Nigeria - Demographic and Health Survey - 2014

Publication date: 2014

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013 N igeria 2013 D em ographic and H ealth Survey NIGERIA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY 2013 National Population Commission Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria ICF International Rockville, Maryland, USA June 2014 This report summarises the findings of the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), implemented by the National Population Commission (NPC). ICF International provided financial and technical assistance for the survey through the USAID-funded MEASURE DHS program, which is designed to assist developing countries to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. Financial support for the survey was provided by USAID, the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) through PATHS2, and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID, the government of Nigeria, or donor organisations. Additional information about the 2013 NDHS may be obtained from the headquarters of the National Population Commission (NPC), Plot 2031, Olusegun Obasanjo Way, Zone 7 Wuse, PMB 0281, Abuja, Nigeria (telephone: 234-09-523-9173; Fax: 243-09-523-1024; e-mail: info@populationgov.ng; Internet: www.population.gov.ng). Information about the MEASURE DHS program may be obtained from ICF International, 530 Gaither Road, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20850, USA (telephone: 301-407-6500; Fax: 301-407-6501; e-mail: info@dhsprogram.com; Internet: www.dhsprogram.com). Suggested citation: National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF International. 2014. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF International. Contents • iii CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES . ix FOREWORD . xvii STEERING COMMITTEE . xix CONTRIBUTORS TO THE REPORT . xxi ABBREVIATIONS . xxiii MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS . xxv MAP OF NIGERIA . xxvi 1 INTRODUCTION . 1 1.1 Geography, History, and Economy . 1 1.1.1 Geography . 1 1.1.2 History . 1 1.1.3 Economy . 2 1.2 Population . 2 1.3 Population and Health Policies . 3 1.3.1 National Population Policy . 3 1.3.2 Health Policy . 4 1.4 Organisation of the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey . 6 1.4.1 Sample Design . 7 1.4.2 Questionnaires . 7 1.4.3 Recruitment and Training of Field Staff . 9 1.4.4 Fieldwork . 9 1.4.5 Data Processing . 10 1.5 Response Rates . 10 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS . 11 2.1 Household Environment . 11 2.1.1 Drinking Water . 11 2.1.2 Household Sanitation Facilities . 13 2.1.3 Housing Characteristics . 14 2.1.4 Household Possessions . 15 2.2 Wealth Index . 15 2.3 Hand Washing . 16 2.4 Household Population by Age, Sex, and Residence . 18 2.5 Household Composition . 19 2.6 Birth Registration . 20 2.7 Education of the Household Population . 23 2.7.1 Educational Attainment . 23 2.7.2 School Attendance Ratios . 26 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 31 3.1 Characteristics of Survey Respondents . 31 3.2 Educational Attainment by Background Characteristics . 33 3.3 Literacy . 36 3.4 Exposure to Mass Media . 39 3.5 Employment . 42 3.6 Occupation . 46 iv • Contents 3.7 Type of Employment . 49 3.8 Health Insurance Coverage . 50 3.9 Use of Tobacco . 52 4 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY . 53 4.1 Marital Status . 53 4.2 Polygyny . 54 4.3 Age at First Marriage . 57 4.4 Age at First Sexual Intercourse . 58 4.5 Recent Sexual Activity . 61 5 FERTILITY . 65 5.1 Current Fertility . 65 5.2 Fertility Differentials . 67 5.3 Fertility Trends . 70 5.4 Children Ever Born and Living . 71 5.5 Birth Intervals . 72 5.6 Postpartum Amenorrhoea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility . 74 5.7 Menopause . 77 5.8 Age at First Birth . 77 5.9 Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood . 78 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 81 6.1 Desire for More Children . 81 6.2 Desire to Limit Childbearing by Background Characteristics . 83 6.3 Ideal Family Size . 85 6.4 Fertility Planning Status . 86 6.5 Wanted Fertility Rates . 87 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 89 7.1 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods . 89 7.2 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods by Background Characteristics . 91 7.3 Current Use of Contraception . 92 7.4 Current Use of Contraception by Background Characteristics . 94 7.5 Trends in Contraceptive Use . 97 7.6 Source of Modern Contraceptive Methods . 98 7.7 Use of Social Marketing Brand Pills . 98 7.8 Use of Social Marketing Brand Condoms . 99 7.9 Informed Choice . 101 7.10 Rates of Discontinuing Contraceptive Methods . 102 7.11 Reasons for Discontinuing Contraceptive Methods . 103 7.12 Knowledge of the Fertile Period . 104 7.13 Need and Demand for Family Planning . 104 7.14 Future Use of Contraception . 110 7.15 Exposure to Family Planning Messages in the Media . 110 7.16 Exposure to Specific Family Planning Messages . 112 7.17 Contact of Nonusers with Family Planning Providers . 114 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 117 8.1 Data Quality . 118 8.2 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality . 118 8.2.1 Early Childhood Mortality Rates . 118 8.2.2 Trends in Early Childhood Mortality . 119 Contents • v 8.3 Early Childhood Mortality Rates by Socioeconomic Characteristics . 120 8.4 Demographic Differentials in Early Childhood Mortality Rates . 121 8.5 Perinatal Mortality . 122 8.6 High-Risk Fertility Behaviour . 123 9 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH . 127 9.1 Antenatal Care . 128 9.1.1 Number and Timing of Antenatal Visits . 130 9.1.2 Components of Antenatal Care . 131 9.1.3 Tetanus Toxoid Injections . 133 9.2 Delivery . 135 9.2.1 Place of Delivery. 135 9.2.2 Reasons for Not Delivering in a Health Facility . 137 9.2.3 Assistance during Delivery . 139 9.3 Postnatal Care . 141 9.3.1 Timing of First Postnatal Checkup for Mother . 141 9.3.2 Provider of First Postnatal Checkup for Mother . 143 9.4 Newborn Care . 145 9.4.1 Timing of First Postnatal Checkup for Newborn . 145 9.4.2 Provider of First Postnatal Checkup for Newborn . 147 9.4.3 Use of Clean Home Delivery Kits . 149 9.4.4 Newborn Care Practices . 151 9.5 Problems in Accessing Health Care . 153 10 CHILD HEALTH . 155 10.1 Child’s Size and Weight at Birth . 156 10.2 Vaccination Coverage. 158 10.2.1 Vaccination Coverage by Background Characteristics . 159 10.2.2 Trends in Vaccination Coverage . 161 10.3 Acute Respiratory Infection . 161 10.4 Fever . 163 10.5 Diarrhoeal Disease . 165 10.5.1 Prevalence of Diarrhoea . 166 10.5.2 Treatment of Diarrhoea . 167 10.5.3 Feeding Practices during Diarrhoea . 169 10.6 Knowledge of ORS Packets . 171 10.7 Stool Disposal . 171 11 NUTRITION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN . 175 11.1 Nutritional Status of Children . 175 11.1.1 Measurement of Nutritional Status among Young Children . 176 11.1.2 Data Collection . 177 11.1.3 Measures of Child Nutritional Status . 177 11.1.4 Trends in Children’s Nutritional Status . 180 11.2 Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding . 181 11.2.1 Initiation of Breastfeeding . 181 11.2.2 Breastfeeding Status by Age . 184 11.2.3 Duration of Breastfeeding . 186 11.2.4 Types of Complementary Foods . 187 11.3 Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) Practices . 188 11.4 Micronutrient Intake among Children . 192 11.5 Nutritional Status of Women . 195 11.6 Micronutrient Intake among Mothers . 197 vi • Contents 12 MALARIA . 201 12.1 Mosquito Nets . 202 12.2 Indoor Residual Spraying . 204 12.3 Access to an Insecticide-Treated Net (ITN) . 206 12.4 Use of Mosquito Nets by Persons in the Household . 208 12.5 Use of Existing ITNs . 210 12.6 Use of Mosquito Nets by Children under Age 5 . 212 12.7 Use of Mosquito Nets by All Women and Pregnant Women Age 15-49 . 213 12.8 Prophylactic Use of Antimalarial Drugs and Use of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnant Women . 215 12.9 Prevalence and Prompt Treatment of Fever in Children under Age 5 . 217 12.10 Source of Advice or Treatment for Children with Fever . 220 13 HIV- AND AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR . 223 13.1 HIV and AIDS Knowledge, Transmission, and Prevention Methods . 224 13.1.1 Awareness of HIV and AIDS. 224 13.1.2 Knowledge of HIV Prevention Methods . 226 13.1.3 Rejection of Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS . 228 13.2 Knowledge of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV . 231 13.3 Accepting Attitudes Toward Those Living with HIV and AIDS . 233 13.4 Attitudes Towards Negotiating Safer Sex . 236 13.5 Attitudes Toward Condom Education for Youth . 238 13.6 Higher-Risk Sex . 240 13.6.1 Multiple Sexual Partners . 240 13.6.2 Point Prevalence and Cumulative Prevalence of Concurrent Sexual Partners . 243 13.7 Transactional Sex . 245 13.8 Testing for HIV . 246 13.8.1 General HIV Testing . 246 13.8.2 HIV Counselling and Testing during Pregnancy . 250 13.9 Male Circumcision . 252 13.10 Self-Reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections . 256 13.11 Prevalence of Medical Injections. 258 13.12 HIV- and AIDS-Related Knowledge and Behaviour among Youth . 260 13.12.1 Knowledge about HIV and AIDS and of Sources for Condoms . 260 13.12.2 Age at First Sexual Intercourse among Youth . 262 13.12.3 Trends in Age at First Sexual Intercourse among Youth . 264 13.12.4 Abstinence and Premarital Sex . 264 13.12.5 Multiple Partnerships among Young People. 266 13.12.6 Age Mixing in Sexual Relationships among Young Women Age 15-19 . 268 13.12.7 Recent HIV Tests among Youth . 270 14 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY . 273 14.1 Data . 274 14.2 Direct Estimates of Adult Mortality . 275 14.2.1 Trends in Adult Mortality . 276 14.3 Direct Estimates of Maternal Mortality . 277 15 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH OUTCOMES . 279 15.1 Employment and Form of Earnings . 280 15.2 Control Over and Relative Magnitude of Women’s and Husbands’ Earnings . 280 15.2.1 Control Over Wife’s Earnings . 280 15.2.2 Control Over Husband’s Earnings . 282 Contents • vii 15.3 Control Over Women’s Earnings and Relative Size of Husband’s and Wife’s Earnings . 284 15.4 Ownership of Assets . 285 15.5 Women’s Participation in Decision Making . 288 15.6 Attitudes Toward Wife Beating . 292 15.7 Women’s Empowerment Indices . 296 15.8 Current Use of Contraception by Women’s Status . 297 15.9 Ideal Family Size and Unmet Need by Women’s Status . 298 15.10 Women’s Status and Reproductive Health Care . 299 15.11 Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality by Women’s Status . 300 16 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE . 301 16.1 Measurement of Violence . 302 16.1.1 Use of Valid Measures of Violence . 302 16.1.2 Ethical Considerations . 303 16.1.3 Subsample for the Violence Module . 303 16.2 Women Experiencing Physical Violence . 303 16.3 Perpetrators of Physical Violence . 306 16.4 Experience of Sexual Violence . 307 16.5 Persons Committing Sexual Violence . 309 16.6 Age at First Experience of Sexual Violence . 309 16.7 Experience of Different Forms of Violence . 309 16.8 Violence during Pregnancy . 310 16.9 Marital Control by Husband or Partner . 311 16.10 Forms of Spousal Violence . 313 16.11 Spousal Violence by Background Characteristics . 315 16.12 Violence by Spousal Characteristics and Women’s Empowerment Indicators . 317 16.13 Recent Spousal Violence . 319 16.14 Onset of Spousal Violence . 321 16.15 Types of Injuries Caused by Spousal Violence . 321 16.16 Violence by Women Against Their Spouse . 322 16.17 Help-seeking Behaviour by Women who Experience Violence . 325 16.18 Sources of Help . 327 16.19 Domestic Violence Faced by Widowed Women . 328 17 ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN . 329 17.1 Orphans and Vulnerable Children . 330 17.1.1 Children’s Living Arrangements and Orphanhood . 330 17.1.2 Orphaned and Vulnerable Children . 331 17.2 Social and Economic Situation of Orphaned and Vulnerable Children. 333 17.2.1 School Attendance . 333 17.2.2 Basic Material Needs . 334 17.2.3 Orphans Living with Siblings . 336 17.2.4 Nutritional Status . 337 17.2.5 Sex Before Age 15 . 338 17.3 Care and Support for Orphaned and Vulnerable Children. 339 17.3.1 Widows Dispossessed of Property . 339 17.3.2 External Support for Households with OVCs . 341 18 FEMALE GENITAL CUTTING . 345 18.1 Knowledge of Female Circumcision . 346 18.2 Prevalence of Female Circumcision . 348 18.3 Age at Circumcision . 351 viii • Contents 18.4 Circumcision of Daughters . 353 18.5 Person Who Performed Circumcision . 357 18.6 Attitudes Toward Female Circumcision . 358 REFERENCES . 363 APPENDIX A ADDITIONAL TABLES . 369 APPENDIX B SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION . 377 APPENDIX C ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 385 APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES . 397 APPENDIX E PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE SURVEY . 401 APPENDIX F QUESTIONNAIRES . 411 Tables and Figures • ix TABLES AND FIGURES 1 INTRODUCTION . 1 Table 1.1 Basic demographic indicators . 3 Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews . 10 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS . 11 Table 2.1 Household drinking water . 12 Table 2.2 Household sanitation facilities . 13 Table 2.3 Household characteristics . 14 Table 2.4 Household possessions . 15 Table 2.5 Wealth quintiles . 16 Table 2.6 Hand washing . 17 Table 2.7 Household population by age, sex, and residence . 18 Table 2.8 Household composition . 19 Table 2.9 Birth registration of children under age 5 . 20 Table 2.10 Birth registration of children under age 5 by authority . 22 Table 2.11.1 Educational attainment of the female household population . 23 Table 2.11.2 Educational attainment of the male household population . 24 Figure 2.1 Population pyramid . 19 Figure 2.2 Age-specific attendance rates . 29 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 31 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 32 Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women . 34 Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Men . 35 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women . 37 Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men . 38 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women . 40 Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Men . 41 Table 3.5.1 Employment status: Women . 42 Table 3.5.2 Employment status: Men . 45 Table 3.6.1 Occupation: Women . 46 Table 3.6.2 Occupation: Men . 48 Table 3.7.1 Type of employment: Women . 49 Table 3.7.2 Type of employment: Men . 50 Table 3.8.1 Health insurance coverage: Women . 51 Table 3.8.2 Health insurance coverage: Men . 51 Table 3.9 Use of tobacco: Men . 52 Figure 3.1 Literacy status of women and men age 15-49 by regions . 39 Figure 3.2 Women’s employment status in the past 12 months . 44 4 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY . 53 Table 4.1 Current marital status . 53 Table 4.2.1 Number of women’s co-wives . 54 Table 4.2.2 Number of men’s wives . 56 Table 4.3 Age at first marriage . 57 x • Tables and Figures Table 4.4 Median age at first marriage by background characteristics . 58 Table 4.5 Age at first sexual intercourse . 59 Table 4.6 Median age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics . 60 Table 4.7.1 Recent sexual activity: Women . 62 Table 4.7.2 Recent sexual activity: Men . 63 5 FERTILITY . 65 Table 5.1 Current fertility . 66 Table 5.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 68 Table 5.3.1 Trends in age-specific fertility rates . 70 Table 5.3.2 Trends in age-specific and total fertility rates . 70 Table 5.4 Children ever born and living . 72 Table 5.5 Birth intervals . 73 Table 5.6 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility . 75 Table 5.7 Median duration of amenorrhoea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility . 76 Table 5.8 Menopause . 77 Table 5.9 Age at first birth . 77 Table 5.10 Median age at first birth . 78 Table 5.11 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood . 79 Figure 5.1 Trends in age-specific fertility rates by urban-rural residence . 67 Figure 5.2 Total fertility rates of selected ECOWAS countries . 67 Figure 5.3 Fertility differentials by zone . 69 Figure 5.4 Trends in age-specific fertility rates, 2003-2013 . 71 Figure 5.5 Percentage of teenagers who have begun childbearing and who are pregnant with their first child by age . 80 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 81 Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . 82 Table 6.2.1 Desire to limit childbearing: Women . 84 Table 6.2.2 Desire to limit childbearing: Men . 84 Table 6.3 Ideal number of children by number of living children . 85 Table 6.4 Mean ideal number of children . 86 Table 6.5 Fertility planning status . 87 Table 6.6 Wanted fertility rates . 88 Figure 6.1 Percentage of currently married women and men who want no more children, by number of living children . 83 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 89 Table 7.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . 90 Table 7.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by background characteristics . 91 Table 7.3 Current use of contraception by age . 93 Table 7.4 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . 95 Table 7.5 Trends in current use of contraception . 97 Table 7.6 Source of modern contraception methods . 98 Table 7.7 Use of social marketing brand pills and injectables . 99 Table 7.8.1 Use of social marketing brand condoms: Women . 100 Table 7.8.2 Use of social marketing brand condoms: Men . 101 Table 7.9 Informed choice . 102 Table 7.10 Twelve-month contraceptive discontinuation rates . 103 Table 7.11 Reasons for discontinuation . 104 Tables and Figures • xi Table 7.12 Knowledge of fertile period . 104 Table 7.13.1 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women . 106 Table 7.13.2 Need and demand for family planning for all women . 108 Table 7.13.3 Need and demand for family planning for sexually active unmarried women . 109 Table 7.14 Future use of contraception . 110 Table 7.15 Exposure to family planning messages . 111 Table 7.16 Exposure to specific family planning messages . 113 Table 7.17 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 115 Figure 7.1 Differentials in contraceptive use, Nigeria. 97 Figure 7.2 Trends in unmet need for family planning . 110 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 117 Table 8.1 Early childhood mortality rates . 119 Table 8.2 Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics . 120 Table 8.3 Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics . 121 Table 8.4 Perinatal mortality . 123 Table 8.5 High-risk fertility behaviour . 124 Figure 8.1 Trends in childhood mortality, 1999-2013 . 119 Figure 8.2 Under-5 mortality in the 10 years preceding the survey by socioeconomic characteristics . 121 Figure 8.3 Infant mortality rate in the 10 years preceding the survey by selected demographic characteristics . 122 9 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH . 127 Table 9.1 Antenatal care . 128 Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 130 Table 9.3 Components of antenatal care . 131 Table 9.4 Tetanus toxoid injections . 133 Table 9.5 Place of delivery . 135 Table 9.6 Reasons for not delivering in a health facility . 138 Table 9.7 Assistance during delivery . 139 Table 9.8 Timing of first postnatal checkup . 142 Table 9.9 Type of provider of first postnatal checkup for the mother . 144 Table 9.10 Timing of first postnatal checkup for the newborn . 146 Table 9.11 Type of provider of first postnatal checkup for the newborn . 147 Table 9.12 Use of clean home delivery kits and other instruments to cut the umbilical cord . 149 Table 9.13 Newborn care practices . 152 Table 9.14 Problems in accessing health care . 153 Figure 9.1 Source of antenatal care . 130 Figure 9.2 Trends in place of delivery . 137 Figure 9.3 Mother’s duration of stay in the health facility after giving birth . 141 Figure 9.4 Type of substance applied on the umbilical stump . 151 10 CHILD HEALTH . 155 Table 10.1 Child’s size and weight at birth. 156 Table 10.2 Vaccinations by source of information . 159 Table 10.3 Vaccinations by background characteristics . 160 Table 10.4 Trends in vaccination coverage . 161 Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI . 162 xii • Tables and Figures Table 10.6 Prevalence and treatment of fever . 164 Table 10.7 Prevalence of diarrhoea . 166 Table 10.8 Diarrhoea treatment . 168 Table 10.9 Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 170 Table 10.10 Knowledge of ORS packets or pre-packaged liquids. 171 Table 10.11 Disposal of children’s stools . 172 Figure 10.1 Percentage of children age 12-23 months with specific vaccinations . 159 Figure 10.2 Trends in vaccination coverage among children age 12-23 months, 2003-2013 . 161 Figure 10.3 Percentage of children with symptoms of ARI, fever, and diarrhoea for whom treatment was sought from a health facility or provider . 165 11 NUTRITION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN . 175 Table 11.1 Nutritional status of children . 178 Table 11.2 Initial breastfeeding . 182 Table 11.3 Breastfeeding status by age . 185 Table 11.4 Median duration of breastfeeding . 187 Table 11.5 Foods and liquids consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview . 188 Table 11.6 Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices . 190 Table 11.7 Micronutrient intake among children . 192 Table 11.8 Nutritional status of women . 196 Table 11.9 Micronutrient intake among mothers . 198 Figure 11.1 Nutritional status of children by age . 180 Figure 11.2 Trends in nutritional status of children under age 5, 2003-2013 . 181 Figure 11.3 Infant feeding practices by age . 185 Figure 11.4 IYCF indicators on breastfeeding status . 186 Figure 11.5 IYCF indicators on minimum acceptable diet . 192 Figure 11.6 Trends in nutritional status of women . 197 12 MALARIA . 201 Table 12.1 Household possession of mosquito nets . 203 Table 12.2 Indoor residual spraying against mosquitoes . 205 Table 12.3 Source of IRS . 206 Table 12.4 Access to an insecticide-treated net (ITN) . 207 Table 12.5 Use of mosquito nets by persons in the household . 208 Table 12.6 Use of existing ITNs . 211 Table 12.7 Use of mosquito nets by children . 212 Table 12.8 Use of mosquito nets by pregnant women . 214 Table 12.9 Use of intermittent preventive treatment by women during pregnancy . 216 Table 12.10 Prevalence, diagnosis, and prompt treatment of children with fever . 218 Table 12.11 Source of advice or treatment for children with fever . 220 Table 12.12 Type of antimalarial drugs used . 221 Figure 12.1 Percentage of the de facto population with access to an ITN in the household, by background characteristics, 2013 . 207 Figure 12.2 Ownership of, access to, and use of ITNs . 210 Figure 12.3 Trends in the percentage of women taking 2+ doses of SP and at least one dose during ANC . 217 Tables and Figures • xiii 13 HIV- AND AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR . 223 Table 13.1 Knowledge of AIDS . 225 Table 13.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods . 226 Table 13.3.1 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS: Women . 228 Table 13.3.2 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS: Men . 230 Table 13.4 Knowledge of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV . 232 Table 13.5.1 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS: Women . 234 Table 13.5.2 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS: Men . 235 Table 13.6 Attitudes toward negotiating safer sexual relations with husband . 237 Table 13.7 Adult support of education about condom use to prevent AIDS . 239 Table 13.8.1 Multiple sexual partners: Women . 241 Table 13.8.2 Multiple sexual partners: Men . 242 Table 13.9 Point prevalence and cumulative prevalence of concurrent sexual partners . 244 Table 13.10 Payment for sexual intercourse and condom use at last paid sexual intercourse . 245 Table 13.11.1 Coverage of prior HIV testing: Women . 248 Table 13.11.2 Coverage of prior HIV testing: Men . 249 Table 13.12 Pregnant women counselled and tested for HIV . 251 Table 13.13 Male circumcision . 252 Table 13.14 Place and provider for male circumcision . 254 Table 13.15 Self-reported prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STI symptoms . 256 Table 13.16 Prevalence of medical injections . 259 Table 13.17 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS and of a source of condoms among youth . 261 Table 13.18 Age at first sexual intercourse among young people . 263 Table 13.19 Premarital sexual intercourse and condom use during premarital sexual intercourse among youth . 265 Table 13.20.1 Multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months among young people: Women . 267 Table 13.20.2 Multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months among young people: Men . 268 Table 13.21 Age mixing in sexual relationships among women age 15-19 . 269 Table 13.22 Recent HIV tests among youth . 270 Figure 13.1 Women and men seeking treatment for STIs . 258 Figure 13.2 Trends in age of first sexual intercourse . 264 14 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY . 273 Table 14.1 Completeness of information on siblings . 274 Table 14.2 Adult mortality rates and trends . 275 Table 14.3 Adult mortality probabilities . 276 Table 14.4 Maternal mortality . 277 Figure 14.1 Mortality rates among women and men age 15-49 . 276 Figure 14.2 Maternal mortality ratios with confidence intervals for the seven years preceding the 2008 NDHS and the 2013 NDHS . 278 15 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH OUTCOMES . 279 Table 15.1 Employment and cash earnings of currently married women and men . 280 Table 15.2.1 Control over women’s cash earnings and relative magnitude of women’s cash earnings . 281 Table 15.2.2 Control over men’s cash earnings . 283 Table 15.3 Women’s control over their own earnings and over those of their husbands . 285 Table 15.4.1 Ownership of assets: Women . 285 xiv • Tables and Figures Table 15.4.2 Ownership of assets: Men . 287 Table 15.5 Participation in decision making . 288 Table 15.6.1 Women’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 289 Table 15.6.2 Men’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 291 Table 15.7.1 Attitudes toward wife beating: Women . 293 Table 15.7.2 Attitudes toward wife beating: Men . 295 Table 15.8 Indicators of women’s empowerment . 297 Table 15.9 Current use of contraception by women’s empowerment . 298 Table 15.10 Ideal number of children and unmet need for family planning by women’s empowerment . 299 Table 15.11 Reproductive health care by women’s empowerment . 299 Table 15.12 Early childhood mortality rates by women’s status . 300 Figure 15.1 Number of decisions in which currently married women participate . 291 16 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE . 301 Table 16.1 Experience of physical violence . 305 Table 16.2 Persons committing physical violence . 306 Table 16.3 Experience of sexual violence. 307 Table 16.4 Persons committing sexual violence . 309 Table 16.5 Age at first experience of sexual violence . 309 Table 16.6 Experience of different forms of violence . 310 Table 16.7 Experience of violence during pregnancy . 310 Table 16.8 Marital control exercised by husbands . 312 Table 16.9 Forms of spousal violence . 314 Table 16.10 Spousal violence by background characteristics . 316 Table 16.11 Spousal violence by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators . 318 Table 16.12 Physical or sexual violence in the past 12 months by any husband/partner . 319 Table 16.13 Experience of spousal violence by duration of marriage . 321 Table 16.14 Injuries to women due to spousal violence . 321 Table 16.15 Women’s violence against their spouse . 322 Table 16.16 Women’s violence against their spouse by husband’s characteristics . 324 Table 16.17 Help seeking to stop violence . 326 Table 16.18 Sources for help to stop violence . 327 Table 16.19 Domestic violence faced by women after the death of their husbands . 328 Figure 16.1 Specific forms of physical and sexual violence committed by spouse . 315 17 ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN . 329 Table 17.1 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood . 330 Table 17.2 Orphans and vulnerable children . 332 Table 17.3 School attendance by survivorship of parents and by OVC status. 334 Table 17.4 Possession of basic material needs by orphans and vulnerable children . 335 Table 17.5 Orphans not living with siblings . 336 Table 17.6 Underweight orphans and vulnerable children . 337 Table 17.7 Sexual intercourse before age 15 among orphans and vulnerable children . 339 Table 17.8 Widows dispossessed of property . 340 Table 17.9 External support for very sick persons . 342 18 FEMALE GENITAL CUTTING . 345 Table 18.1 Knowledge of female circumcision . 347 Table 18.2 Prevalence of female circumcision . 349 Table 18.3 Unclassified types of female circumcision . 351 Tables and Figures • xv Table 18.4 Age at circumcision . 352 Table 18.5 Prevalence of circumcision and age at circumcision: Girls age 0-14 . 353 Table 18.6 Circumcision of girls age 0-14 by mother’s background characteristics . 354 Table 18.7 Infibulation among circumcised girls age 0-14 . 356 Table 18.8 Aspects of circumcision among circumcised girls age 0-14 and women age 15-49 . 357 Table 18.9 Opinions of women and men about whether circumcision is required by their religion . 359 Table 18.10 Opinions of women and men about whether the practice of circumcision should continue . 361 Figure 18.1 Percentage of women age 15-49 circumcised by selected ethnic groups . 350 Figure 18.2 Percentage of women age 15-49 and girls age 0-14 circumcised by age . 354 APPENDIX A ADDITIONAL TABLES . 369 Table A.2.1 Household drinking water: States . 369 Table A.2.2 Household sanitation facilities: States . 370 Table A.2.3 Household characteristics: Electricity . 371 Table A.3.7.1 Type of earnings: Women by state . 372 Table A.3.7.2 Type of earnings: Men by state . 373 Table A.3.7.3 Type of employer: Women by state . 374 Table A.3.7.4 Continuity of employment: Women by state . 375 Table A.3.7.5 Continuity of employment: Men by state . 376 APPENDIX B SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION . 377 Table B.1 Distribution of population and EAs by states . 378 Table B.2 Sample allocation of clusters and households by state and by residence . 379 Table B.3 Expected number of female and male interviews by state and by residence . 380 Table B.4 Sample implementation: Women . 382 Table B.5 Sample implementation: Men . 383 APPENDIX C ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 385 Table C.1 List of indicators for sampling errors, Nigeria 2013 . 387 Table C.2 Sampling errors for national sample, Nigeria 2013 . 388 Table C.3 Sampling errors for urban areas, Nigeria 2013 . 389 Table C.4 Sampling errors for rural areas, Nigeria 2013 . 390 Table C.5 Sampling errors for North Central zone, Nigeria 2013 . 391 Table C.6 Sampling errors for North East zone, Nigeria 2013 . 392 Table C.7 Sampling errors for North West zone, Nigeria 2013 . 393 Table C.8 Sampling errors for South East zone, Nigeria 2013 . 394 Table C.9 Sampling errors for South South zone, Nigeria 2013 . 395 Table C.10 Sampling errors for South West zone, Nigeria 2013 . 396 APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES . 397 Table D.1 Household age distribution . 397 Table D.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 397 Table D.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 398 Table D.3 Completeness of reporting . 398 Table D.4 Births by calendar years . 399 Table D.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 399 Table D.6 Reporting of age at death in months . 400 Table D.8 Sibship size and sex ratio of siblings . 400 Foreword • xvii FOREWORD igeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2013 is the fourth survey of its kind to be implemented by the National Population Commission (NPC). As the agency charged with the responsibility of collecting, collating, and analysing demographic data, the Commission has been unrelenting in its efforts to provide reliable, accurate, and up-to-date data for the country. We hope that information contained in this report will assist policymakers and programme managers in monitoring and designing programmes and strategies for improving health and family planning services in Nigeria. This report presents comprehensive, detailed, final outcomes of the findings of the survey. Users will find the available information useful for programme planning and evaluation. The 2013 NDHS is a national sample survey that provides up-to-date information on background characteristics of the respondents. Specifically, information is collected on fertility levels, marriage, fertility preferences, awareness and the use of family planning methods, child feeding practices, nutritional status of women and children, adult and childhood mortality, awareness and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS, female genital mutilation, and domestic violence. The target groups were women and men age 15-49 in randomly selected households across Nigeria. Information was also collected on the height and weight of women and children age 0-5. In addition to presenting national estimates, the report provides estimates of key indicators for both the rural and urban areas in Nigeria, the six geo-political zones, the 36 states, and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The success of the 2013 NDHS was made possible by a number of organizations and individuals. In this regard, I appreciate the support of the United States Agency for International Development in Nigeria (USAID/Nigeria) and the Department for International Development through PATHS2 for funding the survey, and also thank the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). I wish to also acknowledge Akintola Williams Deloitte (AWD) for providing accounting and disbursement services that allowed for the timely and efficient transfer of project funds throughout all the components of the survey. Furthermore, the support and collaboration witnessed by the 2013 NDHS from national, state, and local government, nongovernmental and international development organisations, and other major stakeholders is acknowledged. Special thanks go to the Federal Ministry of Health and its allies. I would like to extend our gratitude to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) for providing technical support on height and weight measurement of women and children during the training. On behalf of the Commission, I wish to appreciate the 2013 NDHS technical team, the Project Director, Ms. Nwamaka Ezenwa, and the Project Coordinator, Inuwa Bakari Jalingo, for the management of all the technical, administrative, and logistical phases of the survey. I would also like to put on record my sincere appreciation to the Survey Steering Committee members, field staff, data processing team, and, in particular, survey respondents. Similarly, I wish to express appreciation to ICF International for its technical assistance in all stages of the survey. I greatly appreciate Ms. Anjushree Pradhan (ICF DHS Country Manager) for the commitment and great expertise with which she managed all the components of this survey. I am also thankful to Ms. Claudia Marchena (Data Processing Specialist), who handled the data processing. I wish to commend the efforts of Dr. Alfredo Aliaga and Dr. Ruilin Ren (Sampling Specialists), who provided technical support for sampling. Dr. Pav Govindasamy (Regional Coordinator) also deserves our deep appreciation for her contributions. N xviii • Foreword Finally, I would like to thank the former NPC Chairman, Eze Festus Odimegwu, CON, and the Honourable Federal Commissioners for their support during the implementation period and for providing excellent leadership and advocacy support. The support by the Director, Planning and Research, Dr. Emma Enu Attah, and all NPC staff is hereby acknowledged. Steering Committee • xix STEERING COMMITTEE Eze Festus Odimegwu, CON, National Population Commission Chairman Mr. A. A. Taiwo, National Planning Commission Member Dr. Aderemi Azeez, Federal Ministry Of Health Member Dr. Ibrahim Yisa, PATHS2 Member Dr. Mai Yakubu, OSSAP-MDG Member Mr. Gambo L. Louis, National Bureau Of Statistics Member Dr. Joseph Monehin, USAID Member Dr. Dashe Dasogot, UNFPA Member Ms. Lisa Demoor, CIDA Member Representative, UNICEF Member Representative, WHO Member Representative, World Bank Member Ms. Anjushree Pradhan, ICF International Member Secretariat Ms. Ezenwa Loveth Nwamaka, National Population Commission Mr. Inuwa B. Jalingo, National Population Commission Contributors to the Report • xxi CONTRIBUTORS TO THE REPORT Ms. Ezenwa Nwamaka L., Project Director, NDHS, National Population Commission Mr. Inuwa B. Jalingo, Project Coordinator, NDHS, National Population Commission Mr. Datsu Kalep Harris, National Population Commission Mr. Arukwe Chidimma Ben, National Population Commission Mr. Makinwa Martin, National Population Commission Mr. Basiru Dele Wasiu, Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development Mr. Onuorah Innocent, National Population Commission Mr. Fasiku A. David, National Population Commission Mr. Akinsulie Bolaji, National Population Commission Dr. Okpani Arnold Ikedichi, National Primary Health Care Development Agency Ms. Winifred Ittah, National Population Commission Ms. Raliya M. Sambo, National Population Commission Dr. Ortonga I. Gabriel, Federal Ministry of Health Mr. Bello Solomon, National Population Commission Mr. Monday Y. Yanet, National Agency for the Control of AIDS Ms. Bintu Ibrahim, National Population Commission Mr. Nasir I. Ohiani, National Population Commission Mr. Akilah J.D., National Malaria Control Programme Dr. Uche Isiugo-Abanihe, University of Ibadan Dr. Chike Nwangwu, Saving One Million Lives (SOML) Initiatives Dr. Joseph Monehin, USAID/Nigeria Ms. Anjushree Pradhan, ICF International Abbreviations • xxiii ABBREVIATIONS ACT Artemisinin-based combination therapy AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ANC Antenatal care ARI Acute respiratory infection ART Anti-retroviral therapy ASCON Administrative Staff College of Nigeria ASAR Age-specific attendance rate ASFR Age-specific fertility rate BCG Bacille-Calmette-Guerin vaccine against tuberculosis BMI Body mass index CBR Crude birth rate CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CHEW Community Health Extension Workers CTS Conflict Tactics Scale DFID Department for International Development DHS Demographic and Health Survey DPT Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine EA Enumeration area ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States FCT Federal Capital Territory FGC Female Genital Cutting FMoH Federal Ministry of Health GAR Gross attendance ratio GDP Gross domestic product GFR General fertility rate GPI Gender parity index GPS Global Positioning System HIV Human immunodeficiency virus ICD International Classification of Diseases IMPAC ITN Massive Promotion and Awareness Campaign IPT Intermittent Preventive Therapy IRS Indoor residual spraying ITN Insecticide-treated net IUD Intrauterine device IYCF Infant and young child feeding LAM Lactational amenorrhea method LGA Local government area LLIN Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net LPG Liquid petroleum gas xxiv • Abbreviations MDGs Millennium Development Goals MMR Maternal mortality ratio MSI Marie Stopes International MSS Midwives Service Scheme MTCT Mother-to-child transmission NAR Net attendance ratio NCHS National Center for Health Statistics NDHS Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey NDSS National Demographic Sample Survey NFS Nigeria Fertility Survey NGO Nongovernmental organization NMCSP National Malaria Control Strategic Plan NN Neonatal mortality NPC National Population Commission NPHCDA National Primary Health Care Development Agency OPV Oral polio vaccine ORS Oral rehydration salts ORT Oral rehydration therapy OVC Orphan and Vulnerable Children PATHS2 Partnership for Transforming Health Systems Phase II PAHO Pan American Health Organization PHC Primary Health Care PMS Patent Medicine Stores PMTCT Prevention of mother-to-child transmission PNN Postneonatal mortality PSU Primary sampling unit RHF Recommended home fluid SDM Standard days method SHS Second-hand smoke SP Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine STI Sexually transmitted infection SURE-P MCH Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Program, Maternal and Child Health TFR Total fertility rate TT Tetanus toxoid UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund USAID United States Agency for International Development VAD Vitamin A deficiency VIP Ventilated improved pit WHO World Health Organization WHS Ward Health System Millennium Development Goal Indicators • xxv MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS Millennium Development Goal Indicators Nigeria 2013 Indicator Sex Total Male Female 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age 30.2 27.3 28.7 2. Achieve universal primary education 2.1 Net attendance ratio in primary education1 61.6 56.7 59.1 2.3 Literacy rate of 15- to 24-year-olds2 80.2a 62.8 71.5b 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 3.1 Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education 3.1a Ratio of girls to boys in primary education3 na na 0.9 3.1b Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education3 na na 0.9 3.1c Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education3 na na 0.7 4. Reduce child mortality 4.1 Under-five mortality rate4 151 137 128 4.2 Infant mortality rate4 84 70 69 4.3 Percentage of 1-year-old children immunized against measles 43.1 41.0 42.1 5. Improve maternal health 5.1 Maternal mortality ratio5 na na 576 (CI:500-652) 5.2 Percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel6 na na 38.1 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate7 na 15.1 na 5.4 Adolescent birth rate8 na 122 na 5.5 Antenatal care coverage 5.5a At least one visit9 na 60.6 na 5.5b Four or more visits10 na 51.1 na 5.6 Unmet need for family planning na 16.1 na 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 6.3 Percentage of the population age 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS11 33.5a 24.2 28.9b 6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non- orphans age 10-14 years 1.18 1.28 1.23 6.7 Percentage of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets 16.3 16.8 16.6 6.8 Percentage of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate antimalarial drugs12 33.2 32.3 32.7 Urban Rural Total 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 7.8 Percentage of population using an improved water source13 77.6 47.7 59.6 7.9 Percentage of population using an improved sanitation facility14 42.7 28.2 34.0 na = Not applicable 1 The ratio is based on reported attendance, not enrollment, in primary education among primary school age children (5- to 9-year-olds). The rate also includes children of primary school age enrolled in secondary education. This is a proxy for MDG indicator 2.1, net enrollment ratio. 2 Refers to respondents who attended secondary school or higher or who could read a whole sentence or part of a sentence 3 Based on reported net attendance, not gross enrollment, among 6- to 12-year-olds for primary, 13- to 18-year-olds for secondary, and 19- to 22- year-olds for tertiary education 4 Expressed in terms of deaths per 1,000 live births. Mortality by sex refers to a 10-year reference period preceding the survey. Mortality rates for males and females combined refer to the 5-year period preceding the survey. 5 Expressed in terms of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in the 7-year period preceding the survey. 6 Among births in the 5 years preceding the survey 7 Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 using any method of contraception 8 Equivalent to the age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19 for the 3-year period preceding the survey, expressed in terms of births per 1,000 women age 15-19 9 With a skilled provider 10 With any health care provider 11 Comprehensive knowledge means knowing that consistent use of a condom during sexual intercourse and having just one uninfected faithful partner can reduce the chance of getting the AIDS virus, knowing that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about transmission or prevention of the AIDS virus. 12 Measured as the percentage of children age 0-59 months who were ill with a fever in the 2 weeks preceding the interview and received any antimalarial drug 13 Percentage of de jure population whose main source of drinking water is a household connection (piped), public tap or standpipe, tubewell or borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, rainwater collection, or bottled water. 14 Percentage of de jure population whose household has a flush toilet, ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with a slab, or composting toilet and does not share this facility with other households a Restricted to men in the subsample of households selected for the male interview b The total is calculated as the simple arithmetic mean of the percentages in the columns for males and females. xxvi • Map of Nigeria Introduction • 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND ECONOMY 1.1.1 Geography igeria lies on the west coast of Africa between latitudes 4º16' and 13º53' north and longitudes 2º40' and 14º41' east. It occupies approximately 923,768 square kilometres of land stretching from the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic coast in the south to the fringes of the Sahara Desert in the north. The territorial boundaries are defined by the republics of Niger and Chad in the north, the Republic of Cameroon on the east, and the Republic of Benin on the west. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the 14th largest in land mass. The country’s 2006 Population and Housing Census placed the country’s population at 140,431,790. Nigeria has great geographical diversity, with its topography characterised by two main land forms: lowlands and highlands. The uplands stretch from 600 to 1,300 metres in the North Central and the east highlands, with lowlands of less than 20 metres in the coastal areas. The lowlands extend from the Sokoto plains to the Borno plains in the North, the coastal lowlands of western Nigeria, and the Cross River basin in the east. The highland areas include the Jos Plateau and the Adamawa Highlands in the north, extending to the Obudu Plateau and the Oban Hills in the southeast. Other topographic features include the Niger-Benue Trough and the Chad Basin. Nigeria has a tropical climate with wet and dry seasons associated with the movement of the inter- tropical convergence zone north and south of the equator. Its climate is influenced by the rain-bearing southwesterly winds and the cold, dry, and dusty northeasterly winds, commonly referred to as the Harmattan. The dry season occurs from October to March with a spell of cool, dry, and dusty Harmattan wind felt mostly in the north in December and January. The wet season occurs from April to September. The temperature in Nigeria oscillates between 25°C and 40°C, and rainfall ranges from 2,650 millimetres in the southeast to less than 600 millimetres in some parts of the north, mainly on the fringes of the Sahara Desert. The vegetation that results from these climatic differences consists of mangrove swamp forest in the Niger Delta and Sahel grassland in the north. With its variety of climatic, vegetation, and soil conditions, Nigeria possesses the potential for growing a wide range of agricultural produce. 1.1.2 History Nigeria marked its centenary in 2014, having begun its existence as a nation-state in 1914 through the amalgamation of the northern and southern protectorates. Before this time, there were various cultural, ethnic, and linguistic groups, such as the Oyo, Benin, Nupe, Jukun, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausa-Fulani empires. These groups lived in kingdoms and emirates with sophisticated systems of government. There were also other strong ethnic groups such as the Igbos, Ibibios, Ijaws, and Tivs. The establishment and expansion of British influence in both northern and southern Nigeria and the imposition of British rule resulted in the amalgamation of the protectorates of southern and northern Nigeria in 1914. The British established a crown colony type of government after the amalgamation. By this arrangement, the affairs of the colonial administration were conducted by the British; however, in 1942, a few Nigerians became involved in the administration of the country. In the early 1950s, Nigeria achieved partial self-government with a legislature in which the majority of the members were elected into an executive council of which most were Nigerians. Nigeria became fully independent in October 1960 as a federation of three regions (Northern, Western, and Eastern) under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary system of governance. The Lagos area became the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). N 2 • Introduction Nigeria became a republic on October 1, 1963, with different administrative structures. Within the boundaries of Nigeria are many social groups with distinct cultural traits; there are about 374 identifiable ethnic groups, with the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo as the major groups. Presently, Nigeria is made up of 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory, grouped into six geopolitical zones: North Central, North East, North West, South East, South South, and South West. There are 774 constitutionally recognised local government areas (LGAs) in the country. 1.1.3 Economy Agriculture was the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy before the discovery of oil in January 1953. Until that point, the country had depended almost entirely on agricultural production for food and agro- industrial raw materials for foreign exchange earnings through the commodity trade. At the time of independence in 1960, agriculture provided gainful employment and a satisfactory livelihood to more than 90 percent of the population. Over the years, the dominant role of agriculture in the economy, especially in terms of the country’s foreign exchange earnings, gave way to petroleum exports. Today the country’s economic strength is derived largely from its oil and gas reserves. As of 2013, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) stood at $262.6 billion (World Bank, 2013). A sectoral analysis showed that the contribution of agriculture to the total GDP stood at 39 percent, as compared with 40 percent in 2011. Similarly, the 18 percent and 14 percent contributions of industry and crude oil to the GDP were lower than the 2011 contributions of 19 percent and 15 percent, respectively. The contributions of two other industrial sector components, solid minerals and manufacturing, stood at 0.4 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The services sector as a percentage of GDP was 20 percent, higher than the 19 percent recorded in 2011 (with the finance and insurance, communications, transportation, and utilities components contributing 3.4, 7.1, 2.7, and 2.9 percent, respectively) (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2013). Since 1999, successive democratic governments have tried to create an enabling environment that would boost investment through economic policies. Appreciable progress has been made toward establishing a market-based economy. Consequently, there has been an improvement in the performance of the domestic economy. Nigeria’s GDP, measured at 1990 constant basic prices, indicated a growth rate of 6.6 percent in 2012. However, this figure was lower than the 7.4 percent rate recorded in the previous year. The reduced growth in GDP relative to 2011 was attributed to the contraction in oil’s contribution to the GDP. Previous growth rates were estimated at 2.7 percent in 1999, 2.8 percent in 2000, 3.8 percent in 2001, and 6.0 percent in 2006 (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2013). The government of Nigeria, having recognised the importance of privatisation in restructuring its economy, recently liberalised, deregulated, and privatised the power sector of the economy. This is in addition to the already long privatised telecommunications and downstream petroleum sectors. While it may be too early to determine the impact of privatisation and liberalisation on the Nigerian economy, it is believed that these economic policy reforms, combined with investments in human capital and physical infrastructure as well as the establishment of macroeconomic stability and good governance, will translate into a high rate of self-sustaining, long-term economic growth. 1.2 POPULATION Over the years, Nigeria has collected data on demographic statistics through censuses, vital registration systems, and sample surveys. The censuses of 1866, 1871, and 1896 were restricted to specific parts of the country. The censuses of 1911 and 1921 included more of the urban towns in the then colony. In 1931, the procedure for the conduct of the census in the southern protectorate was different from that for the northern part of the country. Because of the Second World War, there were no attempts to conduct a census in 1941. Introduction • 3 The first elaborate and near-scientific census conducted in Nigeria was the 1952-1953 census. However, it lacked simultaneity and probably underenumerated the country’s population. The results of the 1962 census were disregarded, and another census was carried out in 1963. This census was officially accepted (Table 1.1). The population census of 1973 was not acceptable and was, therefore, cancelled. Since then, there have been considerable improvements in the data collection process. The next census took place in 1991 and counted a total of 88,992,220 Nigerians. The 2006 Population and Housing Census reported Nigeria’s population to be 140,431,790, with a national growth rate estimated at 3.2 percent per annum. With this population, Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa, as noted, and the seventh most populous in the world (Population Reference Bureau, 2013). Nigeria’s population is unevenly distributed across the country. Large areas in the Chad Basin, the middle Niger Valley, and the grassland plains, among others, are sparsely populated. The average population density for the country in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometre (Table 1.1). The most densely populated states are Lagos (2,607 people per square kilometre), Anambra (868 people per square kilometre), and Imo (758 people per square kilometre). Most of the densely populated states are found in the southern part of the country. Kano, with an average density of 442 people per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the north (National Population Commission [NPC], 2010). Numerous sample surveys have been conducted in an effort to generate reliable demographic data. These include the 1965-1966 Rural Demographic Sample Survey and the 1980 National Demographic Sample Survey (NDSS) conducted by the Federal Office of Statistics and the National Population Bureau, respectively. The 1981-1982 Nigeria Fertility Survey (NFS) was the first nationally representative survey on fertility, family planning, contraceptive use, and related topics. This was followed by the first Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) in 1990. In 1994, the first sentinel survey was conducted by the National Population Commission to serve as a baseline study to monitor the various projects designed to achieve the objectives of the National Population Policy. In 1999, another NDHS was conducted. This was followed by a sentinel survey in 2000 and the 2003 NDHS. Another sentinel survey was conducted in 2007 to further assess the implementation of the objectives of the population policy. The most recent NDHS was conducted in 2008. 1.3 POPULATION AND HEALTH POLICIES 1.3.1 National Population Policy On February 4, 1988, the federal government of Nigeria approved the National Policy on Population for Development in response to the pattern of population growth rate and its adverse effects on national development. Emerging issues such as HIV/AIDS, poverty, and gender inequality gained wider recognition. This necessitated a review of the 1988 National Population Policy, giving way to the National Policy on Population for Sustainable Development, which was signed in January 2004 by Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, then president and commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The policy recognises that population factors, social and economic development, and environmental issues are irrevocably interrelated and are therefore critical to the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria. Table 1.1 Basic demographic indicators Demographic indicators from selected sources for Nigeria, 1963-2006 Indicators 1963 census 1991 census 2006 census Population (millions) 55.7 88.9 140.4 Density (population/km2) 60 96 150 Percent urban 19 36.3 u Life expectancy (years) Male u 52.6 u Female u 53.8 u Sources: Federal Office of Statistics, 1963; National Population Commission, 1998; National Population Commission, 2009 u = No information 4 • Introduction The overall goal of the National Policy on Population for Sustainable Development is to improve the quality of life and standard of living of the Nigerian population (NPC, 2004). This is to be achieved through the attainment of a number of specific goals that include: • Achievement of sustainable economic growth, protection and preservation of the environment, poverty eradication, and provision of quality social services • Achievement of a balance among the rate of population growth, available resources, and the social and economic development of the country • Progress toward a complete demographic transition to a reasonable growth in birth rates and a low death rate • Improvement in the reproductive health of all Nigerians at every stage of the life circle • Acceleration of a strong and immediate response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic and other related infectious diseases • Progress in achieving balance and integrated urban and rural development The National Policy on Population for Sustainable Development operates on the principle that achieving a higher quality of life for people today should not jeopardise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (NPC, 2004). To guide policy, programme planning, and implementation, the following targets were set: • Reduce the national population growth rate to 2 percent or lower by 2015 • Reduce the total fertility rate by at least 0.6 children every five years by encouraging child spacing through the use of family planning • Increase the contraceptive prevalence rate for modern methods by at least two percentage points per year through the use of family planning • Reduce the infant mortality rate to 35 per 1,000 live births by 2015 • Reduce the child mortality rate to 45 per 1,000 live births by 2010 • Reduce the maternal mortality ratio to 125 per 100,000 live births by 2010 and to 75 by 2015 • Achieve sustainable universal basic education as soon as possible before 2015 • Eliminate the gap between males and females in school enrolment at all levels and in vocational and technical education by 2015 • Eliminate illiteracy by 2020 • Achieve at least a 25 percent reduction in HIV/AIDS adult prevalence every five years 1.3.2 Health Policy Nigeria formulated a national health policy targeted at achieving quality health for all Nigerians in 1988. As a result of emerging issues and the need to focus on realities and trends, a review of the policy became necessary. The new policy, referred to as the Revised National Health Policy and launched in September 2004, outlined the goals, structure, strategy, and policy direction of the health care delivery system in Nigeria (Federal Ministry of Health, 2004). Roles and responsibilities of different tiers of Introduction • 5 government, including nongovernmental organisations, were clearly defined. The policy’s overall long- term goal is to provide adequate access to primary, secondary, and tertiary health care services for the entire Nigerian population through a functional referral system. The underlying principles and values of the Revised National Health Policy are as follows: • Social justice, equity, and the ideals of freedom and opportunity affirmed in the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria are basic rights. • Health and access to quality and affordable health care are human rights. • Equity in health care for all Nigerians will be pursued as a goal. • Primary health care (PHC) will remain the basic philosophy and strategy for national health development. • Good-quality health care will be assured through cost-effective interventions that are targeted at priority health problems. • A high level of efficiency and accountability will be maintained in the development and management of the national health system. • Effective partnerships and collaborations between various health sectors will be pursued while safeguarding the identity of each. The overall objective of the Revised National Health Policy is to strengthen the national health system such that it will be able to provide effective, efficient, quality, accessible, and affordable health services that will improve the health status of Nigerians through achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main health policy targets are the following: • Reduce the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015 • Reduce the maternal mortality rate by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015 • Reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 • Reduce the burden of malaria and other major diseases by 2015 The national health policy identifies primary health care as the framework to achieve improved health for the population. PHC services include health education; adequate nutrition; safe water and sanitation; reproductive health, including family planning; immunisation against five major infectious diseases; provision of essential drugs; and disease control. According to the policy, a comprehensive health care system delivered through PHC centres must incorporate maternal and child health care, including family planning services. Nigeria’s health sector is characterised by wide regional disparities in status, service delivery, and resource availability. In view of this situation, the government of Nigeria initiated several interventions including the Midwives Service Scheme (MSS); the Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Program, Maternal and Child Health (SURE-P-MCH); and systematic PHC infrastructure upgrades through the Ward Health System. Under the MSS, retired and newly qualified midwives provide services at PHC facilities in underserved communities around the country. The scheme, funded through MDG debt relief gains on a cost-sharing basis among the three tiers of government, has trained and deployed approximately 4,000 midwives and 1,000 community health extension workers (CHEWs) in 1,000 PHC facilities. This has improved access to skilled birth attendants in 375 LGAs across the country. In addition, attention is 6 • Introduction continuously geared toward full childhood immunisation and HIV/AIDS prevention (National Primary Health Care Development Agency [NPHCDA], 2012). The SURE-P-MCH programme, funded through savings derived from the partial removal of the petroleum subsidy, is intended to build and expand on the gains of the MSS. The programme aims to improve both demand and supply components of maternal and child health. As of January 2013, the programme had engaged 1,168 midwives and 2,188 community health extension workers in 500 PHC facilities. A total of 3,072 village health workers were also recruited and deployed. In addition, the programme is implementing a conditional cash transfer scheme as well as pursuing PHC facility upgrades and community engagement. The Ward Health System (WHS) was initiated in 2000 to improve equitable access to essential health services. The system is premised on the synchronisation of PHC services across electoral wards with the construction of model PHC facilities in underserved areas. As of January 2012, the NPHCDA had built 1,156 PHC facilities across the country. This is in addition to 228 maternal health care centres and 10 health training institutions built by the MDG office (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2010a; NPHCDA, 2012). 1.4 ORGANISATION OF THE 2013 NIGERIA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY The 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was implemented by the National Population Commission. It is the fifth in the series of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted so far in Nigeria; previous surveys were conducted in 1990, 1999, 2003, and 2008. The resources for the conduct of the survey were provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) (through the Partnership for Transforming Health Systems Phase II [PATHS2]), and the government of Nigeria (through the NPC). ICF International provided technical support throughout the duration of the survey. A steering committee composed of major stakeholders from the government and international organisations was formed. The steering committee was responsible for coordination, oversight, advice, and decision making on all major aspects of the survey. The steering committee’s membership included representatives from organisations such as the NPC, the Federal Ministry of Health, the National Planning Commission, and the National Bureau of Statistics, as well as USAID, UNFPA, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization, and the World Bank. The technical/quality assurance team was responsible for the entire technical management of the survey. The team was headed by a project director with the assistance of a project coordinator. Other members of the team included 18 state coordinators who were in charge of all of the different components of the survey (i.e., recruiting and training the field staff, monitoring the fieldwork, and assisting in any other project-related activities). Although significantly expanded in content, the 2013 NDHS, as a follow-up to the previous DHS surveys, provides updated estimates of some of the basic demographic and health indicators covered in the earlier surveys. In addition, as with the 2008 NDHS, information was gathered on violence against women. Although most of the previous surveys collected data at the national and zonal levels, the 2013 NDHS, similar to the 2008 survey, collected data representative of the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory. The 2013 NDHS was designed to provide data to monitor the population and health situation in Nigeria with an explicit goal of providing reliable information about maternal and child health and family planning services. The primary objective of the 2013 NDHS was to provide up-to-date information on fertility levels, marriage, fertility preferences, awareness and use of family planning methods, child feeding practices, nutritional status of women and children, adult and childhood mortality, awareness and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS, and domestic violence. This information is intended to assist policymakers and Introduction • 7 programme managers in evaluating and designing programmes and strategies for improving health and family planning services in the country. 1.4.1 Sample Design The sample for the 2013 NDHS was nationally representative and covered the entire population residing in non-institutional dwelling units in the country. The survey used as a sampling frame the list of enumeration areas (EAs) prepared for the 2006 Population Census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, provided by the National Population Commission. The sample was designed to provide population and health indicator estimates at the national, zonal, and state levels. The sample design allowed for specific indicators to be calculated for each of the six zones, 36 states, and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Administratively, Nigeria is divided into states. Each state is subdivided into local government areas (LGAs), and each LGA is divided into localities. In addition to these administrative units, during the 2006 population census, each locality was subdivided into census enumeration areas. The primary sampling unit (PSU), referred to as a cluster in the 2013 NDHS, is defined on the basis of EAs from the 2006 EA census frame. The 2013 NDHS sample was selected using a stratified three-stage cluster design consisting of 904 clusters, 372 in urban areas and 532 in rural areas. A representative sample of 40,680 households was selected for the survey, with a minimum target of 943 completed interviews per state (for further details on sample size and design, see Appendix B). A complete listing of households and a mapping exercise were carried out for each cluster from December 2012 to January 2013, with the resulting lists of households serving as the sampling frame for the selection of households. All regular households were listed. The NPC listing enumerators were trained to use Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to calculate the coordinates of the 2013 NDHS sample clusters. A fixed sample take of 45 households were selected per cluster. All women age 15-49 who were either permanent residents of the households in the 2013 NDHS sample or visitors present in the households on the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. In a subsample of half of the households, all men age 15-49 who were either permanent residents of the households in the sample or visitors present in the households on the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. Also, a subsample of one eligible woman in each household was randomly selected to be asked additional questions regarding domestic violence. 1.4.2 Questionnaires Three questionnaires were used in the 2013 NDHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Woman’s Questionnaire, and the Man’s Questionnaire. The content of these questionnaires was based on model questionnaires developed by the MEASURE DHS programme. The model questionnaires were modified according to the country’s requirements, in consultation with a broad spectrum of government ministries and agencies, nongovernmental organisations, and international donors, to reflect relevant issues such as family planning, domestic violence, HIV/AIDS, and maternal and child health. A stakeholders’ meeting organised by NPC in Abuja on March 26, 2012, provided a platform for experts to discuss the questionnaires extensively, and the input from this was used to finalise the survey questionnaires. The questionnaires were then translated into three major Nigerian languages—Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba—and were pretested, refined, and finalised for the survey. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all of the usual members of and visitors to the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, marital status, education, and relationship to the head of the household. Information on other characteristics of household members was collected as well, including current school attendance and survivorship of parents among those under age 18. If a child in the household had a parent who was sick for more than three consecutive months in the 12 months preceding the survey or a parent who had died, 8 • Introduction additional questions related to support for orphans and vulnerable children were asked. Furthermore, if an adult in the household was sick for more than three consecutive months in the 12 months preceding the survey or an adult in the household had died, questions were asked relating to support for sick people or people in households where a member had died. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as source of water; type of toilet facilities; materials used for the floor of the house; ownership of various durable goods; ownership of agricultural land; ownership of livestock, farm animals, or poultry; and ownership and use of mosquito nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets. The Household Questionnaire was further used to record height and weight measurements for children age 0-59 months and women age 15-49. In addition, data on the age and sex of household members in the Household Questionnaire were used to identify women and men who were eligible for individual interviews. The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following main topics: • Background characteristics (age, religion, education, literacy, media exposure, etc.) • Reproductive history and childhood mortality • Knowledge, source, and use of family planning methods • Fertility preferences • Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care • Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices • Child immunisation and childhood illnesses • Marriage and sexual activity • Women’s work and husbands’ background characteristics • Malaria prevention and treatment • Women’s decision making • Awareness of AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections • Maternal mortality • Domestic violence The Man’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-49 in every second household in the 2013 NDHS sample. The Man’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information found in the Woman’s Questionnaire but was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history or questions on maternal and child health or nutrition. All aspects of the NDHS data collection procedures were pretested in November 2012 (e.g., pretesting of survey instruments and training of trainers). Twenty members of the technical team, who also served as trainers/quality assurance personnel, participated in the training of trainers and reviewed the questionnaires thoroughly before finally conducting the pretest fieldwork as interviewers. They were all trained to administer the questionnaires and take anthropometric measurements. The training of trainers consisted of an overview of the project and the objectives of the survey; detailed descriptions of interviewing techniques, field procedures, and all sections of the household and individual questionnaires; and two days of field practice. The trainers included the technical team members, who also doubled as state coordinators, and the ICF DHS country manager. Representatives of the Federal Ministry of Health, the NPHCDA, USAID, UNICEF, UN Women, and UNFPA attended as resource persons and provided technical sessions on relevant topics. The Household, Woman’s, and Man’s Questionnaires were pretested in four locations in Makurdi (Benue), where the residents are predominantly Hausa, Yoruba, English, and Igbo speaking. The teams were divided according to languages. The supervisors and editors were drawn from among the trainees. The questionnaires were pretested in 120 households. A debriefing session was held in November 2012 at the end of the pretest fieldwork. Based on observations from the field and suggestions made by the pretest Introduction • 9 teams, revisions were made in the wording and translations of the questionnaires. Logistical arrangements for the survey were also discussed. 1.4.3 Recruitment and Training of Field Staff The NDHS technical team was involved in recruiting field staff who had the requisite skill and experience to work as enumerators. The recruitment process was decentralised and, after screening of the candidates, selections were made on the basis of a written test and an interview focusing on the major languages used in the survey interviews. Almost all of those recruited had ordinary national diplomas, national certificates of education, or higher national diplomas or were university graduates; a few had master’s degrees. A substantial number of the field staff members had experience working in previous NDHS surveys. They came from the country’s 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory. The NPC organised a four-week-long training course in January and February 2013 for the 316 participants at the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON) in Topo Badagry (Lagos). The training was carried out simultaneously in six classrooms at ASCON, with approximately 50 participants in each classroom. Technical team members, who were trained during the pretest and the training of trainers, were assigned to the six classrooms. The training, conducted according to the standard DHS training procedures, included class presentations, daily reviews, mock interviews, class exercises, and a written test at the end of every module. It also included lectures on how to complete the questionnaires and field practice. Remedial classes were set up for those who did not perform well on the tests. The trainers included the ICF DHS country manager and members of the technical team. Special training was conducted for field editors and supervisors. Efforts were made to maintain uniformity in the training sessions. Different measures were adopted: trainers were moved from one classroom to another; field staff from a specific state were spread across different classrooms; the DHS interview manual adapted for Nigeria and PowerPoint presentations were used as guidelines; and the trainers met every evening to discuss the issues raised in each class so that they could be addressed uniformly. 1.4.4 Fieldwork Unlike the previous DHS surveys, fieldwork was launched in the six zones (rather than all of the states); the teams in each zone remained together, and the first clusters were assigned in the vicinity. This enabled close supervision of the teams, as three to four trainers were available in each zone. Interviewers had ample opportunities to build their confidence before they were finally dispatched to their respective states. Fieldwork for the 2013 NDHS was carried out by 37 interviewing teams, one for each of the 36 states of the country and Federal Capital Territory. Each team consisted of a supervisor, a field editor, four female interviewers, two male interviewers, and two drivers. Fieldwork was conducted from February 15, 2013, to the end of May (with the exception of the two teams in Kano and Lagos, who completed fieldwork in June). The technical team and trainers, who also functioned as the quality controllers, were responsible for ensuring data quality. Data quality was also monitored through field check tables generated concurrently with data processing operations. This was an advantage since the technical team and trainers were able to advise and alert field teams of problems detected during data entry. The technical team and trainers met in Abuja occasionally to discuss fieldwork issues and travelled to states where immediate attention was required. Fieldwork was also monitored by representatives from ICF, USAID, UNFPA, PATHS2, and the NPC. A number of challenges were faced by the field teams (e.g., restricted working hours, lack of clearance to enter the clusters on a regular basis, and potential threats), especially in the North East and North West due to the security situation in those zones. In some areas, measurement of height and weight became difficult. However, the teams made the utmost effort to accomplish the task. Because of the 10 • Introduction security situation, the survey could not be accomplished in eight clusters (four in Borno, two in Yobe, one in Nasarawa, and one in Plateau). 1.4.5 Data Processing The processing of the 2013 NDHS data began simultaneously with the fieldwork. Completed questionnaires were edited in the field immediately by the field editors and checked by the supervisors before being dispatched to the data processing centre in Abuja. The questionnaires were then edited and entered by 26 data processing personnel specially trained for this task. Data were entered using the CSPro computer package, and all data were entered twice to allow 100 percent verification. The concurrent processing of the data offered a distinct advantage because of the assurance that the data were error free and authentic. Moreover, the double entry of data enabled easy comparisons and identification of errors and inconsistencies. Inconsistencies were resolved by tallying results with the paper questionnaire entries. Secondary editing of the data was completed in the last week of July 2013. The final cleaning of the data set was carried out by the ICF data processing specialist and completed in August. 1.5 RESPONSE RATES The household and individual response rates for the 2013 NDHS are shown in Table 1.2. A total of 40,320 households were selected from 896 sample points, of which 38,904 were found to be occupied at the time of the fieldwork. Of the occupied households, 38,522 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 99 percent. In view of the security challenges in the country, this response rate is highly encouraging and appears to be the result of a well-coordinated team effort. In the interviewed households, a total of 39,902 women age 15-49 were identified as eligible for individual interviews, and 98 percent of them were successfully interviewed. Among men, 18,229 were identified as eligible for interviews, and 95 percent were successfully interviewed. As expected, response rates were slightly lower in urban areas than in rural areas. Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence (unweighted), Nigeria 2013 Residence Total Result Urban Rural Household interviews Households selected 16,695 23,625 40,320 Households occupied 16,070 22,834 38,904 Households interviewed 15,859 22,663 38,522 Household response rate1 98.7 99.3 99.0 Interviews with women age 15-49 Number of eligible women 15,972 23,930 39,902 Number of eligible women interviewed 15,545 23,403 38,948 Eligible women response rate2 97.3 97.8 97.6 Interviews with men age 15-49 Number of eligible men 7,553 10,676 18,229 Number of eligible men interviewed 7,144 10,215 17,359 Eligible men response rate2 94.6 95.7 95.2 1 Households interviewed/households occupied 2 Respondents interviewed/eligible respondents Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 11 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2 his chapter provides an overview of the socioeconomic characteristics of the population, including household conditions, sources of drinking water, sanitation facilities, availability of electricity, housing facilities, possession of household durable goods, and ownership of household effects and land. Information on household assets is used to create the wealth index, an indicator of household economic status. This chapter also describes the demographic characteristics of the household population, including age, sex, and educational attainment. In the 2013 NDHS, a household was defined as a person or group of persons, related or unrelated, who usually live together in the same dwelling unit, have common cooking and eating arrangements, and acknowledge one adult member as the head of the household. A member of the household is any person who usually lives in the household. Information was collected from all usual residents of a selected household (de jure population) as well as persons who stayed in the selected household the night before the interview (de facto population). The difference between these two populations is very small, and all tables in this report refer to the de facto population, unless otherwise specified, to maintain comparability with other NDHS reports. 2.1 HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT The physical characteristics of a household’s environment are important determinants of the socioeconomic and health status of household members. The 2013 NDHS asked respondents about their household environment, including access to electricity, source of drinking water, type of sanitation facility, type of flooring material, and number of rooms in the dwelling. Results are presented for households and for the de jure household population. 2.1.1 Drinking Water Increasing access to improved drinking water is part of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7 (ensuring environmental sustainability), adopted by Nigeria and other nations worldwide (United Nations General Assembly, 2002). The goal in Nigeria is for 77 percent of the country’s residents to have access to an improved drinking water source by 2015 (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2010a). T Key Findings • Sixty-one percent of households in Nigeria have access to an improved source of drinking water. • Thirty percent of households have an improved toilet facility that is not shared with other households. • Fifty-six percent of households have access to electricity. • Wood continues to be the main type of cooking fuel in Nigeria (64 percent). • Seventy-five percent of households have mobile phones. • Forty-six percent of Nigeria’s population is under age 15. • One in five households are headed by a female. • Thirty percent of children under age 5 have had their births registered, and 15 percent have a birth certificate. • More females than males have not attended school (40 percent versus 30 percent). 12 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.1 presents a number of indicators that are useful in monitoring household access to improved drinking water. The source of drinking water is an indicator of whether it is suitable for drinking. In Table 2.1, sources that are likely to provide water suitable for drinking are identified as improved sources. These include a piped source within the dwelling, yard, or plot; a public tap/stand pipe or a borehole; a protected well or spring; and rainwater (WHO and UNICEF, 2010). Lack of easy access to a water source may limit the quantity of suitable drinking water available to a household, even if the water is obtained from an improved source. Water that must be fetched from a source that is not immediately accessible to the household may become contaminated during transport or storage. Especially in such situations, home water treatment can be effective in improving the quality of household drinking water. Table 2.1 Household drinking water Percent distribution of households and the de jure population by source of drinking water, time to obtain drinking water, and treatment of drinking water, according to residence, Nigeria 2013 Households Population Characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Source of drinking water Improved source 75.6 49.2 60.6 77.6 47.7 59.6 Piped into dwelling/yard/plot 5.5 0.7 2.8 6.1 0.8 2.9 Public tap/standpipe 9.2 4.9 6.8 9.6 4.7 6.6 Tube well or borehole 44.2 32.0 37.3 45.8 30.0 36.3 Protected well 13.0 10.1 11.4 13.1 11.0 11.8 Protected spring 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 Rainwater 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.6 Bottled water 2.4 0.3 1.2 1.8 0.2 0.8 Non-improved source 24.2 50.5 39.1 22.2 52.0 40.1 Unprotected well 3.9 23.6 15.1 4.7 26.2 17.6 Unprotected spring 1.2 4.2 2.9 1.2 4.2 3.0 Tanker truck/cart with drum 3.4 0.8 1.9 3.6 0.6 1.8 Surface water 3.7 20.9 13.5 4.1 20.3 13.9 Sachet water 12.0 1.1 5.8 8.6 0.7 3.8 Other source 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Missing 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to obtain drinking water (round trip) Water on premises 23.8 17.2 20.0 24.9 18.9 21.3 Less than 30 minutes 54.5 54.4 54.4 50.3 52.6 51.7 30 minutes or longer 20.0 27.6 24.3 23.0 27.8 25.9 Don’t know/missing 1.7 0.9 1.2 1.7 0.7 1.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Water treatment prior to drinking1 Boiled 4.1 1.5 2.6 4.0 1.4 2.4 Bleach/chlorine added 2.9 0.9 1.7 3.1 0.9 1.7 Strained through cloth 1.5 3.5 2.7 1.9 3.6 2.9 Ceramic, sand, or other filter 1.0 0.5 0.7 1.1 0.5 0.8 Solar disinfection 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 Let stand and settle 1.7 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.4 Alum 2.2 3.1 2.7 2.3 3.3 2.9 Other 2.0 1.4 1.6 1.9 1.3 1.6 No treatment 87.5 89.2 88.4 87.1 89.0 88.2 Percentage using an appropriate treatment method2 7.6 2.8 4.9 7.7 2.7 4.7 Number 16,609 21,913 38,522 70,422 106,541 176,963 1 Respondents may report multiple treatment methods, so the sum of treatment may exceed 100 percent. 2 Appropriate water treatment methods include boiling, bleaching, filtering, and solar disinfecting. As Table 2.1 shows, 61 percent of the households in Nigeria have access to an improved source of drinking water, with a much higher proportion among urban households (76 percent) than among rural households (49 percent). The results show an overall improvement in the quality of sources of water in Nigeria since the 2008 NDHS (when the figure was 56 percent). This improvement was higher in rural areas (45 to 49 percent) than in urban areas (75 to 76 percent). The most common source of improved drinking water in Nigeria is tube well or borehole water, used by 44 percent of urban and 32 percent of rural households. Thirteen percent of urban households and 10 percent of rural households have access to drinking water from a protected well. Use of sachet water, which is included under non-improved sources, is common in Nigeria, with 6 percent of households using it as their main source of drinking water. It is used more in urban areas than in rural areas (12 percent versus 1 percent). Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 13 In the 2013 NDHS, only 20 percent of households reported having water on their premises, as compared with 25 percent in the 2008 NDHS. Households not having water on their premises were asked how long it takes to fetch water. About a quarter of households (24 percent) travel 30 minutes or longer to obtain their drinking water (20 percent in urban areas and 28 percent in rural areas). In the 2013 NDHS, all households also were asked whether they treat their water prior to drinking. An overwhelming majority, 88 percent, do not treat their drinking water. Urban households (8 percent) are somewhat more likely than rural households (3 percent) to use an appropriate treatment method to ensure that their water is safe for drinking. Table A.2.1 indicates that many households in some of Nigeria’s states have no access to improved source of drinking water. For instance, only 3 in 10 households in Benue, Bauchi, Taraba, and Zamfara and only 2 in 10 households in Kebbi have access to an improved source of drinking water. 2.1.2 Household Sanitation Facilities Ensuring adequate sanitation facilities is also part of MDG 7. At the household level, adequate sanitation facilities include an improved toilet and a method of disposal that separates waste from human contact. A household is classified as having an improved toilet if the toilet is used only by household members (i.e., it is not shared with another household) and if the facility used by the household separates waste from human contact (WHO and UNICEF, 2010). Table 2.2 Household sanitation facilities Percent distribution of households and de jure population by type of toilet/latrine facilities, according to residence, Nigeria 2013 Households Population Type of toilet/latrine facility Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Improved, not shared facility 36.6 25.1 30.1 42.7 28.2 34.0 Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 6.1 1.5 3.5 6.1 1.2 3.1 Flush/pour flush to septic tank 11.2 1.9 5.9 11.4 1.7 5.5 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 3.6 1.1 2.2 4.1 1.0 2.2 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine 10.0 14.3 12.4 13.6 17.1 15.7 Pit latrine with slab 5.7 6.3 6.0 7.4 7.2 7.3 Composting toilet 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Shared facility1 40.2 13.4 24.9 34.2 10.6 20.0 Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 3.1 1.1 2.0 2.4 0.7 1.4 Flush/pour flush to septic tank 11.6 1.1 5.6 9.2 0.8 4.1 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 6.0 1.2 3.3 5.0 0.8 2.5 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine 10.7 6.1 8.1 10.2 5.5 7.3 Pit latrine with slab 8.5 3.5 5.7 7.1 2.6 4.4 Missing 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 Non-improved facility 23.1 61.5 45.0 23.1 61.3 46.1 Flush/pour flush not to sewer/septic tank/pit latrine 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.3 Pit latrine without slab/open pit 5.8 19.6 13.7 6.7 21.4 15.5 Bucket 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 Hanging toilet/hanging latrine 1.1 1.7 1.5 1.1 1.6 1.4 No facility/bush/field 15.5 39.9 29.4 14.6 38.1 28.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 16,609 21,913 38,522 70,422 106,541 176,963 1 Facilities that would be considered improved if they were not shared by two or more households Table 2.2 shows that 3 in 10 households in Nigeria use improved toilet facilities that are not shared with other households (37 percent in urban areas and 25 percent in rural areas). Twenty-five percent of households (40 percent in urban areas and 13 percent in rural areas) use shared toilet facilities, while 45 percent use non-improved facilities (62 percent in rural areas and 23 percent in urban areas). The most common type of non-improved toilet facility is an open pit latrine or pit latrine without slabs, used by 20 percent of households in rural areas and 6 percent of households in urban areas. Overall, 29 percent of households have no toilet facility (16 percent in urban areas and 40 percent in rural areas). 14 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table A.2.2 shows the percent distribu- tion of households and the de jure population by type of toilet/latrine facilities, according to state of residence. In Zamfara and Ogun states, less than 10 percent of households have access to an improved, not shared facility. In Benue, Kogi, Niger, Bauchi, Ebonyi, Bayelsa, Cross River, Ekiti, Ondo, Osun, and Oyo, between 10 percent and 20 percent of households have access to an improved, not shared facility. In Gombe and Kano, 6 in 10 households (67 percent and 64 percent, respectively) have access to such a facility. 2.1.3 Housing Characteristics Table 2.3 presents information on housing characteristics in Nigeria, which reflect a household’s socioeconomic situation. They also may influence environmental conditions (e.g., use of biomass fuels and resulting exposure to indoor air pollution) that have a direct bearing on the health and welfare of household members. Table 2.3 includes information on availability of electricity, type of flooring material, number of rooms used for sleeping, the place where cooking is done, and the type of fuel used for cooking. The table shows that 56 percent of households in Nigeria have access to electricity (84 percent in urban areas and 34 percent in rural areas). This is a slight improvement from 2008, when 50 percent of households had access to electricity (85 percent in urban areas and 31 per- cent in rural areas). Cement is the most common flooring ma- terial used in Nigerian households (46 percent). The use of cement has increased since 2008 (when the figure was 42 percent), and increases have been observed in both urban and rural areas. Urban households remain more likely to use cement (53 percent) than rural households (40 percent). Earth and sand are used in 3 out of 10 households, and they are used more often in rural areas (49 percent) than in urban areas (12 percent). Fourteen percent of households use carpet as a flooring material. The number of rooms used for sleeping in relation to the number of household members is an indication of the extent of crowding, which in turn increases the risk of contracting communicable diseases. The proportion of households using one room for sleeping has decreased from 43 percent to 39 percent over the past five years. Indoor air pollution has important implications for the health of household members. Cooking and heating with solid fuels can lead to high levels of indoor smoke, which consists of a complex mix of Table 2.3 Household characteristics Percent distribution of households by housing characteristics, percentage using solid fuel for cooking, and percent distribution by frequency of smoking in the home, according to residence, Nigeria 2013 Residence Total Housing characteristic Urban Rural Electricity Yes 83.6 34.4 55.6 No 16.3 65.4 44.2 Missing 0.1 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Earth, sand 11.5 48.6 32.6 Dung 0.8 2.7 1.9 Wood/planks 0.1 0.4 0.3 Ceramic tiles 7.0 1.6 3.9 Cement 52.8 40.1 45.5 Carpet 26.2 5.2 14.2 Other1 1.4 1.0 1.2 Missing 0.3 0.3 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Rooms used for sleeping One 45.5 33.6 38.7 Two 28.2 32.8 30.8 Three or more 25.9 33.1 30.0 Missing 0.3 0.5 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Place for cooking In the house 46.8 46.0 46.3 In a separate building 19.5 22.9 21.4 Outdoors 30.7 28.5 29.4 No food cooked in household 2.9 2.4 2.6 Other 0.0 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Cooking fuel Electricity 0.7 0.2 0.4 LPG/natural gas/biogas 4.6 0.5 2.3 Kerosene 47.6 8.7 25.5 Coal/lignite 0.7 0.0 0.3 Charcoal 5.3 1.6 3.2 Wood 37.9 83.3 63.7 Agricultural crops/straw/ shrubs/grass 0.2 3.1 1.8 Animal dung 0.0 0.1 0.1 No food cooked in household 2.9 2.4 2.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using solid fuel for cooking2 44.1 88.1 69.1 Frequency of smoking in the home Daily 6.0 6.1 6.0 Weekly 0.9 0.7 0.8 Monthly 0.1 0.1 0.1 Less than monthly 0.3 0.1 0.2 Never 92.5 92.8 92.7 Missing 0.2 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 16,609 21,913 38,522 LPG = Liquid petroleum gas 1 Includes palm/bamboo, parquet or polished wood, and vinyl or asphalt strips 2 Includes coal/lignite, charcoal, wood/agricultural crops/straw/shrubs/ grass, and animal dung Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 15 pollutants that can increase the risk of contracting diseases. Solid fuels include charcoal, wood, straw, shrubs, grass, agricultural crops, and animal dung. Forty-six percent of households cook in the housing unit where they live, 21 percent use a separate building, and 29 percent cook outdoors. Wood is the main type of cooking fuel, used by 64 percent of households (38 percent of urban households and 83 percent of rural households). In addition to wood, kerosene is an important type of cooking fuel in urban areas; 48 percent of urban households use kerosene for cooking. Reducing the proportion of households that rely on solid fuels is one of the aims of MDG 7. Nigeria has made some progress toward this goal, with the proportion of households using solid fuels decreasing from 78 percent in the 2008 NDHS to 69 percent in 2013. Information on smoking was collected in the 2013 NDHS to assess the percentage of household members who are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS), which is a risk factor for those who do not smoke. Pregnant women who are exposed to SHS have a higher risk of delivering a low birth weight baby (Windham et al., 1999). In addition, children who are exposed to SHS are at a higher risk of respiratory and ear infections and poor lung development (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2006). Table 2.3 provides information on the frequency of smoking in the home, which is used as a proxy for level of SHS exposure. Overall, 6 percent of households are exposed daily to SHS, with no differences between urban and rural areas. 2.1.4 Household Possessions Possession of durable consumer goods is another useful indicator of a household’s socio- economic status. The possession and use of household durable goods have multiple effects and implications. For instance, a radio or a televi- sion can bring household members information and new ideas, a refrigerator prolongs the whole- someness of foods, and a means of transport can increase access to many services that are beyond walking distance. Table 2.4 shows the extent of possession of selected consumer goods by area of residence. Sixty-eight percent of households have radios, 75 percent have mobile telephones, 48 percent have televisions, 3 percent have non- mobile telephones, and 18 percent have refrigerators. In both urban and rural areas, only a small percentage of households possess a means of transport. Rural households are slightly more likely than urban households to own a motorcycle or scooter (34 percent versus 27 percent) or a bicycle (23 percent versus 13 percent). Only 9 percent of households own a car or truck. Half of all households own agricultural land (58 percent) or farm animals (50 percent). Overall, 35 percent of households have a bank account, and more than half of urban households have an account (56 percent versus 18 percent in rural households). 2.2 WEALTH INDEX The wealth index used in this survey has been used in many DHS and other country-level surveys to indicate inequalities in household characteristics, in the use of health and other services, and in health outcomes (Rutstein et al., 2000). It serves as an indicator of wealth that is consistent with expenditure and income measures (Rutstein, 1999). The index was constructed using household asset data via a principal components analysis. Table 2.4 Household possessions Percentage of households possessing various household effects, means of transportation, agricultural land, and livestock/farm animals, by residence, Nigeria 2013 Residence Total Possession Urban Rural Household effects Radio 77.7 61.3 68.3 Television 73.2 28.2 47.6 Mobile telephone 88.6 64.8 75.1 Non-mobile telephone 3.2 2.1 2.5 Refrigerator 32.5 7.5 18.3 Means of transport Canoe 1.0 3.3 2.3 Bicycle 12.7 22.6 18.3 Animal-drawn cart 1.3 5.4 3.6 Motorcycle/scooter 27.0 34.4 31.2 Car/truck 14.4 4.3 8.7 Boat with a motor 0.6 1.0 0.8 Ownership of agricultural land 31.2 78.1 57.8 Ownership of farm animals1 29.4 64.9 49.6 Ownership of bank account2 56.0 18.4 34.6 Number 16,609 21,913 38,522 1 Cattle, cows, bulls, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, or chickens 2 At least one household member has an account. 16 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics In its current form, which takes better account of urban-rural differences in scores and indicators of wealth, the wealth index is created in three steps. In the first step, a subset of indicators common to urban and rural areas is used to create wealth scores for households in both areas. Categorical variables to be used are transformed into separate dichotomous (0-1) indicators. These indicators and those that are continuous are then examined using a principal components analysis to produce a common factor score for each household. In the second step, separate factor scores are produced for households in urban and rural areas using area-specific indicators. The third step combines the separate area-specific factor scores to produce a nationally applicable combined wealth index by adjusting area-specific scores through a regression on the common factor scores. The resulting combined wealth index has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. Once the index is computed, national-level wealth quintiles (from lowest to highest) are obtained by assigning household scores to each de jure household member, ranking each person in the population by his or her score, and then dividing the ranking into five equal categories, each comprising 20 percent of the population. Table 2.5 Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the de jure population by wealth quintiles, and the Gini coefficient, according to residence and region, Nigeria 2013 Wealth quintile Total Number of persons Gini CoefficientResidence/region Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Residence Urban 3.0 6.6 16.3 30.9 43.3 100.0 70,422 0.18 Rural 31.3 28.9 22.5 12.8 4.6 100.0 106,541 0.35 Zone North Central 11.3 21.3 32.1 20.5 14.8 100.0 27,368 0.32 North East 40.4 26.1 15.0 11.2 7.4 100.0 26,927 0.25 North West 35.4 28.7 15.9 12.7 7.4 100.0 56,512 0.28 South East 4.7 13.3 25.5 28.5 27.9 100.0 18,777 0.24 South South 0.5 10.1 25.9 32.2 31.3 100.0 19,893 0.29 South West 1.7 6.6 13.4 28.5 49.8 100.0 27,486 0.18 Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 176,963 0.29 Table 2.5 presents wealth quintiles by residence and geographical zone. In urban areas, 43 percent of the population is in the highest wealth quintile, in sharp contrast to rural areas, where only 5 percent of the population is in the highest wealth quintile. Among regions, the wealth quintile distribution varies greatly; half of the population in the South West is in the highest quintile, while 3 in 10 households in the South South and South East are in the highest quintile. In contrast, a significant proportion of households in the North East and North West (40 percent and 35 percent, respectively) are in the lowest quintile. Table 2.5 also includes information on the Gini coefficient, which indicates the level of concentration of wealth (0 being an equal distribution and 1 a totally unequal distribution). This ratio is expressed as a proportion between 0 and 1. Wealth inequality is higher in rural than in urban areas. Inequality in wealth varies among the zones, with wealth being more evenly distributed in the South West (0.18). 2.3 HAND WASHING Hand washing with soap and water is ideal. However, hand washing with a non-soap cleaning agent such as ash or sand is an improvement over not using any cleansing agent. To obtain information on hand washing, interviewers asked to see the place where members of the household most often washed their hands; information on the availability of water and/or cleansing agents was recorded only for households where a hand washing place was observed. Table 2.6 shows that interviewers observed a place for hand washing in 40 percent of households. A hand washing place was observed more often in urban areas (43 percent) than in rural areas (37 percent). The most common reason interviewers were not able to observe the place where members of the household washed their hands was that there was no specific place designated for hand washing (data not shown). Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 17 Table 2.6 Hand washing Percentage of households in which the place most often used for washing hands was observed, and among households in which the place for hand washing was observed, the percent distribution by availability of water, soap, and other cleansing agents, Nigeria 2013 Percentage of households where place for washing hands was observed Number of households Among households where place for hand washing was observed, percentage with: Number of households with place for hand washing observed Background characteristic Soap and water1 Water and cleansing agent2 other than soap only Water only Soap but no water3 Cleansing agent other than soap only2 No water, soap, or other cleansing agent Missing Total Residence Urban 42.5 16,609 38.7 1.1 16.1 2.4 2.4 39.3 0.1 100.0 7,066 Rural 37.1 21,913 15.6 4.5 13.4 1.8 8.2 56.3 0.2 100.0 8,141 Zone North Central 54.6 5,942 19.4 4.5 14.7 2.5 13.3 45.6 0.0 100.0 3,245 North East 48.0 5,115 2.8 0.2 9.9 0.9 0.1 86.1 0.1 100.0 2,455 North West 31.5 9,992 19.2 7.7 15.3 1.2 10.4 45.7 0.4 100.0 3,144 South East 11.1 4,687 50.1 0.0 21.0 11.0 0.0 16.9 1.0 100.0 520 South South 40.8 5,239 54.7 2.2 15.6 2.2 3.1 22.0 0.1 100.0 2,135 South West 49.1 7,546 34.3 0.1 15.7 1.8 0.4 47.7 0.0 100.0 3,708 States North Central FCT-Abuja 39.7 361 93.4 0.3 3.2 0.0 0.0 3.1 0.0 100.0 143 Benue 23.8 1,365 14.5 0.7 25.8 1.5 0.0 57.5 0.0 100.0 325 Kogi 55.3 876 28.3 11.3 25.3 1.8 4.7 28.5 0.0 100.0 485 Kwara 56.5 617 14.9 0.0 6.4 0.7 0.4 77.6 0.0 100.0 349 Nasarawa 74.6 550 22.8 1.0 5.5 1.2 1.3 68.2 0.0 100.0 410 Niger 90.6 1,504 8.6 5.9 14.8 4.0 29.1 37.6 0.0 100.0 1,362 Plateau 25.5 669 29.3 1.8 12.1 2.9 3.2 50.7 0.0 100.0 170 North East Adamawa 2.3 726 * * * * * * * 100.0 17 Bauchi 17.3 932 1.1 0.5 4.7 0.0 0.0 93.7 0.0 100.0 161 Borno 89.4 1,560 1.1 0.2 5.8 0.1 0.0 92.8 0.0 100.0 1,395 Gombe 40.7 464 4.0 0.6 3.9 7.9 0.0 83.6 0.0 100.0 189 Taraba 0.6 634 * * * * * * * 100.0 4 Yobe 86.4 799 6.0 0.0 20.9 0.8 0.3 72.1 0.0 100.0 690 North West Jigawa 15.4 1,152 24.3 7.6 17.8 3.6 6.4 39.2 1.0 100.0 178 Kaduna 53.1 1,915 29.5 1.1 17.1 0.2 24.2 27.8 0.1 100.0 1,017 Kano 2.4 2,606 (5.7) (9.7) (10.6) (0.0) (0.0) (65.7) (8.3) 100.0 63 Katsina 72.8 1,257 19.8 19.5 20.7 1.3 4.7 33.6 0.5 100.0 915 Kebbi 19.8 1,069 1.9 0.0 2.0 2.4 0.6 93.2 0.0 100.0 212 Sokoto 34.4 898 20.6 1.1 10.7 0.9 0.0 66.5 0.3 100.0 309 Zamfara 41.1 1,096 2.0 6.9 9.2 2.1 5.9 73.8 0.0 100.0 450 South East Abia 15.1 644 62.3 0.0 2.3 17.7 0.0 17.7 0.0 100.0 97 Anambra 8.8 1,050 61.8 0.0 18.7 13.2 0.0 6.3 0.0 100.0 92 Ebonyi 13.8 978 42.3 0.0 25.8 9.4 0.0 20.3 2.2 100.0 135 Enugu 3.1 920 (52.3) (0.0) (7.7) (28.9) (0.0) (11.1) (0.0) 100.0 28 Imo 15.3 1,096 42.6 0.0 31.3 4.2 0.0 20.4 1.5 100.0 167 South South Akwa Ibom 27.1 892 61.3 0.3 4.9 8.8 4.1 20.5 0.0 100.0 241 Bayelsa 4.7 322 (78.6) (0.0) (4.8) (9.4) (0.0) (7.1) (0.0) 100.0 15 Cross River 20.1 848 33.5 0.6 26.2 6.9 0.0 32.0 0.8 100.0 170 Delta 61.3 946 47.8 4.2 30.2 0.2 0.3 17.3 0.0 100.0 580 Edo 53.1 702 49.4 5.8 16.3 0.8 14.4 13.2 0.1 100.0 373 Rivers 49.5 1,529 64.7 0.0 5.4 1.2 0.1 28.5 0.1 100.0 756 South West Ekiti 56.8 376 28.6 0.1 12.2 2.6 0.0 56.4 0.0 100.0 213 Lagos 75.6 2,240 37.5 0.0 20.6 2.4 0.8 38.7 0.0 100.0 1,692 Ogun 14.6 1,355 15.7 0.0 9.1 4.0 0.0 71.2 0.0 100.0 198 Ondo 53.8 920 36.9 1.1 10.9 0.0 0.0 51.1 0.0 100.0 495 Osun 86.7 853 16.5 0.0 6.5 0.8 0.0 76.2 0.0 100.0 740 Oyo 20.5 1,802 65.2 0.0 23.1 1.6 0.0 10.0 0.0 100.0 369 Wealth quintile Lowest 40.1 6,245 3.1 4.5 12.5 0.5 9.6 69.7 0.2 100.0 2,505 Second 33.4 7,166 10.4 5.6 14.7 1.1 7.3 60.5 0.3 100.0 2,394 Middle 34.5 7,894 15.4 4.2 15.3 2.1 7.8 55.1 0.1 100.0 2,723 Fourth 35.3 8,310 25.5 2.1 15.5 2.5 5.7 48.7 0.0 100.0 2,934 Highest 52.2 8,907 54.0 0.6 14.8 3.0 1.0 26.4 0.2 100.0 4,651 Total 39.5 38,522 26.3 2.9 14.6 2.0 5.5 48.4 0.2 100.0 15,207 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Soap includes soap or detergent in bar, liquid, powder, or paste form. This column includes households with soap and water only as well as those that had soap and water and another cleansing agent. 2 Cleansing agents other than soap include locally available materials such as ash, mud, or sand. 3 Includes households with soap only as well as those with soap and another cleansing agent 18 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics Soap and water were available in 26 percent of the households where a hand washing place was observed, and water only was available in 15 percent; 2 percent of households had soap but no water, 3 percent had water with another cleansing agent other than soap, and 6 percent had another cleansing agent but no water. In the case of 48 percent of the households, no water, soap, or any other cleansing agent was observed at the hand washing place. Lack of water and a cleansing agent decreased with increasing wealth quintile, from 70 percent in the lowest wealth quintile to 26 percent in the highest wealth quintile. 2.4 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION BY AGE, SEX, AND RESIDENCE The 2013 NDHS Household Questionnaire collected data on the demographic and social characteristics of all usual residents of the sampled household and on visitors who had spent the previous night in the household. Table 2.7 shows the distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, according to sex and residence. A total of 176,574 individuals were residing in the sampled households; 89,529 were female (51 percent), and 87,034 were male (49 percent) (information on gender was not available for 11 individuals). The sex ratio was 97 males per 100 females. Age and sex are important demographic variables and are the primary basis of demographic classifications in vital statistics, censuses, and surveys. They are also very important variables in the study of mortality, fertility, nuptiality, and migration. In general, a cross-classification by sex and age is useful for the effective analysis of all forms of data obtained in surveys. Table 2.7 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age groups, according to sex and residence, Nigeria 2013 Urban Rural Male Female Total Age Male Female Total Male Female Total <5 15.7 15.2 15.5 18.6 17.7 18.1 17.4 16.7 17.1 5-9 14.8 14.3 14.6 18.0 17.0 17.5 16.8 15.9 16.3 10-14 12.5 12.0 12.2 12.8 11.8 12.3 12.7 11.9 12.3 15-19 9.1 9.5 9.3 8.3 8.7 8.5 8.6 9.0 8.8 20-24 7.4 8.0 7.7 6.2 7.6 6.9 6.7 7.8 7.2 25-29 7.3 8.6 8.0 6.1 8.1 7.1 6.6 8.3 7.4 30-34 6.7 7.0 6.9 5.4 5.7 5.6 5.9 6.2 6.1 35-39 5.8 5.7 5.8 4.9 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.3 40-44 4.7 4.2 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.0 4.2 45-49 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.9 3.7 3.8 50-54 3.0 3.2 3.1 2.4 3.3 2.9 2.6 3.3 2.9 55-59 2.7 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.4 60-64 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.3 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.0 2.1 65-69 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.3 70-74 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.2 75-79 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.6 80+ 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.1 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 34,692 35,744 70,439 52,342 53,785 106,135 87,034 89,529 176,574 Note: Total includes 11 persons whose sex was not stated. The age-sex structure of the population is shown in the population pyramid in Figure 2.1. The broad base of the pyramid indicates that Nigeria’s population is young, a scenario typical of countries with high fertility rates. The proportion of children under age 15 is around 46 percent, while the proportion of individuals age 65 and older is 4 percent. Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 19 Figure 2.1 Population pyramid 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Percentage Age Male Female NDHS 2013 2.5 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION Information on household composition is critical for understanding family size, household headship, and orphanhood and for implementing meaningful population-based policies and programmes. Household composition is also a determinant of health status and well-being. Table 2.8 presents information on household composition. The majority (82 percent) of households are headed by men, with only 19 percent headed by women. The proportion of female-headed households has remained almost the same in the last five years. The average household size is 4.6 persons, as compared with 4.4 in 2008; household sizes are larger in rural (4.9) than urban (4.2) areas. The proportion of households with nine or more members is higher in rural areas (12 percent) than in urban areas (7 percent). Information was also collected on the living arrangements and survival status of all children under age 18 residing in the NDHS sample households. These data can be used to assess the extent to which households are faced with a need to care for orphaned or foster children. Orphans include children whose mother or father has died (single orphans) as well as children who have lost both parents (double orphans). In the case of foster children, both parents are alive but the children are living in a household where neither Table 2.8 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size, mean size of household, and percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18, according to residence, Nigeria 2013 Residence Total Characteristic Urban Rural Household headship Male 77.1 84.8 81.5 Female 22.9 15.2 18.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 0 0.2 0.1 0.2 1 19.2 13.6 16.0 2 12.1 11.9 12.0 3 14.6 13.1 13.8 4 13.9 12.9 13.3 5 12.7 12.3 12.5 6 10.0 10.5 10.3 7 6.1 8.0 7.2 8 3.9 5.6 4.9 9+ 7.3 11.9 9.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size of households 4.2 4.9 4.6 Percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18 Foster children1 15.0 16.6 15.9 Double orphans 0.7 0.7 0.7 Single orphans2 7.0 6.2 6.5 Foster and/or orphan children 18.6 19.8 19.3 Number of households 16,609 21,913 38,522 Note: Table is based on de jure household members (i.e., usual residents). 1 Foster children are those under age 18 living in households with neither their mother nor their father present. 2 Includes children with one dead parent and an unknown survival status of the other parent 20 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics their natural mother nor natural father resides. Foster children and orphans may be at an increased risk of neglect or exploitation because their mothers or fathers are not present to assist them. There is little difference in the distribution of orphans by rural and urban areas. Overall, 16 percent of households are caring for foster children, and more rural than urban households have foster children (17 percent and 15 percent, respectively). Single orphans are present in 7 percent of households, whereas double orphans are present in less than 1 percent of households.1 2.6 BIRTH REGISTRATION Birth registration is the inscription of the facts of each birth into an official log kept at the registrar’s office. According to the Births, Deaths, etc. (Compulsory Registration) Act No. 69 of 1992, registration of births and deaths is compulsory in all cases, and the National Population Commission (NPC) is responsible for registering these events nationwide (NPC, 1992). Information on registration of births was collected in the household interview, wherein respondents were asked whether children under age 5 residing in the household had ever been registered. If they reported that the child had been registered, an additional question was posed to ascertain whether the child’s birth had been registered with the birth and death registry or another agency. When it had been confirmed that the child was registered, interviewers asked to see the birth certificate. Table 2.9 Birth registration of children under age 5 Percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Children whose births are registered Percentage registered Number of children Background characteristic Percentage with a birth certificate Percentage without a birth certificate Age <2 14.6 14.1 28.7 12,042 2-4 14.9 15.7 30.6 18,066 Sex Male 14.9 15.0 29.9 15,178 Female 14.6 15.1 29.8 14,929 Residence Urban 25.5 24.4 49.8 10,870 Rural 8.7 9.8 18.6 19,238 Zone North Central 11.6 16.2 27.8 4,161 North East 11.0 9.3 20.4 5,171 North West 10.8 8.7 19.5 10,973 South East 21.7 30.1 51.8 2,701 South South 20.0 17.3 37.3 2,888 South West 24.9 26.3 51.2 4,214 State North Central FCT-Abuja 34.0 27.2 61.2 204 Benue 8.2 15.4 23.5 885 Kogi 16.9 31.5 48.4 396 Kwara 25.1 33.4 58.5 397 Nasarawa 12.1 13.1 25.2 451 Niger 5.6 8.6 14.1 1,335 Plateau 9.1 10.6 19.7 492 North East Adamawa 20.3 15.5 35.8 692 Bauchi 5.4 8.9 14.2 1,260 Borno 16.0 8.2 24.2 1,077 Gombe 12.4 14.6 27.0 554 Taraba 10.8 9.9 20.7 694 Yobe 5.3 2.9 8.2 893 North West Jigawa 5.9 10.5 16.4 1,425 Kaduna 12.1 12.3 24.4 1,456 Kano 13.3 5.8 19.1 2,851 Katsina 28.1 17.9 46.0 1,614 Kebbi 2.3 7.4 9.6 1,158 Sokoto 5.1 5.6 10.7 1,059 Zamfara 0.6 2.4 3.0 1,410 Continued… 1 A more detailed discussion on orphan and vulnerable children can be found in Chapter 17 of this report. Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 21 Table 2.9—Continued Percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Children whose births are registered Percentage registered Number of children Background characteristic Percentage with a birth certificate Percentage without a birth certificate South East Abia 27.3 31.4 58.8 311 Anambra 26.0 35.2 61.2 617 Ebonyi 18.0 18.8 36.8 723 Enugu 18.0 28.1 46.1 536 Imo 21.9 41.3 63.2 515 South South Akwa Ibom 22.8 21.6 44.5 467 Bayelsa 9.4 14.6 24.1 227 Cross River 10.5 11.2 21.6 536 Delta 24.2 11.8 36.0 554 Edo 24.3 27.7 52.0 400 Rivers 23.1 18.4 41.4 702 South West Ekiti 29.2 21.2 50.5 194 Lagos 31.3 30.7 62.0 1,234 Ogun 15.0 20.7 35.6 719 Ondo 17.1 23.8 40.8 545 Osun 33.9 31.7 65.6 453 Oyo 23.4 25.1 48.6 1,068 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.2 3.5 6.7 6,896 Second 7.4 9.3 16.7 6,799 Middle 12.8 14.6 27.4 5,802 Fourth 22.6 22.4 45.0 5,478 Highest 33.8 31.1 64.9 5,133 Total 14.8 15.1 29.8 30,108 Note: Total includes 2 children with missing information on sex. Table 2.9 shows the percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births were officially registered and the percentage who had a birth certificate at the time of the survey. Thirty percent of de jure children had their births registered. Fifteen percent had a birth certificate, and 15 percent did not. Almost equal proportions of male and female children had been registered, but children age 2-4 were more likely than those under age 2 to have been registered (31 percent and 29 percent, respectively). Children in urban households were more likely to have had their birth registered than children in rural households (50 percent and 19 percent, respectively). The proportion of registered births was highest in the South East and South West (52 percent and 51 percent, respectively) and lowest in the North West and North East (20 percent each). Across the states, Zamfara had the lowest percentage of children registered (3 percent). In Yobe and Kebbi the proportions were 8 percent and 10 percent, respectively. Households in the highest wealth quintile were most likely to register children’s births (65 percent), and households in the lowest quintile were least likely to do so (7 percent). In the case of children whose births were confirmed as registered, interviewers asked respondents about the place of registration. Table 2.10 shows that 57 percent of births were registered with the NPC, while 22 percent were registered in a private clinic/hospital. There has been an improvement in registration of births with the NPC since the 2008 NDHS (when the figure was 36 percent). In both urban and rural areas, more than half of births were registered with the NPC (58 percent and 55 percent, respectively). Registration of births with the NPC was lowest in Benue (27 percent) and in Kebbi and Kaduna (24 percent each). 22 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.10 Birth registration of children under age 5 by authority Among de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities, percent distribution of children by authority with which the birth is registered, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Authority where birth is registered Total Number of children Background characteristic National Population Commission Local Government Administration Private clinic/hospital Other Missing Age <2 58.6 10.8 22.7 5.9 2.0 100.0 3,569 2-4 56.0 14.5 20.8 6.6 2.2 100.0 5,698 Sex Male 58.1 12.9 20.4 6.5 2.1 100.0 4,676 Female 55.8 13.2 22.7 6.2 2.1 100.0 4,590 Residence Urban 58.4 11.6 23.3 5.4 1.2 100.0 5,546 Rural 54.8 15.2 18.9 7.7 3.4 100.0 3,720 Zone North Central 50.9 18.0 22.2 6.3 2.6 100.0 1,189 North East 54.9 16.3 19.1 5.4 4.4 100.0 1,128 North West 61.9 18.5 15.8 0.8 3.0 100.0 2,231 South East 49.5 3.5 37.7 8.5 0.8 100.0 1,411 South South 59.5 7.9 21.6 9.1 1.9 100.0 1,119 South West 59.9 12.0 17.7 9.6 0.7 100.0 2,190 State North Central FCT-Abuja 81.7 4.3 8.7 2.7 2.5 100.0 128 Benue 26.7 29.8 28.3 8.1 7.1 100.0 224 Kogi 54.4 13.1 23.2 9.2 0.0 100.0 191 Kwara 58.0 22.0 16.7 2.6 0.7 100.0 235 Nasarawa 41.5 9.8 38.7 7.4 2.6 100.0 117 Niger 44.4 24.9 23.8 4.3 2.6 100.0 194 Plateau 66.3 4.8 14.6 12.2 2.1 100.0 100 North East Adamawa 44.9 22.3 25.6 4.0 3.1 100.0 258 Bauchi 54.1 15.8 19.2 5.7 5.2 100.0 189 Borno 67.1 15.1 15.7 0.0 2.1 100.0 278 Gombe 60.6 24.9 5.0 3.4 6.2 100.0 160 Taraba 47.2 8.4 29.9 12.4 2.1 100.0 153 Yobe 49.8 1.4 17.4 17.1 14.2 100.0 89 North West Jigawa 67.9 16.5 13.2 0.9 1.5 100.0 240 Kaduna 23.6 19.4 54.2 1.0 1.8 100.0 373 Kano 78.3 15.5 3.9 0.1 2.2 100.0 557 Katsina 78.1 16.9 4.1 0.5 0.4 100.0 745 Kebbi 23.7 34.8 32.1 4.6 4.8 100.0 118 Sokoto 52.8 18.3 14.5 0.0 14.3 100.0 138 Zamfara (19.3) (38.3) (14.1) (2.5) (25.8) 100.0 59 South East Abia 51.2 3.3 43.3 2.2 0.0 100.0 183 Anambra 44.9 4.2 33.8 17.1 0.0 100.0 377 Ebonyi 66.2 1.7 24.8 3.2 4.0 100.0 277 Enugu 51.0 2.3 37.1 9.5 0.2 100.0 248 Imo 38.3 5.3 50.3 6.1 0.0 100.0 326 South South Akwa Ibom 59.0 5.5 24.3 10.5 0.6 100.0 209 Bayelsa 45.6 7.5 28.0 17.6 1.3 100.0 58 Cross River 69.2 1.9 22.2 2.2 4.5 100.0 121 Delta 71.1 7.5 10.1 6.4 4.9 100.0 220 Edo 61.0 11.6 21.1 4.9 1.4 100.0 219 Rivers 48.7 9.6 27.1 14.6 0.0 100.0 291 South West Ekiti 66.5 8.3 14.8 10.4 0.0 100.0 99 Lagos 62.5 16.9 12.9 7.6 0.1 100.0 768 Ogun 52.2 10.8 16.8 17.2 3.0 100.0 271 Ondo 36.7 17.0 28.5 16.6 1.3 100.0 228 Osun 68.4 7.6 18.2 5.8 0.0 100.0 297 Oyo 64.1 6.7 20.8 7.7 0.6 100.0 528 Wealth quintile Lowest 60.9 18.1 9.4 3.2 8.3 100.0 508 Second 54.8 19.5 14.9 6.6 4.2 100.0 1,188 Middle 55.5 15.9 20.6 6.2 1.9 100.0 1,637 Fourth 56.2 11.2 23.0 7.8 1.8 100.0 2,530 Highest 58.5 10.1 25.0 5.6 0.8 100.0 3,404 Total 57.0 13.1 21.5 6.3 2.1 100.0 9,267 Note: Total includes 1 child with missing information on sex. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 23 2.7 EDUCATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION 2.7.1 Educational Attainment The educational level of household members is among the most important characteristics of a household because it is associated with many factors that have a significant impact on health-seeking behaviours, reproductive behaviours, use of contraception, and children’s health status. Table 2.11.1 Educational attainment of the female household population Percent distribution of the de facto female household population age 6 and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed Age3 6-9 43.4 54.3 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 1.7 100.0 11,621 0.0 10-14 25.9 45.6 5.7 21.6 0.1 0.0 1.0 100.0 10,640 2.9 15-19 27.1 6.4 7.4 45.8 11.5 1.4 0.5 100.0 8,054 7.1 20-24 33.2 3.6 9.3 16.3 26.8 10.0 0.7 100.0 6,971 7.7 25-29 37.6 4.4 11.7 9.6 22.8 13.0 1.0 100.0 7,418 5.6 30-34 38.0 4.3 15.0 8.4 19.8 13.6 1.0 100.0 5,593 5.5 35-39 40.7 5.3 17.9 8.2 16.8 10.5 0.6 100.0 4,832 5.2 40-44 42.7 5.9 18.9 8.5 13.5 9.3 1.0 100.0 3,621 5.0 45-49 51.0 5.5 17.4 7.6 10.0 7.8 0.8 100.0 3,307 0.0 50-54 56.7 6.8 15.6 4.2 7.5 7.0 2.1 100.0 2,910 0.0 55-59 64.4 7.5 14.1 3.4 4.6 3.9 2.2 100.0 2,068 0.0 60-64 69.6 8.2 10.8 1.8 3.3 2.3 3.9 100.0 1,764 0.0 65+ 78.2 4.9 7.0 0.8 1.4 1.7 5.9 100.0 3,113 0.0 Residence Urban 21.5 20.6 10.8 18.1 17.5 10.6 0.9 100.0 29,345 5.6 Rural 53.5 18.2 8.7 10.0 5.9 2.1 1.7 100.0 42,590 0.0 Zone North Central 38.0 23.3 9.2 14.0 8.7 5.7 1.0 100.0 10,897 1.9 North East 61.1 16.7 5.9 7.1 4.5 2.9 1.7 100.0 10,505 0.0 North West 62.8 15.8 6.7 6.6 4.3 1.4 2.4 100.0 22,036 0.0 South East 18.7 22.0 13.0 18.5 18.0 8.8 0.9 100.0 8,523 5.6 South South 13.0 22.4 14.0 22.4 18.6 9.1 0.5 100.0 8,467 5.9 South West 17.1 19.5 12.8 20.3 19.0 11.0 0.3 100.0 11,507 5.9 State North Central FCT-Abuja 14.5 22.6 9.5 14.4 17.2 20.6 1.3 100.0 529 6.5 Benue 25.7 33.9 9.4 20.1 5.9 3.1 1.9 100.0 2,364 2.8 Kogi 25.7 24.6 11.8 16.3 14.6 6.5 0.6 100.0 1,414 4.9 Kwara 26.6 19.6 12.3 15.9 13.4 10.5 1.6 100.0 1,109 5.2 Nasarawa 41.3 23.1 9.4 13.1 7.1 5.3 0.7 100.0 1,163 1.4 Niger 61.6 17.5 6.0 6.9 5.2 2.4 0.4 100.0 3,017 0.0 Plateau 35.6 20.1 10.2 16.2 9.4 7.7 0.9 100.0 1,300 2.9 North East Adamawa 35.5 26.9 8.7 14.6 8.4 4.4 1.3 100.0 1,533 1.8 Bauchi 62.3 17.5 7.3 5.6 2.6 1.4 3.2 100.0 2,177 0.0 Borno 69.0 12.5 4.7 4.6 4.1 4.2 0.8 100.0 2,503 0.0 Gombe 61.6 17.0 4.9 7.6 5.1 2.0 1.9 100.0 1,113 0.0 Taraba 43.2 27.4 9.6 9.8 5.6 3.2 1.3 100.0 1,435 0.3 Yobe 85.3 4.0 1.2 3.6 2.8 1.7 1.4 100.0 1,744 0.0 North West Jigawa 71.3 16.3 6.4 3.5 0.8 0.3 1.4 100.0 2,528 0.0 Kaduna 40.3 18.5 9.2 13.8 11.4 5.4 1.4 100.0 3,565 1.7 Kano 54.2 20.8 8.3 8.6 5.0 1.0 2.0 100.0 6,209 0.0 Katsina 67.7 15.2 7.3 2.3 2.6 0.2 4.7 100.0 2,912 0.0 Kebbi 75.8 9.7 4.3 5.6 2.3 0.7 1.5 100.0 2,502 0.0 Sokoto 78.5 9.6 3.1 3.4 1.6 0.4 3.4 100.0 1,900 0.0 Zamfara 77.3 10.1 3.7 3.1 1.4 0.8 3.4 100.0 2,421 0.0 South East Abia 17.2 18.4 13.8 17.3 20.8 11.6 0.8 100.0 1,020 6.0 Anambra 10.1 22.4 12.2 17.6 23.5 13.4 0.9 100.0 1,879 7.6 Ebonyi 27.8 25.9 12.8 18.3 10.8 3.5 1.0 100.0 2,084 3.8 Enugu 23.1 20.7 14.5 17.5 16.5 6.6 1.1 100.0 1,815 5.4 Imo 13.4 20.6 12.3 21.6 20.7 10.8 0.7 100.0 1,725 6.7 South South Akwa Ibom 12.9 22.2 15.6 24.0 14.7 9.4 1.1 100.0 1,565 5.8 Bayelsa 10.4 27.6 13.9 23.8 19.7 4.7 0.0 100.0 613 5.7 Cross River 18.0 28.7 13.9 20.4 12.9 5.9 0.3 100.0 1,373 5.2 Delta 14.3 22.1 13.8 21.7 17.4 10.3 0.4 100.0 1,630 5.9 Edo 12.1 23.3 13.1 23.8 18.4 8.9 0.4 100.0 1,299 5.9 Rivers 10.0 16.4 13.7 21.8 26.3 11.4 0.3 100.0 1,989 8.1 Continued… 24 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.11.1—Continued Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed South West Ekiti 15.2 18.0 11.5 20.4 18.5 15.9 0.4 100.0 610 7.4 Lagos 9.0 18.4 10.7 20.4 26.8 14.4 0.3 100.0 3,398 8.5 Ogun 24.1 20.0 21.2 18.0 12.3 4.0 0.4 100.0 1,723 5.3 Ondo 14.1 22.6 13.1 22.5 16.1 11.5 0.1 100.0 1,476 5.9 Osun 16.3 19.5 9.7 21.9 19.4 13.1 0.1 100.0 1,398 6.4 Oyo 24.9 19.1 11.9 19.8 15.2 8.7 0.4 100.0 2,902 5.4 Wealth quintile Lowest 81.0 10.9 3.5 2.1 0.4 0.1 2.1 100.0 13,855 0.0 Second 58.0 20.5 8.7 8.2 2.2 0.2 2.2 100.0 14,124 0.0 Middle 37.5 24.0 12.6 15.4 7.8 1.5 1.2 100.0 14,777 2.0 Fourth 20.7 22.0 14.1 20.0 17.1 5.4 0.8 100.0 14,440 5.4 Highest 7.7 18.1 8.5 20.1 24.8 20.2 0.5 100.0 14,738 9.7 Total 40.4 19.2 9.5 13.3 10.6 5.6 1.4 100.0 71,935 1.7 1 Completed grade 6 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 6 at the secondary level 3 Excludes 22 cases with missing information on age Table 2.11.2 Educational attainment of the male household population Percent distribution of the de facto male household population age 6 and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed Age3 6-9 41.9 56.0 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 11,826 0.0 10-14 21.0 51.2 5.5 21.6 0.1 0.1 0.5 100.0 11,023 3.1 15-19 17.3 8.1 6.9 54.3 11.7 1.3 0.4 100.0 7,525 7.6 20-24 18.6 2.3 7.0 20.9 37.4 13.3 0.5 100.0 5,814 11.0 25-29 21.2 3.0 9.6 10.1 35.2 20.4 0.4 100.0 5,714 11.2 30-34 22.8 3.1 13.3 9.8 30.5 20.1 0.5 100.0 5,132 11.0 35-39 25.1 4.1 16.3 8.5 28.3 17.3 0.5 100.0 4,548 8.6 40-44 26.0 4.1 19.1 7.8 24.8 17.7 0.5 100.0 3,757 6.7 45-49 30.8 4.6 17.8 7.8 21.3 17.2 0.5 100.0 3,371 5.8 50-54 32.8 3.3 21.9 6.9 15.7 18.9 0.4 100.0 2,291 5.6 55-59 43.4 5.3 21.5 5.8 10.0 13.2 0.8 100.0 2,178 5.0 60-64 54.6 6.5 18.3 2.8 8.0 7.9 1.9 100.0 1,962 0.0 65+ 62.0 6.9 14.6 3.4 5.2 5.2 2.7 100.0 3,919 0.0 Residence Urban 13.9 21.2 10.1 17.4 22.1 14.8 0.5 100.0 28,299 7.0 Rural 40.4 20.7 9.6 13.0 10.5 4.9 1.0 100.0 40,787 1.5 Zone North Central 22.6 24.1 8.5 17.9 14.3 12.0 0.6 100.0 11,129 5.3 North East 52.4 18.0 5.1 9.4 7.9 6.2 1.0 100.0 10,293 0.0 North West 46.9 19.0 8.0 10.1 9.8 4.8 1.4 100.0 21,209 0.0 South East 10.7 25.7 17.6 19.0 17.9 8.5 0.6 100.0 7,283 5.7 South South 6.1 22.4 12.6 21.1 24.8 12.7 0.3 100.0 8,252 8.0 South West 11.6 19.7 11.6 18.3 24.6 13.9 0.2 100.0 10,921 7.6 State North Central FCT-Abuja 10.4 19.4 8.1 11.4 20.0 29.9 0.9 100.0 593 11.0 Benue 11.1 31.5 10.2 26.0 10.8 9.3 1.0 100.0 2,521 5.5 Kogi 14.1 20.2 9.5 19.6 21.8 14.3 0.5 100.0 1,307 7.3 Kwara 12.9 22.1 11.2 17.2 17.3 18.9 0.5 100.0 1,062 6.3 Nasarawa 20.6 25.8 8.6 19.1 15.4 9.8 0.6 100.0 1,174 5.3 Niger 40.2 21.9 5.4 11.6 12.5 8.1 0.3 100.0 3,212 1.8 Plateau 25.2 21.1 9.9 18.7 11.9 12.7 0.5 100.0 1,261 5.3 North East Adamawa 21.2 28.7 7.8 18.5 12.3 10.6 0.8 100.0 1,416 4.9 Bauchi 51.5 21.4 5.2 9.2 6.1 4.4 2.2 100.0 2,063 0.0 Borno 63.6 10.5 3.9 6.5 8.2 6.8 0.5 100.0 2,622 0.0 Gombe 46.4 20.8 4.9 12.7 8.0 6.7 0.7 100.0 1,046 0.0 Taraba 28.6 31.5 9.5 12.8 10.8 6.0 0.8 100.0 1,352 2.5 Yobe 83.3 5.1 1.1 2.3 3.8 3.5 0.8 100.0 1,794 0.0 North West Jigawa 54.7 20.4 8.4 7.5 4.6 3.4 1.2 100.0 2,258 0.0 Kaduna 31.8 18.9 7.7 13.3 18.1 9.5 0.7 100.0 3,673 4.6 Kano 37.8 20.5 10.3 13.0 12.8 4.7 0.9 100.0 6,077 2.2 Katsina 54.8 18.2 10.4 4.1 6.7 3.1 2.8 100.0 2,639 0.0 Kebbi 59.9 15.8 4.2 9.0 5.5 4.5 1.1 100.0 2,485 0.0 Sokoto 57.4 18.3 5.3 8.9 4.8 2.7 2.5 100.0 1,928 0.0 Zamfara 55.8 18.5 5.8 8.5 5.8 3.5 2.2 100.0 2,147 0.0 Continued… Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 25 Table 2.11.2—Continued Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed South East Abia 7.3 22.0 17.7 19.0 23.6 9.6 0.8 100.0 945 6.6 Anambra 7.9 23.4 18.4 18.9 20.7 10.3 0.4 100.0 1,757 6.0 Ebonyi 14.2 33.2 15.1 17.7 12.0 7.0 0.8 100.0 1,550 5.1 Enugu 17.0 25.3 20.5 17.3 13.1 6.5 0.3 100.0 1,455 5.4 Imo 6.9 23.2 16.4 21.8 21.8 9.1 0.7 100.0 1,576 6.7 South South Akwa Ibom 6.1 24.6 15.8 22.7 19.4 10.3 0.9 100.0 1,539 6.3 Bayelsa 4.5 23.9 8.0 24.3 28.1 11.1 0.0 100.0 627 8.1 Cross River 7.3 23.8 17.6 22.4 20.4 8.5 0.1 100.0 1,248 6.0 Delta 6.8 23.3 12.3 20.4 24.6 12.2 0.4 100.0 1,535 7.8 Edo 7.2 22.2 11.3 19.9 25.6 13.6 0.2 100.0 1,215 8.1 Rivers 4.8 18.7 9.5 19.3 30.1 17.5 0.1 100.0 2,087 10.6 South West Ekiti 6.5 17.6 11.5 21.7 20.5 21.5 0.6 100.0 545 9.3 Lagos 4.6 16.9 10.1 16.5 33.3 18.3 0.2 100.0 3,315 11.0 Ogun 15.1 23.7 20.7 16.2 17.2 6.9 0.1 100.0 1,552 5.5 Ondo 8.8 20.8 11.0 22.0 22.5 14.8 0.2 100.0 1,415 8.2 Osun 8.3 20.7 7.1 22.7 22.8 18.3 0.1 100.0 1,298 8.7 Oyo 21.9 20.2 10.7 17.0 21.1 8.6 0.3 100.0 2,795 5.6 Wealth quintile Lowest 71.1 14.0 6.0 4.9 2.4 0.4 1.2 100.0 13,158 0.0 Second 42.8 24.0 10.7 12.2 7.1 1.8 1.4 100.0 13,037 0.6 Middle 22.5 26.3 11.7 18.9 14.7 5.3 0.7 100.0 13,772 5.1 Fourth 11.6 23.4 12.4 19.7 22.6 9.8 0.5 100.0 14,503 6.2 Highest 4.6 16.8 8.0 17.3 27.3 25.6 0.4 100.0 14,616 11.1 Total 29.5 20.9 9.8 14.8 15.2 8.9 0.8 100.0 69,085 4.7 1 Completed grade 6 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 6 at the secondary level 3 Excludes 23 cases with missing information on age Tables 2.11.1 and 2.11.2 show the distribution of female and male household members age 6 and above by the highest level of schooling ever attended (even if they did not complete that level) and the median number of years of education completed according to age, urban-rural residence, geopolitical zone, and wealth quintile. Although the majority of Nigerians have attained some education, there are differences in educational attainment according to sex. Overall, 70 percent of males age 6 and over have ever attended school, as compared with 58 percent of females. About one in five females and males have completed some primary education (19 percent and 21 percent, respectively). Six percent of females and 9 percent of males have more than a secondary education. Large percentages of both females (40 percent) and males (30 percent) have no education. Households in rural areas are far below their urban counterparts in educational attainment; 54 percent of females in rural areas and 22 percent in urban areas have no education, and the corresponding figures for males are 40 percent and 14 percent. Across the geopolitical zones, the North East and North West lag behind others in educational attainment, with more than 60 percent of females and about half of males having no education. The most substantial variation in educational attainment occurs across the wealth quintiles. Only 8 percent of females in the wealthiest households have no education, as compared with 81 percent in the poorest households. Among males, 5 percent of those in the wealthiest households have no education, compared with 71 percent in the poorest households. Median number of years of educational attainment is higher for males (4.7 years) than for females (1.7 years). 26 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics 2.7.2 School Attendance Ratios Tables 2.12.1 and 2.12.2 present school attendance ratios by level of schooling and by sex, area of residence, geopolitical zone, state, and wealth quintile. The net attendance ratio (NAR) is an indicator of participation in schooling among children of official school age (age 6-12 for primary school and age 13- 18 for secondary school), and the gross attendance ratio (GAR) indicates participation at each level of schooling among those of any age between 5 and 24 years. The GAR is nearly always higher than the NAR for the same level because the GAR includes participation by those who may be older or younger than the official age range for that level. Table 2.12.1 School attendance ratios: Primary school Net attendance ratios (NARs) and gross attendance ratios (GARs) for the de facto household population by sex at primary level of schooling, and the gender parity index (GPI), according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Background characteristic Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Residence Urban 73.1 69.4 71.2 0.95 105.2 99.3 102.2 0.94 Rural 54.7 48.8 51.8 0.89 82.4 72.9 77.7 0.88 Zone North Central 69.6 66.2 68.0 0.95 104.4 98.0 101.3 0.94 North East 46.7 41.5 44.1 0.89 71.0 63.4 67.2 0.89 North West 50.7 43.8 47.2 0.86 76.0 63.0 69.4 0.83 South East 82.3 80.3 81.4 0.98 119.7 116.5 118.2 0.97 South South 76.4 73.4 74.9 0.96 108.7 109.5 109.0 1.01 South West 70.5 69.5 70.0 0.99 101.6 99.7 100.6 0.98 State North Central FCT-Abuja 74.4 73.1 73.7 0.98 108.7 110.2 109.5 1.01 Benue 75.4 77.7 76.5 1.03 122.8 122.0 122.4 0.99 Kogi 71.4 76.9 74.3 1.08 102.1 110.7 106.6 1.08 Kwara 73.9 72.5 73.2 0.98 103.2 103.5 103.3 1.00 Nasarawa 72.6 69.3 71.0 0.96 108.0 102.6 105.4 0.95 Niger 64.1 51.4 57.9 0.80 93.8 74.7 84.6 0.80 Plateau 62.5 63.6 63.1 1.02 93.6 90.5 92.1 0.97 North East Adamawa 79.0 74.5 76.8 0.94 115.7 112.2 114.0 0.97 Bauchi 54.0 41.1 47.3 0.76 81.7 63.9 72.4 0.78 Borno 34.8 35.3 35.1 1.01 53.1 51.0 52.0 0.96 Gombe 50.9 39.3 44.6 0.77 80.4 58.4 68.4 0.73 Taraba 67.2 61.1 64.3 0.91 108.5 101.0 105.1 0.93 Yobe 14.3 11.0 12.8 0.77 19.2 16.2 17.9 0.84 North West Jigawa 48.6 38.1 43.2 0.78 80.3 60.8 70.2 0.76 Kaduna 58.9 57.3 58.1 0.97 88.7 80.5 84.6 0.91 Kano 60.5 58.6 59.5 0.97 86.4 81.9 84.1 0.95 Katsina 46.6 40.6 43.5 0.87 69.4 58.1 63.5 0.84 Kebbi 40.6 27.1 34.1 0.67 56.5 38.2 47.8 0.68 Sokoto 39.8 24.6 32.7 0.62 58.9 37.0 48.7 0.63 Zamfara 42.9 27.7 35.0 0.65 73.3 42.5 57.2 0.58 South East Abia 84.9 74.7 80.1 0.88 120.5 102.2 111.9 0.85 Anambra 81.6 82.4 82.0 1.01 117.3 123.2 120.1 1.05 Ebonyi 86.4 84.7 85.6 0.98 121.6 119.3 120.5 0.98 Enugu 81.8 81.2 81.5 0.99 118.3 113.6 116.0 0.96 Imo 76.6 73.8 75.3 0.96 120.7 116.2 118.6 0.96 South South Akwa Ibom 78.1 71.4 74.9 0.92 110.4 101.5 106.2 0.92 Bayelsa 76.2 80.4 78.1 1.06 110.6 115.9 113.1 1.05 Cross River 71.4 75.2 73.5 1.05 105.1 110.1 107.8 1.05 Delta 78.5 76.4 77.4 0.97 116.2 116.1 115.9 1.00 Edo 79.0 74.4 76.6 0.94 111.2 110.2 110.6 0.99 Rivers 74.9 66.9 71.4 0.89 101.1 107.2 103.8 1.06 Continued… Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 27 Table 2.12.1—Continued Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Background characteristic Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Male Female Total Gender parity index3 South West Ekiti 70.0 70.8 70.4 1.01 100.5 105.1 102.9 1.05 Lagos 70.4 67.9 69.0 0.96 107.3 99.6 103.2 0.93 Ogun 78.6 74.8 76.7 0.95 102.7 101.2 102.0 0.99 Ondo 73.6 74.6 74.1 1.01 118.3 111.7 114.9 0.94 Osun 75.1 71.2 73.1 0.95 111.1 101.3 106.2 0.91 Oyo 63.6 64.9 64.2 1.02 86.5 91.5 88.8 1.06 Wealth quintile Lowest 30.0 24.2 27.1 0.80 47.7 37.5 42.6 0.79 Second 59.9 52.7 56.3 0.88 91.7 78.9 85.3 0.86 Middle 74.5 71.3 72.9 0.96 108.2 102.6 105.5 0.95 Fourth 77.2 73.1 75.2 0.95 111.8 104.0 108.1 0.93 Highest 71.4 69.5 70.4 0.97 101.9 102.1 102.0 1.00 Total 61.6 56.7 59.1 0.92 90.9 83.0 87.0 0.91 1 The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary school age (6-12 years) population that is attending primary school. By definition, the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. 2 The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. 3 The GPI for primary school is the ratio of the primary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. Table 2.12.2 School attendance ratios: Secondary school Net attendance ratios (NARs) and gross attendance ratios (GARs) for the de facto household population by sex at secondary level of schooling, and the gender parity index (GPI), according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Background characteristic Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Residence Urban 66.0 62.1 64.0 0.94 101.8 94.0 97.8 0.92 Rural 43.1 32.6 37.8 0.76 65.7 47.6 56.6 0.72 Zone North Central 57.3 51.5 54.5 0.90 92.3 77.1 85.0 0.84 North East 34.6 23.0 28.5 0.66 53.3 33.8 43.0 0.63 North West 39.8 25.3 32.5 0.63 58.5 37.5 47.9 0.64 South East 70.1 69.2 69.6 0.99 98.2 95.3 96.7 0.97 South South 67.7 63.3 65.4 0.93 109.4 95.3 102.0 0.87 South West 67.0 69.3 68.1 1.03 105.8 109.1 107.5 1.03 State North Central FCT-Abuja 68.2 56.1 62.0 0.82 103.1 92.3 97.6 0.90 Benue 60.3 55.2 57.9 0.91 93.6 76.1 85.2 0.81 Kogi 75.7 64.7 70.0 0.85 123.5 95.8 109.2 0.78 Kwara 73.1 70.0 71.5 0.96 123.5 109.7 116.4 0.89 Nasarawa 60.2 45.6 53.7 0.76 93.7 72.6 84.3 0.78 Niger 41.8 33.2 38.0 0.80 69.4 52.7 62.0 0.76 Plateau 52.0 54.5 53.2 1.05 84.7 78.8 81.8 0.93 North East Adamawa 54.4 39.9 46.6 0.73 88.0 55.0 70.3 0.63 Bauchi 32.7 18.6 25.7 0.57 50.3 27.8 39.2 0.55 Borno 38.6 20.2 28.0 0.52 52.6 28.2 38.6 0.54 Gombe 38.9 24.5 31.8 0.63 64.3 33.9 49.3 0.53 Taraba 38.4 26.8 32.5 0.70 58.3 45.6 51.8 0.78 Yobe 10.7 13.7 12.3 1.28 18.8 21.5 20.2 1.14 North West Jigawa 28.3 9.8 18.3 0.35 52.7 18.2 34.0 0.34 Kaduna 46.7 38.4 42.5 0.82 68.3 59.4 63.8 0.87 Kano 50.8 35.6 43.3 0.70 71.9 48.3 60.3 0.67 Katsina 25.8 13.3 18.9 0.52 39.4 18.3 27.8 0.46 Kebbi 34.2 24.0 29.5 0.70 46.3 36.3 41.7 0.78 Sokoto 26.7 10.1 18.7 0.38 43.6 17.3 31.0 0.40 Zamfara 36.8 14.6 26.1 0.40 53.0 27.2 40.6 0.51 Continued… 28 • Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.12.2—Continued Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Background characteristic Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Male Female Total Gender parity index3 South East Abia 73.2 70.4 71.9 0.96 99.6 117.7 107.6 1.18 Anambra 75.3 67.0 71.0 0.89 99.9 88.0 93.7 0.88 Ebonyi 60.4 64.5 62.8 1.07 93.0 84.0 87.8 0.90 Enugu 69.2 72.9 71.1 1.05 90.7 97.8 94.4 1.08 Imo 74.2 74.9 74.6 1.01 109.6 110.5 110.1 1.01 South South Akwa Ibom 70.6 67.3 68.8 0.95 111.7 100.5 105.7 0.90 Bayelsa 72.7 66.3 69.4 0.91 111.4 93.8 102.4 0.84 Cross River 69.5 55.5 63.1 0.80 119.4 102.7 111.7 0.86 Delta 64.7 64.4 64.6 1.00 105.5 88.1 96.1 0.83 Edo 69.8 64.1 66.7 0.92 100.7 92.0 96.0 0.91 Rivers 62.5 60.7 61.5 0.97 109.5 97.1 102.7 0.89 South West Ekiti 75.7 70.6 73.3 0.93 117.7 112.7 115.3 0.96 Lagos 69.0 69.6 69.3 1.01 114.7 118.5 116.7 1.03 Ogun 69.4 71.8 70.6 1.03 106.0 112.4 109.2 1.06 Ondo 67.6 62.9 65.2 0.93 97.0 92.1 94.5 0.95 Osun 75.1 74.9 75.0 1.00 115.0 118.4 116.6 1.03 Oyo 58.1 68.5 63.1 1.18 95.6 102.5 99.0 1.07 Wealth quintile Lowest 15.8 6.8 11.5 0.43 24.2 10.2 17.4 0.42 Second 39.1 26.1 32.3 0.67 59.3 37.0 47.5 0.62 Middle 61.1 50.9 56.0 0.83 92.1 72.5 82.3 0.79 Fourth 69.8 64.4 67.2 0.92 106.1 96.2 101.3 0.91 Highest 72.5 69.7 71.0 0.96 115.2 109.0 111.9 0.95 Total 52.6 45.1 48.8 0.86 80.7 67.2 73.8 0.83 1 The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary school age (13-18 years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition, the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. 2 The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary school age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. 3 The GPI for secondary school is the ratio of the secondary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. The results in Tables 2.12.1 and 2.12.2 show that 59 percent of children age 6-12 attend primary school and 49 percent of children age 13-18 attend secondary school. There are differences in the NARs for males and females at both the primary and secondary levels. At the primary level, the NAR in urban areas is higher than in rural areas (71 percent and 52 percent, respectively), while there is a much wider gap in the NAR between urban and rural areas at the secondary level (64 percent and 38 percent, respectively). By geopolitical zone, the North East has the lowest NAR at the primary and secondary levels (44 percent and 29 percent, respectively), while the South East has the highest (81 percent and 70 percent, respectively). Attendance is higher among wealthy households than poorer households at both the primary and secondary levels. For example, the NAR at the primary level is 27 percent for children in the lowest wealth quintile, as compared with more than 70 percent in the middle and higher wealth quintiles. The same pattern occurs at the secondary level, with the NAR being 12 percent for children age 13 to 18 in the lowest wealth quintile and 71 percent in the highest wealth quintile. The GAR is higher than the NAR at the both the primary school level (87 percent versus 59 percent) and the secondary school level (74 percent versus 49 percent). This is an indication that fewer pupils attend secondary school than primary school. Tables 2.12.1 and 2.12.2 also show the gender parity index (GPI), which represents the ratio of the NAR and GAR for females to the NAR and GAR for males. A GPI below one indicates that a smaller proportion of females than males attend school. The indexes for NAR and GAR at the primary level are slightly less than one (0.9), indicating that the gender gap is very narrow. Age-specific attendance rates (ASARs) for the population age 5 to 24 are presented in Figure 2.2 by age and sex. The ASAR indicates participation in schooling at any level. The trends are the same for males and females. Approximately half of children attend school by age 6. In the 9-16 age group, 7 of 10 children attend school. At age 16, attendance rates begin to decline with increasing age, and the decline is faster for females than males after age 15. Household Population and Housing Characteristics • 29 Figure 2.2 Age-specific attendance rates 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Percentage Age (years) Male Female NDHS 2013 Characteristics of Respondents • 31 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 3 his chapter provides a profile of the respondents who were interviewed in the 2013 NDHS, that is, women and men age 15-49. Information is presented on a number of basic characteristics including age at the time of the survey, religion, marital status, residence, education, literacy status, and media access. In addition, the chapter explores adults’ employment status, occupation, and earnings. An analysis of these variables provides the socioeconomic context within which demographic and reproductive health issues are examined in the subsequent chapters. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS Table 3.1 shows the percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by their background characteristics. Fifty-six percent of women and 54 percent of men are under age 30. In general, the proportion of women and men in each age group declines with increasing age, reflecting the comparatively young age structure of the population in Nigeria, which is a result of a past history of high fertility. More than half of the respondents (52 percent of women and 51 percent of men) are Muslims, while 11 percent of women and 12 percent of men are Catholics. Other Christians (such as Pentecostals and orthodox) account for 36 percent of women and men. With respect to ethnicity, 28 percent of women and 27 percent of men are Hausa, while 15 percent of women and 13 percent of men belong to the Igbo ethnic group. Fourteen percent each of women and men identified themselves as Yoruba. The Fulani ethnic group constitutes only 7 percent of women and 6 percent of men. There are more than 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria, but most comprise only small numbers. For instance, the Ibibio, Ijaw, Kanuri, and Tiv ethnic groups each account for only 2 percent of the population. The majority of respondents are currently married or living together with a partner (71 percent of women and 50 percent of men). Twenty-four percent of women and 48 percent of men age 15-49 had never been married at the time of the survey. The universality of marriage in Nigeria probably reflects the social and economic security marriage is perceived to provide (National Population Commission [NPC], 1998). The proportion of women who are divorced, separated, or widowed (5 percent) is higher than the proportion among men (2 percent). Men are more likely than women to remarry after a divorce, separation, or widowhood. T Key Findings • More than half of women (56 percent) and men (54 percent) age 15-49 are under age 30. • A high proportion of respondents (71 percent of women and 50 percent of men) are currently married. • More than half of the respondents live in rural areas. • Thirty-eight percent of women and 21 percent of men have no education, while 45 percent of women and 62 percent of men have a secondary or higher education. • Ninety-three percent of women in the highest wealth quintile are literate. • Sixty-two percent of women are currently employed. • Nine in 10 women receive cash (including cash and in-kind) for their work. 32 • Characteristics of Respondents Over half of the respondents live in rural areas (58 percent of women and 56 percent of men), and 3 in 10 live in the North West zone. Fourteen to 16 percent each of women and men live in the North Central, North West, or South West zone. Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by selected background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Background characteristic Women Men Weighted percentage Weighted number Unweighted number Weighted percentage Weighted number Unweighted number Age 15-19 20.1 7,820 7,905 20.9 3,619 3,708 20-24 17.3 6,757 6,714 16.7 2,892 2,840 25-29 18.3 7,145 7,037 15.9 2,757 2,763 30-34 14.0 5,467 5,373 13.9 2,414 2,368 35-39 12.1 4,718 4,701 12.5 2,175 2,170 40-44 9.3 3,620 3,663 10.2 1,777 1,777 45-49 8.8 3,422 3,555 9.9 1,724 1,733 Religion Catholic 11.1 4,316 4,081 11.6 2,014 1,916 Other Christian 35.7 13,922 15,757 35.6 6,181 7,058 Islam 51.7 20,149 18,578 51.3 8,907 8,134 Traditionalist 0.9 359 352 0.9 161 157 Missing 0.5 192 166 0.5 79 77 Ethnic group Ekoi 0.1 22 34 0.1 20 31 Fulani 6.6 2,565 2,425 5.5 953 954 Hausa 27.5 10,699 9,386 27.2 4,719 4,100 Ibibio 2.2 841 849 2.4 419 435 Igala 1.0 371 416 1.1 196 210 Igbo 14.5 5,636 5,448 13.4 2,330 2,228 Ijaw/Izon 1.9 751 1,590 2.0 346 765 Kanuri/Beriberi 1.7 680 523 1.7 292 209 Tiv 2.1 836 621 2.6 448 312 Yoruba 14.1 5,482 5,606 13.5 2,341 2,416 Other 28.2 11,002 11,987 30.2 5,247 5,653 Don’t know 0.0 1 2 0.0 0 0 Missing 0.2 63 61 0.3 48 46 Marital status Never married 23.9 9,326 9,820 48.3 8,378 8,531 Married 69.4 27,043 26,403 49.1 8,520 8,292 Living together 2.0 787 871 1.2 203 265 Divorced/separated 2.1 826 861 1.2 206 217 Widowed 2.5 967 993 0.3 52 54 Residence Urban 42.1 16,414 15,545 43.8 7,611 7,144 Rural 57.9 22,534 23,403 56.2 9,748 10,215 Zone North Central 14.3 5,572 6,251 15.5 2,685 3,018 North East 14.8 5,766 6,630 14.5 2,515 2,843 North West 30.5 11,877 9,673 29.9 5,185 4,131 South East 11.5 4,476 4,462 9.7 1,686 1,681 South South 12.7 4,942 6,058 14.1 2,445 3,035 South West 16.2 6,314 5,874 16.4 2,843 2,651 State North Central FCT-Abuja 0.8 315 761 1.0 175 428 Benue 3.2 1,240 870 3.6 616 409 Kogi 1.8 704 859 1.9 333 425 Kwara 1.5 596 966 1.6 274 450 Nasarawa 1.5 594 874 1.6 282 401 Niger 3.8 1,462 1,046 4.0 701 512 Plateau 1.7 662 875 1.7 302 393 North East Adamawa 2.1 828 1,122 2.1 358 493 Bauchi 3.0 1,161 1,196 2.9 512 492 Borno 3.6 1,412 782 3.9 676 376 Gombe 1.4 550 1,076 1.5 255 490 Taraba 2.2 844 1,374 1.9 325 541 Yobe 2.5 971 1,080 2.2 390 451 North West Jigawa 3.5 1,353 1,211 2.9 510 462 Kaduna 5.5 2,136 1,243 6.0 1,033 602 Kano 8.2 3,189 2,228 9.2 1,592 1,108 Katsina 3.9 1,525 1,304 3.4 596 512 Kebbi 3.2 1,244 1,184 3.2 551 524 Sokoto 2.8 1,098 1,314 2.4 424 501 Zamfara 3.4 1,332 1,189 2.8 479 422 Continued… Characteristics of Respondents • 33 Table 3.1—Continued Background characteristic Women Men Weighted percentage Weighted number Unweighted number Weighted percentage Weighted number Unweighted number South East Abia 1.3 518 805 1.3 229 357 Anambra 2.7 1,052 903 2.6 446 366 Ebonyi 2.9 1,122 1,075 2.1 368 334 Enugu 2.4 951 965 1.8 320 355 Imo 2.1 833 714 1.9 323 269 South South Akwa Ibom 2.2 864 979 2.6 451 502 Bayelsa 0.9 364 1,224 1.1 187 652 Cross River 1.8 703 727 1.8 310 320 Delta 2.6 993 1,130 2.7 473 554 Edo 1.9 742 1,079 2.1 365 517 Rivers 3.3 1,276 919 3.8 658 490 South West Ekiti 0.8 326 863 0.8 148 394 Lagos 5.0 1,964 1,482 5.5 948 701 Ogun 2.3 883 672 2.1 358 268 Ondo 2.1 808 916 2.3 404 435 Osun 2.0 765 1,026 2.1 356 480 Oyo 4.0 1,568 915 3.6 629 373 Education No education 37.8 14,729 13,740 21.2 3,685 3,354 Primary 17.3 6,734 7,104 16.7 2,907 2,979 Secondary 35.8 13,927 14,407 47.7 8,281 8,390 More than secondary 9.1 3,558 3,697 14.3 2,486 2,636 Wealth quintile Lowest 18.3 7,132 6,602 16.5 2,862 2,646 Second 19.1 7,428 7,515 17.2 2,992 3,033 Middle 19.2 7,486 8,001 19.2 3,338 3,538 Fourth 20.5 7,992 8,450 22.1 3,835 4,042 Highest 22.9 8,910 8,380 25.0 4,332 4,100 Total 100.0 38,948 38,948 100.0 17,359 17,359 Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was completed. Education is an important determinant of an individual’s attitudes and outlook on various aspects of life. Educational attainment in Nigeria is fairly high; 45 percent of women and 62 percent of men have a secondary or higher level of education. However, 38 percent of women and 21 percent of men have no education. With respect to wealth, men are more likely than women to be in the fourth and highest wealth quintiles, while women are more likely than men to be in the lowest two quintiles. 3.2 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS Table 3.2.1 shows the relationship between respondents’ level of education and their background characteristics. The percentage of women with no education increases steadily by age group, from 31 percent among women age 15-24 to 54 percent among women age 45-49. There are urban-rural differences that are more pronounced at the lowest and highest educational levels. For example, more than half of rural women have no education, as compared with 16 percent of urban women. Forty-six percent of urban women have a secondary education or higher, compared with 14 percent of rural women. Women’s educational attainment differs markedly among the zones and states. The North West and North East have the highest proportions of women with no education (69 percent and 64 percent, respectively), and the South South and South East have the lowest proportions (5 percent each). Across states, the highest proportion of women with more than a secondary education is in Federal Capital Territory (FCT)-Abuja (30 percent), followed by Ekiti (26 percent). In these states, as well as in Abia, Anambra, Imo, Rivers, Lagos, and Osun, women have completed a median of 11 years of schooling or more. Access to education increases with women’s wealth. Eighty-seven percent of women in the lowest wealth quintile have no education, as compared with 3 percent in the highest wealth quintile. On the other hand, 87 percent of women in the highest wealth quintile have attended or completed secondary schooling or higher, compared with 4 percent of women in the lowest quintile. 34 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of women Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Age 15-24 30.5 4.7 7.7 30.9 20.7 5.4 100.0 7.6 14,576 15-19 27.8 5.4 6.8 43.9 14.6 1.6 100.0 7.5 7,820 20-24 33.7 3.9 8.7 16.0 27.8 9.9 100.0 7.8 6,757 25-29 38.7 4.6 10.6 10.5 21.9 13.7 100.0 5.6 7,145 30-34 39.4 4.9 14.8 9.4 18.6 12.9 100.0 5.4 5,467 35-39 40.7 5.9 17.5 9.0 16.0 10.9 100.0 5.2 4,718 40-44 44.4 6.6 18.0 9.0 13.2 8.8 100.0 4.5 3,620 45-49 53.5 6.3 16.3 7.7 8.9 7.2 100.0 0.0 3,422 Residence Urban 15.5 4.1 12.5 22.0 29.0 16.9 100.0 10.2 16,414 Rural 54.1 6.0 11.8 14.1 10.5 3.5 100.0 0.0 22,534 Zone North Central 31.6 8.3 14.2 20.1 16.1 9.7 100.0 5.7 5,572 North East 64.4 5.8 8.0 9.3 7.7 4.9 100.0 0.0 5,766 North West 69.4 3.4 8.2 8.8 7.7 2.5 100.0 0.0 11,877 South East 5.3 6.6 14.4 29.0 30.6 14.2 100.0 10.3 4,476 South South 5.0 6.3 16.8 28.4 29.2 14.2 100.0 9.8 4,942 South West 8.4 3.4 16.0 22.1 32.8 17.4 100.0 11.0 6,314 State North Central FCT-Abuja 11.4 4.5 11.7 15.8 26.5 30.0 100.0 11.2 315 Benue 17.2 20.0 16.8 30.9 9.9 5.2 100.0 5.7 1,240 Kogi 13.4 5.6 19.5 23.0 27.4 11.2 100.0 8.8 704 Kwara 21.4 1.8 17.5 19.4 23.5 16.4 100.0 8.9 596 Nasarawa 31.6 10.4 15.6 19.4 14.1 8.9 100.0 5.5 594 Niger 65.8 2.0 7.4 9.5 10.3 4.9 100.0 0.0 1,462 Plateau 21.3 8.8 15.9 23.4 18.5 12.0 100.0 7.3 662 North East Adamawa 34.5 8.7 13.3 21.1 14.6 7.9 100.0 5.5 828 Bauchi 72.8 5.1 8.6 6.2 4.6 2.7 100.0 0.0 1,161 Borno 72.4 3.0 5.7 5.3 6.5 7.1 100.0 0.0 1,412 Gombe 63.0 5.5 7.6 10.2 10.3 3.5 100.0 0.0 550 Taraba 45.0 13.7 13.7 13.6 9.3 4.8 100.0 2.4 844 Yobe 85.6 1.4 1.3 4.3 4.7 2.7 100.0 0.0 971 North West Jigawa 83.2 4.9 6.2 3.9 1.5 0.4 100.0 0.0 1,353 Kaduna 40.3 3.6 11.2 17.8 18.7 8.4 100.0 5.5 2,136 Kano 60.2 4.6 11.2 12.1 9.9 2.0 100.0 0.0 3,189 Katsina 78.4 2.2 10.4 3.7 4.7 0.6 100.0 0.0 1,525 Kebbi 81.2 3.0 5.3 5.2 4.3 1.1 100.0 0.0 1,244 Sokoto 89.1 1.5 2.4 4.4 2.1 0.6 100.0 0.0 1,098 Zamfara 86.3 2.0 3.5 4.1 2.3 1.7 100.0 0.0 1,332 South East Abia 2.6 3.3 13.7 24.4 36.1 19.8 100.0 11.2 518 Anambra 2.9 3.8 10.1 26.3 37.7 19.2 100.0 11.2 1,052 Ebonyi 11.9 13.3 19.9 29.4 19.5 6.0 100.0 7.2 1,122 Enugu 5.7 6.6 17.4 31.3 28.5 10.6 100.0 9.7 951 Imo 0.5 3.0 9.5 32.0 35.7 19.3 100.0 11.1 833 South South Akwa Ibom 2.8 5.6 20.0 31.7 24.5 15.5 100.0 9.7 864 Bayelsa 4.7 10.2 16.3 31.7 30.5 6.7 100.0 8.7 364 Cross River 8.7 9.7 18.4 29.5 22.6 11.1 100.0 8.3 703 Delta 7.6 6.6 15.8 27.9 26.8 15.4 100.0 9.5 993 Edo 4.3 6.0 15.4 31.3 29.3 13.7 100.0 9.8 742 Rivers 3.1 3.9 15.6 23.4 37.3 16.8 100.0 11.1 1,276 South West Ekiti 2.0 2.4 10.3 27.6 32.1 25.5 100.0 11.2 326 Lagos 4.4 1.7 11.6 18.0 42.6 21.7 100.0 11.3 1,964 Ogun 11.9 5.2 28.8 21.7 25.4 7.0 100.0 7.6 883 Ondo 7.5 4.6 15.1 27.4 28.3 17.2 100.0 10.4 808 Osun 4.0 2.9 12.9 26.6 32.9 20.7 100.0 11.1 765 Oyo 15.4 4.2 17.5 21.3 27.0 14.6 100.0 9.1 1,568 Wealth quintile Lowest 87.3 4.4 4.8 2.9 0.7 0.1 100.0 0.0 7,132 Second 61.5 8.3 12.8 12.7 4.2 0.4 100.0 0.0 7,428 Middle 32.8 8.0 18.2 23.4 14.9 2.7 100.0 5.5 7,486 Fourth 14.8 4.5 16.9 26.1 28.8 8.8 100.0 8.8 7,992 Highest 3.3 1.5 8.0 20.1 37.7 29.4 100.0 11.4 8,910 Total 37.8 5.2 12.1 17.4 18.3 9.1 100.0 5.6 38,948 1 Completed grade 6 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 6 at the secondary level Characteristics of Respondents • 35 Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of men Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Age 15-24 16.6 4.4 7.4 38.1 26.4 7.1 100.0 9.1 6,511 15-19 16.6 5.8 7.6 52.3 16.3 1.4 100.0 8.2 3,619 20-24 16.6 2.5 7.1 20.4 39.0 14.3 100.0 11.1 2,892 25-29 20.8 3.5 10.1 10.3 34.8 20.5 100.0 11.2 2,757 30-34 22.4 3.7 12.7 10.4 31.2 19.5 100.0 11.0 2,414 35-39 24.3 5.1 17.3 9.0 26.2 18.0 100.0 8.3 2,175 40-44 23.8 5.6 20.6 9.3 24.0 16.7 100.0 6.0 1,777 45-49 31.0 5.2 18.8 8.4 19.3 17.2 100.0 5.7 1,724 Residence Urban 6.7 2.8 10.3 21.3 36.9 22.1 100.0 11.2 7,611 Rural 32.6 5.8 13.9 19.5 20.0 8.3 100.0 5.8 9,748 Zone North Central 12.5 5.4 9.8 27.0 26.4 19.0 100.0 10.3 2,685 North East 44.7 6.4 8.8 14.0 15.3 10.8 100.0 4.1 2,515 North West 39.0 3.8 13.5 14.9 19.9 8.9 100.0 5.5 5,185 South East 1.3 4.2 17.1 29.2 33.4 14.8 100.0 10.8 1,686 South South 1.1 4.0 13.3 25.4 38.3 17.9 100.0 11.2 2,445 South West 5.3 3.5 11.8 19.9 40.0 19.6 100.0 11.2 2,843 State North Central FCT-Abuja 5.6 3.1 7.2 14.9 30.4 38.7 100.0 11.6 175 Benue 3.4 10.6 9.3 43.1 18.2 15.4 100.0 9.4 616 Kogi 5.3 2.5 8.6 25.4 40.0 18.2 100.0 11.2 333 Kwara 4.2 1.2 15.9 19.6 29.0 30.2 100.0 11.3 274 Nasarawa 9.8 4.8 11.6 26.2 32.0 15.6 100.0 10.5 282 Niger 31.1 4.0 7.2 19.1 24.4 14.1 100.0 8.8 701 Plateau 10.0 6.7 12.3 28.3 22.7 20.0 100.0 10.0 302 North East Adamawa 13.9 5.6 12.2 28.4 24.0 15.9 100.0 8.9 358 Bauchi 47.9 10.3 8.4 14.3 10.8 8.3 100.0 1.3 512 Borno 53.6 2.8 8.8 7.0 15.7 12.0 100.0 0.0 676 Gombe 37.2 10.6 7.0 15.2 20.1 9.8 100.0 5.3 255 Taraba 19.5 12.6 16.0 23.9 18.1 10.0 100.0 6.7 325 Yobe 79.4 0.4 1.4 3.3 7.0 8.6 100.0 0.0 390 North West Jigawa 45.7 6.6 19.3 11.8 9.3 7.3 100.0 2.8 510 Kaduna 25.6 2.5 10.0 17.1 30.8 14.1 100.0 8.8 1,033 Kano 26.8 1.9 17.2 19.0 26.6 8.4 100.0 7.6 1,592 Katsina 53.5 3.7 18.0 6.1 12.5 6.2 100.0 0.0 596 Kebbi 55.6 3.4 5.7 13.1 12.9 9.4 100.0 0.0 551 Sokoto 53.0 9.8 9.2 12.3 10.7 4.9 100.0 0.0 424 Zamfara 51.9 5.4 10.0 14.8 10.5 7.5 100.0 0.0 479 South East Abia 0.3 3.5 9.0 29.2 42.2 15.8 100.0 11.2 229 Anambra 2.6 2.6 17.8 26.1 35.5 15.3 100.0 11.0 446 Ebonyi 0.8 9.7 17.0 34.8 22.3 15.3 100.0 9.2 368 Enugu 2.1 2.2 25.9 30.0 27.1 12.6 100.0 9.0 320 Imo 0.0 2.7 13.0 26.3 43.0 15.0 100.0 11.2 323 South South Akwa Ibom 1.1 5.8 17.9 28.5 30.9 15.7 100.0 10.6 451 Bayelsa 0.5 3.9 9.3 32.8 37.3 16.1 100.0 11.1 187 Cross River 1.4 4.4 19.9 26.0 36.5 11.9 100.0 10.7 310 Delta 1.9 3.8 12.7 25.2 38.6 17.8 100.0 11.2 473 Edo 0.8 3.7 10.5 26.5 39.3 19.0 100.0 11.2 365 Rivers 0.8 3.0 10.2 20.2 43.6 22.1 100.0 11.4 658 South West Ekiti 1.0 0.9 7.6 24.6 33.3 32.6 100.0 11.5 148 Lagos 1.7 2.6 10.3 16.7 46.2 22.4 100.0 11.4 948 Ogun 12.2 7.0 23.0 17.4 28.7 11.7 100.0 9.6 358 Ondo 1.5 4.1 10.0 21.8 42.0 20.7 100.0 11.3 404 Osun 0.9 1.4 7.2 25.1 40.6 24.7 100.0 11.4 356 Oyo 12.8 4.1 12.4 20.7 37.0 13.1 100.0 11.0 629 Wealth quintile Lowest 67.2 6.4 11.5 8.8 4.9 1.2 100.0 0.0 2,862 Second 35.6 8.3 18.5 20.8 14.0 2.7 100.0 5.3 2,992 Middle 13.7 5.6 15.0 28.2 28.5 9.0 100.0 8.9 3,338 Fourth 4.9 2.5 12.6 24.9 39.6 15.6 100.0 11.1 3,835 Highest 1.2 1.3 6.3 17.4 39.8 33.9 100.0 11.6 4,332 Total 21.2 4.4 12.3 20.3 27.4 14.3 100.0 9.1 17,359 1 Completed grade 6 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 6 at the secondary level 36 • Characteristics of Respondents The pattern of educational attainment among men is similar to that of women. At every level of education, however, percentages of attendance or completion are higher among men than among women. Tables 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 show that the median number of years of schooling is higher for men than for women (9.1 and 5.6 years, respectively). Men living in urban areas stay in school longer than those in rural areas (median years of schooling of 11.2 and 5.8, respectively). One in three rural men have no education, as compared with only 7 percent of urban men. Men’s educational attainment varies across zones and states. The percentage of men with no education ranges from 1 percent or lower in many states, especially those in the South South, to 53-56 percent in Katsina, Kebbi, and Sokoto in the North West zone. Education is positively related to wealth quintile; 67 percent of men in the lowest quintile have no education, as compared with only 1 percent of men in the highest quintile. 3.3 LITERACY The ability to read and write is an important personal asset, increasing an individual’s opportunities in life. In addition, literacy statistics can help programme managers, especially those working in health and family planning, determine the best ways to reach women and men with their print messages. In the 2013 NDHS, literacy status was determined by assessing the respondent’s ability to read all or part of a sentence. During data collection, interviewers carried a set of cards that had simple sentences printed in three major Nigerian languages, Igbo, Hausa, and Yoruba. Only women and men who had never been to school and those who had not completed a primary-level education were asked to read the cards (in the language they were most likely to be able to read). Those with a secondary education or higher were assumed to be literate. Table 3.3.1 shows that 53 percent of women age 15-49 are literate. Literacy levels decline with age, from 66 percent among women age 15-19 to 36 percent among women age 45-49. Literacy is much higher in urban than in rural areas. More than 7 in 10 urban women (77 percent) are literate, as compared with less than 4 in 10 rural women (36 percent). There are differences in literacy across zones, with literacy levels being highest among women in the South East (84 percent) and lowest among those in the North West (26 percent). Ninety percent or more of women in Abia, Anambra, Imo, Ekiti, and Osun are literate. On the other hand, only 10 percent of women in Sokoto, 11 percent in Jigawa, and 11 percent in Zamfara are literate. Literacy increases with increasing wealth, ranging from 7 percent among women in the lowest wealth quintile to 93 percent among those in the highest wealth quintile. Table 3.3.2 shows that men are much more likely than women to be literate (75 percent versus 53 percent). Similar to women, men age 15-24 (80 percent), men living in urban areas (91 percent), and men in the highest wealth quintile (97 percent) have the highest literacy levels. The gap in literacy levels between women and men is notable in the North Central, North East, and North West zones (Figure 3.1). Characteristics of Respondents • 37 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Secondary school or higher No schooling or primary school Total Percentage literate1 Number of women Background characteristic Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all No card with required language Blind/ visually impaired Missing Age 15-24 57.1 1.2 4.5 36.4 0.3 0.0 0.5 100.0 62.8 14,576 15-19 60.1 1.4 4.6 33.2 0.2 0.0 0.6 100.0 66.0 7,820 20-24 53.7 1.0 4.4 40.0 0.4 0.0 0.5 100.0 59.1 6,757 25-29 46.1 1.0 5.4 46.9 0.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 52.5 7,145 30-34 40.9 1.8 7.3 49.4 0.2 0.1 0.5 100.0 49.9 5,467 35-39 35.9 3.2 8.4 51.6 0.2 0.0 0.6 100.0 47.6 4,718 40-44 31.0 3.5 8.3 56.1 0.4 0.1 0.5 100.0 42.9 3,620 45-49 23.9 2.5 9.8 62.4 0.3 0.3 0.7 100.0 36.2 3,422 Residence Urban 67.9 2.2 7.1 22.3 0.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 77.2 16,414 Rural 28.1 1.6 5.8 63.4 0.4 0.1 0.6 100.0 35.5 22,534 Zone North Central 45.9 1.7 6.7 44.6 0.1 0.0 1.0 100.0 54.3 5,572 North East 21.9 1.8 4.6 69.9 1.4 0.0 0.4 100.0 28.3 5,766 North West 19.0 1.6 5.2 73.7 0.0 0.1 0.5 100.0 25.8 11,877 South East 73.8 1.2 9.2 15.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 100.0 84.2 4,476 South South 71.8 2.4 6.8 18.1 0.1 0.1 0.7 100.0 81.0 4,942 South West 72.2 2.4 7.3 17.6 0.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 82.0 6,314 State North Central FCT-Abuja 72.4 0.9 5.5 20.6 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 78.8 315 Benue 46.0 1.5 5.4 45.9 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 52.8 1,240 Kogi 61.5 0.5 9.6 27.8 0.2 0.0 0.3 100.0 71.6 704 Kwara 59.3 3.4 5.2 31.8 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 67.9 596 Nasarawa 42.4 3.8 11.6 41.1 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 57.9 594 Niger 24.8 0.7 3.7 68.5 0.0 0.0 2.3 100.0 29.2 1,462 Plateau 54.0 2.9 10.1 33.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 66.9 662 North East Adamawa 43.6 2.9 6.7 46.6 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 53.2 828 Bauchi 13.5 2.1 4.5 72.6 6.6 0.0 0.7 100.0 20.1 1,161 Borno 19.0 0.9 2.3 77.2 0.4 0.0 0.3 100.0 22.2 1,412 Gombe 24.0 2.2 6.5 66.9 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 32.7 550 Taraba 27.6 2.8 9.7 59.6 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 40.1 844 Yobe 11.7 0.4 0.8 86.7 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 12.9 971 North West Jigawa 5.7 0.7 4.4 87.7 0.1 0.5 0.8 100.0 10.9 1,353 Kaduna 44.9 0.6 6.3 47.9 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 51.8 2,136 Kano 24.0 3.5 8.8 63.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 36.3 3,189 Katsina 8.9 1.5 4.7 84.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 15.2 1,525 Kebbi 10.5 1.5 1.2 86.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 13.2 1,244 Sokoto 7.0 0.7 2.5 89.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 10.2 1,098 Zamfara 8.2 0.2 2.3 88.9 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 10.6 1,332 South East Abia 80.4 0.9 10.6 8.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 91.9 518 Anambra 83.2 1.5 7.1 7.9 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 91.8 1,052 Ebonyi 54.9 2.3 11.3 30.8 0.2 0.1 0.4 100.0 68.6 1,122 Enugu 70.4 0.3 11.4 16.3 0.0 0.6 0.9 100.0 82.1 951 Imo 87.0 0.5 5.7 6.0 0.3 0.0 0.4 100.0 93.3 833 South South Akwa Ibom 71.6 4.1 8.9 13.2 0.2 0.7 1.3 100.0 84.6 864 Bayelsa 68.9 1.8 7.5 21.7 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 78.2 364 Cross River 63.1 2.1 7.5 26.6 0.2 0.0 0.4 100.0 72.8 703 Delta 70.0 0.8 6.9 21.5 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 77.8 993 Edo 74.3 1.8 7.9 15.2 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 84.1 742 Rivers 77.5 3.0 4.2 14.9 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 84.6 1,276 South West Ekiti 85.2 2.4 4.8 7.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 92.5 326 Lagos 82.2 1.7 5.4 10.0 0.1 0.0 0.6 100.0 89.3 1,964 Ogun 54.1 6.7 14.1 25.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 74.9 883 Ondo 72.8 1.6 4.5 20.9 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 78.9 808 Osun 80.2 1.5 9.9 8.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 91.5 765 Oyo 62.9 1.9 6.7 28.2 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 71.5 1,568 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.6 0.5 2.9 91.6 0.9 0.0 0.5 100.0 7.0 7,132 Second 17.4 1.3 6.6 74.0 0.2 0.1 0.5 100.0 25.3 7,428 Middle 41.0 2.7 9.1 46.2 0.1 0.1 0.8 100.0 52.8 7,486 Fourth 63.8 3.0 8.7 23.7 0.1 0.1 0.6 100.0 75.4 7,992 Highest 87.2 1.5 4.5 6.4 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 93.2 8,910 Total 44.9 1.8 6.3 46.1 0.3 0.1 0.5 100.0 53.1 38,948 1 Refers to women who attended secondary school or higher and women who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence 38 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Secondary school or higher No schooling or primary school Total Percentage literate1 Number of men Background characteristic Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all No card with required language Blind/ visually impaired Missing Age 15-24 71.6 2.1 6.4 19.4 0.1 0.0 0.4 100.0 80.2 6,511 15-19 70.0 2.7 7.2 19.7 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 79.9 3,619 20-24 73.7 1.4 5.4 18.9 0.1 0.0 0.4 100.0 80.5 2,892 25-29 65.6 2.3 9.2 22.4 0.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 77.0 2,757 30-34 61.1 3.3 10.1 24.8 0.2 0.0 0.5 100.0 74.4 2,414 35-39 53.2 5.1 13.2 27.9 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 71.6 2,175 40-44 50.0 5.4 14.2 29.7 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 69.6 1,777 45-49 44.9 5.5 14.8 33.9 0.1 0.3 0.4 100.0 65.2 1,724 Residence Urban 80.3 2.8 7.6 8.7 0.1 0.0 0.4 100.0 90.8 7,611 Rural 47.7 3.8 11.6 36.2 0.1 0.0 0.6 100.0 63.1 9,748 Zone North Central 72.3 1.8 8.2 17.0 0.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 82.3 2,685 North East 40.1 3.6 7.4 48.3 0.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 51.0 2,515 North West 43.6 4.6 14.0 37.2 0.0 0.1 0.6 100.0 62.2 5,185 South East 77.4 4.3 9.5 7.5 0.0 0.2 1.1 100.0 91.2 1,686 South South 81.5 2.7 8.9 6.5 0.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 93.1 2,445 South West 79.4 2.4 6.9 10.8 0.2 0.0 0.2 100.0 88.8 2,843 State North Central FCT-Abuja 84.1 2.8 3.4 8.6 0.0 0.4 0.7 100.0 90.3 175 Benue 76.7 0.7 15.2 7.2 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 92.6 616 Kogi 83.6 1.9 5.5 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 91.0 333 Kwara 78.7 5.0 5.3 9.5 0.5 0.0 1.0 100.0 89.0 274 Nasarawa 73.8 3.1 8.3 14.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 85.2 282 Niger 57.7 1.1 6.4 34.3 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 65.1 701 Plateau 71.0 0.7 6.8 20.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 100.0 78.5 302 North East Adamawa 68.3 2.8 6.6 22.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 77.7 358 Bauchi 33.4 8.8 7.7 49.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 100.0 50.0 512 Borno 34.7 1.6 5.3 57.6 0.5 0.0 0.2 100.0 41.7 676 Gombe 45.2 7.6 13.8 32.4 0.0 0.0 1.0 100.0 66.6 255 Taraba 51.9 1.0 15.5 30.8 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 68.5 325 Yobe 18.8 0.3 0.5 80.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 19.6 390 North West Jigawa 28.5 9.5 18.1 43.6 0.0 0.2 0.2 100.0 56.0 510 Kaduna 61.9 3.1 12.7 21.7 0.0 0.1 0.4 100.0 77.8 1,033 Kano 54.0 2.8 19.0 23.8 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 75.8 1,592 Katsina 24.8 10.3 8.9 53.6 0.0 0.2 2.2 100.0 44.0 596 Kebbi 35.3 0.6 4.4 59.6 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 40.3 551 Sokoto 28.0 7.1 6.4 57.8 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 41.5 424 Zamfara 32.7 3.4 19.7 44.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 55.8 479 South East Abia 87.2 1.5 5.8 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 94.5 229 Anambra 77.0 2.4 12.0 7.7 0.0 0.0 0.9 100.0 91.4 446 Ebonyi 72.4 5.7 12.5 8.2 0.0 0.0 1.1 100.0 90.7 368 Enugu 69.8 7.0 8.5 11.7 0.0 0.2 2.9 100.0 85.3 320 Imo 84.2 4.7 6.1 4.3 0.0 0.6 0.0 100.0 95.1 323 South South Akwa Ibom 75.2 3.3 11.4 9.4 0.4 0.0 0.2 100.0 89.9 451 Bayelsa 86.3 1.3 4.5 7.4 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 92.1 187 Cross River 74.3 2.9 14.5 8.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 91.6 310 Delta 81.6 3.2 8.1 6.6 0.0 0.1 0.3 100.0 93.0 473 Edo 84.9 2.2 5.4 7.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 92.5 365 Rivers 86.0 2.4 8.5 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 96.9 658 South West Ekiti 90.5 2.1 2.8 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 95.5 148 Lagos 85.3 2.2 7.6 4.5 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 95.1 948 Ogun 57.9 6.3 11.1 24.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 75.3 358 Ondo 84.5 0.5 2.8 12.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 87.7 404 Osun 90.5 1.0 4.7 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 96.2 356 Oyo 70.7 2.6 8.5 17.6 0.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 81.9 629 Wealth quintile Lowest 15.0 3.7 11.2 69.5 0.0 0.1 0.5 100.0 29.9 2,862 Second 37.6 5.0 16.9 39.2 0.2 0.1 1.0 100.0 59.5 2,992 Middle 65.7 3.8 11.6 18.3 0.2 0.0 0.4 100.0 81.2 3,338 Fourth 80.1 3.2 7.9 8.3 0.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 91.2 3,835 Highest 91.2 1.7 4.4 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 97.3 4,332 Total 62.0 3.3 9.8 24.2 0.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 75.2 17,359 1 Refers to men who attended secondary school or higher and men who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence Characteristics of Respondents • 39 Figure 3.1 Literacy status of women and men age 15-49 by regions 54 28 26 84 81 8282 51 62 91 93 89 North Central North East North West South East South South South West Women Men NDHS 2013 Percentage literate 3.4 EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA Exposure to information on television and radio and in the print media can increase people’s knowledge and awareness of new ideas, social changes, and opportunities as well as affect their perceptions and behaviours, including those related to health. The 2013 NDHS assessed exposure to the media by asking respondents how often they read a newspaper, watch television, or listen to the radio. Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 show the percentages of women and men who read newspapers, watch television, and listen to the radio at least once a week, according to age, urban or rural residence, zone, state, level of education, and wealth quintile. The results show that level of exposure to mass media, especially exposure to the print media, is low in Nigeria. Nine percent of women read a newspaper, 35 percent watch television, and 39 percent listen to the radio at least once a week. Only 7 percent of women have access to all three media at least once a week, and half do not have access to any of the three media at least once a week. There are slight variations by age. There is also a wide gap in exposure to mass media according to place of residence, education, and wealth. For example, the proportion of urban women who read a newspaper at least once a week is 15 percent, as compared with 5 percent among rural women. Urban women are much more likely than rural women to watch television once a week (55 percent versus 21 percent). Across states, women who reside in Abia are the most likely to access all three media at least once a week (44 percent). Exposure to media increases with increasing education and wealth. For example, 66 percent of women with a secondary education or higher listen to the radio at least once a week, as compared with 23 percent of women with no education. Men are more likely to be exposed to each type of mass media than women. Twenty percent of men age 15-49 read a newspaper at least once a week, 40 percent watch television, and 55 percent listen to the radio (Table 3.4.2). Fifteen percent of men are exposed to all three media sources at least once a week, while 38 percent have no regular exposure to the mass media. The proportion of men who regularly read a newspaper, listen to the radio, and watch television has declined since 2008. For example, the proportion of men who listen to the radio at least once a week has declined from 81 percent to 55 percent. At the same time, exposure to print media has decreased from 30 percent to 20 percent, and exposure to television has decreased from 52 percent to 40 percent. Overall, the proportion of men exposed to all three media has declined from 24 percent to 15 percent. 40 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, by background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 9.8 37.3 37.3 7.0 50.0 7,820 20-24 10.0 37.1 39.3 7.2 49.5 6,757 25-29 9.8 36.6 40.0 7.0 49.7 7,145 30-34 9.6 36.4 40.7 7.6 49.3 5,467 35-39 8.4 34.7 41.2 6.4 49.6 4,718 40-44 7.8 31.1 37.6 6.0 54.6 3,620 45-49 6.4 28.6 39.8 4.5 52.4 3,422 Residence Urban 15.0 55.1 52.2 11.3 32.9 16,414 Rural 4.9 21.0 30.0 3.4 63.1 22,534 Zone North Central 9.2 43.1 42.5 7.5 44.5 5,572 North East 4.4 15.6 19.1 2.4 73.8 5,766 North West 4.6 17.1 32.9 3.6 63.4 11,877 South East 17.5 42.8 41.8 11.1 41.5 4,476 South South 15.2 51.5 41.8 11.7 40.4 4,942 South West 11.3 63.0 63.5 9.0 23.8 6,314 State North Central FCT-Abuja 16.4 61.3 50.4 12.9 29.6 315 Benue 3.6 39.8 43.5 3.2 43.7 1,240 Kogi 20.3 67.1 57.0 17.3 22.3 704 Kwara 17.6 46.9 67.5 15.2 28.4 596 Nasarawa 7.1 30.9 24.7 5.0 62.7 594 Niger 5.9 42.9 39.4 5.0 45.3 1,462 Plateau 5.6 22.7 22.0 3.5 72.8 662 North East Adamawa 10.4 30.1 38.1 5.1 50.2 828 Bauchi 5.8 15.0 30.6 4.5 66.0 1,161 Borno 2.5 15.6 11.6 1.3 79.9 1,412 Gombe 6.7 14.8 15.8 2.4 77.2 550 Taraba 1.9 12.0 10.4 0.6 81.1 844 Yobe 1.6 7.7 9.4 1.0 86.0 971 North West Jigawa 1.7 7.5 20.1 0.5 76.6 1,353 Kaduna 10.4 35.8 35.2 9.0 53.1 2,136 Kano 7.2 22.9 45.5 6.4 54.0 3,189 Katsina 1.1 5.5 34.3 0.4 63.3 1,525 Kebbi 2.7 13.6 23.7 0.8 72.6 1,244 Sokoto 0.8 14.5 40.9 0.6 55.7 1,098 Zamfara 0.6 1.7 12.8 0.4 86.5 1,332 South East Abia 46.2 71.4 68.8 43.6 22.5 518 Anambra 6.8 41.2 19.7 3.0 51.1 1,052 Ebonyi 5.2 25.9 44.3 3.7 52.1 1,122 Enugu 16.3 32.3 32.7 5.1 48.8 951 Imo 31.4 61.8 59.7 17.9 18.4 833 South South Akwa Ibom 16.4 51.4 48.3 13.7 39.5 864 Bayelsa 12.5 49.2 30.5 7.1 40.0 364 Cross River 12.9 48.1 46.1 9.9 43.7 703 Delta 12.5 47.0 34.1 9.8 46.2 993 Edo 24.2 65.4 59.1 20.2 26.8 742 Rivers 13.4 49.5 34.2 9.3 42.8 1,276 South West Ekiti 9.2 66.9 64.4 6.5 25.5 326 Lagos 16.5 74.0 61.3 12.9 20.3 1,964 Ogun 12.7 67.5 70.8 11.5 19.1 883 Ondo 13.2 52.2 47.4 9.2 35.4 808 Osun 7.9 60.8 67.8 7.4 22.8 765 Oyo 5.1 52.7 68.3 3.7 24.8 1,568 Education No education 0.1 9.7 23.1 0.0 73.8 14,729 Primary 2.0 31.8 37.5 1.2 52.2 6,734 Secondary 14.2 54.5 50.6 10.2 33.3 13,927 More than secondary 40.2 73.2 66.2 31.5 16.8 3,558 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.4 2.1 16.8 0.1 82.3 7,132 Second 1.6 9.8 24.7 0.6 71.5 7,428 Middle 5.5 29.6 37.4 3.3 52.3 7,486 Fourth 11.7 54.2 51.4 8.8 33.3 7,992 Highest 23.1 71.2 60.5 18.3 21.0 8,910 Total 9.1 35.4 39.4 6.8 50.4 38,948 Characteristics of Respondents • 41 Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Men Percentage of men age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, by background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of men Age 15-19 10.2 35.7 44.1 7.3 46.1 3,619 20-24 21.9 40.2 53.0 15.7 37.8 2,892 25-29 24.8 40.9 55.3 17.8 36.6 2,757 30-34 23.5 41.4 58.1 18.0 35.5 2,414 35-39 22.2 41.3 59.7 17.5 34.7 2,175 40-44 24.6 41.0 60.5 19.3 33.6 1,777 45-49 20.4 37.8 61.6 15.8 32.9 1,724 Residence Urban 28.9 54.5 62.2 22.7 27.4 7,611 Rural 13.6 27.8 48.8 9.4 45.8 9,748 Zone North Central 22.9 36.5 55.2 14.2 34.9 2,685 North East 7.5 14.8 30.2 3.2 63.9 2,515 North West 8.1 18.1 37.6 5.4 57.0 5,185 South East 30.3 45.2 61.8 19.8 26.1 1,686 South South 35.8 76.2 81.7 31.1 10.4 2,445 South West 32.1 68.6 79.6 28.4 12.5 2,843 State North Central FCT-Abuja 38.8 46.6 39.4 25.9 39.2 175 Benue 15.9 30.1 59.1 10.3 35.3 616 Kogi 25.8 44.8 62.7 23.3 31.7 333 Kwara 27.9 43.9 63.1 11.9 18.6 274 Nasarawa 27.4 38.7 66.0 16.2 27.0 282 Niger 21.8 40.2 52.6 15.1 38.2 701 Plateau 19.0 17.1 37.0 3.2 49.8 302 North East Adamawa 19.2 43.2 52.8 9.5 34.2 358 Bauchi 4.0 10.0 33.9 1.9 61.7 512 Borno 4.0 6.3 15.6 0.2 80.4 676 Gombe 17.9 34.2 53.9 10.5 37.5 255 Taraba 3.1 5.2 16.4 1.3 79.9 325 Yobe 4.5 4.9 25.7 0.9 69.1 390 North West Jigawa 12.7 20.7 56.6 7.1 38.6 510 Kaduna 19.9 43.3 75.4 17.6 20.9 1,033 Kano 3.0 14.1 15.2 1.1 74.8 1,592 Katsina 5.5 4.6 37.7 2.0 60.4 596 Kebbi 3.5 4.2 7.1 0.7 90.1 551 Sokoto 4.6 19.5 41.8 3.3 55.4 424 Zamfara 5.9 5.7 42.0 2.7 54.7 479 South East Abia 27.6 63.1 73.2 22.8 16.3 229 Anambra 24.7 31.2 38.1 10.1 45.8 446 Ebonyi 26.5 39.1 73.1 17.6 20.7 368 Enugu 14.2 34.4 62.7 9.2 26.9 320 Imo 60.4 69.2 72.5 43.8 11.0 323 South South Akwa Ibom 40.2 71.1 84.7 36.8 11.5 451 Bayelsa 14.7 77.2 72.2 14.2 16.4 187 Cross River 17.6 62.3 71.4 13.0 18.3 310 Delta 34.3 83.3 87.2 28.8 4.8 473 Edo 24.1 79.2 72.1 22.2 13.4 365 Rivers 55.1 79.1 88.4 47.4 6.7 658 South West Ekiti 24.9 67.9 59.7 22.7 27.7 148 Lagos 50.7 88.5 83.4 45.9 4.9 948 Ogun 46.0 85.6 91.8 44.6 4.9 358 Ondo 23.7 58.2 66.1 17.3 22.8 404 Osun 19.7 60.2 93.2 17.5 5.5 356 Oyo 10.2 40.5 72.4 7.6 22.0 629 Education No education 0.6 6.7 29.0 0.3 69.5 3,685 Primary 5.7 29.4 51.0 3.5 42.4 2,907 Secondary 23.2 49.8 61.8 17.2 28.8 8,281 More than secondary 56.8 65.9 73.2 44.5 15.0 2,486 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.0 5.1 27.2 0.8 71.0 2,862 Second 6.8 14.1 41.1 3.0 54.6 2,992 Middle 14.6 32.9 56.5 9.1 37.2 3,338 Fourth 23.0 54.1 64.6 17.4 25.4 3,835 Highest 43.7 72.1 72.0 36.0 15.4 4,332 Total 20.3 39.5 54.7 15.2 37.7 17,359 42 • Characteristics of Respondents 3.5 EMPLOYMENT The 2013 NDHS asked respondents whether they were employed at the time of the survey (that is, whether they had worked in the last 7 days) and, if not, whether they had worked at any time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Table 3.5.1 and Figure 3.2 show that 62 percent of women are currently employed. Twenty-eight percent of women age 15-19 are currently employed, rising to 66 percent among women age 25-29 and peaking at 83 percent among women age 45-49. Women who are divorced, separated, or widowed are most likely to be currently employed (81 percent). There are notable variations in the proportion of women currently employed by place of residence and by zone. Urban women are slightly more likely to be currently employed than rural women (63 percent versus 61 percent). Employment is highest in the South West zone, especially in Ogun, where 80 percent of women are currently employed. Fifty-six percent of women in the nation’s capital (FCT-Abuja) are currently employed. Women in Yobe and Borno are least likely to be currently employed (34 percent and 29 percent, respectively). Table 3.5.1 Employment status: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Missing/ don’t know Total Number of women Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 28.0 1.1 70.8 0.1 100.0 7,820 20-24 50.6 1.6 47.7 0.1 100.0 6,757 25-29 65.8 2.0 32.2 0.1 100.0 7,145 30-34 75.8 1.9 22.2 0.1 100.0 5,467 35-39 80.4 1.9 17.7 0.1 100.0 4,718 40-44 82.2 1.3 16.4 0.0 100.0 3,620 45-49 83.1 1.4 15.5 0.0 100.0 3,422 Marital status Never married 35.2 1.1 63.7 0.1 100.0 9,326 Married or living together 69.4 1.8 28.7 0.1 100.0 27,830 Divorced/separated/ widowed 81.3 1.1 17.6 0.0 100.0 1,793 Number of living children 0 37.9 1.2 60.8 0.1 100.0 11,750 1-2 62.9 1.6 35.3 0.1 100.0 9,737 3-4 75.7 1.7 22.6 0.1 100.0 8,876 5+ 78.8 2.0 19.1 0.0 100.0 8,585 Residence Urban 63.2 1.5 35.2 0.1 100.0 16,414 Rural 60.7 1.7 37.5 0.1 100.0 22,534 Zone North Central 68.8 1.9 29.2 0.1 100.0 5,572 North East 45.8 1.9 52.1 0.2 100.0 5,766 North West 57.2 2.0 40.7 0.1 100.0 11,877 South East 63.8 1.7 34.5 0.0 100.0 4,476 South South 65.6 1.3 32.9 0.1 100.0 4,942 South West 74.2 0.6 25.2 0.0 100.0 6,314 State North Central FCT-Abuja 55.9 1.5 42.4 0.2 100.0 315 Benue 77.5 0.7 21.7 0.0 100.0 1,240 Kogi 71.3 0.4 28.3 0.0 100.0 704 Kwara 62.7 0.4 36.9 0.0 100.0 596 Nasarawa 55.3 11.8 32.9 0.0 100.0 594 Niger 79.1 0.6 20.1 0.2 100.0 1,462 Plateau 51.1 1.3 47.7 0.0 100.0 662 North East Adamawa 57.2 1.5 41.2 0.1 100.0 828 Bauchi 54.1 2.1 43.6 0.1 100.0 1,161 Borno 28.5 2.0 69.3 0.2 100.0 1,412 Gombe 50.4 1.7 47.6 0.4 100.0 550 Taraba 62.9 3.8 33.3 0.1 100.0 844 Yobe 34.0 0.5 65.3 0.2 100.0 971 Continued… Characteristics of Respondents • 43 Table 3.5.1—Continued Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Missing/ don’t know Total Number of women Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed North West Jigawa 52.6 2.0 45.3 0.1 100.0 1,353 Kaduna 60.9 0.4 38.7 0.0 100.0 2,136 Kano 56.1 0.1 43.7 0.0 100.0 3,189 Katsina 56.8 9.8 33.2 0.3 100.0 1,525 Kebbi 61.1 1.8 37.1 0.0 100.0 1,244 Sokoto 45.8 0.4 53.7 0.1 100.0 1,098 Zamfara 65.2 1.4 33.4 0.0 100.0 1,332 South East Abia 66.7 1.1 32.2 0.0 100.0 518 Anambra 56.6 0.2 43.2 0.0 100.0 1,052 Ebonyi 75.3 3.4 21.3 0.0 100.0 1,122 Enugu 63.6 0.4 35.8 0.2 100.0 951 Imo 55.7 3.0 41.3 0.1 100.0 833 South South Akwa Ibom 60.8 1.6 36.9 0.7 100.0 864 Bayelsa 64.1 0.1 35.7 0.0 100.0 364 Cross River 68.4 2.7 28.9 0.0 100.0 703 Delta 56.7 0.2 43.1 0.0 100.0 993 Edo 61.8 1.0 37.2 0.0 100.0 742 Rivers 77.1 1.7 21.3 0.0 100.0 1,276 South West Ekiti 62.8 0.9 36.2 0.0 100.0 326 Lagos 72.5 0.8 26.5 0.1 100.0 1,964 Ogun 79.6 0.9 19.5 0.0 100.0 883 Ondo 68.4 0.5 31.1 0.0 100.0 808 Osun 71.7 0.1 28.2 0.0 100.0 765 Oyo 79.7 0.4 19.9 0.0 100.0 1,568 Education No education 59.3 1.9 38.6 0.1 100.0 14,729 Primary 75.6 1.7 22.7 0.0 100.0 6,734 Secondary 56.7 1.4 41.9 0.1 100.0 13,927 More than secondary 65.7 1.2 33.0 0.2 100.0 3,558 Wealth quintile Lowest 55.8 1.7 42.3 0.1 100.0 7,132 Second 61.6 2.1 36.3 0.1 100.0 7,428 Middle 62.2 1.8 36.0 0.0 100.0 7,486 Fourth 64.4 1.3 34.3 0.1 100.0 7,992 Highest 64.1 1.2 34.6 0.1 100.0 8,910 Total 61.8 1.6 36.5 0.1 100.0 38,948 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past 7 days. Includes persons who did not work in the past 7 days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. 44 • Characteristics of Respondents Figure 3.2 Women’s employment status in the past 12 months Currently employed 62% Not currently employed, but worked in last 12 months 2% Did not work in last 12 months 36% NDHS 2013 The likelihood that a woman is employed increases with her education. The proportion of women who are employed increases from 59 percent among those with no education to 66 percent among those with more than a secondary education. Likelihood of employment also increases with increasing wealth; 64 percent of women in the highest two quintiles are currently employed, as compared with 56 percent of women in the lowest quintile. More than three in four men are currently employed (76 percent) (Table 3.5.2). The proportion of currently employed men generally increases with age and number of living children. Rural men are more likely than urban men to be currently employed (79 percent versus 73 percent). There are notable variations by zone in the proportion of men employed in the previous 12 months; men in the North Central (83 percent) and North East (82 percent) zones are most likely to be currently employed, possibly because they are predominantly farmers. On the other hand, men in the South East zone are least likely to be currently employed (70 percent). Among states, Kebbi has the lowest employment (56 percent), whereas Niger has the highest (97 percent). The relationship between men’s employment and education is not linear, with men having a secondary education least likely to be employed. The same pattern was recorded in the 2008 NDHS. Wealth status has an inverse relationship with employment; current employment decreases from 81 percent among the poorest men to 74 percent among the wealthiest. Current employment among women age 15-49 increased from 59 percent in 2008 to 62 percent in 2013. In contrast, the proportion for men age 15-49 decreased from 80 percent to 76 percent. Characteristics of Respondents • 45 Table 3.5.2 Employment status: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Missing/ don’t know Total Number of men Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 36.6 5.0 58.2 0.2 100.0 3,619 20-24 66.5 3.7 29.5 0.3 100.0 2,892 25-29 84.5 3.1 12.2 0.2 100.0 2,757 30-34 92.7 3.2 4.1 0.0 100.0 2,414 35-39 96.2 2.6 1.2 0.1 100.0 2,175 40-44 96.1 2.7 1.2 0.0 100.0 1,777 45-49 94.4 4.4 1.1 0.1 100.0 1,724 Marital status Never married 55.7 3.9 40.2 0.2 100.0 8,378 Married or living together 95.7 3.3 0.9 0.1 100.0 8,723 Divorced/separated/ widowed 91.6 5.3 3.2 0.0 100.0 258 Number of living children 0 59.2 3.8 36.8 0.2 100.0 9,177 1-2 95.1 3.1 1.7 0.1 100.0 2,981 3-4 96.2 2.8 0.9 0.1 100.0 2,531 5+ 95.2 4.3 0.6 0.0 100.0 2,671 Residence Urban 73.2 2.2 24.5 0.1 100.0 7,611 Rural 78.7 4.8 16.4 0.2 100.0 9,748 Zone North Central 83.2 1.3 14.9 0.7 100.0 2,685 North East 82.3 6.5 11.2 0.0 100.0 2,515 North West 72.4 5.8 21.9 0.0 100.0 5,185 South East 70.4 2.7 26.9 0.1 100.0 1,686 South South 73.7 1.6 24.6 0.1 100.0 2,445 South West 77.5 1.8 20.7 0.0 100.0 2,843 State North Central FCT-Abuja 72.6 1.6 24.3 1.5 100.0 175 Benue 76.8 2.0 20.0 1.3 100.0 616 Kogi 71.8 0.4 27.8 0.0 100.0 333 Kwara 73.4 0.2 26.4 0.0 100.0 274 Nasarawa 84.6 1.7 13.7 0.0 100.0 282 Niger 96.7 0.4 2.3 0.6 100.0 701 Plateau 91.4 2.9 4.7 1.0 100.0 302 North East Adamawa 73.3 7.5 19.2 0.0 100.0 358 Bauchi 75.2 22.0 2.8 0.0 100.0 512 Borno 88.5 1.3 10.2 0.0 100.0 676 Gombe 86.2 3.8 9.8 0.2 100.0 255 Taraba 85.5 0.2 14.4 0.0 100.0 325 Yobe 83.9 1.2 15.0 0.0 100.0 390 North West Jigawa 89.8 4.4 5.7 0.0 100.0 510 Kaduna 76.2 2.6 21.3 0.0 100.0 1,033 Kano 62.2 1.7 36.1 0.0 100.0 1,592 Katsina 82.9 2.4 14.7 0.0 100.0 596 Kebbi 55.7 27.5 16.8 0.0 100.0 551 Sokoto 66.8 6.2 27.0 0.0 100.0 424 Zamfara 90.2 6.4 3.4 0.0 100.0 479 South East Abia 71.1 1.0 27.9 0.0 100.0 229 Anambra 65.8 1.6 32.6 0.0 100.0 446 Ebonyi 83.8 5.1 11.1 0.0 100.0 368 Enugu 66.5 3.5 29.6 0.4 100.0 320 Imo 64.8 1.7 33.5 0.0 100.0 323 South South Akwa Ibom 71.5 1.8 26.5 0.2 100.0 451 Bayelsa 73.7 1.6 24.5 0.2 100.0 187 Cross River 75.8 0.1 24.1 0.0 100.0 310 Delta 65.8 1.7 32.5 0.0 100.0 473 Edo 71.0 4.9 23.7 0.4 100.0 365 Rivers 81.3 0.4 18.4 0.0 100.0 658 Continued… 46 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.5.2—Continued Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Missing/ don’t know Total Number of men Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed South West Ekiti 65.4 0.8 33.8 0.0 100.0 148 Lagos 81.8 3.3 14.9 0.0 100.0 948 Ogun 79.8 0.7 19.5 0.0 100.0 358 Ondo 70.9 0.5 28.6 0.0 100.0 404 Osun 74.6 3.8 21.6 0.0 100.0 356 Oyo 78.3 0.0 21.7 0.0 100.0 629 Education No education 84.4 7.5 8.1 0.0 100.0 3,685 Primary 86.8 2.5 10.6 0.0 100.0 2,907 Secondary 68.5 2.6 28.8 0.1 100.0 8,281 More than secondary 78.0 2.7 18.9 0.3 100.0 2,486 Wealth quintile Lowest 81.0 8.3 10.6 0.1 100.0 2,862 Second 79.6 5.0 15.2 0.2 100.0 2,992 Middle 74.9 2.6 22.2 0.2 100.0 3,338 Fourth 74.5 1.8 23.7 0.0 100.0 3,835 Highest 73.5 2.1 24.3 0.1 100.0 4,332 Total 76.3 3.6 19.9 0.1 100.0 17,359 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past 7 days. Includes persons who did not work in the past 7 days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. 3.6 OCCUPATION Currently employed respondents were asked about their occupation. Table 3.6.1 shows that 7 percent of women are employed in professional, technical, or managerial positions. The largest group of women (61 percent) are engaged in sales and services. The remaining women are working in agriculture (16 percent), in skilled manual jobs (14 percent), and in unskilled manual jobs (1 percent). Table 3.6.1 Occupation: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Background characteristic Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Agriculture Missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 2.7 0.8 59.0 15.6 1.9 17.3 2.7 100.0 2,275 20-24 6.2 1.7 56.4 20.5 0.7 13.9 0.4 100.0 3,527 25-29 7.9 1.5 60.1 16.6 0.4 12.8 0.6 100.0 4,840 30-34 8.7 0.8 61.8 14.6 0.2 13.5 0.5 100.0 4,251 35-39 8.3 0.9 63.4 11.9 0.2 14.8 0.6 100.0 3,880 40-44 8.7 0.5 60.3 10.2 0.2 19.7 0.3 100.0 3,025 45-49 7.1 0.6 61.6 9.1 0.3 20.8 0.5 100.0 2,889 Marital status Never married 13.0 3.9 53.5 13.7 2.1 12.2 1.7 100.0 3,380 Married or living together 6.5 0.5 62.0 14.8 0.2 15.4 0.6 100.0 19,830 Divorced/separated/ widowed 6.9 0.9 56.3 9.2 0.8 25.7 0.2 100.0 1,477 Number of living children 0 11.9 3.0 52.5 16.5 1.6 13.1 1.5 100.0 4,593 1-2 9.1 0.8 60.0 16.1 0.4 13.1 0.6 100.0 6,288 3-4 6.6 0.7 63.6 13.4 0.1 15.2 0.4 100.0 6,869 5+ 3.7 0.2 63.1 12.2 0.2 19.9 0.6 100.0 6,937 Residence Urban 12.3 1.8 64.6 13.1 0.8 6.6 0.7 100.0 10,621 Rural 3.7 0.4 57.4 15.2 0.2 22.4 0.7 100.0 14,067 Zone North Central 6.7 0.8 52.0 7.5 0.3 32.2 0.5 100.0 3,942 North East 4.5 0.8 48.3 23.9 0.7 20.0 1.8 100.0 2,754 North West 2.0 0.1 72.9 21.2 0.1 3.0 0.7 100.0 7,033 South East 11.0 1.8 54.1 8.2 0.4 24.0 0.7 100.0 2,930 South South 11.4 2.0 53.9 7.8 1.0 23.1 0.8 100.0 3,308 South West 12.6 1.6 64.8 12.7 0.8 7.4 0.2 100.0 4,721 Continued… Characteristics of Respondents • 47 Table 3.6.1—Continued Background characteristic Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Agriculture Missing Total Number of women State North Central FCT-Abuja 19.6 3.3 53.3 9.8 2.5 11.6 0.0 100.0 181 Benue 2.8 0.2 18.7 2.7 0.0 74.8 0.8 100.0 971 Kogi 9.6 0.8 61.0 13.1 0.2 14.6 0.8 100.0 505 Kwara 14.9 1.8 63.5 14.6 0.4 4.4 0.5 100.0 376 Nasarawa 8.0 0.3 32.6 7.8 0.6 50.6 0.0 100.0 398 Niger 3.1 0.6 81.2 5.9 0.0 8.9 0.4 100.0 1,165 Plateau 8.8 1.3 43.4 8.7 0.6 36.4 0.7 100.0 346 North East Adamawa 5.5 1.5 40.8 19.5 0.2 31.9 0.6 100.0 486 Bauchi 2.1 0.1 52.0 41.1 0.1 3.3 1.2 100.0 653 Borno 8.0 1.5 44.6 23.4 0.0 21.2 1.2 100.0 431 Gombe 3.8 0.3 58.8 15.7 5.8 4.5 11.1 100.0 286 Taraba 4.1 0.4 43.0 16.2 0.1 36.0 0.3 100.0 562 Yobe 4.6 0.9 56.7 17.4 0.0 20.1 0.4 100.0 335 North West Jigawa 0.3 0.0 67.5 27.9 0.1 2.9 1.3 100.0 739 Kaduna 6.4 0.2 81.5 7.1 0.7 4.2 0.0 100.0 1,308 Kano 1.3 0.0 60.6 37.0 0.0 0.8 0.3 100.0 1,795 Katsina 0.6 0.0 81.0 14.2 0.0 3.3 0.8 100.0 1,015 Kebbi 1.5 0.1 72.4 14.7 0.1 9.0 2.2 100.0 782 Sokoto 1.1 0.0 72.0 26.1 0.0 0.4 0.4 100.0 507 Zamfara 1.1 0.0 81.1 15.0 0.0 1.8 1.0 100.0 887 South East Abia 15.6 2.2 46.1 8.6 0.2 27.4 0.0 100.0 351 Anambra 13.6 1.0 69.7 4.7 0.5 10.3 0.1 100.0 597 Ebonyi 5.4 1.4 46.4 10.1 0.2 34.9 1.6 100.0 883 Enugu 10.6 1.7 53.9 7.0 0.4 26.0 0.4 100.0 609 Imo 15.3 3.1 54.7 10.1 0.3 16.1 0.4 100.0 489 South South Akwa Ibom 14.7 2.4 56.7 9.9 1.0 13.4 2.0 100.0 539 Bayelsa 8.5 1.3 60.5 3.6 0.1 24.8 1.1 100.0 234 Cross River 5.9 1.2 43.3 8.3 2.1 38.0 1.3 100.0 500 Delta 13.4 1.1 56.3 6.6 0.6 21.5 0.5 100.0 565 Edo 13.8 1.7 55.7 13.1 0.1 15.6 0.0 100.0 466 Rivers 10.9 3.2 53.8 5.6 1.2 25.0 0.3 100.0 1,005 South West Ekiti 19.9 2.4 58.7 12.6 0.2 6.3 0.0 100.0 208 Lagos 13.9 2.4 66.0 14.2 2.3 1.1 0.0 100.0 1,441 Ogun 8.7 0.6 65.7 10.3 0.2 14.3 0.2 100.0 711 Ondo 11.1 1.0 59.6 11.5 0.2 16.5 0.1 100.0 557 Osun 14.1 1.6 68.1 10.4 0.3 5.3 0.2 100.0 549 Oyo 11.9 1.4 64.8 13.7 0.0 7.8 0.3 100.0 1,256 Education No education 0.3 0.0 65.7 18.6 0.1 14.4 0.8 100.0 9,025 Primary 1.2 0.2 56.0 13.2 0.5 28.7 0.4 100.0 5,202 Secondary 6.1 1.5 65.0 13.0 1.0 12.5 0.9 100.0 8,081 More than secondary 52.2 5.2 35.0 5.2 0.2 1.7 0.6 100.0 2,379 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.2 0.0 63.4 20.6 0.0 15.0 0.8 100.0 4,104 Second 0.7 0.0 53.4 15.7 0.3 29.0 0.9 100.0 4,727 Middle 3.5 0.5 56.7 12.8 0.4 25.5 0.7 100.0 4,792 Fourth 8.8 1.2 65.8 13.4 0.3 9.9 0.5 100.0 5,246 Highest 19.9 2.8 62.5 10.9 1.3 2.1 0.7 100.0 5,818 Total 7.4 1.0 60.5 14.3 0.5 15.6 0.7 100.0 24,688 The proportion of women in professional, technical, or managerial positions increases with age, while the proportion of women in sales and services varies little by age. Women in the oldest age groups (21 percent); women who are divorced, separated, or widowed (26 percent); women with five or more children (20 percent); rural women (22 percent); and women with a primary education (29 percent) are more likely to work in the agricultural sector. Men show a different pattern. Across age groups, men age 15-19 are most likely to be involved in agriculture (46 percent) (Table 3.6.2). In rural areas, one in two men are employed in agricultural work. Employment in the professional and managerial sector is most common among men with more than a secondary education (50 percent) and men in the highest wealth quintile (26 percent). 48 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.6.2 Occupation: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Nigeria 2013 Background characteristic Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Agriculture Missing Total Number of men Age 15-19 2.3 0.9 20.6 21.4 3.8 46.4 4.5 100.0 1,505 20-24 6.3 1.2 24.6 27.1 5.8 33.4 1.5 100.0 2,032 25-29 9.2 1.0 25.8 23.8 7.5 31.6 1.3 100.0 2,418 30-34 13.7 0.8 29.6 22.9 5.8 26.5 0.8 100.0 2,315 35-39 15.1 1.2 24.6 23.7 3.5 31.6 0.3 100.0 2,148 40-44 15.2 0.8 24.2 22.1 3.8 33.4 0.4 100.0 1,756 45-49 16.0 1.4 21.6 19.0 2.9 38.4 0.7 100.0 1,703 Marital status Never married 8.8 1.4 26.2 26.3 5.4 29.3 2.6 100.0 4,992 Married or living together 12.7 0.8 24.2 21.0 4.6 36.1 0.5 100.0 8,635 Divorced/separated/ widowed 11.3 0.5 16.4 27.9 6.5 37.3 0.0 100.0 250 Number of living children 0 9.0 1.3 26.3 24.9 5.5 30.8 2.3 100.0 5,786 1-2 13.2 0.6 26.8 23.5 5.7 29.8 0.5 100.0 2,928 3-4 14.3 1.1 23.8 23.6 4.0 32.8 0.3 100.

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