7 96.3 100 ONDO 4.5 95.5 100 OSUN 10.3 89.7 100 OYO 6.1 93.9 100 PLATEAU 7.5 92.5 100 RIVERS 7.7 92.3 100 SOKOTO 21.3 78.7 100 TARABA 21.1 78.9 100 YOBE 18.4 81.6 100 ABUJA (FCT) 13.3 86.7 100 -------------+-------------+------- ALL CHILDREN I 13.4 86.6 I 100 -------------+-------------+------- GENDER I I MALE I 14.0 86.0 I 100 FEMALE I 12.8 87.2 I 100 I I RESIDENCE I I URBAN I 11.0 89.0 I 100 RURAL I 14.3 85.7 I 100 47 TABLE 7.1 VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGE 12-23 MONTHS BY SOURCE OF INFORMATION ANTIGENS CARD CARD BCG 18.47 MALE 17.58 FEMALE 19.48 DPT3 12.11 MALE 11.43 FEMALE 12.87 OPV3 10.56 MALE 9.82 FEMALE 11.40 MEASLES 11.02 MALE 10.68 FEMALE 11.40 BCG SCAR 12.16 CARD RETENTION RATE 19.91 EPI COVERAGE 8.09 MALE 7.55 FEMALE 8.70 TETANUS TOXOID 2.10 TOTAL NO. OF CHILDREN SURVEYED=1743. TOTAL NO. OF MALE CHILDREN SURV.=927. TOTAL NO. OF CHILDREN WITH CARD=326. TOTAL NO. OF FEMALE =816 TOTAL NO OF WOMEN IN REPROD. AGE=18,295 48 AND HISTORY HISTORY 51.98 33.50 49.95 32.36 54.29 38.80 27.54 15.43 26.11 14.67 29.17 16.30 27.43 16.87 26.00 16.18 29.04 17.65 39.87 28.86 39.16 28.48 40.69 29.29 37.23 25.07 21.74 13.65 20.6 13.05 23.04 14.34 20.80 18.8 TABLE 9.1 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INFANTS 0-11 MONTHS OLD BY EVER BREASTFEEDING STATUS BY STATE, GENDER AND BY RESIDENCE BACKGROUND VARIABLES YES I NO I TOTAL -----------------+---------------+------ STATE ABIA I 100.0 ADAMAWA I 98.2 AKWA-IBOM I 100.0 ANAMBRA I 100.0 BAUCHI I 100.0 BENUE I 100.0 BORNO I 100.0 C/ RIVER I 100.0 DELTA I 100.0 EDO I 100.0 ENUGU I 100.0 IMO I 95.7 JIGAWA I 99.2 KADUNA I 100.0 KANO I 98.1 KATSINA I 100.0 KEBBI I 97.6 KOGI I 100.0 KWARA I 100.0 LAGOS I 100. 0 NIGER I 100. 0 OGUN I 100.0 ONDO I 100.0 OSUN I 100.0 OYO I 100.0 PLATEAU I 100.0 RIVERS I 100.0 SOKOTO I 98.3 TARABA I 100.0 YOBE I 100.0 ABUJA(FCT) I 100.0 0.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.3 0.8 0.0 1.9 0.0 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 -----------------+---------------+------ ALL INFANTS I 99.5 0.5 I 100 GENDER MALE FEMALE RESIDENCE URBAN RURAL 99.6 99.3 99.8 99.3 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.7 49 100 100 100 100 TABLE 9.2 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INFANTS AGE 0-11 MONTHS BY CURRENT BREASTFEEDING STATUS BY STATE, GENDER AND BY RESIDENCE ---------------------------------- BACKGROUND I I VARIABLES I YES NO I TOTAL -----------+---------------+------ ABIA I 88.7 11.3 3.2 ADAMAWA I 96.4 3.6 3.3 AKWA-IBOM I 96.5 3.5 3.4 AN AM BRA I 97.8 2.2 2.7 BAUCH I I 92.1 7.9 2.3 BENUE I 98.2 1.8 3.4 BORNO I 100.0 0.0 2.6 C/RIVER I 98.0 2.0 3.0 DELTA I 90.0 10.0 0.6 EDO I 96.7 3.3 1.8 ENUGU I 90.9 9.1 2.7 IMO I 91.1 8.9 2.7 JIGAWA I 98.4 1.6 7.5 KADUNA I 94.7 5.3 4.5 KANO I 97.1 2.9 6.1 KATSINA I 90.1 9.9 4.3 KEBBI I 91.5 8.5 4.9 KOGI I 97.8 2.2 2.7 KWARA I 96.0 4.0 1.5 LAGOS I 94.5 5.5 4.4 NIGER I 98.0 2 .0 3.0 OGUN I 68.6 31.4 2.1 ONDO I 88.9 11.1 2.7 OSUN I 100.0 0.0 3.1 OYO I 98.9 1.1 5.4 PLATEAU I 90.5 9.5 2.5 RIVERS I 95.2 4.8 2.5 SOKOTO I 77.2 22.8 3.4 TARABA I 100.0 0.0 2.1 YOBE I 94.2 5.8 4.2 ABUJA (FCT) I 72.7 27.3 1.3 -----------+---------------+------ ALL INFANTS I 93.9 6.1 I 100 -----------+---------------+------ I I GENDER I I MALE I 93.6 6.2 I 100 FEMALE I 93.9 6.1 I 100 I I RESIDENCE I I URBAN I 93.7 6.3 I 100 RURAL I 93.9 6.1 I 100 ----------------------------------- 50 TABLE 9.3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN AGE 12-23 MONTHS BY EVER BREASTFEEDING STATUS BY STATE, GENDER AND BY RESIDENCE BACKGROUND I VARIABLES I YES NO I TOTAL ------------+---------------+------ ABIA I 98.0 2.0 100 ADAMAWA I 100.0 0.0 100 AKWA-IBOM I 100.0 0.0 100 ANAMBRA I 100.0 0.0 100 BAUCH I I 98.5 1.5 100 BENUE I 100.0 0.0 100 BORNO I 100.0 0.0 100 C/RIVER I 100.0 0.0 100 DELTA I 100.0 0.0 100 EDO I 94.4 5.6 100 ENUGU I 100.0 0.0 100 IMO I 100.0 0.0 100 JIGAWA I 100.0 0.0 100 KADUNA I 100.0 0.0 100 KANO I 100.0 0.0 100 KATSINA I 94.2 5.8 100 KEBBI I 98.4 1.6 100 KOGI I 100.0 0.0 100 KWARA I 100.0 0.0 100 LAGOS I 100.0 0.0 100 NIGER I 100.0 0.0 100 OGUN I 96.6 3.4 100 ONDO I 100.0 0.0 100 OSUN I 100.0 0.0 100 OYO I 98.3 1.7 100 PLATEAU I 98.2 1.8 100 RIVERS I 100.0 0.0 100 SOKOTO I 98.6 1.4 100 TARABA I 100.0 0.0 100 YOBE I 100.0 0.0 100 ABUJA (FCT) I 100.0 0.0 100 ------------+---------------+------ ALL CHILDREN I 9.2 0.8 I 100 -------------- ---------------- GENDER MALE 98.8 1.2 100 FEMALE 99.8 0.2 100 RESIDENCE URBAN 98.9 1.1 100 RURAL 99.4 0.6 100 ------------------------------------ 1 51 TABLE 9.4 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN AGE 12-23 MONTHS BY CURRENT BREASTFEEDING STATUS BY STATE, GENDER AND BY RESIDENCE BACKGROUND I VARIABLES YES NO I TOTAL ------------+---------------+------ ABIA 33.3 66.7 100 ADAMAWA 85.5 14.5 100 AKWA-IBOM 48.1 51.9 100 AN AM BRA 16.7 83.3 100 BAUCH I 85.7 14.3 100 BENUE 78.3 21.7 100 BORNO 84.5 15.5 100 C/RIVER 70.0 30.0 100 DELTA 36.4 63.6 100 EDO 70.6 29.4 100 ENUGU 40.0 60.0 100 IMO 37.8 62.2 100 JIGAWA 87.7 12.3 100 KADUNA 70.4 29.6 100 KANO 91.5 8.5 100 KATSINA 89.1 10.9 100 KEBBI 80.2 19.8 100 KOGI 78.8 21.2 100 KWARA 53.6 46.4 100 LAGOS 28.3 71.7 100 NIGER 90.0 10.0 100 OGUN 60.7 39.3 100 ONDO 58.1 41.9 100 OSUN 71.7 28.3 100 OYO 37.5 62.5 100 PLATEAU 81.8 18.2 100 RIVERS 35.5 64.5 100 SOKOTO 33.8 66.2 100 TARABA 71.7 28.3 100 YOBE 91.3 8. 8 100 ABUJA (FCT) 66.7 33.3 100 ------------+---------------+------ ALL CHILDREN! 67.8 32.2 I 100 ----------------------------------- GENDER MALE 66.0 34.0 100 FEMALE 69.8 30.2 100 RESIDENCE URBAN 50.6 49.4 100 RURAL 73.8 26.2 100 ----------------------------------- 52 TABLE 10.1 PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF ALL ADULTS BY KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTION BACKGROUND I VARIABLES IYES NO I TOTAL --------4--+-------------+------ ABIA ADAMAWA AKWA-IBOM AN AM BRA BAUCH I BENUE BORNO C/RIVER DELTA EDO ENUGU IMO JIGAWA KADUNA KANO KATSINA KEBBI KOGI KWARA LAGOS NIGER OGUN ONDO OSUN OYO PLATEAU RIVERS SOKOTO TARABA YOBE ABUJA (FCT) I 76.6 I 74.2 I 74.1 I 96.5 I 58.8 73.3 62.5 81.8 87.0 87.4 96.7 94.8 34.4 51.2 55.1 30.5 14.3 74.2 94.2 94.4 54.2 97.5 94.9 96.2 92.8 56.4 82.0 8.3 66.5 31.4 44.9 23.4 25.8 25.9 3.5 41.2 26.7 37.5 18.2 13.0 12.6 3.3 5.2 65.6 48.8 44.9 69.5 85.7 25.8 5.8 5.6 45.8 2.5 5.1 3.8 7.2 43.6 18.0 91.7 33.5 68.6 55.1 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 -----------+-------------+------ ALL ADULTS I 67.7 32.3 I 100 -----------+-------------+------ GENDER I I MALE I 68.3 31.7 I 100 FEMALE I 67.2 32.8 I 100 1 53 TABLE 10.2 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE BY TYPE OF METHODS USED AND BY STATE STATE I TRAD. MODERN I NON-USERI TOTAL ---------------+---------------+---------+------ ABIA ADAMAWA AKWA-IBOM ANAMBRA BAUCH I BENUE BORNO CROSS RIVER DELTA EDO ENUGU IMO JIGAWA KADUNA KANO KATSINA KEBBI KOGI KWARA LAGOS NIGER OGUN ONDO OSUN OYO PLATEAU RIVERS SOKOTO TARABA YOBE ABUJA 2.3 0.0 4.4 18.6 1.7 7.5 0.0 7.4 2.4 9.9 24.6 15.5 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.3 2.1 2.2 1.6 1.4 7.0 2.4 1.8 0.8 0.6 10.4 0.2 0.3 0.0 4.4 7.0 I 90.7 2.7 I 97.3 11.0 84.6 4.3 77.1 1.1 97.2 7.9 82.6 3.0 1.0 24.8 15.1 21.0 20.0 0.1 3.5 0.3 1.1 1.0 10.4 5.3 11.6 1.8 15.6 8.6 6.2 11.1 11.0 5.6 3.1 5.4 0.0 10.4 97.0 91.6 72.8 75.0 54.4 64.5 99.9 96.1 99.2 98.9 98.7 87.5 92.5 86.8 96.8 I 77.4 I 89.0 I 92.0 I 88.1 I 88.4 I 84.0 I 96.7 I 94.3 1100.0 I 85.2 I 100 I 100 I 100 I 100 I 100 I 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 ---------------+---------------+---------+------ NIGERIA I 4.3 7.1 I 88.6 I 100 54 EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING INTRODUCTION There are a number of reasons why this component of the breastfeeding module is put as an addendum to the main text. While global definitions of exclusive breastfeeding suggest that only children fed on breast milk alone for 6 consecutive months are considered exclusively breastfed, the MICS questionnaire was framed in terms of 'children fed only on breast milk in the last 24 hours'. The responses obtained from mothers which report 31 % for 0-5 month olds may therefore have represented a gross over-estimate; by having considered water and honey given along with their own milk as exclusive breasffeeding the MICS finding makes it inconsistent with the current estimate of 2.1 %. However, it should be noted that considerable progress has been made on the Baby Friendly Initiative front, not only in designating an increasing number of hospitals baby friendly, but in increasing the level of awareness about the importance of exclusive breastfeeding. It is highly probable that exclusive breastfeeding among Nigerian mothers may have increased, but less likely to have made the quantum leap from 2.1 % to 31 % implied by the MICS . The analysis and data presented below are therefore included here for the sake of complete record keeping. It will also serve as baseline to be confirmed or refuted in subsequent multi-indicator cluster surveys. TEXT AND TABLES The survey covered proportion of children who were fed on breastmilk only i.e. exclusive breastfeeding in the last 24 hours. Of children aged 0-5 months covered the survey showed that 31 percent were exclusively breastfed. For children aged 0-months (less than one month) 37 percent were exclusively breastfed while the figure for children aged 1-3 months was 32 percent. The data derived from a question relating to breastfeeding in "the last 24 hours" implying that some children hitherto reported as exclusively breastfed may have, as a result a lack of clarity in the question posed by the enumerator and the response given by the mother, had breastmilk and also water or honey and water in the reference 24 hours. Therefore the figure of exclusive breastfeeding so derived should be seen as an upper bound. GENDER-WISE, THE DISAGGREGATED FIGURES WERE 32 PERCENT FOR BOYS AND 29 PERCENT FOR GIRLS. AS EXPECTED THE RATE FOR THE URBAN {19 PERCENT) WAS MUCH LOWER THAN THAT (39 PERCENT) FOR THE RURAL. 55 1 TABLE 9.5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN AGE 0-MONTH BY EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING STATUS IN THE LAST 24 HOURS BACKGROUND I VARIABLES I YES NO I I TOTAL -----------+---------------+------ ABIA I 33.3 66.7 I 100 ADAMAWA I 33.3 66.7 100 AKWA-IBOM I 0.0 100.0 100 ANAMBRA I 0.0 100.0 100 BAUCH I I 50.0 50.0 100 BENUE I 40.0 60.0 100 BORNO I 16.7 83.3 100 C/RIVER I 25.0 75.0 100 DELTA 0.0 0.0 0.0 EDO 41.7 58.3 100 ENUGU 0.0 0.0 0.0 IMO 12.5 87.5 100 JIGAWA 57.1 42.9 100 KADUNA 25.0 75.0 100 KANO 33.3 66.7 100 KATSINA 57.1 42.9 100 KEBBI 100.0 0.0 100 KOGI 0.0 100.0 100 KWARA 0.0 100.0 100 LAGOS 0.0 100.0 100 NIGER 0.0 100.0 100 OGUN I 100.0 0.0 100 ONDO I 0.0 100.0 100 OSUN I 40.0 60.0 100 OYO I 30.0 70.0 100 PLATEAU I 83.3 16.7 100 RIVERS I 50.0 50.0 100 SOKOTO I 100.0 0.0 100 TARABA I 100.0 0.0 100 YOBE I 55.6 44.4 100 ABUJA (FCT) I 33.3 66.7 100 -----------+---------------+------ ALL INFANTS I 39.1 60.9 I 100 -----------1---------------1------ 1 I MALE I 43.2 56.8 I 100 FEMALE I 34.8 65.8 I 100 56 TABLE 9.6 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN AGED 1-3 MONTHS BY EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING STATUS IN THE LAST 24 HOURS I BACKGROUND I VARIABLES I YES NO I TOTAL -----------+---------------+------ ABIA I 11.1 88.9 100 ADAMAWA I 25.0 75.0 100 AKWA-IBOM I 18.2 81.8 100 ANAMBRA I 12.5 87.5 100 BAUCH I I 77.8 22.2 100 BENUE I 15.8 84.2 100 BORNO I 20.0 80.0 100 C/RIVER I 54.5 45.5 100 DELTA I 50.0 50.0 100 EDO I 0.0 100.0 100 ENUGU I 8.3 91.7 100 IMO I 0.0 100.0 100 JIGAWA I 33.9 66.1 100 KADUNA I 34.6 65.4 100 KANO I 24.6 75.4 100 KATSINA I 68.6 31.4 100 KEBBI I 63.6 36.4 100 KOGI I 40.0 60.0 100 KWARA I 20.0 80.0 100 LAGOS I 0.0 100.0 100 NIGER I 16.7 83.3 100 OGUN I 33.3 66.7 100 ONDO I 0.0 100.0 100 OSUN I 25.0 75.0 100 OYO I 19.0 81.0 100 PLATEAU I 68.8 31.3 100 RIVERS I 0.0 100.0 100 SOKOTO I 33.3 66.7 100 TARABA I 66.7 33.3 100 YOBE I 33.3 66.7 100 ABUJA (FCT) I 25.0 75.0 100 -----------+---------------+------ ALL INFANTS I 31.9 68.1 I 100 ---------------------------------- MALE 33.5 66.5 100 FEMALE I 30.2 69.8 100 ---------------------------------- 57 TABLE 9.7 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN AGED 0-5 MONTHS I.E 6 MONTHS BY EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING STATUS (IN THE LAST 24 HOURS) ---------------------------------- BACKGROUND I I VARIABLES I YES NO I TOTAL -----------+---------------+------ ABIA I 17.9 82.1 100 ADAMAWA I 42.9 57.1 100 AKWA-IBOM I 11.8 88.2 100 ANAMBRA I 17.6 82.4 100 BAUCH I I 64.7 35.3 100 BENUE I 16.2 83.8 100 BORNO I 15.2 84.8 100 C/RIVER I 33.3 66.7 100 DELTA I 40.0 60.0 100 EDO I 24.0 76.0 100 ENUGU I 4.5 95.5 100 IMO I 9.5 90.5 100 JIGAWA I 36.8 63.2 100 KADUNA I 31.7 68.3 100 KANO I 22.8 77.2 100 KATSINA I 65.1 34.9 100 KEBBI I 67.6 32.4 100 KOGI I 38.5 61.5 100 KWARA I 7.1 92.9 100 LAGOS I 0.0 100.0 100 NIGER I 13.6 86.4 100 OGUN I 56.3 43.8 100 ONDO I 0.0 100.0 100 OSUN I 37.0 63.0 100 OYO I 19.0 81.0 100 PLATEAU I 68.8 31.3 100 RIVERS I 5.6 94.4 100 SOKOTO I 42.9 57.1 100 TARABA I 71.4 28.6 100 YOBE I 37.0 63.0 100 ABUJA (FCT) I 28.6 71.4 100 -----------+---------------+------ ALL INFANTS I 30.8 69.2 I 100 ---------------------------------- GENDER MALE 32.4 67.6 100 FEMALE 29.0 71.0 100 RESIDENCE URBAN 18.6 81.4 100 } RURAL 36.3 63.7 100 ---------------------------------- 58

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