Zimbabwe: How Family Planning Saves the Lives of Mothers and Children and Promotes Economic Development
Publication date: 2014
How Family Planning Saves the Lives of Mothers and Children and Promotes Economic Development ZIMBABWE Ministry of Health and Child Care Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council i Zimbabwe ZIMBABWE How Family Planning Saves the Lives of Mothers and Children and Promotes Economic Development C ov er p ho to : U lri ka U lli sa n Th is p ag e: S us ta in ab le S an ita tio n A lli an ce June 2014 Acknowledgments This analysis of family planning in Zimbabwe is a result of a partnership among: • Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) • Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC) • United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Zimbabwe with pooled funding from the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID), the Government of Sweden, and Irish Aid • United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Health Policy Project (HPP) We would like to thank these partners for their support. We would also like to thank all technical working group members who provided invaluable guidance on this activity. This booklet was prepared by the Health Policy Project. iii Zimbabwe Table of Contents Context 1 Saving Lives 5 Improving Lives 10 Saving Money 13 Promoting Development 25 Into Action 30 Tr av is L up ic k Overview Travis Lupick v Zimbabwe This Booklet • Presents the current status of family planning in Zimbabwe • Explains how family planning saves the lives of women and children • Describes how family planning saves money in other areas of development, as set forth in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) • Shows how family planning promotes economic development by harnessing the demographic dividend • Examines the funding gap that Zimbabwe must close to achieve its FP2020 objectives Pete 1 ZimbabweContext Family Planning Objectives Zimbabwe has set the following objectives for its family planning program, pledging to achieve them by 2020: ▲ Increase the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR)—the percentage of married women using a family planning method—from 59% to 68% ▼ Reduce unmet need for family planning—the percentage of married women who wish to either limit or postpone childbearing, but who are not currently using a contraceptive method—from 13% to 6.5% ▼ Reduce adolescent girls’ unmet need for family planning services from 16.9% to 8.5% ▲ Increase access to long-acting and permanent methods (LAPMs) C ontext Status of Family Planning Zimbabwe’s CPR is one of the highest in Africa, at 59%. However, from 2006 to 2011, the percentage of married women using contraception declined, while the number of children per woman (the total fertility rate) increased from 3.8 to 4.1. At the same time, the majority of Zimbabwe’s family planning resources come from external donors. The government should invest its own resources to support the family planning program, which will promote sustainability and national ownership of the program. To be effective, these resources must be guided by a national family planning policy and a costed implementation plan. Su sta in ab le S an ita tio n A lli an ce 3 Travis Lupick 5 Zimbabwe Source: ImpactNOW Model. Base scenario: Constant CPR of 59% and constant method mix. Policy scenario: Increase in CPR from 59% in 2014 to 68% in 2020 and concurrent increase in proportion of women using implants and intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). Family Planning Saves the Lives of Women and Children Each pregnancy that a woman experiences poses risks to her health and the health of the child she carries. By preventing unintended pregnancies, family planning helps women avoid these risks. Currently, family planning averts approximately 310,000 unintended pregnancies in Zimbabwe each year. By investing in family planning now, the country can increase this number to almost 500,000 per year by 2020. Saving Lives Maternal Lives Saved Family Planning Reduces Maternal Deaths Pregnancy and delivery can be a dangerous time for mothers. By extending the interval between and reducing the number of pregnancies and births a woman experiences over her lifetime, family planning helps women avoid health complications. Increasing the uptake of contraceptives and adding LAPMs to the mix of available contraceptive options will save the lives of 15,000 mothers in Zimbabwe between 2014 and 2020— an average of more than 2,100 maternal deaths prevented each year. Sources: Lifetime risk of maternal death—World Bank World Development Indicators: Reproductive health (http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/2.17). Maternal and children’s lives saved—ImpactNOW Model. Base scenario: Constant CPR of 59% and constant method mix. Policy scenario: Increase in CPR from 59% in 2014 to 68% in 2020 and concurrent increase in proportion of women using implants and IUCDs. will die from maternal causes 1 in 53 Women In Zimbabwe . Children’s Lives Saved Family Planning Reduces Child Deaths When a woman and her partner can control the amount of time between a birth and a subsequent pregnancy (“spacing”), they are better able to care for their newborn child. By achieving national goals for family planning, Zimbabwe will save the lives of 38,700 children by 2020 through improved birth spacing, or 6,900 lives will be saved each year. die before their 5th birthday in Zimbabwe 8 in100 Children Source: Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys, 2011. 7 Baynham G oredem a every year by 2020 +2,600 Children’s Lives Saved 9 Zimbabwe Expanding Access and Use of Family Planning Saving More Children’s Lives Every Year Family planning currently saves the lives of 4,300 children every year in Zimbabwe, by allowing couples to time pregnancies better and avoid high-risk pregnancies. Expanding access to and uptake of family planning services can increase the number of children’s lives saved to 6,900 annually by 2020, or 2,600 more per year than in 2014. Saving Lives Source: ImpactNOW Model. Base scenario: Constant CPR of 59% and constant method mix. Policy scenario: Increase in CPR from 59% in 2014 to 68% in 2020 and concurrent increase in proportion of women using implants and IUCDs. Julien Lagarde How Family Planning Improves the Lives of Zimbabweans Family planning is a cross-cutting human rights issue that allows women and couples to take control of their reproductive health and choose the family size that’s right for them. Women are free to participate more fully in the workforce, and parents can invest in better food for their families and education for their children. Zimbabwe U K D ep ar tm en t f or In te rn at io na l D ev el op m en t 11 U K D epartm ent for International D evelopm ent 13 Zimbabwe Saving M oney Saving Money Every pregnancy in which the mother seeks healthcare has associated costs, whether to the health system or out-of-pocket. These costs can escalate quickly if the mother experiences complications. Cost Savings Resulting from Family Planning Currently, as a result of family planning, Zimbabwe saves $14.2 million per year in the costs of providing maternal and child healthcare. Two national goals for family planning are increasing the CPR from 59% to 68% and improving the mix of available methods to support increased uptake of long-acting options, such as contraceptive implants, by 2020. If Zimbabwe achieves these goals, its annual savings will rise to $22.8 million. Between now and 2020, the cumulative amount Zimbabwe will save is approximately $128 million. Source: ImpactNOW Model. Base scenario: Constant CPR of 59% and constant method mix. Policy scenario: Increase in CPR from 59% in 2014 to 68% in 2020 and concurrent increase in proportion of women using implants and IUCDs. over the next 7 years $128M Saved Cumulatively in maternal and child heathcare costs by 2020 $22.8M Saved Annually 15 Maternal and Child Healthcare Cost Savings Return on Family Planning Investment High fertility contributes to more spending on maternal and child healthcare. Every dollar that Zimbabwe spends on family planning today helps to save $1.50 in maternal and child healthcare costs. As more women adopt LAPMs, savings could increase to $1.85 saved per dollar spent. Source: ImpactNOW Model. Base scenario: Constant CPR of 59% and constant method mix. Policy scenario: Increase in CPR from 59% in 2014 to 68% in 2020 and concurrent increase in proportion of women using implants and IUCDs. $1 $1.85 savings investment 17 Zimbabwe By reducing the number of unintended pregnancies through family planning, Zimbabwe can save lives, save money, and promote economic development. C atholic A id A gency for England and W ales 19 Zimbabwe Savings in Other Sectors of Development Saving M oney S us ta in ab le S an ita tio n A lli an ce Family Planning Creates Savings in Other Areas Family planning reduces the resources required to achieve other development goals, including some tied to the MDGs. Curbing population growth decreases the need for services to prevent communicable diseases and for maternal and child healthcare. It also reduces stress on the educational system and sanitation. U K Foreign and C om m onw ealth O ffice 21 From 2014 to 2030, Zimbabwe could save $473 million in funds required to achieve MDGs 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Millennium Development Goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV and AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Build a global partnership for development This diagram illustrates the additional savings in other areas of development due to achieving national goals for family planning. For example, a family planning program on par with Zimbabwe’s goals would save $32M in the cost of programs to achieve MDG targets for water and sanitation. [ diagram not to scale ] Savings to Achieve Millennium Development Goals as a Result of Additional Investments in Family Planning, 2014–2030 Water & Sanitation ($32M) Malaria ($2M) Immunization ($64M) Maternal Health ($118M) Education ($257M) Total: $473M 23 $473M Total saved to achieve MDG targets Zimbabwe Source: Family Planning Cost-benefit Calculator. Base scenario: Constant CPR of 59% and constant method mix. Policy scenario: Increase in CPR from 59% in 2014 to 68% in 2020 and concurrent increase in proportion of women using implants and IUCDs. Saving M oney S us ta in ab le S an ita tio n A lli an ce In te rn at io na l M ai ze a nd W he at Im pr ov em en t C en te r 25 Zimbabwe How Family Planning Promotes Economic Development Prom oting D evelopm ent Source: DemDiv Model. Base scenario: Economic improvements in labor market flexibility, the use of information technology, financial market efficiency, effectiveness of public institutions, and imports as a percent of GDP. Increase in expected and mean years of education for males and females. Policy scenario: Increase in CPR from 59% to 68% in addition to economic and educational improvements The Demographic Dividend Increased use of family planning and lower fertility rates change a country’s age structure, reducing the number of dependents supported by working-age adults. This proportionately large workforce, if educated and productively employed in an enabling economic environment, can boost the growth of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita over time. This effect is known as the demographic dividend. The graph on the facing page illustrates the potential effect of the demographic dividend in Zimbabwe. By 2050, investments in the economy and education could increase GDP per capita to $6,900. But if the country achieves its family planning goals, GDP per capita rises even more, to $8,400—a 22% gain. $714 $6,900 $8,400Investments in economy and education Potential demographic dividend of $1,500 (+22%) if family planning goals achieved GDP Per Capita 2014 2050 2050 [ +22% Dividend ] Demographic Dividend 27 Fewer Maternal and Child Deaths Savings in Healthcare, Education, and Sanitation Economic Growth and a Demographic Dividend 29 ZimbabweThe Bottom Line Family planning investments offer significant health and development benefits for Zimbabwe that far outweigh the costs of achieving them: 9 Fewer maternal deaths 9 Fewer child deaths 9 Savings to critical areas of health and development • Maternal and child healthcare (MDGs 4 and 5) • Education (MDG 2) • Malaria prevention and treatment (MDG 6) • Water, sanitation, and hygiene (MDG 7) 9 Economic development and growth in GDP per capita Call to Action At the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning, ministers and heads of state from around the world stood together and made commitments to increase access to family planning services and contraceptive choice by 2020. This global effort to promote family planning is also known as FP2020. One of Zimbabwe’s explicit FP2020 goals is to increase use of family planning from 59% of married women in 2014 to 68% in 2020. For the country to achieve the health and economic benefits of this increase, the Ministry of Health and Child Care must develop both a national family planning strategy and a costed implementation plan which incorporate the country’s FP2020 commitments: • Commit resources and increase funding for FP from 1.7% to at least 3% of the health budget • Eliminate user fees for FP services • Increase access to a full range of FP methods, including LAPMs • Strengthen public-private partnerships in provision of community-based and outreach services • Strengthen integration of FP with reproductive health, maternal health, and HIV services • Develop innovative service delivery models to meet the needs and uphold the rights of adolescent girls; and reduce their unmet need from 16.9% to 8.5% Funding Gap to Achieve Family Planning Goals Family Planning Resource Gap 2014–2020 All methods except condoms* $2M $0 $4M $6M $8M $10M $12M 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 International Donors Funding Gap * Condoms and condom-related support programs are covered by the Zimbabwean HIV program and are excluded from this analysis. Source: GAP Tool. Scenario: Increase in CPR from 59% in 2014 to 68% in 2020 and concurrent increase in proportion of women using implants and IUCDs. 31 U K D epartm ent for International D evelopm ent 33 Zimbabwe Conclusion Family planning is a powerful tool for development that saves lives and allows women and couples to take control of their health and economic future. “ . investing in voluntary family planning reduces poverty, increases participation in both education and the workforce and gives women a greater say in their households and communities. The result is higher incomes for families and improved prosperity for countries.” — Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin Executive Director, UNFPA Funding for this booklet provided by: The Health Policy Project is a five-year cooperative agreement funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development under Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-10-00067, beginning September 30, 2010. The project’s HIV activities are supported by the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It is implemented by Futures Group, in collaboration with Plan International USA, Futures Institute, Partners in Population and Development, Africa Regional Office (PPD ARO), Population Reference Bureau (PRB), RTI International, and the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA). The information provided in this document is not official U.S. Government information and does not necessarily represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Population Fund, the UK Department for International Development, the Government of Sweden, or Irish Aid. HEALTH POL ICY P R O J E C T Health Policy Project (HPP) Futures Group One Thomas Circle, NW, Suite 200 Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: +1 (202) 775–9680 Fax: +1 (202) 775–9694 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.healthpolicyproject.com United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Block 7, 1st Floor, Arundel Office Park Norfolk Road, Mt Pleasant P.O. Box 4775 Harare Tels: +263 4 338836–44, +263 772 572870–73 Fax: +263 4 338773 Email: email@example.com http://zimbabwe.unfpa.org/
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