Indonesia - Demographic and Health Survey - 1998

Publication date: 1998

Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 199"/' Central Bureau of Statistics State Ministry of Population National Family Planning Coordinating Board Ministry of Health SDHS / Demographic and Health Surveys Macro International Inc. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1997 Central Bureau of Statistics Jakarta, Indonesia State Ministry of Population/ National Family Planning Coordinating Board Jakarta, Indonesia Ministry of Health Jakarta, Indonesia Macro International Inc. Calverton, Maryland, USA October 1998 This report highlights the findings of the 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) undertaken by the Central Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with the State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) and the Ministry of Health (MOH). The DHS Project of Macro International Inc. pro- vided technical assistance and some funding. All of the local costs for the survey were provided by the Government of Indonesia. USAID/Jakarta provided additional funding for technical assistance through Macro International Inc. The 1997 IDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, which is designed to collect, analyze, and disseminate demographic data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health. Additional information on the 1997 IDHS may be obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics, Jl. Dr. Sutomo 8, Jakarta 10710, Indonesia (Telephone 345-6285; Fax 384-1545), or the State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Jl. Permata 1, Halim Perdanakusumah, Jakarta 13650, Indonesia (Telephone 800-9029; Fax 800-9125), or the Institute for Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jl. Percetakan Negara 29, Jakarta 10560, Indonesia (Telephone/Fax 424-4226). Additional information about the DHS program may be obtained by writing to: Macro International Inc., 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, Maryland 20705-3119, USA (Telephone 301 - 572-0200; Fax 301-572-0999). Recommended citation: Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) [Indonesia] and State Ministry o f Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) and Ministry of Health (MOH) and Macro Intemational Inc. (MI). 1998. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1997. Calverton, Maryland: CBS and MI. CONTENTS Page Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Preface: Central Bureau of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Preface: National Family Planning Coordinating Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Preface: Ministry of Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii Summary of Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv Map of Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxviii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1,5 1.6 Geography, History, and Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Population and Family Planning Policies and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Health Priorities and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Objectives oft, he Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Organization of the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AND WOMEN'S SITUATION . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1 Household Population by Age and Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Population by Age from Other Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 Household Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.4 Level of Education of the Household Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.5 School Enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.6 Housing Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.7 Household Durable Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.8 Respondents' Background Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.9 Respondents' Level of Education by Background Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.10 Access to Mass Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.11 Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.12 Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.13 Decisions of Use of Earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.14 Child Care While Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 FERTILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Fertility Levels and Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Fertility Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Children Ever Born and Living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Birth Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Age at First Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Adolescent Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 iii CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Page KNOWLEDGE AND EVER USE OF FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Knowledge of Family Planning Methods and Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Knowledge of Blue Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Knowledge of Golden Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Dissemination of Family Planning Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Source of Family Planning Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Discussion on Family Planning With Husband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Ever Use of Family Planning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 CHAPTER 5 CURRENT USE OF FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 5.1 Current Use of Family Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 5.2 Trends in Contraceptive Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 5.3 Contraceptive Use Among Women Over 30 and Among Those with Three or More Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.4 Reasons for Choice of Contraceptive Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 5.5 Quality of Use of the Pill, Injection and Condoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5.6 Problems with Current Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5.7 Cost and Accessibility of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.8 Source of Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 5.9 Timing of Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 5.10 Knowledge of the Fertile Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5.11 Knowledge of the Effects of Breastfeeding on Pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 FERT IL ITY PREFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Desire for Additional Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Ideal and Actual Number of Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Need For Family Planning Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Unplanned and Unwanted Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 CHAPTER 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 NONUSE AND INTENTION TO USE FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Discontinuation Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Reasons for Discontinuation of Contraceptive Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Intention to Use Contraception in the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Reasons for Nonuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Preferred Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 iv CHAPTER 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Page OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTIL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Current Marital Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Age at First Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Age at First Sexual Intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Recent Sexual Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence and Insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Termination of Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 CHAPTER 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Assessment of Data Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Mortality Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 High-Risk Fertility Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 CHAPTER 10 MATERNAL HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 10.1 Antenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 10.2 Place of Antenatal Care, Number of Antenatal Care Visits, and Stage of Pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 10.3 Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 10.4 Iron Pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 10.5 Place of Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 10.6 Assistance during Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 10.7 Delivery Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 10.8 Complications of Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 CHAPTER 11 IMMUNIZATION OF CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 11.1 Health Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 11.2 Immunization Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 11.3 Immunizations by Background Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 11.4 Immunizations by First Year of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 11.5 Distribution of Vitamin A for Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 CHAPTER 12 CHILDHOOD DISEASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 12.1 Acute Respiratory Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 12.2 Prevalence and Treatment of Fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 12.3 Diarrheal Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 V Page CHAPTER 13 INFANT FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 13. I Prevalence of Breastfeeding and Supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 13.2 Duration of Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 CHAPTER 14 KNOWLEDGE OF A IDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 14.1 Source o f Information about AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 14.2 Knowledge o f Ways to Prevent AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 14.3 Women's Perceptions o f the Risk o f Getting AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 14.4 A IDS Prevention Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 14.5 Knowledge and Use of Condoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 APPENDIX A A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 SURVEY DES IGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Sample Design and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Pretest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Field Staff Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Fieldwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Data Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 APPENDIX B EST IMATES OF SAMPL ING ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 APPENDIX C QUAL ITY OF THE DATA: NON-SAMPL ING ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 1997 INDONESIA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 APPENDIX E QUEST IONNAIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 vi Table 1.1 TaHe 1.2 Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Tal~ le 2.4.1 Table 2.4.2 Table 2.4.3 Table 2.4.4 Table 2.5 Table 2.6 Table 2.7 Tal:le 2.8.1 Table 2.8.2 Table 2.9.1 Table 2.9.2 Table 2.10.1 Table 2.10.2 Table 2.11.1 Table 2.11.2 Table 2.12.1 TABLES Page Basic demographic indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Results of the household and individual interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Household population by age, residence and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Population by age from other sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Household composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Educational level of the household population by background characteristics: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Educational level of the household population by background characteristics: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Educational level of the household population by region and province: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Educational level of the household population by region and province: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 School enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Housing characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Household durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Distribution of respondents: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Distribution ofrespondants: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Level of education: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Level of education: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Access to mass media: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Access to mass media: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Employment: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Employment: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Occupation: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 vii Table 2.12.2 Table 2.13.2 Table 2.13.2 Table 2.14.1 Table 2.14.2 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4.1 Table 3.4.2 Table 3.5 Table 3.6.1 Table 3.6.2 Table 3.7 Table 3.8.1 Table 3.8.2 Table 3.9.1 Table 3.9.2 Table 4. I Table 4.2.1 Table 4.2.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4.1 Page Occupation: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Earnings: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Earnings: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Child care while working: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Child care while working: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Fertility rates from various sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Age-specific fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Fertility by marital duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Fertility: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Fertility: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Children ever born and living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Birth intervals: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Birth intervals: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Median age at first birth: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Median age at first birth: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Source of supply for contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Knowledge of Blue Circle: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 viii Table 4.4.2 Table 4.5.1 Table 4.5.2 Table 4.6,1 Table 4.6.2 Table 4.7.1 Table 4.7.1 Table 4.8.1 Table 4.8.2 Table 4.9.1 Table 4.9.2 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 5.1 Table 5.2.1 Table 5.2.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Table 5.8.I Table 5.8.2 Page Knowledge of B lue Circle: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Knowledge of Golden Circle: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Knowledge of Golden Circle: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Visits by family planning f ie ldworkers: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Visits by family planning fieldworkers: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Heard family planning on radio and television: background characteristics . . . . . . . 61 Heard family planning on radio and television: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Saw family planning message in print media: background characteristics . . . . . . . . 63 Saw family planning message in print media: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Appropriate for family planning information: background characteristics . . . . . . . . 65 Appropriate for family planning information: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Discussion of family planning with husband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Ever use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Number of children at first use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Current use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Current use of contraception: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Current use of contraception: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Trends in contraceptive use by province: Java-Bali 1976-1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Trends in use of specific contraceptive methods: Java-Bali, 1976-1997 . . . . . . . . . 74 Trends in use of specific contraceptive methods: Indonesia, 1991 and 1997 . . . . . . 75 Contraceptive use status and type of method used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Reasons for using current method of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Pill use compliance: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Pill use compliance: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 ix Table 5.9 Table 5.10 Table 5.11 Table 5.12 Table 5.13 Table 5.14 Table 5.15.1 Table 5.15.2 Table 5.16 Table 5.17 Table 5.18.1 Table 5.18.2 Table 6. I Table 6.2 Table 6.3.1 Table 6.3.2 Table 6.4 Table 6.5.1 Table 6.5.2 Table 6.6.1 Table 6.6.2 Table 6.7 Table 6.8.1 Page Use of pill and condom brands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Use of injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Problems with current method of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Payment for contraceptive methods and services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Mean cost of contraceptive methods and services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Source of supply for modem contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Reason for selecting current sources of supply for contraceptive methods: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Reason for selecting current sources of supply for contraceptive methods: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Timing of sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Knowledge of fertile period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Contraceptive effect of breastfeeding: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Contraceptive effect of breastfeeding: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Fertility preferences by number of living children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Fertility preferences by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Desire to limit childbearing: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Desire to limit childbearing: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Ideal and actual number of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Mean ideal number of children: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Mean ideal number of children: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Need for family planning services: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Need for family planning services: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Fertility planning status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Wanted fertility rates: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Table 6.8.2 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7A Table 7.5 Table 8.1.1 Table 8.1.2 Table 8.2 Table 8.3.1 Table 8.3.2 Table 8.4 Table 8.5.1 Table 8.5.2 Table 8.6.1 Table 8.6.2 Table 8.7 Table 8.8.1 Table 8.8.2 Tatle 8.9 Table 9.1 Table 9.2 Table 9.3 Page Wanted fertility rates: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Contraceptive discontinuation rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Reasons for discontinuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Future use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Reasons for not using contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Preferred method of contraception for future use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Current marital status by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Current marital status by region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Median age at first marriage: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Median age at first marriage: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Age at first sexu* 1 intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Median age at first intercourse: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Median age at first intercourse: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Recent sexual activity: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Recent sexual activity: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence and insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Median duration of postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Median duration of postpartum amenorrhea, abstinenee, and insusceptibility: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Termination of exposure to the risk of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Infant and child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Trends in infant and child mortality by region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Infant and child mortality by baekground characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 xi Tal:le 9A Table 9.5 Table 9.6 T~ble 10.1A Table 10.1.2 Table 10.2.1 Table 10.2.2 Tab?e 10.3 Table 10.4.1 Table 10.4.2 Table 10.5 Table 10.6.1 Table 10.6.2 Table 10.7.1 Table 10.7.2 Table 10.8.1 Table 10.8.2 Table 10.9 Table 11.I.1 Table 11.1.2 Table 11.2 Table 11.3.1 Table 11.3.2 Table 11.4 Page Infant and child mortality by biodemographic eharacteristfcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Infant and child mortality by region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 High-risk fertility behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Antenatal care: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Antenatal care: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Place of antenatal care: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Place of antenatal care: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Tetanus toxoid vaccinations: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Tetanus toxoid vaccinations: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Iron tablets taken during pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Place of delivery: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Place of delivery: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Assistance during delivery: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Assistance during delivery: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Delivery characteristics: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Delivery characteristics: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Complications of delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Health cards: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Health cards: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Vaccinations by source of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Vaccinations: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Vaccinations: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Vaccinations in first year of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 xii Table 11.5 Table 12.1.1 Table 12.1.2 Table 12.2.1 Table 12.2.2 Table 12.3.1 Table 12.3.2 Table 12.4.1 Table 12.4.2 Table 12.5.1 Table 12.5.2 Table I2.6.1 Table 12.6.2 Table 12.7.1 Table 12.7.1 Table 12.8.1 Table 12.8.2 Table 12.9.1 Table 12.9.2 Table 12.10 Table 13.1.1 Table 13.1.2 Page Vitamin A doses for children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Prevalence and incidanee of acute respiratory infection: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Prevalence and incidence of acute respiratory infection: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection: baekground characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Prevalence and treatment of fever: background characteristics: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Prevalence and treatment of fever: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Prevalence of diarrhea: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Prevalence of diarrhea: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Duration and incidence of diarrhea: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Duration and incidence of diarrhea: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Knowledge of diarrhea care: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Knowledge of diarrhea care: region and provinee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Knowledge and ever use of ORS packets: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 185 Knowledge and ever use of ORS packets: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Source of diarrhea treatment" background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Source ofdiarrheatreatment: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Treatment of diarrhea: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Treatment of diarrhea: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Feeding practices during diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Initial breastfeeding: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Initial breastfeeding: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 xiii Table 13.2 Table 13.3 Table 13.4.1 Table 13.4.2 Table 14.1.1 Table 14.1.2 Table 14.2.1 Table 14.2.2 Table 14.3.1 Table 14.3.2 Table 14.4.1 Table 14.4.2 Table 14.5.1 Table 14.5.2 Table A. I Table A.2 Table B.1 Table B.2.1 Table B.2.2 Table B.2.3 Table B.2.4 Table B.2.5 Table B.2.6 Page Breastfeeding status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Types of food received . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding: background characteristics . . . . 198 Median duration and frequency ofbreastfeeding: region and province . . . . . . . . . 200 Knowledge of AIDS and sources of AIDS information: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Knowledge of AIDS and sources of AIDS information: region and province . . . . 204 Knowledge of ways to avoid AIDS: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Knowledge of ways to avoid AIDS: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Perception of the risk of getting AIDS: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Perception of the risk of getting AIDS: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 AIDS prevention behavior: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 AIDS prevention behavior: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Knowledge of condoms: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Knowledge of condoms: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Sample implementation: results of the household interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Sample implementation: results of the individual interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Sampling errors - National sample, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Sampling errors - Urban sample, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Sampling errors - Rural sample, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Sampling errors - Java-Bali, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Sampling errors - Outer Java-Bali I, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Sampling errors - Outer Java-Bali II, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 xiv Table B.2.7 Table B.2.8 Table B.2.9 Table B.2.10 Table B.2.11 Table B.2.12 Table ]3.2.13 Table B.2.14 Table B.2.15 Table B.2.16 Table B.2.17 Table B.2.18 Table 13.2.19 Table B.2.20 Table B.2.21 Table B.2.22 Table B.2.23 Table ]3.2.24 Table B.2.25 Table B.2.26 Table B.2 .27 Table B.2.28 Table B.2.29 Table B.2.30 Page Sampling errors - DKI Jakarta, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Sampling errors - West Java, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Sampling errors - Central Java, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Sampling errors - DI Yogyakarta, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Sampling errors - East Java, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Sampling errors - Bali, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Sampling errors - Dista Aceh, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Sampling errors -North Sumatra, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Sampling errors - West Sumatra, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Sampling errors - South Sumatra, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Sampling errors - Lampung, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Sampling errors - West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Sampling errors - West Kalimantan, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Sampling errors - South Kalimantan, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Sampling errors -Noah Sulawesi, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Sampling errors - South Sulawesi, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Sampling errors - Riau, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Sampling errors - Jambi, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Sampling errors - Bengkulu, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Sampling errors - East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Sampling errors - East Timor, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Sampling errors - Central Kalimantan, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Sampling errors - East Kalimantan, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Sampling errors - Central Sulawesi, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 XV Table B.2.3 l Table B.2.32 Table B.2.33 Table C. 1 Table C.2 Table C.3 Table C.4 Table C.5 Table C.6 Page Sampling errors - Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Sampling errors - Maluku, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Sampling errors - Irian Jaya, Indonesia 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Household age distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Age distribution of oligible and interviewed women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Completeness of reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Births by calendar years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Reporting of age at death in days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Reporting of age at death in months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 xvi Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 3.1 Figure 4.1 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 6.1 Figure 7.1 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 F IGURES Page Number of Persons Reported at Each Age by Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Population Pyramid of Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Percentage of the Population Age 5-15 Enrolled in School by Age Group and Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Housing Characteristics by Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Age- Specific Fertility Rates, Indonesia 1967-1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Percentage of Currently Married Women Who Know Specific Modem Contraceptive Methods, Indonesia, 1991 - 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Percentage of Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Who Are Using a Contraceptive Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Percentage of Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Using Contraception by Province, Java-Bali 1976-1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Percentage of Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Using Specific Modem Contraceptive Methods, Java-Bali, 1976-1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Percentage of Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Using Specific Contraceptive Methods, Indonesia, 1994 and 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Distribution of Current Users of Modem Contraceptive Methods by Source of Supply, Indonesia, 1994 and 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Distribution of Current Users of Modem Contraceptive Methods by Source of Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Distribution of Current Users of Modem Contraceptive Methods by Reason for Using Most Recent Source of Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Fertility Preferences of Currently Married Women 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Reasons for Discontinuation of Contraceptive Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Median Age at First Marriage by Region, Indonesia, 1991, 1994, and 1997 . . . . . . 117 Median Age at First Marriage by Province, Java-Bali, 1991, 1994, and 1997 . . . . . 119 Percentage of Births in the last Three Years for Which Mothers Are Amenorrheic or Abstaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 xvii Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2 Figure 10.1 Figure 10.2 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.2 Figure 12.1 Figure 12.2 Figure 12.3 Figure 13.1 Figure 13.2 Figure 141 Figure C. 1 Page Number of Reported Deaths among Children Under Two Years by Age at Death in Months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Infant Mortality Rates, Selected Sources, Indonesia 1971-1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Number of Antenatal Care Visits and Gestation Period at First Visit for Births in the Five Years Preceding the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Delivery Characteristics of Births in the Five Years Preceding the Survey . . . . . . . 149 Health Card Coverage by Child's Age, Region and Mother's Education . . . . . . . . . 162 Immunization Coverage Among Children Age 12-23 Months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Prevalence of Cough and Rapid Breathing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Treatment of Childhood Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Feeding Practices Among Children Under Five with Diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Distribution of Children by Breastfeeding (BF) Status, According to Age . . . . . . . 196 Median Duration of Any Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Knowledge of AIDS Among Ever-Married Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Calendar Birth Ratios for Living, Dead, and All Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 xviii PREFACE The 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is the fourth survey on demography and health in Indonesia and was conducted as part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) projeet. The first survey was the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the second and third surveys were the 1991 IDHS and 1994 IDHS. The 1997 IDHS was designed as a collaborative effort of four institutions, i.e., the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board ('NFPCB), the Ministry of Health, and macro International Inc. The Government of Indonesia/NFPCB provided all of the local costs through the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, a USAID-funded project carried out in many developing countries. The CBS was responsible for conducting the survey, including survey design, fieldwork, and data processing. The 1997 IDHS fieldwork was carried out from September to December 1997 in selected enumeration areas in all of the 27 provinces in Indonesia. The sample is a replication of the 1994 IDHS sample, which is a subsample of the 1994 National Soeio-Economic Survey, and was designed to produce reliable estimates of major variables for each province and for urban and rural areas of the three family planning program development areas (Java-Bali, Outer Java-Bali I, and Outer Java-Bali II). The main objective of the 1997 IDHS is to provide policymakers and program managers in population and health with detailed information on fertility and family planning; infant, child and maternal mortality, and maternal and child health. The content of the 1997 IDHS was expanded from prior surveys to include a module on family welfare which will not be covered in this report. The survey no longer investigated the availability of family planning and health services as in the 1994 IDHS. This report supplements the preliminary report released earlier. The success of this very important undertaking would not have been realized without the relentless effort and dedication of all parties concerned. To those who actively contributed to this project, I wold like to extend my gratitude and appreciation, especially to USAID and the DHS program of Macro International Inc. Jakarta, Indonesia September 1998 Central Bureau of Statistics Sugito, MA Director General xix PREFACE The Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), which is part &the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Project, is one of prominent national surveys in the field of population, family planning, and health. The survey is not only important nationally for planning and evaluating population, family planning, and health developments, but is also important internationally since IDHS has been designed so uniquely that it can be compared with similar surveys in other developing countries. The 1997 IDHS is the most recent of four similar surveys done in Indonesia. The first survey was conducted a decade ago (1987), the second in 1991, and the third in 1994. As is true for the past surveys, the 1997 IDHS, which covers around 29,000 respondents of ever-married women age 15-49, is meant to collect such important data and information as fertility levels, family planning, maternal and child health services, availability and accessibility of family planning and health services, as well as information on knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. These data and information are very beneficial and needed by various government institutions such as the Department of Health, the State Ministry of Population/NFPCB, as well as other government and private institutions that are associated with or are interested in population, family planing, and health issues. The Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys have long been known to have good "reputation" since they collect so much population, family planing, and health information of excellent quality. Given their variability and representativeness, the data should be and need to be used optimally. In addition to the benefits gained by the government/decision makers in developing policies and programs in the field of population, family planning, and health, this large data set that contains rich information should also be used by professionals and academicians irltheir effort to study social theories or phenomena. These efforts should be made much easier due to the current rapid development of advanced techniques in quantitative analysis and the advanced technology of personal computer. Finally, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to the Central Board of Statistics (CBS), Macro International Inc in Maryland (USA), USAID, the 1997 IDHS Steering and Technical Committees, and the Office of Training and Development Programs of NFPCB for their contribution in conducting the 1997 IDHS. The high quality of the 1997 IDHS final report is indicative of the professional manner in which this project was designed and implemented. State Minister of Population/ Chairman, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Prof. dr. Ida Bagus Oka xxi PREFACE Health Law No. 23/1992, which provides a legal basis for health sector activities, stipulates that the goal of health development is to increase the awareness, willingness, and ability of everyone to live a healthy life. The strategy adopted to improve the health and nutritional status of the population, following the National Guidelines on State Policy 1993, is two pronged: to improve the quality of health services, which must become affordable to all layers of the population; and to promote a healthy lifestyle supported by adequate housing and environmental sanitation. The Indonesian Ministry of Health's priorities are to improve the quality distribution of health services, with particular attention to the poor. Strengthening the preventive and promotive activities aimed at reducing maternal, infant, and child mortality and morbidity, reducing fertility, and improving nutritional status and improve the quality of health services and associated referral systems are among the major objectives of the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan (REPELITA VI, 1994-1998). The 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a nationally representative 'community-based' survey which provides detailed information on levels and trends in fertility, mortality, and family planning; maternal and child health services and maternal mortality and knowledge of AIDS. This information together with other information from different community-based surveys and facility-based statistics are very useful in assessing the achievements and quality of interventions by the Ministry of Health. The IDHS surveys was conducted in late 1997 covering a period in which the country is caught in number of problems including unfavorable climatic condition, due to long dry season and forest fires followed by extensive rain fall and floods, depreciation of the currency, and a wide spread political discontent. However, the survey findings show the rapid improvement of health status as a result of increased knowledge about health care and better access of health services. The findings proved that health policies and programs adopted by the Ministry of Health have been successful in improving the health condition of the public. The results of the 1997 IDHS should be disseminated to decision makers at different administrative levels and to the community at large. In conclusion, I would like to extend my gratitude and appreciation to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the National Family Planning Coordination Board, USAID, Macro Intemational Inc. in Maryland (USA) and all other parties who have contributed to the success of the 1997 IDHS. I believe the survey results are useful in developing future health programs. Minister of Health Republic of Indonesia Prof. Dr. F.A. Moeloek xxiii SUMMARY OF F INDINGS The 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a nationally representative survey conducted between September and December 1997. The survey is the fourth in a series of Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in Indonesia. The first three surveys were conducted in 1987, 1991 and 1994. As in previous surveys, the main purpose of the survey was to provide policy makers and program managers in population and health with detailed information on fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning, and maternal and child health. As in the 1994 IDHS, the 1997 survey also collected household expenditure data, information necessary for the calculation of the maternal mortality rate, and data concerning knowledge of AIDS. In addition, the 1997 IDHS collected information which can be used as indicators of family welfare. Findings on the household expenditures, maternal mortality and family welfare are not presented in this report. All of the IDHS surveys were carried out by the Central Bureau of Statistics at the request of the State Ministry for Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB). Since 1991, the Ministry of Health collaborated at all stages of the project. The DHS project of Macro International Inc. provided technical assistance under a contract with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). All of the local costs for the survey were provided by the Government of Indonesia through the NFPCB development budget. A total of 34,255 households and 28,810 ever-married women age 15-49 were interviewed. Findings of the survey are presented at the national level, by the three regions developed for family planning program management classified by urban and rural residence, and for each of the 27 provinces in the country. The results indicate that the majority of women (87 percent) have had some formal education, and 59 percent completed primary or higher education. Half of the respondents worked in the 12 months prior the survey. Over the last three decades, fertility in Indonesia has declined from 5.6 children per woman in 1967- 1970 to 2.8 children per woman in 1995-1997. The decline in fertility varied over time, and across region. It accelerated between the late 1960s and mid- 1980, and then slowed. Women in Java-Bali have the lowest total fertility rate (2.6 children per woman), while women in Outer Java-Bali I and Outer Java-Bali II have 3.1 and 3.2 children per woman, respectively. In some provinces, namely DK/Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta and Bali, fertility has reached or is approaching the replacement level. In others, the total fertility rates is still 3 children or more. Since the early 1990s, the peak of the age-specific fertility curve has shifted from women age 20-24 to women age 25-29. One of the factors influencing fertility decline is the gradual increase in the proportion of women who stay single. Those who marry, do so at a later age. The median age at first marriage has increased from 17.3 years for women age 45-49 to 19.9 among women age 25-29. Consequently, women also start childbearing at a later age. The median age at first birth increased moderately over the last two decades from 20.5 years among women age 40-44 to 21.6 years for women age 25-29. Women in Java-Bali marry at least one year earlier than women in the Outer Java-Bali regions. Women with secondary or higher education marry four years later than women with some secondary education, and five years later than women who have no formal education. Women's knowledge of family planning methods and sources for methods is virtually universal. While familiarity with pills and IUD remained at high levels (94 and 85 percent of currently married women, respectively), the proportion of women who have heard ofinj ections and implants has increased substantially to 94 and 81 percent, respectively. XXV Fifty-seven percent of currently married women use a method of family planning and almost all of these women use a modem contraceptive method. The majority of contraceptive users use injection (21 percent of all currently married women age 15-49, or 37 percent of all current users). The next most commonly used methods are the pill (15 percent) and IUD (8 percent). As expected, women in the Java-Bali region show the highest contraceptive use (61 percent), while the lowest use is in Outer Java-Bali II (51 percent). Private medical sources are gaining popularity in supplying modem contraceptives, and are almost drawing equal to government sources (42 percent and 43 percent, respectively). The remaining 15 percent of users obtain their methods from other sources such as village delivery posts (polindes), integrated health posts (posyandu) and family planning posts. The most often used service providers among the government sources are public health centers and among private medical sources are midwives. The level of sustainability of the family planning program in terms of the proportion of users who pay for services is higher in 1997 than that in 1994--84 percent compared with 74 percent, respectively. In 1997, three in four contraceptive users who obtained a family planning method from a government source paid for the method. One measure of quality of contraceptive use is the rate at which users discontinue using a method, and their reasons for doing so. Overall, 24 percent of family planning users discontinue using a method within 12 months of starting use. Of importance to family planning program managers is the fact that fear of side effects and health concerns account for 10 percent of d iscontinuations. While contraceptive use continues to increase, unmet need for family planning services still accounts for 9 percent of currently married women. The unmet need is equally split between the need for spacing (4 percent) and limiting (5 percent). If the total demand for family planning were satisfied, the contraceptive prevalence rate would increase to 67 percent. Fertility desires have not changed much in the past ten years. Half of married women do not want any more children or have been sterilized. Younger women are more likely to want to have another child, while older women tend to want to stop childbearing. If all unwanted births were avoided, the total fertility rate would be 2.4 children per woman instead of the observed 2.8 children. Childhood mortality continues to decline. The infant mortality rate for the period approximately 1992-1997 is 46 deaths per 1,000 live births, down from 59 deaths in the period 1987-1992. The comparable decline in under-five mortality is from 83 to 58 deaths per 1,000 live births. The probability of dying in infancy is highest among births to women with no education, in rural areas, births who received no antenatal or delivery care, and those born less than two years after a preceding birth. Nine in ten births in the five years preceding the survey received care from a medical professional during pregnancy. The most common providers of antenatal care are public health centers (39 percent) and private midwives (27 percent). More than half of pregnant women received two or more tetanus toxoid injections and three-quarters received iron tablets to reduce pregnancy-induced anemia. Although the majority of births in Indonesia are still delivered by a traditional birth attendant (54 percent), the role of private midwives in assisting delivery has become more prominent. In 1997, midwives provided assistance to four in ten births in the five-year period before the survey. IDHS data also indicate some improvement in vaccination coverage for children. Based on xxvi information recorded on the health card and reported by the mothers, 55 percent of children 12-23 months have received BCG, measles, and three doses of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and polio vaccines. This level is higher than that recorded in the 1994 IDHS (50 percent). Low birth order children, those living in urban areas, particularly in the Outer Java-Bali II region, and children of better educated mothers are more likely to have received the complete immunization schedule. In the two-week period preceding the survey, 9 percent of children under five were reported to have had a cough accompanied by rapid breathing, symptoms of acute respiratory illness. Seven in 10 of these children were taken to a health facility for treatment or advice. Over the same time period, 10 percent of children under five suffered from diarrhea, of whom 54 percent were taken to a health facility for treatment. Oral rehydration salts were given to 48 percent of children with diarrhea. While 57 percent of children who had diarrhea were given more fluids, the majority (76 percent) were given the same amount or less solid foods, and 80 percent ofbreastfed children were given the same amount or less breast milk. One in four children under five was reported to have had a fever at some point during the two weeks before the survey. More than half of children (56 percent) of children with fever were taken to a health facility for treatment. While the Ministry of Health recommends that infants under 4 months be given breast milk only, supplementary feeding is initiated very early. Among infants under 4 months old, in addition to breast milk, 3 percent were given plain water, 5 percent were given other liquid, 8 percent were given other milk, and 28 percent have started taking solid or mushy food. On average, children are breastfed for almost two years (24 months). Rural children, those living in Java-Bali, children whose mothers have no education and those who were assisted by a traditional birth attendant during delivery tend to be breastfed longer than other children. More than half of ever-married women in Indonesia have heard about AIDS. Television is overwhelmingly the most important source of information about the disease. Knowledge of AIDS varies across subgroups of women. Urban women, better educated women and young women in their 20s are more likely than other women to have heard about AIDS. Most women (86 percent) who know about AIDS also know about condoms. xxvii %. WEST MALAYSIA 7 PROVINCES 1. Dista Aceh 2. North Sumatra 3. West Sumatra 4. Riau 5. Jambi 6. South Sumatra 7. Bengkulu 8. Lampung 9. DKI Jakarta ~INGAPORE 12 10. West Java 11. Central Java 12. Di Yogyakarta 13. East Java 14. Bali 15. West Nusa Tenggara t 6. East Nusa Tenggara 17. West Kalimantan 18. Central Kalimantan INDONESIA 25 N 500 10001krn ,,, ! J~pc 19. South Kalimantan 20. East Kalimantan 21. North Sulawesi 22. Central Sulawesi 23. South Sulawesi 24. Southeast Sulawesi 25. Maluku 26. Irian Jaya 27. East Timor s" CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I.I Geography, History, and Economy The Republic of Indonesia, which consists of approximately 17,000 islands, is located between 6 degrees north and 11 degrees south latitude, and from 95 to 141 degrees east longitude. The Indonesian archipelago lies between Asia and Australia. It is bounded by the South China Sea in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the north and east, and the Indian Ocean in the south and west. There are five major islands: Sumatra in the west; Java in the south; Kalimantan straddling the equator; Sulawesi, which resembles the letter "K"; and Irian Jaya bordering Papua New Guinea on the west. Two remaining groups of islands are Maluku and Nusa Tenggara, running from Sulawesi to Irian Jaya in the north, and from Bali to Timor in the south. Other islands are small and mostly uninhabited. More than 80 percent of Indonesia's territory is covered with water; the land area is about 1.9 million square kilometers. The large number of islands and their dispersion over a wide area has given rise to a diverse culture and hundreds of ethnic groups, each with its own language. This is the basis of the national motto, "Unity in Diversity." Indonesia's climate is tropical with two seasons. The dry season extends from May to October, and the rainy season from November to April. Indonesia is administratively divided into 27 provinces. Each province consists of regencies and municipalities. Altogether, there are 249 regencies and 65 municipalities. The next lower administrative unit is the subdistrict, then the village. Classification of urban and rural areas is made at the village level. In 1997, there were 4,028 subdistricts and 66,913 villages (7,230 urban villages and 59,683 rural villages). Since proclaiming its independence in 1945, Indonesia has experienced several political shifts. In 1948, a rebellion by the Communist Party took place in Madiun. Up until the end of 1949, when the Dutch gave up control over Indonesia, there were disputes against the ruling democratic republic. Some factions, supported by the Dutch, formed the Federation of Indonesian Republics, which lasted less than one year. From 1950 to 1959, Indonesia faced several political problems, including the adoption of a multi-party system (which resulted in political and economic instability) and rebellions caused by ideological, ethnic and racial differences. The history of the Republic of Indonesia had a turning point after an aborted coup by the Communist Party in September 1965. In 1966, President Suharto began a new era with the establishment of the New Order Government, which was oriented toward overall development. After more than 30 years under the New Order Government, Indonesia has made substantial progress, particularly in stabilizing political and economic conditions. A period of great economic growth was experienced from 1968 to 1986, when per capita income increased sharply from about US $50 to US $385. This increase was primarily the result of the international oil boom in the early 1980s, from which more than 60 percent of the country's foreign exchange came. The drop in the price of crude oil and natural gas in 1985 forced the Government to look for alternative sources of income, such as manufacturing, international trade, and service industries. This effort has been successful. Per capita income has increased to around US $1,124 in 1996, while the economic growth was around 5 percent. All of this increase ended in mid-1997 when the Asian economy collapsed. The value of the currency plummeted, prices increased, and unemployment rose dramatically. In addition, parts of the country suffered from relatively long droughts and extensive forest fires. An important achievement of the Indonesian government is the improvement of the general welfare of the population by ensuring the availability of adequate food, clothing, and housing, as well as providing adequate education and health services. Data from the 1971 and 1990 Population Censuses and the 1997 National Socio-Economie Survey (Susenas) show that in the past 25 years Indonesia has undergone a major improvement in the area of education. The percentage of persons age 10 years and over who were literate increased from 61 percent in 1971 to 84 percent in 1990 and to 89 percent in 1997. The improvement in education is most visible among females. Whereas school attendance among children age 7 to 12 years in 1971 was 62 percent for males and 58 percent for females, the corresponding rate for both in 1997 was 95 percent. During the same period, the percentage of persons who never attended school decreased as the percentage of graduates at all levels increased. The percentage of persons who finished primary school only increased from 20 percent in 1971 to 30 percent in 1990 and to 33 percent in 1997, while persons who attended junior high school or had higher education increased from 7 percent in 1971 to 22 percent in 1990, and to 30 percent in 1997. At all levels, the increase in education among females has been greater than that of males. One possible effect of more girls staying in school longer is the rise in the average age at first marriage. The mean age at first marriage increased from 19.6 years in 1971 to 21.4 years in 1990; the increase was greater in urban areas than in rural areas. The increasing level of education has also provided women with greater opportunity for participation in the labor force. Labor force participation among women age 10 and over increased from 33 percent in 1971 to 41 percent in 1997. Most women work in agriculture, trade, or the service industries. 1.2 Population According to the 1990 Population Census, the population of Indonesia was 179.4 million in 1990 and was projeeted to increase to 201.4 million in 1997. This would make Indonesia the fourth most populous country in the world after the People's Republic of China, India, and the United States. An estimated 55.4 million persons (31 percent of the population) were living in urban areas in 1990, compared with 73.4 million (36 percent of the population) living there in 1997. In addition to an already large population, Indonesia has a high rate of population growth. However, this rate has declined in the last two decades. Between 1971 and 1980, the average annual rate of population growth was 2.3 percent, compared with 2.0 percent between 1980 and 1990 (see Table 1.1). The population growth rate is projected to have declined further to 1.7 percent between 1990 and 1997. Another characteristic of Indonesia is the uneven distribution of the population among the islands and provinces. The 1990 Population Census indicates that the population density varies across regions, not only among islands, but also among provinces of the same island. Java, which covers only 7 percent of the total area of Indonesia, is inhabited by 60 percent of the country's population, making the population density of Java (814 persons per square kilometer) higher than that of other islands. By comparison, Kalimantan has a density of 17 persons per square kilometer. Comparison of provinces in Java shows that population density ranges from 12,500 persons per square kilometer in DKI Jakarta to 678 persons per square kilometer in East Java. Population density at the national level was 93 persons per square kilometer in 1990 and projected to be 104 persons per square kilometer in 1997. Past census and survey data show that Indonesia's fertility has declined significantly since the 1960s. The etude birth rate (CBR), which was estimated at 41 births per 1,000 population in the late 1960s, declined to 36 per 1,000 in the period 1976-79, resulting in an annual percentage decline of 1.3 percent. The CBR declined further to 28 births per 1,000 population in the period 1986-89, with an average annual rate of decline of 2.1 percent between the periods 1976-79 and 1986-89. These figures suggest a more rapid decline in fertility in the more recent years. The 1997 CBR was projected to be 23 births per 1,000 population. Table 1.1 also shows that the total fertility rate (TFR) declined from 5.6 children per woman in the period 1967-70, to 4.7 children in 1976-79, and to 3.3 children in 1986-89. The average annual decline between the periods 1967-70 and 1976-79 was 1.8 percent; between the periods 1976-79 and 1986-89 it was 2.9 percent. The TFR is projected to be 2.6 children per woman in 1997. Table 1.1 Basic demographic indicators Demographic indicators from selected sources, Indonesia 1971-1997 1985 1971 1980 Intercensal 1990 1997 Index Census Census Survey Census Projection I Population (millions) 119.2 147.5 164.6 179.4 201.4 Growth rate (GR) 2 (percent) 2.10 2.32 2.22 1.98 1.67 Density (pop/lan 2) 62.4 77.0 85.0 93.0 103.5 Percent urban 17.3 22.3 26.2 30.9 36.0 Reference period 1967-70 1976-79 1981-84 1986-89 1997 Crude birth rate (CBR) s 40.6 35.5 32.0 27.9 22.7 Crude death rate (CDR) 4 19.1 13.1 11.4 8.9 7.7 Total fertility rate (TFR) s 5.6 4.7 4.1 3.3 2.6 Infant mortality rate 6 (per 1,000 births) 142 112 71 70 50 Life expectancy 6 Male 45.0 50.9 57.9 57.9 62.8 Female 48.0 54.0 61.5 61.5 66.7 1 Projected based on the 1990 Population Census and the 1995 Intercensal Population Survey 2 Calculated using compound interest formula 3 Births per 1,000 population; estimated using the formula CBR = 9.48968 + 5.55 TFR 4 Deaths per 1,000 population; CDR = CBR - GR s Estimated based on own children method 6 Estimated using indirect estimation techniques Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 1987; 1992; 1997a, I997b; I998; CentralBureau of Statistics et al., 1989 The same data sources also demonstrate that there has been a significant decline in the level of mortality. An important achievement of the first long-term development plan (LTDP) spanning the period between 1969-70 and 1993-94 was the reduction of infant and child mortality, which was achieved through integrated health and family planning services. The infant mortality rate (IMP,) declined from 142 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1971, to 112 per 1,000 in 1980, to 70 per 1,000 in 1990, showing an average annual rate of decline of 2.7 percent. The IMR is projected to reach 50 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1997. During the same period, the crude death rate (CDR) decreased from 19 deaths per 1,000 population in 1971 to 9 per 1,000 in 1990, resulting in an average annual rate of decline of 2.8 percent. The CDR is projected to be 8 deaths per 1,000 population in 1997. 1.3 Population and Family Planning Policies and Programs The Government of Indonesia has devoted many of its development programs to population-related issues sinee President Suharto joined other heads of state in signing the Declaration of the World Leaders in 1967. In this declaration, rapid population growth was considered an obstacle to economic development. In order to carry out its population policy, the government has launched several programs, of which family planning is an important part. Family planning activities were initiated in Indonesia in 1957 by a private organization called the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA), which works under the auspices of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). IPPA provided family planning advice and services, as well as maternal and child care. In 1968, the government established a National Family Planning Institute, which was reorganized as the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) two years later. NFPCB is a non-departmental body, and the chairman reports directly to the President. The government of Indonesia has a strong commitment to family planning and has been working with religious and community leaders to develop programs to promote family planning. Family planning programs were not initiated simultaneously throughout the country. In the first 5- year development plan (Repelita), which covered the period 1969-70 to 1973-74, programs began in the six provinces of Java and Bali. In the next five-year plan, the program was expanded to ten provinces outside Java-Bali, i.e. Dista Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, and South Sulawesi. In the third Repelita, the programs were further expanded to include the remaining eleven provinces. The ten provinces that started family planning programs in Repolita II are called the Outer Java-Bali I Region, whereas those that started the programs in Repelita llI are grouped as the Outer Java-Bali II Region. In less than three decades, the population policy has not only contributed to reducing the fertility rate of the country by half, but is also helping to improve family welfare. One of several factors that contributes to the success of the family planning program in Indonesia has been the involvement of the community in running the programs on the notion that family planning is more than simply controlling births. In the Act No.10 passed in 1992, family planning is explicitly defined as the efforts to increase the society's concern and participation through delaying marriage, controlling births, fostering family resilience, and improving family welfare to create small, happy, and prosperous families. Additionally, during Repelita VII, the national family planning movement will be maintained and improved. As stated in the 1998 Broad State Policy (GBHN), "The national family planning movement as one of main activities to achieve family welfare will continue to be aimed at controlling population growth through limiting births in order to achieve harmony and balance between the growth of the population and the economy to achieve more self-reliant, happy, and prosperous families." Furthermore, the 1998 GBHN stated that family planning self-reliance and institutionalization should be improved through better accessibility and quality of both contraceptive information and supply. 1.4 Health Priorities and Programs Health Law No. 23/1992 provides a legal basis for health sector activities. It stipulates that the goal of health development is to increase the awareness, willingness, and ability of everyone to live a healthy life. The law emphasizes the decentralization of operational responsibility and authority to the local level as a prerequisite for successful and sustainable development. In the Second 25-Year Development Plan (1994-2019), economic and human development are identified as the keys to national development and self-reliance. Following the National Guidelines on State Policy issued in 1993, the strategy adopted to improve the health and nutritional status of the population is two-pronged: to improve the quality of health services that must become affordable to all and to promote a healthy lifestyle supported by adequate housing and environmental sanitation. The Indonesia Ministry of Health's priorities are to improve the quality and equity of services, with particular attention to the poor. In the health sector, the major objectives of the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan (Repelita VI, 1994-1998) are to: • Strengthen preventive and promotive activities aimed at reducing maternal, infant, and child mortality and morbidity; reducing fertility; and improving nutritional status • Improve the quality of health services and associated referral systems • Increase the efficiency and effectiveness of services and promote improved management of health resources • Transform public hospitals into self-supporting units through improved cost recovery • Promote the use of high-quality generic drugs • Provide a health card for the poorest families, entitling them to free health services • Promote and facilitate joint public and private financing of health care services • Encourage the private sector to finance preventive and promotive health care • Decentralize health service management to the district level. The government puts great emphasis on intersectoral coordination of efforts, joint responsibility of local government and the community, region-specific programs, targeting of vulnerable groups, and support of a strong information and communication program. 1.5 Objectives of the Survey The 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a follow-on project to the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the 1991 IDHS, and the 1994 IDHS. The 1997 IDHS was expanded from the 1994 survey to include a module on family welfare; however, unlike the 1994 survey, the 1997 survey no longer investigated the availability of family planning and health services. The 1997 IDHS also included as part of the household schedule a household expenditure module that provided a means of identifying the household's economic status. The findings on family welfare, household expenditures, as well as maternal mortality, are discussed in separate reports. The 1997 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives: • Provide data concerning fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, maternal mortality, and awareness of AIDS that can be used by program managers, policymakers, and researchers to evaluate and improve existing programs Provide data about availability of family planning and health services, thereby offering an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning, and child care behavior with the availability of services Provide household expenditure data that which can be used to identify the household's economic status Provide data that can be used to analyze trends over time by examining many of the same fertility, mortality, and health issues that were addressed in the earlier surveys (1987 NICPS, 1991 IDHS and 1994 IDHS) Measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors that affect the changes, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and the availability of contraception Measure the development and achievements of programs related to health policy, particularly those concerning the maternal and child health development program implemented through public health clinics in Indonesia • Provide indicators for classifying families according to their welfare status. 1.6 Organization of the Survey The 1997 IDHS was implemented by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) at the request of the State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB). These organizations and the Ministry of Health (MOH) collaborated in the development of the questionnaire and in the analysis and dissemination of the results. The Government of Indonesia provided all of the local costs through the NFPCB development budget. Macro International Inc. furnished technical assistance through the Demo- graphic and Health Surveys Program (DHS), a project funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). A survey Steering Committee was established; it consisted of senior representatives from the State Ministry of Population/NFPCB, CBS, MOH, the National Development Planning Board (Bappenas), and the Demographic Institute at the University of Indonesia. The Technical Team, consisting of members of the same organizations, met more frequently than the Steering Committee to discuss and decide on technical issues relating to the implementation of the survey. The CBS executed the survey and processed the data. The directors of the provincial statistical offices were responsible for both the technical and the administrative aspects of the survey in their area. They were assisted by field coordinators, most of whom were chiefs of the population statistics sections in the provincial offices. The 1997 IDHS used three questionnaires: the household questionnaire, the questionnaire on family welfare, and the individual questionnaire for ever-married women 15-49 years old. The general household and individual questionnaires were based on the DHS Model "A" Questionnaire, which is designed for use in countries with high contraceptive prevalence. Additions and modifications to the model questionnaire were made in order to provide detailed information specific to Indonesia. The questionnaires were developed mainly in English and were translated into Indonesian. One deviation from the standard DHS practice is the exclusion of the anthropometric measurement of young children and their mothers. A separate survey carried out by MOH provides this information. 6 The household questionnaire includes an expenditure schedule adapted from the core Susenas ques- tionnaire model. Susenas is a national household survey carried out annually by CBS to collect data on vari- ous demographic and socioeconomic indicators of the population. The family welfare questionnaire was aimed at collecting indicators developed by the NFPCB to classify families according to their welfare status. Families were identified from the list of household members in the household questionnaire. The expenditure module and the family welfare questionnaire were developed in Indonesian. Findings of theses questionnaires were not presented in this report. As in previous surveys, data were collected by teams of interviewers. Altogether, 284 female interviewers, 86 male field supervisors, and 86 female field editors were recruited to form 86 interview teams. They were trained for 16 days in nine training centers during June to August 1997. The field super- visors and editors received additional training in supervisory tasks and editing techniques. Data collection took place from September to December 1997. For more information about the fieldwork, see Appendix A. A list of persons involved in the implementation of the survey is found in Appendix D. The survey questionnaires are reproduced in Appendix E. As in the 1991 and 1994 IDHS, the 1997 IDHS was conducted in all 27 provinces in Indonesia. The sample was designed to produce estimates at the national, urban-rural, regional, and provincial levels. Table 1.2 is a summary of the results of the fieldwork for the IDHS from both the household and individual interviews by urban-rural resi- dence. In general, the response rates for both the household and individual interviews in the 1997 IDHS are high. A total of 35,362 house- holds were selected for the survey, of which 34,656 were found. Of the encountered house- holds, 34,255 (99 percent) were successfully interviewed. In these households, 29,317 eligible women were identified, and complete interviews were obtained from 28,810 women, or 98 percent of all eligible women. The generally high response rates for both household and individual interviews were due mainly to the strict enforcement of the rule to Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews and response rates, according to urban-rural residence, Indonesia 1997 Residence Result Urban Rural Total Household interviews Households sampled 10,302 25,060 35,362 Households found 10,038 24,618 34,656 Households interviewed 9,897 24,358 34,255 Household response rate 98.6 98.9 98.8 Individual interviews Eligible women 8,253 21,064 29,317 Interviewed women 8,117 20,693 28,810 Eligible woman response rate 98.4 98.2 98.3 revisit the originally selected household if no one was at home initially. No substitution for the originally selected households was allowed. Interviewers were instructed to make at least three visits in an effort to contact the household or eligible woman. CHAPTER2 HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AND WOMEN'S SITUATION The main objective of this chapter is to describe the general characteristics of the sample population, which include age and sex composition, residence, education, housing facilities, and ownership of durable goods. This information is not only useful by itself but can also be used to evaluate the quality of the 1997 IDHS data and to investigate changes in social and economic conditions over time. Data in this chapter will be presented for households, persons within households, and women eligible for the individual interview. The other objective of this chapter is to describe the environment in which the respondents (ever-married women age 15-49) and their ehildran live. Factors believed to influence nuptiality, fertility, and contraceptive behavior, as well as maternal care and child morbidity and mortality, are discussed. 2.1 Household Population by Age and Sex The household questionnaire in the 1997 IDHS was used to list all household members, i.e., persons who usually live in the household. Information was obtained from an adult who was familiar with the characteristics of the other household members. In addition to providing a background against which various demographic processes are occurring, the age structure of the population incorporates the past history of the population. The reliability of the age data depends on the reporting of birth dates. For persons whose year of birth was not known, age was obtained directly from the stated age. As shown in Figure 2.1, there is a preference for certain ages, particularly those ending in 0 or 5. Errors are more obvious among the population age 20 and over, partly because younger people tend to have more education than older people and are more likely to know their date of birth. To obtain the most accurate age reporting for respondents, the 1997 IDHS interviewers were instructed to (I) ask for legal documents or identity cards, (2) relate the respondent's age to the age of another household member whose age was known or to a household event whose date had been ascertained, or (3) relate the respondent's age to local or national events well known in the area. A chart used to convert reported dates from the Javanese, Sundanese, and Muslim calendars to the Gregorian calendar was appended to the interviewers' manual. The Javanese and Sundanese calendars are actually the same as the Muslim calendar except for the names of the months. Table 2.1 and Figure 2.2 present the age distribution of the population by five-year age groups according to sex. Age composition is affected by past levels of fertility, mortality, and migration. The popu- lation pyramid has a narrow top and a wide base, reflecting a pattern typical of countries with relatively high fertility in the past. The narrowing at the base was brought about by a decline in fertility in the past decade. 2.2 Population by Age from Other Sources The percent distribution of the 1997 IDHS sample population by age group is presented in Table 2.2, along with comparable data from the 1980 Census, the 1985 Intercensal Population Survey (SUPAS), the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the 1991 IDHS, and the 1994 IDHS. The percentage of the population under 15 years has decreased over time from 41 percent in 1980 to 34 percent in 1997. During the same period, the percentage of the population age 15-64 increased from 56 percent in 1980 to 62 percent in 1997. The dependency ratio, calculated as the ratio of nonproductive persons (under age 15 and age 65 and over) to persons age 15-64, has been decreasing gradually from 79 percent in 1980 to 62 percent in 1997. The smaller dependency ratio indicates a lessening of the economic burden on persons in the productive age groups who support those in the nonproductive age groups. 2,000 Figure 2.1 Number of Persons Reported at Each Age by Sex Number of Persons 1,500 1,000 500 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 I--Male --Female I IDHS97 Table 2.1 Household noanlation bv a~e, residence and sex Percent distribution of the de jure household population by five-year age groups, according to urban- rural residence and sex, Indonesia 1997 Urban Rural Total Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total" 0-4 10.2 9.7 9.9 11.6 i0.8 11.2 11.2 10.4 10.8 5-9 9.4 8.7 9.1 12.2 11.4 11.8 11.4 10.6 11.0 10-14 10.6 10.3 10.5 12.4 11.9 12.2 11.9 11.5 11.7 15-19 11.4 i1.8 11.6 10.0 9.3 9.6 10.4 10.0 10.2 20-24 9.9 I0.3 10.1 6.7 8.1 7.4 7.6 8.7 8.2 25-29 9.3 9.3 9.3 7.6 8.3 7.9 8.1 8.6 8.3 30-34 7.9 8.4 8.1 6.9 7.4 7.2 7.2 7.7 7.5 35-39 7.0 7.2 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.3 7.2 40-~ 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.1 5.4 5.7 6.1 5.6 5.8 ~-49 4.9 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.8 50-54 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.6 4.1 3.9 3.7 4.1 3.9 55-59 3.3 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 2.9 3.0 ~-~ 2.2 2.6 2.4 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.8 65-69 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 70-~ 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 75-79 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 80+ 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.6 Total 100.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 Number 21,583 22,088 43,672 51,876 52,125 104,001 73,549 74,214 147,673 10 Age 80+ 75-76 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 5O-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 lO-14 5-9 0-4 7 6 5 4 3 Figure 2.2 Population Pyramid of Indonesia 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Percent IDHS97 Table 2.2 Ponulation by age from other sources Percent distribution of the population by age group, according to selected sources, Indonesia 1980-1997 1980 1985 1987 1991 1994 1997 Age group Census Supas NICPS IDHS IDHS IDHS Less than 15 40.9 39.4 36.9 36.2 35.0 33.5 15-64 55.9 57.2 59.3 59.9 60.4 61.8 65 + 3.2 3.4 3.8 3.9 4.6 4.7 Total I00.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median age 21.5 22.8 23.7 Dependency ratio 79 73 69 67 66 62 2.3 Household Composition Table 2.3 presents the percent distribution of households by various characteristics, such as sex of the head of the household, size of the household, and presence of foster children. The size and composition of the household may affect the allocation of financial resources among household members, which in turn would affect the overall well-being of the members. Household size may be associated with crowding in the dwelling, which can lead to unfavorable health conditions. Single-parent families, especially if they are headed by females, usually have limited financial resources. 11 Table 2.3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household, household size, and whether household includes foster children, according to urban-rural residence. Indonesia 1997 Characteristic Residence Urban Rural Total Household headship Male 86.5 88.3 87.8 Female 13.5 11.7 12.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 6.1 4.3 4.8 2 10.6 11.9 11.5 3 17.6 21.2 20.2 4 20.3 22.7 22.1 5 18.5 17.7 18.0 6 12.1 10.8 11.1 7 6.9 5.9 6.2 8 3.7 2.9 3.2 9+ 4.2 2.5 3.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size 4.5 4.3 4.3 Percent with foster children 4.7 6.1 5.7 Note: Table is based on de jure members, i.e., usual residents. The 1997 IDHS shows that 12 percent of households are headed by women. The proportion is slightly higher in urban than in rural areas (14 percent, compared with 12 percent). Seven in ten households have between two and five members. The average household size is 4.3 persons, 4.5 persons in urban areas, and 4.3 persons in rural areas. Six percent of households include one or more children under age 15 who are living with neither their natural father nor their natural mother. 2.4 Level of Educat ion of the Househo ld Populat ion Educational attainment is closely associated with other socioeconomic factors and demographic behavior such as income, lifestyle, reproductive behavior, use of contraception, health status of children, and housing conditions. Education also influences the individual's views, and can open the mind to new ideas and technology. Tables 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 indicate that among both men and women there are significant differ- enees in level of education, by background charac- teristics. Overall, men are slightly better educated than women: nine in ten men have had some school- ing compared with eight in ten women. In addition, while 34 percent of men have had some secondary education, the corresponding figure for women is 27 percent. The proportion of men and women who have only some primary schooling is almost the same, 34 percent each, and the proportion of men and women who completed only primary education is 21 percent and 20 percent, respectively. The gap in educational attainment is no longer visible among the youngest age cohort. Among boys and girls age 5-14, the median duration of schooling is very similar--1.0 and 1.2 years, respectively, for children age 5-9, and 5.3 and 5.5 years, respectively, for children age 10-14. These figures imply that in recent years, girls have had as much opportunity as boys to pursue education. Tables 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 also show that educational attainment is negatively associated with age; older persons are more likely to have no education and to stay in school for shorter periods. For example, the median duration of schooling among men age 50-54 years is 6.2 years, whereas for men age 20-24 the median is 9.2 years. The difference for women is even more striking; 2.1 years for age 50-54 years and 7.0 years for age 20-24. Urban residents are much more likely to attend school and stay in school than residents of rural areas. Only 5 percent of man in urban areas have never gone to school, while the proportion in rural areas is more than double (13 percent). For women, the corresponding figures are 11 percent in the urban areas and 23 percent in the rural areas. The urban-rural difference is more pronounced at the level of see- ondary or higher education. The median years of schooling for urban men is 8.0 years, compared with 5.9 years for rural men. Urban women spend 2.4 years longer in school than their rural counterparts (6.8 years and 4.4 years, respectively). 12 Table2.4.1 Educational level ofthehouseholdpopulationby baekgroundeharaeteristics: men Percent distribution of the de jure male household population age five and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Corn- Some Median Backgrouud No Some pleted seeon- years of characteristic education primary primary dary+ Total Number schooling Age 5-9 28.8 70.9 0.0 0.2 100.0 8,377 1.0 10-14 1.3 64.5 6.9 27.3 100.0 8,734 5.3 15-19 1.4 13.1 23.3 62.2 100.0 7,660 8.4 20-24 2.1 10.5 29.7 57.6 100.0 5,613 9.2 25-29 2.2 12.7 28.7 56.4 100.0 5,947 9.2 30-34 4.6 20.0 27.9 47.4 100.0 5,275 6.9 35-39 7.3 27.5 29.3 35.9 100.0 5,258 6.5 40-44 8.3 31.0 30.2 30.4 100.0 4,461 6.4 45-19 9.8 28.6 30.0 31.5 100.0 3,545 6.4 50-54 16.1 28.8 28.7 26.5 100.0 2,699 6.2 55-59 19.0 30.9 27.5 22.5 100.0 2,340 6.0 60-64 31.8 33.7 19.9 14.4 100.0 1,991 3.4 65+ 38.3 33.6 19.3 8.7 100.0 3,330 2.7 Residence Urban 5.2 23.1 16.6 55.2 I00.0 19,390 8.0 Rural 13.2 38.4 22.7 25.7 100.0 45,873 5.9 Region/Residence Java-Bali 11.4 32.8 23.2 32.6 100.0 39,755 6.3 Urban 5.4 22.6 18.6 53.5 100.0 13,617 7.5 Rural 14.5 38.1 25.6 21.8 100.0 26,157 5.7 Outer Java-Bali I 9.7 36.0 17.0 37.3 100.0 17,576 6.2 Urban 4.5 24.2 12.1 59.1 100.0 4,042 9.0 Rural 11.3 39.5 18.4 30.8 100.0 13,534 6.0 Outer Java-Bali II 10.3 34.6 17.9 37.0 100.0 7,912 6.3 Urban 4.8 24.4 11.2 59.5 100.0 1,731 9.0 Rural 11.8 37.5 19.8 30.7 100.0 6,181 6.1 Total I 10.8 33.9 20.9 34.4 100.0 65,262 6.3 Includes cases with missing values on age. Tables 2.4.3 and 2.4.4 present the differentials in educational attainment by region and province for men and women, respectively. The median duration of schooling for men is longer than that for women in all provinces except in North Sulawesi. In general, there are no significant differentials in median years of schooling of men by region (see Table 2.4.3). Table 2.4.4 shows that for women, the median duration of schooling is shortest in Java-Bali (5.4 years), while in Outer Java-Bali it is 5.8 years or longer. Level of education varies between provinces in Java-Bali. Men and women in DKI Jakarta have the longest duration of schooling (9.5 years and 7.9 years, respectively), while Central Java has the shortest median for men (6.1 years), and East Java has the shortest duration for women (4.6 years). 13 Table 2.4.2 Educational level of the household population by background characteristics: women Percent distribution of the de jure female household population age five and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Corn- Some Median Background No Some pleted secon- years of characteristic education primary primary dary+ Total Number schooling Age 5-9 26.9 72.9 0.0 0.1 100.0 7,861 1.2 10-14 1.3 61.1 7.5 30.2 100.0 8,495 5.5 15-19 1.6 11.9 27.2 59.3 100.0 7,445 8.5 20-24 2.9 I3.1 35.0 49.0 100.0 6,495 7.0 25-29 6.9 17.1 31.5 44.3 I00.0 6,381 6.8 30-34 11.7 29.4 27.6 31.3 100.0 5,724 6.3 35-39 17.5 35.5 26.4 20.7 100.0 5,421 5.6 40-44 19.4 34.6 23.5 22.5 100.0 4,150 5.4 45-49 27.6 32.9 23.0 16.4 100.0 3,505 4.2 50-54 44.6 27.1 16.5 11.8 I00.0 3,013 2.1 55-59 50.6 26.2 13.1 I0.1 100.0 2,169 0.0 60-64 61.6 23.4 9.1 5.8 100.0 2,171 0.0 65+ 74.4 15.0 7.4 3.1 100.0 3,630 0.0 Residence Urban 10.7 24.9 17.3 47.1 100.0 19,951 6.8 Rural 23.0 37.4 20.5 19.0 100.0 46,529 4.4 Region/Resldence Java-Bali 21.4 32.6 20.9 25. I i00.0 40,878 5.4 Urban 11.7 25.0 18.5 44.8 100.0 14,163 6.7 Rural 26.4 36.6 22.1 14.9 100.0 26,715 4.0 Outer Java-Bali I 15.9 35.4 17.2 31.7 100.0 17,941 5.9 Urban 8.I 24.4 I4.9 52.6 100.0 4,142 7.1 Rural 18.3 38.7 17.8 25.2 100.0 13,798 5.0 Outer Java-Bali II 16.4 35.6 17.9 29.8 100.0 7,660 5.8 Urban 8.0 25.6 12.8 53.6 I00.0 1,645 7.6 Rural 19.0 38.3 19.3 23.4 100.0 6,015 5.0 Total I 19.4 33.7 19.5 27.4 100.0 66,479 5.6 l Includes cases with missing values on age. In Outer Java-Bali I, for both men and women, West Nusa Tenggara shows the lowest median duration o f schooling (4.8 years for men and 3.7 years for women). The highest median duration of schooling for men is in North Sumatra (6.5 years) and in North Sulawesi for women (6.5 years). The provincial differentials in median duration of schooling in Outer Java-Bali I are not as large for men as for women (1.7 years versus 2.8 years). Among provinces in Outer Java-Bali II, the highest median duration of schooling is in East Kalimantan---6.9 years for men and 6.4 years for women. The median duration of schooling is relatively low in East T imor - -2 .9 years for men and 1.6 years for women. 14 Table 2.4.3 Educational level of the household population by region and province: men Percent distribution of the de jure male household population age five and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to region and province, Indonesia 1997 Com- Some Median Region and No Some pleted secen- years of province education primary primary dary+ Total Number schooling Java-Bali 11.4 32.8 23.2 32.6 I00.0 39,775 6.3 DK/Jakarta 4.1 18.7 13.0 64.2 100.0 2,669 9.5 West Java 11.3 33.9 25.1 29.6 100.0 13,369 6.2 Central Java 12.3 35.5 24.5 27.7 100.0 10,314 6.1 DI Yogyakarta 9.9 24.9 15.2 50.1 100.0 1,103 6.8 East Java 12.5 33.7 23.2 30.7 100.0 11,338 6.2 Bali 11.5 26.5 21.4 40.5 100.0 981 6.5 Outer ,lava-Bali I 9.7 36.0 17.0 37.3 100.0 17,576 6.2 Dista Aceh 10.3 32.9 20.0 36.7 100.0 1,312 6.3 North Sumatra 7.0 33.2 16.1 43.7 100.0 3,893 6.5 West Sumatra 5.9 36.7 15.1 42.4 100.0 1,333 6.4 South Sumatra 6.3 35.9 18.9 38.9 100.0 2,210 6.4 Lampung 8.0 41.1 20.3 30.6 100.0 2,282 6.1 West Nusa Tenggara 18.2 39.6 12.6 29.6 100.0 1,165 4.8 West Kalimantan 12.2 39.3 13.5 35.0 100.0 1,215 5.9 South Kalimantan 6.1 35.4 21.9 36.6 100.0 890 6.4 North Sulawesi 4.1 38.7 17.2 39.9 100.0 825 6.4 South Sulawesi 18.4 32.7 14.7 34.2 100.0 2,451 5.8 Outer Java-Bali lI 10.3 34.6 17.9 37.0 100.0 7,912 6.3 Rian 8.9 36.6 17.0 37.5 100.0 1,194 6.3 Jambi 8.2 33.1 24.3 34.4 100.0 920 6.4 Bengkulu 7.1 39.5 15.1 38.4 100.0 479 6.2 East Nusa Tenggara 14.1 38.2 19.5 28.2 100.0 1,246 5.7 East Timor 36.5 32.5 5.7 25.2 100.0 311 2.9 Central Kalimantan 7.9 34.2 24.5 33.4 100.0 592 6.3 East Kalimantan 6.7 30.1 12.4 50.7 100.0 818 6.9 Central Sulawesi 6.5 32.2 24.3 36.8 100.0 631 6.4 Southeast Sulawesi 9.9 34.9 14.4 41.0 100.0 451 6.3 Maluku 6.6 34.2 16.2 43.0 100.0 660 6.6 Irian Jaya 13.3 32.4 13.9 40.4 100.0 610 6.4 Total I0.8 33.9 20.9 34.4 100.0 65,262 6.3 2.5 Schoo l Enro l lment Table 2.5 shows the percentage o f the household population age 5 to 24 years enrolled in school, according to age, sex, and residence. The data confirm the findings presented in Tables 2.4.1 and 2.4.2; differences between boys and girls at the younger age groups are minimal (see Figure 2.3). While only two in f ive children age 5-6 are in school, almost all children age 7-12 are enrolled in school. This reflects the result o f the 6 years of compulsory education that was initiated in the first Long-Term Development Plan ( 1969- 70 to 1993 -94). The proportion decreases for the older age groups. Table 2.5 indicates that at all ages, school enrollment rates are higher in urban than in rural areas. School enrollment rates have generally increased in recent years. For example, the proportion of children age 7-15 enrolled in school has increased from 83 percent in 1994 to 87 percent in 1997 (CBS et al., 1995:19). 15 Table 2.4.4 Educational level of the household population bv re=ion and province: women Percent distribution of the de jure female household population age five and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to region and province, Indonesia 1997 Com- Some Median Region and No Some pleted secon- years of province education primary primary dary+ Total Number schooling Java-Bali 21.4 32.6 20.9 25.1 100.0 40,878 5.4 DKI Jakarta 7.0 20.8 18.I 54.0 100.0 2,773 7.9 West Java I9.1 36.I 23.3 21.5 100.0 13,171 5.4 Central Java 21,8 35.0 21,2 21,9 1130.0 10,514 4,8 DI Yogyakarta 24.3 23.3 13.7 38.7 100.0 1,180 6.2 East Java 26.0 30.8 19.4 23.7 I00.0 12.227 4.6 Bali 26.7 25.7 20.0 27.6 100.0 1,014 5.4 Outer Java-Bali I 15.9 35.4 17.2 31.7 100.0 17,941 5.9 Dista Aceh I6.2 32.8 20.1 31.0 100.0 1,348 6.1 North Sumatra 10,6 33.4 17,7 38.0 100,0 3,945 6,3 West Sumatra 9.5 36.9 14.1 39.5 100.0 1,443 6.2 South Sumatra 13.8 36.0 19.0 31.2 100.0 2,162 6.0 Lampung 15.8 41.2 I7.5 25.4 100.0 2,073 5.2 West Nusa Tenggara 29.6 35.3 12.5 22.6 I00.0 1,337 3.7 West Kalimantan 24.4 37.3 10.8 27.5 100.0 1.158 4.1 South Kalimantan 14.8 36.3 19.0 29.8 I00.0 945 6.0 North Sulawesi 4.5 36.8 17.1 41.6 100.0 81I 6.5 South Sulawesi 22.1 31.9 19.1 27.0 i00.0 2,718 5.2 Outer Java-Bali II I6.4 35.6 17.9 29.8 I00.0 7.660 5.8 Riau 16.5 35,9 15.7 32.0 100.0 1.136 5.7 ,lambi 16.8 33.7 21.5 28.0 100.0 904 6.1 Bengkulu 16.1 41.5 11.8 30.7 100.0 466 5.0 East Nusa Tenggara 20.4 35.4 23.1 21.1 100.0 1,223 5.2 East Timor 43.8 32.5 4.6 19.2 100.0 315 1.6 Central Kalimantan 13.1 39.8 23.3 23.8 100.0 568 5.7 East Kalimantan 10.4 33.6 14.5 41.6 100.0 764 6.4 Central Sulawesi 9.3 33.8 24.6 32.3 100.0 617 6.3 Southeast Sulawesi 16.6 34.5 15.3 33.8 100.0 482 5.9 Maluku 9.0 37.7 17.6 35.7 100.0 636 6.2 Irian Jaya 20.0 35.0 13.3 31.7 100.0 549 5.4 Total 19.4 33.7 19.5 27.4 100.0 66,479 5.6 Table 2.5 School enrollment Percentage of the de jure household population age 5-24 years enrolled in school, by age group, sex, and urban-rural residence, Indonesia I997 Age group Male Female Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total 5-6 45.6 32.8 35,8 45.3 39.2 40.7 45.4 35.9 38.2 7-12 96.7 92.7 93.7 96.9 93.0 93.8 96.8 92.8 93.7 13-15 87.4 70.0 74.9 85.0 68.2 73.3 86.2 69.I 74.1 %15 93.2 85.2 87,2 92.4 84.9 86.8 92.8 85.0 87.0 16-I8 63.8 36.2 45.3 63.0 30.8 42.0 63.4 33.6 43.6 19-24 27.1 8.9 15.8 22.7 7.1 12.7 24.8 7.9 14.1 16 Figure 2.3 Percentage of Population Age 5-15 Enrolled in School by Age Group and Sex 100 50 60 40 20 0 Percent of Population 5-6 7-12 13-15 Age Group IDMale BIIFemale mTotal] IDHS97 2.6 Housing Characteristics Table 2.6 presents the distribution of households by selected housing characteristics, such as the source of drinking water, type of sanitation facilities, type of flooring, and distance between the well and the cesspool. These are important determinants of the health status of household members, particularly children. They can also be used as indicators of household socioeconomic status. Proper hygiene and sanitation practices can help to prevent major childhood diseases, such as diarrhea. Overall, 80 percent of the households covered in the 1997 IDHS have electricity, a large increase from the 63 percent found in 1994 (CBS et al., 1995:21). There are significant urban-rural and regional differentials (see Figure 2.4). In urban areas, virtually all households have electricity, compared with 73 percent in rural areas. While 89 percent of households in Java-Bali have electricity, in Outer Java-Bali I the proportion is about 69 percent, and in Outer Java-Bali II it is only 55 percent. Wells are the main soume of drinking water for almost half of the households in the 1997 IDHS sample. Water that is either piped into the residence or into the yard or obtained from the public tap is used by 18 percent of households: 42 percent in urban areas and 8 percent in rural areas. Other sources of drinking water include springs, either protected or unprotected (15 percent), and pump (13 percent). Rural households are much more likely to use spring water than urban households (21 percent, compared with I percent, respectively). On the other hand, pumps are more common in urban areas (23 percent) than in rural areas (9 percent). Rivers, streams, and rainwater are the main sources for one-fitLla of households in Outer Java-Bali II, one-tenth of households in Outer Java-Bali I, and 3 percent of households in Java-Bali. 17 Table 2.6 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by housing characteristics, residence and region, Indonesia 1997 according to urban-rural Residence Region Characteristic Urban Rural Outer Outer Java Java- Java- Bali Bali I Bali II Total Electricity Yes 97.5 73.3 88.9 69.1 54.8 80,2 No 2.5 26.7 11.I 30.9 45.2 19,8 Total 100.0 100.0 I00.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source of drinking water Piped into residence 28.9 4.0 9.6 13.7 13.7 11.1 Piped into yard/plot 4.6 1.2 1.3 3.5 3.8 2.2 Public tap 8.3 3.2 4,6 4.9 4.4 4.7 Pump 23.1 8.7 17.5 4.8 3.8 12.8 Protected well 25.7 36.5 35.1 32.8 24.9 33.4 Unprotected well 6.7 16.8 11.8 18.5 15.9 14.0 Protected sprin~ 0.6 11.4 9.6 6.3 6.0 8.3 Unprotected spring 0.7 9.1 7.4 4.9 7.2 6.8 River/stream 0.4 6.6 2.5 6.7 14.7 4.9 Rainwater 0.9 2.3 0.5 3.8 5.4 1.9 Other 0.0 0.I 0.0 0.I 0.0 0.1 Total I00.0 100.0 I00.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to water source On premises 81.8 46.6 61.6 51.6 39.3 56.6 1-4 minutes 6.6 I0.9 9.6 10.1 9.3 9.7 5-9 minutes 5.9 16.2 11.1 16,4 18.4 13.3 10+ minutes 5.6 26.1 17.6 21.8 32.8 20.3 Don't know/mlssing 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median time to source 2.3 5.1 Sanitation facility PrWate w;,th septic 51.4 17.0 28.6 25.6 19.3 26.8 Private, no septic 19.1 24.2 19.5 26.3 33.1 22.7 Shared, public toilet 14.0 9.2 12.5 6.8 8.0 10.6 River, stream, creek 13.6 32.2 30.1 22.4 19.4 27.0 Pit 0.3 4.4 2.4 5.8 2.4 3.3 Bush/forest/yard 0.5 11.2 6.3 11.6 11.3 8.2 Other 1.1 1.5 0.5 1.5 6.2 1.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Distance from well to cesspool No well 44.5 38.0 35.6 43.9 55.5 39.8 Less than 10 meters 20.6 12.7 16.9 13.2 7.2 14.9 10-14 meters I5.1 12.8 13.9 14.0 9.7 13.4 15 meters and over 9.0 19.3 16.1 16.5 17.7 16.4 Don't know/missing 10,8 17.3 17.6 I2.4 9.8 15.4 Total 10.2 11.1 10.6 10.8 15.1 10.7 Median distance to cesspool 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Floor material Earth 5.0 28.6 25.8 13.3 19.2 21.9 Bamboo 0.5 3.2 2.7 1.5 3.2 2.4 Wood 7.2 18,0 4.0 33 .g 35.0 14.9 Concrete/brick 43.3 35.0 34.5 44.8 37.0 37.4 Tile 27.8 12.2 23.5 4.9 3.8 16.6 Ceramic/marble 16.1 2.7 9.3 1.6 1.4 6.5 Other 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 Total 100.0 I00.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Floor area < 10 square meters 28.5 27.5 20~6 38.2 44.8 27.7 10+square meters 70.7 72.0 78,5 61.6 54,7 7L6 Missing/Don't know 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.2 0.3 0.6 Total 14.4 14.5 16.5 12.1 10.6 14.5 Median area of floor 100.0 100.0 100.0 I00.0 I00.0 100.0 Number of households 9,787 24,468 21,864 8,671 3,719 34,255 18 Figure 2.4 Housing Characteristics by Residence Percent of Households 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 98 Electricity Piped Water Private Toilet I r~ Urban I l l Rural ~Total I Note: Piped water includes public tap Concrete/Tile Floor IDHS97 The data in Table 2.6 indicate that for more than half of households, the source of drinking water is on the premises, while for 23 percent the source is less than 10 minutes away, and for 20 percent of the households the source is 10 or more minutes away. Urban households generally are closer to the source of drinking water than rural households. While 82 percent of households in urban areas have water on the premises and 13 percent are within 10 minutes of the source, in rural areas the corresponding figures are 47 percent and 27 percent, respectively. Households in Java-Bali and in Outer Java-Bali I are generally closer to the source of drinking water than households in Outer Java-Bali II. While more than half of households in Java-Bali and in Outer Java-Bali I have water on the premises, in Outer Java-Bali II the corresponding proportion is less than 40 percent. Half of households have a private toilet, 11 percent use a shared facility, and the remaining 40 percent do not have a toilet. The majority of people who do not have a toilet facility go to a river, stream, or creek. The difference between urban and rural areas is significant. Overall, 71 percent of households in urban areas have a private toilet, compared with 41 percent in rural areas. Basically, the distribution of households by type of toilet facility among regions are almost the same, except for the proportion of households that go to a river, stream, or creek (almost one-third of households in Java-Bali and around one- fifth of households in Outer Java-Bali I and in Outer Java-Bali II). Table 2.6 presents the distribution of households by the distance from the well to the nearest cesspool. Overall, for 15 percent of the households, the nearest cesspool is less than 10 meters from their well, while for 13 percent the nearest cesspool is between I0 and 14 meters, and for 16 percent the nearest cesspool is 15 meters or further from the well. In general, wells are slightly closer to cesspools in urban areas than in rural areas, and in Java-Bali and Outer Java-Bali I than in Outer Java-Bali II. More than half of households in Indonesia live in dwellings with a concrete, brick, or tile floor, while 15 percent have a wood floor, and 22 percent have a dirt floor. There are substantial urban-rural differentials 19 by floor materials. Whereas 71 percent of urban households have a concrete, brick, or tile floor, the proportion in rural areas is 47 percent. Conversely, 29 percent of rural households have a dirt floor, compared with 5 percent in urban areas. There are also substantial regional variations. In Java-Bali, the majority of the households (58 percent) have concrete or tile floors, while in the Outer Java-Bali regions it is less than 50 percent. In the Outer Java-Bali regions, wood is commonly used as floor material (34-35 percent). Seven in ten households live in dwellings with 10 square meters or more of floor space. The difference between urban and rural households is not significant (71 percent and 72 percent, respectively). However, households in Java-Bali in general have more space than those in other regions do. Almost half of households in Outer Java-Bali II live in houses with less than 10 square meters of floor area. 2.7 Household Durable Goods The presence of durable goods in the house- hold, e.g., radio, television, motorcycle, and private ear, is an indicator of the household's socioeconomic status. Table 2.7 shows that 62 percent of house- holds have a radio, 48 percent have a television, 11 percent have a refrigerator, 48 percent have a bicycle or boat, and 21 percent have a motorcycle or motor- boat. Only 4 percent of households have a private car. About 20 percent of households have none of the durable goods listed in Table 2.7. Urban-rural differentials can be seen in the ownership of specific durable goods. In general, these goods are more available in urban households than in rural households. For example, three in four urban households have a television set, while in rural areas the proportion is only 37 percent. A refrigera- tor is available in 30 percent of urban households, but it is almost nonexistent in rural areas. Urban households are five times more likely to own a private car than rural households. Table 2.7 Household durable goods Percentage of households possessing various durable consumer goods, by urban-rural residence, Indonesia 1997 Residence Durable goods Urban Rural Total Radio 74.5 56.7 61.8 Television 74.5 37.3 47.9 Refrigerator 30.2 3.8 11.3 Bicycle/Boat 48.1 47.2 47.5 Motorcycle/Motorboat 30.8 16.5 20.6 Private car 10.1 2.0 4.3 None of the above 10.9 23.4 19.8 Number of households 9,787 24,468 34,255 2.8 Respondents' Background Characteristics Table 2.8.1 presents the distribution of ever-married women age 15-49 by selected background characteristics along with the actual and weighted number of eligible women interviewed. The weighting is necessary to compensate for differences in the selection probabilities and response rates, and to make the regional and urban-rural distribution of the sample correspond to that expected from official sources. All results presented in this report are weighted. The distribution of ever-married women by age group is similar to that for the 1987 NICPS, the 1990 Population Census, and the 1991 and 1994 IDHS. The majority of respondents are age 25-39 (56 percent), while less than 5 percent are age 15-19, and about 12 percent are age 45-49. Ninety-three percent of the women in the sample are currently married; the remaining 7 percent are either divorced or widowed. Seventy-two percent of respondents live in rural areas and 28 percent in urban areas. 20 Thirteen percent of the survey respon- dents have never attended school, 28 percent have some primary education but did not finish primary school, 31 percent stopped after completing primary school, and 28 percent have some secondary or higher education. A majority of the women surveyed are Muslim (90 percent), 8 percent are Protestant or Catho- lic, 2 percent are Hindu, and less than one percent are Buddhist. Table 2.8.2 presents the weighted and unweighted distribution of the respondents by region and province. The table shows that the majority of respondents (63 percent) live in Java-Bali, while 26 percent live in Outer Java- Bali I, and 11 percent live in Outer Java-Bali II. The provinces of East Java and West Java account for 20 percent of respondents each; 16 percent reside in Central Java. 2.9 Respondents ' Level of Educat ion by Background Character ist ics The distribution of respondents by education and selected background character- istics is presented in Table 2.9.1. Comparison across cohorts shows that urban and younger women are more likely to have higher educa- tion than their rural and older counterparts. For example, while 27 percent of women age 45-49 never went to school, the proportion among women 15-19 is less than 3 percent. On the other hand, three-quarters of women age 15-19 have completed primary school, compared to only 39 percent of women in the oldest age group. Only 5 percent of respon- dents in urban areas have not attended school; in rural areas the percentage is 16 percent. By contrast, half of urban women have attended secondary school, compared with 19 percent in rural areas. There is no significant variation in women's educational attainment across re- gions. Comparison of women's educational attainment by province, however, reveals more Table2.8.1 Distribution of respondents: background characteristics Percent distribution of ever-married women by selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Number of ever- married women Background Weighted Un- characteristic percent Weighted weighted Age 15-19 4.5 1,310 1,103 20-24 14.1 4,061 4,041 25-29 19.0 5,463 5,630 30-34 18.7 5,375 5,364 35-39 18.0 5,198 5,269 40-44 13.9 4,003 3,945 45-49 i1.8 3,399 3,458 Marital status Married 93.3 26,886 26,833 Divorced 3.4 974 955 Widowed 3.3 951 1,022 Residence Urban 27.9 8,033 8,117 Rural 72.1 20,777 20,693 Region/Residence Java-Bali 62.6 18,039 8,735 Urban 19.9 5,722 3,875 Rural 42.9 12,317 4,860 Outer Java-Bali I 26.3 7,550 10,854 Urban 5.6 1,625 2,409 Rural 20.7 5,925 8,445 Outer Java-Bali II 11.1 3,221 9,221 Urban 2.4 686 1,833 Rural 8.8 2,534 7,388 Education No education 13.2 3,807 3,866 Some primary 27.7 7,955 7,421 Completed primary 31.1 8,958 7,864 Some secondary+ 28.0 8,090 9.659 Religion Muslim 89.6 25,801 22,749 Protestant/Christian 5.2 1,489 2,543 Catholic 2.7 790 1,898 Hindu 1.7 503 1,297 Buddhist 0.7 189 261 Other 0.1 37 61 Total 100.0 28,810 28,810 pronounced variations (see Table 2.9.2). The proportion of women who have never gone to school varies from less than 5 percent in North Sulawesi, West Sumatra, DKI Jakarta, Central Sulawesi, and Maluku, to more than 20 percent in Bali, West Kalimantan, West Nusa Tenggara, Irian Jaya, and East Timor. In the latter province, 54 percent of women have had no formal education. 21 Table 2.8.2 Distribution of respondents: region and province Percent distribution of ever-married women by region and province, Indonesia 1997 Number of ever- married women Region and Weighted Un- province percent Weighted weighted Java-Bali 62.6 18,039 8,735 DKI Jakarta 4.0 1,152 1,784 West Java 19.7 5,691 1,590 Central Java 16.1 4,634 1,482 DI Yogyakarta 1.5 439 1,063 East Java 19.8 5,681 1,530 Bali 1.5 442 1,286 Outer Java-Bali I 26.3 7,550 10,854 Dista Aceh 2.0 570 1,147 North Sumatra 5.9 1,687 1,407 West Sumatra 1.9 543 905 South Sumatra 3.3 942 1,I02 Lampung 3.2 913 1,003 West Nusa Tenggara 2. I 595 1,105 West Kalimantan 1.7 479 1,001 South Kalimantan 1.5 433 1,056 North Sulawesi 1.2 340 860 South Sulawesi 3.7 1,049 1,268 Outer Java-Ball lI 11.1 3,22i 9,221 Riau 1.7 477 1,004 Jambi 1.4 416 866 Bengkulu 0.7 192 763 East Nusa Tenggara 1.7 489 833 East Timor 0.4 120 920 Central Kalimantan 0.8 238 765 East Kalimantan 1.2 363 856 Central Sulawesi 0.9 270 880 Southeast Sulawesi 0.6 178 731 Maluku 0.8 235 809 Irian Jaya 0.8 242 794 Total 100.0 28,810 28,810 2.10 Access to Mass Media The availability of mass media (news- paper, television and radio) is presented in Table 2.10.1. One in four respondents read the newspaper weekly, more than three in four watch television weekly, and one in two listen to the radio every day. While one in six have access to all three mass media, the same pro- portion are exposed to none of these mass media. Younger women, women in urban areas, and better educated women are more likely to have access to mass media than other women are. For example, 92 percent of urban women watch television, while the proportion in rural areas is 73 percent; 26 percent of urban women are exposed to all three media, while in rural areas only 11 percent are. There is a positive association between level of education and exposure to mass media: as education increases, access to mass media increases. The same pattern was found in the 1991 IDHS and the 1994 IDHS (CBS et al., 1992 and CBS et al., 1995). Table 2.10.2 shows the percentage of women who have access to mass media ac- cording to region and province. While women in Java-Bali are more exposed to television than women in Outer Java-Bali, women in Outer Java-Bali II are more exposed to news- paper than women in other regions, and women in Outer Java-Bali I are more exposed to radio broadcast than women in other re- gions. Women in DKI Jakarta are the most likely to watch television (97 percent), fol- lowed by East Kalimantan (94 percent), and DI Yogyakarta (90 percent). At the other extreme, women in East Nusa Tenggara are least likely to watch television (24 percent). 2.11 Employment In the 1997 IDHS, respondents were asked if they worked aside from doing their housework, regardless of whether they were paid or not. Table 2.11.1 shows that one in two women were engaged in an economic activity in the last 12 months. Older women, women in rural areas, and women who have no education are more likely to have been employed. For example, the proportion of women 35 years or older who worked is around 60 percent, while for women under 25 the proportion is under 3 5 percent. The smaller proportion of young women who work may be related to the problem of securing child care, while urban and better educated women are generally younger and thus less likely to work. 22 Table2.9.1 Level of education: backgrotmd characteristics Percent distribution of ever-married women by the highest level of education attended, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Highest level of education Number Background No Some Completed Some of characteristic education primary primary secondary+ Total women Age 15-19 2.7 19.3 52.6 25.4 100.0 1,310 20-24 3.3 16.7 43.8 36.1 100.0 4,061 25-29 6.8 18.4 34.8 40.0 100.0 5.463 30-34 12.0 30.5 28.2 29.4 100.0 5,375 35-39 17.7 35.7 26,2 20.4 100,0 5,198 40-44 19.5 35.0 23.3 22.3 100.0 4,003 45-49 27.3 33.5 23.0 16.2 100.0 3.399 Residence Urban 5.0 17.9 26.6 50.5 100.0 8,033 Rural 16.4 31.4 32.8 19.4 100.0 20,777 Region/Residence Java-Bali 13.8 27.9 33.7 24.6 100.0 18,039 Urban 5.4 18.7 28.9 47.0 100.0 5,722 Rural 17.7 32.2 35.9 14.2 100.0 12,317 Outer Java-Bali I 11.8 28.2 26.0 34.0 100.0 7,550 Urban 4.2 15.2 21.8 58.7 100.0 1,625 Rural 13.9 31.7 27.2 27.2 100.0 5,925 Outer Java-Bali II 13.5 24.9 28.4 33.2 100.0 3,221 Urban 3.8 16.9 19.1 60.3 100.0 686 Rural 16.2 27.0 30.9 25.9 100.0 2.534 Total 13.2 27.7 31.1 28.0 100.0 28,810 Table 2.11.2 shows that more than 70 percent of women in DI Yogyakarta, Bali, and Bengkulu worked in the 12 months preceding the survey. In contrast, low proportions (less than 40 percent) of working women are found in West Java, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, East Timor, and Maluku. 2.12 Occupation Table 2.12.1 presents the percent distribution of women who worked in the 12 months prior to the survey by occupation, according to selected background characteristics. Forty-four percent of the women worked in agriculture, among whom seven in ten worked on their own land. The table also shows that for women who work outside the agricultural sector, sales is a popular choice of employment (25 percent), followed by manufacturing industries (17 percent), services (6 percent), and professional and technical occupations (5 percent). Women's occupations vary by age. The proportion of women who worked in agriculture is highest for those in the youngest and oldest age groups. The proportion declines from 53 percent of working women age 15-19 to 41 percent of women age 30-39, and it increases to 55 percent for women age 45-49. On the other hand, the proportion of women working as professional and technical workers, has an opposite pattern: low at younger ages, peaking at age 30-34, and then declining for older women. Manufacturing industries attract younger women. 23 Table 2.9.2 Level of education: t:e~ion and nroviuce Percem distribution of ever-married women by the highest level of education attended, according to region and province, Indonesia 1997 Highest level of education attended Number Region and No Some Completed Some of province education primary primary secondary+ Total women Java-Bali I3.8 27.9 33.7 24.6 100.0 18,039 DKI Jakarta 3.8 13.9 28.0 54.3 100.0 1,I52 West lava 12.2 29.9 37.6 20.3 100.0 5,691 Central Java 14.8 28.5 33.9 22.8 I00.0 4,634 DI Yogyakarta 10.2 20.7 23.9 45.3 100.0 439 East Java 16.3 29.4 31.9 22.4 100.0 5,681 Bali 21.0 21.5 29.1 28.4 100.0 442 Outer Java-Bali I 11.8 28.2 26.0 34.2 100.0 7,550 Dista Aceh 13.7 22.2 29.4 34.7 100.0 570 North Sumatra 6.2 24.6 28.4 40.9 100.0 1,687 West Sumatra 3.2 29.7 21.5 45.8 I00.0 543 South Sumatra 9.6 27.6 30.0 32.8 100.0 942 Lampung 7.9 39.0 27.9 25.2 100.0 913 West Nusa Tenggara 33.4 26.9 18.2 21.6 100.0 595 West Kalimantan 24.8 32.0 15.7 27.5 i00.0 479 South Kalimantan 8.5 30.9 27.2 33.4 100.0 433 North Sulawesi 1.4 26.9 20.4 51.4 100.0 340 South Sulawesi 16.2 25.2 27.5 31.1 100.0 1,049 Outer Java-Bali I I 13.5 24.9 28.4 33.2 1O0.0 3,221 Riau 13.9 30.7 23.4 32.0 100.0 477 Jambi 17.9 20.1 35.3 26.7 100.0 416 Bengkulu I0.1 36.1 19.9 33.9 I00.0 192 East Nusa Tenggara 15.6 23.4 37.8 23.3 100.0 489 East Timor 53.9 16.7 8.7 20.7 100.0 120 Central Kalimantan 7.7 27.3 34. I 30.9 100.0 238 East Kalimantan 6.4 27.2 21.5 44.9 100.0 363 Central Sulawesi 3.9 21.4 37.6 37.1 100.0 270 Southeast Sulawesi 9.5 23.6 25.5 41.6 100.0 178 Maluku 4.4 22.7 27.8 45.1 I00.0 235 Irian Jaya 22.4 21.4 20.0 36.4 100.0 242 Total 13.2 27.7 31.1 2g.0 100.0 28,810 Table 2.12.1 shows that women's occupations vary significantly by urban-rural residence and education. While 57 percent of working women in rural areas are engaged in the agricultural sector, the corresponding proportion in urban areas is 5 percent. In contrast, urban women are more likely to work in sales (43 percent), manufacturing industries (18 percent), services (15 percent), and professional and technical jobs (9 percent). The urban-rural differentials in all regions are similar to those at the national level. Women's education is inversely related to their propensity to work in agriculture, employed women with no education are much more likely to be working in agriculture than better educated women. For example, 65 percent of working women with no education worked in agriculture, compared with only 16 percent o f women who have attended secondary school. In contrast, women who are better educated are more likely to be employed in sales, industrial, professional and technical, and clerical occupations. 24 Table 2.10.1 Access to mass media: backaround characteristics Percentage of women who usually read a newspaper once a week, watch television once a week, or listen to the radio daily, by selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Mass media No Read Watch Listen to All Number Background mass newspaper television radio three of characteristic media weekly weekly daily media women Age 15-19 12.6 24.7 77.4 57.1 17.3 1,310 20-24 12.0 26.9 79.8 55.1 17.3 4,061 25-29 12.8 31.2 79.9 52.4 18.5 5.463 30-34 13.4 26.7 80.2 48.8 16.4 5.375 35-39 15.3 22.3 78.2 46.5 14.2 5,198 40-44 16.5 22.3 75.5 47,5 14.0 4,003 45-49 20.9 17.6 71.5 42.7 10.3 3,399 Residence Urban 5.0 45.4 91.9 50.1 26.4 8,033 Rural 18.4 17.2 72.5 49.2 11.4 20,777 Region/Residence Java-Bali 12.4 25.1 81.1 49.6 15.6 18,039 Urban 5.i 44.4 91.6 50.0 25.6 5,722 Rural 15.7 16.2 76.3 49.5 11.0 12,317 Outer Java-Bali I 16.8 23.2 74.7 50.1 14.5 7,550 Urban 5.2 45.3 93.0 49.9 26.8 1,625 Rural 19.9 17.0 69.8 50.1 I1.2 5,925 Outer Java-Bali II 22.8 29. i 67.3 46.9 17.6 3,221 Urban 4.2 54.2 92.7 51.8 32.1 686 Rural 27.8 22.3 60.4 45.6 13.6 2,534 Education No education 33.6 0.3 57.5 33.9 0.3 3,807 Some primary 19.6 8.7 71.7 44,3 5.6 7,955 Primary completed 12.2 21.0 79.6 53.6 13.7 8,958 Some secondary + 3.6 57.2 91.8 57.3 34.5 8,090 Total 14.7 25.0 77.9 49.4 15.5 28,810 Table 2.12.2 shows differences among provinces in respondents' patterns of work. In DKI Jakarta, virtually all women who work are employed in the nonagricultural sector. In this province, two in five working women work in sales, 23 percent in services, 16 percent in industry, and 13 percent in clerical jobs. Relatively large proportions of women work in industrial occupations in most provinces in Java-Bali, while professional and technical professions are more popular in North Sulawesi than in other provinces. Three- quarters or more of working women in West Kalimantan, Jambi, and East Nusa Tenggara work in agriculture. 2.13 Decisions on Use of Earnings When assessing the status of women, one valuable indicator is their independence in making decisions on the use of their earnings. Table 2.13.1 shows that more than half (51 percent) of employed women make their own decisions on the use of their earnings, while 44 percent decide together with their husband, and 5 percent are not involved in making the decisions. Independent decision making on use of earnings tends to be higher among older women, women in urban areas, those living in the Java-Bali region, and among formerly married women. 25 Table 2.10.2 Access to mass media: region and province Percentage of women who usually read a newspaper once a week, watch television once a week, or listen to the radio daily, by region and province, Indonesia 1997 Mass media No Read Watch Listen to All Number Region and mass newspaper television radio three of province media weekly weekly daily media women Java-Bali 12.4 25.i 81.1 49.6 15.6 18,039 DIG Jakarta 1.5 55.0 96.9 40.6 26.7 1,152 West Java 11.4 28.2 81.9 51.7 18.0 5,691 Central Java 15.3 19.2 76.5 50.8 12.7 4,634 DI Yogyakarta 5.7 41.9 89.5 62.8 30.5 439 East Java 14.1 19.7 79.6 45.8 11.8 5,681 Bali 7.4 20.8 88.6 71.4 18.9 442 Outer Java-Bali I I6.8 23.2 74.7 50.1 14.5 7,550 Dista Aceh 31.8 16.9 59.7 43.9 12.1 570 North Sumatra 24.9 20.0 69.4 37.4 i0.4 1,687 West Sumatra 12.3 29.0 78.4 39.6 12.6 543 South Sumatra 6.9 28.6 88.1 53.7 17.2 942 Lampung 12.3 18.2 72.9 70.0 14.0 913 West Nusa Tenggara I3.1 15.8 76.6 59.0 11.3 595 West Kalimantan 10.3 24.1 85.3 37.0 I2.2 479 South Kalimantan 9.4 27.2 86.9 49.4 19.4 433 North Sulawesi 6.7 45.3 87.2 60.2 31.8 340 South Sulawesi 21.7 23.1 64.6 56.1 17.4 1,049 Outer Java-Bali II 22.8 29.1 67.3 46.9 17.6 3,22I Riau 11.5 30.6 82.7 45.7 16.9 477 Jambi 10.0 24.5 73.I 70.i 19.3 416 Bengkulu 9.0 25.1 85.6 54.7 17.1 192 East Nusa Tenggara 57.9 24.6 24.1 28.9 11.1 489 East Timor 55.3 20.3 30.0 31.1 9.6 120 Central Kalimantan 10.1 30.3 81.4 63.3 23.8 238 East Kalimantan 3.0 50.3 93.5 46.5 26.8 363 Central Sulawesi 18.0 23.3 77.1 39.7 13.6 270 Southeast Sulawesi 17.1 21,4 73,5 52.8 14.9 178 Maluku 27.0 30.0 63.8 37.5 16.9 235 Irian Jaya 37.3 28.6 54.2 45.4 20.5 242 Total 14.7 25.0 77.9 49.4 15.5 28,810 Table 2.13.2 shows that the percent distribution of employed women, according to who decides on use of their earnings, varies significantly by province. The percentage of women who make their own decisions on the use of their earnings varies from 15 percent in Bali to 72 percent in South Sulawesi. For women who make the decision together with their husbands, the percentage varies from a low of 23 percent (Southeast Sulawesi) to a high of 81 percent (Bali). One in five women in West Kalimantan and Irian Jaya and one in eight women in West Sumatra report that their husbands alone decide on how to spend their earnings; in the remaining provinces the percentages are below 10 percent. 26 Table2,11.1 Employment: background characteristics Percent distribution of women by employment status in the last 12 months, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Did not work Worked in last in Number Background 12 last 12 of characteristic months months Total women Age 15-19 72.1 27.9 100.0 1,3 I0 20-24 66.2 33.8 100.0 4,061 25-29 57.3 42.7 100.0 5,463 30-34 49.4 50.6 100.0 5,375 35-39 42.1 57.9 !00.0 5.198 40-44 39.2 60.8 100.0 4,003 45-49 38.5 61.5 100.0 3,399 Residence Urban 55.9 44.1 100.0 8,033 Rural 48.1 51.9 100.0 20,777 Region/Residence Java-Bali 52.5 47.5 100.0 18,039 Urban 54.3 45.7 100.0 5,722 Rural 51.6 48.4 100.0 12,317 Outer Java-Bali I 46.3 53.7 100.0 7,550 Urban 60.1 39.9 100.0 1,625 Rural 42.6 57.4 100.0 5,925 Outer Java-Bali II 47.1 52.9 100.0 3,221 Urban 58.8 41.2 100.0 686 Rural 43.9 56.1 100.0 2,534 Education No education 39.8 60.2 100.0 3,807 Some primary 45.1 54.9 100.0 7,955 Completed primary 55.8 44.2 100.0 8,958 Some secondary+ 54.2 45.8 100.0 8,090 Total 50.3 49.7 100.0 28,810 2.14 Child Care While Working The welfare of children under five years of age whose mothers are employed is the focus of Table 2.14.1. Overall, one in three women who worked in the 12 months prior to the survey have one or more children under age five. This proportion varies by residence, education, and occupation. Better educated women, and women who work occasionally are more likely to have children under five. As a reflection o f regional fertility differentials, women in Java-Bali are less likely to have children under age f ive than women on the other islands, 27 Table 2.11.2 Employment: re~ion and orovince Percent distribution of women by employment status in the last 12 months, according to region and province, Indonesia 1997 Did not work Worked in last in Number Region and 12 last 12 of province months months Total women Java-Bali 52.5 47.5 100.0 18,039 DKI Jakarta 55.2 44.8 100.0 I, 152 West Java 69.8 30.2 i00.0 5,691 Central Java 50.9 49.1 100.0 4,634 DI Yogyakarta 26.5 73.5 100.0 439 East Java 39.9 60.1 100.0 5,681 Bali 27.6 72.4 100.0 442 Outer Java-Bali I 46.3 53.7 I00.0 7,550 Dista Aceh 52.4 47.6 100.0 570 North Sumatra 39.1 60.9 100.0 1,687 West Sumatra 42.3 57.7 10O.0 543 South Sumatra 39.9 60.1 100.0 942 Lampung 54.8 45.2 100.0 913 West Nusa Tenggara 36.0 64.0 100.0 595 West Kalimantan 34.8 65.2 100.0 479 South Kalimantan 41.9 58.1 100.0 433 North Sulawesi 63,0 37,0 100.0 340 South Sulawesi 62.6 37.4 I00.0 1,049 Outer Java-Bali II 47.1 52.9 100.0 3,221 giau 47,9 52.1 100.0 477 Jambi 42.5 57.5 100.0 416 Bengkulu 28.7 71.3 100.0 I92 East Nusa Tanggara 32.5 67.5 100.0 489 East Timor 67.7 3Z.3 100.0 120 Central Kalimantan 40.3 59.7 100.0 238 East Kalimantan 58.4 41.6 100.0 363 Central Sulawesi 53.6 46.4 I00.0 270 Southeast Sulawesi 50.5 49.5 1O0.0 178 Maluku 64.2 35.8 100.0 235 Irian Jaya 51.0 49.0 i00.0 242 Total 50.3 49.7 100.0 28.810 Among working women with young children, 41 percent take care of their children while they work. Relatives and older female siblings are the most common caretakers for children of working women (37 percent and 10 percent, respectively). The role o f female siblings in child care is significant in families where the mother has limited education, works in agriculture, or works as a seasonal worker. Children whose mothers have attended secondary school, live in urban areas, are professionals, or work in clerical occupations, are more likely to be cared for by servants or hired help. Across all subgroups, husbands and male siblings have a very limited role in child minding while the mother is at work (3 and 2 percent, respectively). 28 Table2.12.1 Occupation: baekgroundoharacteristies Percent distribution of women employed in the 12 months before the survey by occupation and type of agricultural land worked or type of non-agricultural employment, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Agricultural Non-agricultural Some- one Number Background Own Rented else's Prof./ Mgmt./ Cleri- Serv- Indus- of characteristic land land ]and teeb. admin, cel Sales ices trial Total women Age 15-19 33.7 1.7 17.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 16.7 3.9 26.3 100.0 366 20-24 28.5 1.8 11.8 1.6 0.0 2.2 22.0 6.3 25.6 100.0 1,375 25-29 27.9 2.2 11.5 5.4 0.6 4.7 23.9 5.8 18.0 100.0 2,334 30-34 27.1 1.3 12.4 7.4 0.3 4.2 23.6 5.9 17.6 100.0 2,722 35-39 28.5 0.8 11.7 6.4 0.2 2.8 27.9 6.0 15.7 100.0 3,012 40-44 30.3 1.3 14.3 4.7 0.3 2.6 26.3 6.9 13.3 100.0 2,433 45-49 37.3 2.3 14.9 3.9 0.2 0.8 23.9 5.5 11.1 100.0 2,087 Residence Urban 1.8 0.0 2.9 9.4 0.8 8.9 43.2 15.1 17.8 100.0 3,547 Rural 39.0 2.1 16.1 3.8 0.1 1.0 18.7 3.0 16.2 I00.0 10,781 Region/Residence Java-Bali 21.0 1.1 14.0 4.2 0,3 2.8 27.0 7.4 22.0 100.0 8,573 Urban 1.7 0.0 3.2 8.2 0.9 7.5 41.8 16.0 20.7 100.0 2,614 Rural 29.4 1.6 18.8 2.5 0.1 0.7 20.6 3.7 22.6 100.0 5,959 Outer Java-Bali I 38.5 2.9 12.6 6.6 0.2 2.8 22.5 4.3 9.5 100.0 4,052 Urban 1.0 0.0 1.9 12.6 0.8 11.9 48.8 12.9 10.5 100.0 650 Rural 45.6 3.5 14.7 5.5 0.1 1.1 17.6 2.6 9.3 100.0 3,402 Outer Java-Bali II 53.7 0.4 7.5 6.4 0.3 4.0 18.4 3.2 6.1 100.0 1,703 Urban 4.3 0.0 3.0 14.0 0.8 15.1 43.0 12.6 7.2 I00.0 283 Rural 63.5 0.5 8.4 4.9 0.3 1.8 13.5 1.3 5.9 100.0 1,420 Education No education 40.5 1.5 23.3 0.1 0.0 0.2 15.9 4.5 14.0 100,0 2,293 Some primary 35.7 2.0 17.5 0,1 0.0 0.0 23.2 5.5 16,0 100.0 4,369 Primary completed 33.7 1.8 11.2 0.2 0,0 0,4 26,9 5.8 19.9 100.0 3,951 Some secondary+ 12.2 0.7 2.8 19.6 1.2 10.7 29.7 7.8 15.3 100.0 3,714 Total 29.9 1.6 12.9 5.2 0.3 2.9 24.7 6.0 16.6 100.0 14,328 The proportion of working mothers with children under five varies between a low of less than 30 percent in DKI Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta, East Java, and North Sulawesi, to 58 percent in East Timor (see Table 2.14.2). With some exceptions, mothers, relatives and female siblings are the most important care givers while the mother is working. Servants or hired help are popular in DKI Jakarta, where they care for almost one in five children under age five. 29 Table2.12.20ceuoation: reaionandorovince Percem distribution of women employed in the 12 months before the survey by occupation and type of agricultural land worked or type of non-agricultural employment, according to region and province, Indonesia 1997 Agricultural Non-agricultural Some- one Number Regionand Own Rented else's Prof./ Mgmt./ Cleri- Serv- Indus- of province land land land tech. admin, cal Sales ices trial Total women Java-Bali 21.0 1.1 14.0 4.2 0.3 2.8 27.0 7.4 22.0 100.0 8,573 DKI Jakarta 0.1 0.0 0.0 6.8 0.7 12.5 41.3 22.8 15.7 100.0 515 West Java 15.7 0.7 14.3 6.3 0.I 3.6 29.9 6.7 22.6 100.0 1,726 Central Java 30.6 3.0 13.1 3.6 0.3 1.I 26.8 5.5 16.0 I00.0 2,273 DI Yogyakarta 23.1 0.7 5.8 7.3 0.3 3.6 27.6 6.2 25.1 100.0 322 East Java 19.8 0.4 17.4 2.8 0.4 1.8 23.5 7.0 26.9 100.0 3,416 Bali 26.2 0.1 14.3 5.1 0.6 4.1 27.5 5.7 16.3 100.0 320 Outer Java-Ban I 38.5 2.9 12.6 6.6 0.2 2.8 22.5 4.3 9.5 100.0 4,052 Dista Aceh 50.3 2.4 12.7 10.5 0.0 1.9 12.1 2.2 7.9 I00.0 271 North Sumatra 33.7 6.8 8.8 6.7 0.3 3.7 19.9 6.0 14.1 100.0 1,025 West Sumatra 29.2 3.6 18.0 11.1 0.4 2.9 21.2 2.7 11.0 100.0 314 South Sumatra 43.7 2.0 13.7 6.3 0.3 3.6 20.5 4.3 5.5 100.0 563 Lampung 42.7 0.1 11.8 5.5 0.2 1.3 25.7 4.3 8.6 I00.0 413 West Nusa Tenggara 26.4 1.5 21.4 2.1 0.2 1.6 33.8 2.3 10.6 100.0 381 West Kalimantan 59.0 2.3 16.2 3.8 0.0 2.3 9.9 3.4 3.1 100.0 312 South Kalimantan 36.3 1.7 10.1 6.2 0.3 3.2 30.2 4.1 7.7 100.0 252 North Sulawesi 21.9 0.0 5.8 18.6 0.2 2.9 30.5 7.4 12.3 I00.0 126 South Sulawesi 39.5 0.4 9.2 6,0 0.2 3.2 29.3 4.2 8.0 100.0 391 Outer Java-Bali II 53.7 0.4 7.5 6.4 0.3 4.0 18.4 3.2 6.1 I00.0 1,703 Riau 33.6 0.5 18.7 4,3 0.3 3.7 27.0 4.8 6.9 100.0 248 Jambi 68.8 0.8 6.6 4.6 0.2 3.0 10.8 2.3 2.9 100.0 239 Bengkulu 56.0 0.9 11.6 5,7 0.0 2.6 17.6 3.3 2.5 100.0 137 East Nusa Tenggara 69.4 0.0 5.4 4.1 0.1 1.7 9.4 0.5 9.4 100.0 330 East Timor 65.4 0.0 0.5 7.9 0.0 7.2 8.3 1.0 9.6 100.0 39 Central Kalimantan 53.2 0.8 6.4 7,0 0.0 1.8 23.7 1.2 5.8 100.0 142 East Kalimantan 25.4 0.0 4.8 12.8 1.0 5.9 32.8 9.5 7.9 100.0 151 Central Sulawesi 49.5 0.9 5.2 10,5 0.5 4.9 22.2 3.7 2.7 100.0 I25 Southeast Sulawesi 45.1 0.0 7.0 7,3 0.5 3.9 25.0 2.4 8.8 100.0 88 Maluku 44.2 0.0 0.0 12.0 1.1 11.0 18.0 2.7 I0.8 100.0 84 Irian Jaya 68.4 0.6 1.8 3,2 0.6 8.5 12.0 4.1 1.0 100.0 119 Total 29.9 1.6 12.9 5.2 0.3 2.9 24.7 6.0 16.6 100.0 I4,328 30 Table 2.13.1 Earnings: background characteristics Percent distribution of the women employed in the last 12 months by person who decides how earnings are used, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Person who decides how earnings are used Jointly Joinly Background with Someone with characteristic Respondent Husband husband else someone Total Number Age 15-19 44.5 6.5 44.5 4.3 0.3 100.0 366 20-24 47.8 5.9 45.1 0.1 1.0 100.0 1,375 25-29 48.4 5.5 45.6 0.3 0.2 100.0 2,334 30-34 48.0 4.7 46.6 0.4 0.4 100.0 2,722 35-39 51.5 4.1 43.9 0.2 0.4 100.0 3,012 40-44 51.4 5.1 43.0 0.1 0.4 100.0 2,433 45-49 57.3 4.6 37.5 0.0 0.5 100.0 2,087 Residence Urban 56.1 3.0 40.3 0.2 0.4 100.0 3,547 Rural 48.8 5.6 44.8 0.3 0.5 100 .0 10,781 Region/Residence Java-Bali 54.7 3.6 40.7 0.4 0.6 100.0 8,573 Urban 58.4 2.7 38.3 0.3 0.4 100.0 2,614 Rural 53.2 4.1 41.8 0.4 0.6 100.0 5,959 Outer Java-Bali I 44.8 7.6 47.3 0.1 0.2 100 .0 4,052 Urban 49.4 4.3 46.2 0.0 0.1 100.0 650 Rural 44.0 8.2 47.6 0.1 0.2 100.0 3.402 Outer Java-Bali II 43.8 5.0 50.4 0.3 0.5 100.0 1,703 Urban 50.8 2.3 46.2 0.4 0.3 100.0 283 Rural 42.4 5.6 51.2 0.3 0.5 100.0 1,420 Education No education 49.9 6.3 43.1 0.0 0.6 100.0 2,293 Some primary 53.2 4.8 41.5 0.2 0.4 100.0 4,369 Primary completed 50.0 5.7 43.4 0.5 0.5 100.0 3,951 Some secondary+ 48.8 3.4 47.2 0.4 0.3 100.0 3,714 Current marital status Not married 95.5 0.0 0.6 0.6 3.2 100.0 1,411 Currently married 45.7 5.4 48.4 0.3 0.1 100 .0 12,919 Total 50.6 4.9 43.7 0.3 0.4 100.0 14,328 31 Table 2.13.2 Earnings: region and province Percent distribution of the women employed in the last 12 months by person who decides how earnings are used, according to region and province, Indonesia 1997 Person who decides how earnings are used Jointly Joinly Region and with Someone with province Respondent Husband husband else someone Total Number Java-Bali 54.7 3.6 40.7 0.4 0.6 1(30.0 8,573 DKI Jakarta 63.6 2.2 33.7 0.2 0.3 100.0 515 West Java 61.5 4.2 33.7 0.2 0.5 I(30.0 1,726 Central Java 63.7 4.7 31.3 0.3 0.0 1(30.0 2,273 DI Yogyakarta 50,8 3.5 43.7 0.3 1.7 100.0 322 East Java 48.2 2.9 47.4 0.6 0.9 100 .0 3,416 Bali 14.7 3.6 81.4 0.0 0.2 1(30.0 320 Outer Java-Bali I 44.8 7.6 47.3 0.1 0.2 100.0 4,052 Dista Aceh 26.2 7.6 66.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 271 North Sumatra 35.8 8,4 56.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,025 West Sumatra 32.8 I3.4 53.6 0.0 0.4 100.0 314 South Sumatra 29.9 8.9 60.8 0.1 0.2 100.0 563 Lampung 70.9 4.8 24.1 0.3 0.0 100.0 413 West Nusa Tanggara 61.7 2.4 35.8 0.0 0.1 I00.0 381 West Kalimantan 44.6 20.6 34.4 0.3 0. I 100.0 312 South Kalimantan 46.1 2.6 50.5 0.7 0.2 100.0 252 North Sulawesi 34.3 2.1 63.6 0.0 0.0 1(30.0 126 South Sulawesi 71.5 1.4 26.6 0.0 0.4 100.0 391 Outer Java-Bali II 43.8 5.0 50.4 0.3 0.5 100.0 1,703 Rian 39.7 5.4 53.7 03 1.0 100.0 248 Jambi 39,7 5.6 54.2 0.5 0.0 100.0 239 Bengkulu 28.7 2.6 68.5 0.1 0.0 I00.0 137 East Nusa Tenggara 56.4 2.2 39.8 0,3 1,3 100,0 330 East Timor 33.3 0.3 66.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 39 Central Kalimantan 32.5 2.4 63.4 1.0 0.5 I(30.0 142 East Kalimantan 52.4 3.7 43.5 0.2 0.3 100.0 151 Central Sulawesi 43.4 4.3 52.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 125 Southeast Sulawesi 68.3 8.4 22.8 0.5 0.0 100.0 88 Maluku 50.8 1.4 47.9 0.0 0.0 1(30.0 84 Irian Jaya 26.5 21.0 52.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 119 To~l 50.6 4.9 43.7 0.3 0.4 100.0 14,328 32 Table 2.14.1 Child care while working: background characteristics Percent distribution of employed women by whether they have a child under five years of age and percent distribution of employed mothers who have a child under five by person who cares for child while mother is at work, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Background characteristic Employed women Child's caretaker, among employed mothers who have children <5 years One or more Not No ebil- Re- Other Child Insthu- Other Other worked Number child dren spond- Flus- mla- Neigh- Hired is in tional female male since of <5 <5 ent band five bor Friend help school care child child birth Other Total women Residence Urban 66.2 33.8 36,1 3.4 38.4 1.3 0.0 10.3 0.9 0.3 6.5 0.8 1.9 0.1 100.0 3,547 Rural 65.3 34.7 42.7 2.9 36.2 1.9 0.3 0.8 0.9 0.2 10.5 2.5 0.8 0.3 100.0 10,781 Region/Residence Java-Bali 70.0 30.0 40.1 2.9 39.5 1.6 0.3 4.4 0.8 0.0 7.9 1.3 1.0 0.2 100.0 8,573 Urban 67.3 32.7 35.5 3.1 38.2 0.9 0.0 11.6 1.0 0.1 6.6 0.6 2.4 0.0 100.0 2,614 Rural 71.2 28.8 42.4 2.8 40.2 1.9 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.0 8.6 1.6 0.4 0.2 100.0 5,959 OuterJava-BaliI 59.2 40.8 41.1 2.9 33.6 2.0 0.1 1.6 1.i 0.6 12,0 3.3 1.1 0.3 100.0 4.052 Urban 64.1 35.9 38.2 4.3 38,2 1.9 0.0 7.6 0.7 0.8 5.7 1.7 0.6 0.3 1130.0 650 Rural 58.3 41.7 41.6 2.7 32.8 2.0 0.2 0.7 1.1 0.6 13.1 3.6 1.2 0.3 100.0 3,402 OuterJava-EaliII 57.7 42.3 44.8 3.6 33.6 2.1 0.1 1.6 1.1 0.i 9.4 2.3 1.1 0.3 100.0 1,703 Urban 61.0 39.0 36.3 3.6 40.3 3.1 0.0 5.7 1.0 0.7 7.5 0.6 0.7 0.4 100.0 283 Rural 57.0 43.0 46.4 3.6 32.4 1.9 0.1 0.8 1.1 0.0 9.7 2.5 1.1 0.2 100.0 1,420 Education No education 77.9 22.1 38.8 5.1 28.3 2.1 0,0 0.I 1.4 0.0 17.4 6.4 0.2 0.2 100.0 2,293 Some primary 71.1 28.9 40.4 3.1 32.9 1,9 0.2 0.1 1.7 0.1 15.5 2.6 1.2 0.4 100.O 4,369 Completed primary 62.9 37.1 46.3 2.2 38.1 1.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.1 7.2 1.8 1.1 0.1 1130.0 3,951 Some secondary+ 53.9 46.1 37.8 3.0 40.8 1.9 0.0 8.2 0.6 0.5 4.8 0.6 1.2 0.3 100.0 3,714 Respondent*s occupation professional/technical 56.7 43.3 10.1 8.2 54.3 5.5 0.0 13.9 1.8 0.5 4.6 0.1 0.6 0.4 100.0 745 54.2 45.8 1.8 0.0 77.2 11.5 0.0 5.7 0.0 2.6 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1130.0 43 50,4 49,6 4,4 2,9 56.1 4.1 0,0 21,1 0.0 1.6 6.9 0.6 2,3 0.0 100.0 422 65.9 34.1 63.1 3.7 21.1 0.7 0.0 3.8 0.5 0.0 5.3 0.4 1.1 0.2 1130.0 3,548 71.4 28.6 39.1 5.0 39.9 0.3 0.0 4.2 0.2 1.4 7.2 2.2 0.4 0.1 100.0 862 66.9 33.1 31.0 2.3 41.8 2.1 0.3 0.i 1.5 0.1 15,5 3.8 1.2 0.4 1OO.0 6,327 64.7 35.3 57.7 1.2 33.1 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.1 3.9 1.5 0.7 0.0 100.0 2,374 29.1 70.9 12.9 0.0 0.0 87.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 4 Managerial/admin. Clerical Sales Service Agricultural Industrial Other Employment year roundlse~onal All year Seasonal Occasional Total 64.8 35.2 42.1 2.9 36.1 1.8 0.3 3.8 0.9 0.3 8.6 2.0 1.0 0.2 100.0 10,998 69.7 30.3 36.1 3.2 38.7 1.7 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.0 14.5 2.9 1.4 0.4 100.0 2,731 59.7 40.3 43.5 3.7 38.8 1.9 0.0 1.5 1.9 0.0 6.5 0.6 1.4 0.0 100.0 598 65.5 34,5 41.2 3.0 36.7 1.8 0.2 3.0 0,9 0.2 9.5 2.1 1.1 0.2 100.0 14,328 Note: Totals include 5 women with missing information on occupation. 33 Table2.14.2 Child eare while working: region and Drovinee percent distribufon of employed women by whether they have a child under five years of age and percent distribution of employed mothers who have a child under five by person who cares for child while mother is at work, according to region and province, Indonesia 1997 Region and province Employed women Child's caretaker, among employed mothers who have children < 5 years One or more Not No ehil- Re- Other Child lrtsthu- Other Other worked Number child dmn spond- Hus- rela- Neigh- Hired is in tional female male since of <5 <5 ent hand five bor Friend help school care child child birth Other Total women Java-Bali 70.0 30.0 40.1 2.9 39.5 1.6 0.3 4.4 0.8 0.0 7.9 1.3 1.0 0.2 100.0 8,573 DKI Jakarta 71.3 28.7 35.8 0.4 34.8 0.0 0.0 18.8 0.4 0.0 3.3 1.2 5.2 0.0 100.0 515 West Java 65.2 34.8. 45.6 1.8 30.2 0.6 0.0 4.0 1.8 0.0 11.0 2.7 1.7 0.5 100.0 1,726 Central Java 67.8 32.2 39.6 3.0 40.8 2.5 0.0 2.8 0.0 0.0 10.1 0.0 1.2 0.0 100.0 2.273 DI Yogyakatra 70.5 29,5 37.8 5.0 40.4 1,6 0.0 6.0 1.0 0,4 4.5 2.1 0.4 0.8 I00.0 322 East Java 73.8 26.2 37.2 3.5 46.1 1.6 0.8 3.3 0.9 0.0 5.4 1.3 0.0 0.0 100,0 3,416 Bali 68,9 31,1 45.8 4.5 33.7 2.1 0.0 4.9 0.0 0.3 6.4 1.3 0.2 0.7 1(30.0 320 OuterJava-BaliI 59.2 40.8 41.1 2.9 33,6 2.0 0.1 1.6 1.1 0.6 12.0 3.3 1.1 0.3 100.0 4,052 Dista Aceh 59.9 40.1 41.7 0.5 38.8 1.4 0.5 2,8 0.0 0.0 13.5 0.4 0.5 0.0 I00.0 271 North Sumatra 52.5 47.5 41.7 3.3 31.7 2.1 0.0 1.6 1.2 1.1 13.7 2,7 0.2 0.5 100,0 1,025 West Sumatra 61,1 38.9 43,9 3,2 35,3 1,9 0,0 2,2 1,3 0,3 6,9 3.2 1,8 0,0 t00,0 314 South Sumatra 64.5 35.5 41.7 3.2 29.9 1.1 0.0 2.2 2.4 0.0 12.6 3.2 3,2 0.0 100.0 563 Lampung 57.8 42.2 45.7 1.9 36.7 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 9.5 1.5 1.6 0.2 100.0 413 WestNusaTanggara 58,2 41.8 40.7 2.4 36.6 0.7 1.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 12.3 2.6 1.7 0.8 100.0 381 West Kalimantan 56,1 43.9 30,6 3.5 33.3 1.8 0.0 2.8 3.5 2.0 14.9 6.3 0.3 1,0 100.0 312 South Kalimantan 69.6 30.4 40.2 3.6 30.9 2.7 0.0 2.1 1.0 1.3 10.7 4.7 2.7 0.0 i00.0 252 North Sulawesi 70.0 30.0 48.2 5.8 32.3 2.2 0.0 3,0 0.0 0.0 8.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 126 SouthSulawesi 62.1 37.9 39.1 3.5 34.6 4.1 0.0 0.7 0,0 0.0 10.5 7.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 391 OuterJava-BalilI 57.7 42.3 44.8 3.6 33.6 2.1 0.1 1.6 1.1 0.1 9.4 2.3 1.1 0.3 100.0 1.703 Riau 56.7 43.3 40,6 4.1 31.4 0.7 0.5 2.9 4.4 0.0 11.8 1.9 1.2 0.6 100.0 248 Jambi 62.5 37.5 45.5 2.4 34.6 0.8 0.0 2.5 0.0 0.3 9.6 4.1 0.4 0.0 100.0 239 Eangkulu 63.7 36.3 58.9 2.8 23.1 2.2 0.0 2.9 2.1 0.0 4.2 1.3 2.5 0.0 I00.0 I37 East Nusa Tenggara 51.0 49.0 46.7 2.9 35.9 2,5 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 7.8 2.0 1.4 0.3 100.0 330 East Timor 41.8 58.2 27.8 2.6 36.1 3.3 0.0 1.7 0,5 0.0 19.2 6.2 2.4 0.0 100.0 39 Central Kalimanmn 58.5 41.5 50.1 3.1 29.6 3.2 0.0 0.9 0.7 0.0 7.6 3.3 1.4 0.0 1(30.0 142 East Kalimantan 62.4 37.6 42.0 3.3 35.9 4.1 0.0 1.5 0.9 0.9 9.4 1.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 151 Central Sulawesi 60,3 39.7 43.7 3.6 39.5 1.8 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 6.9 2.4 0.6 0.5 100.0 125 Southeast Sulawesi 64.0 36.0 45.3 2.0 30.9 3.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.8 13.0 2.1 0.7 0.7 100.0 88 Maluku 56.6 43.4 28,0 0.8 52.2 1,4 0.0 1.5 0.7 0.0 12.4 2.2 0.0 0.8 100.0 84 Irian,laya 53,7 46,3 50,8 ll,5 23,1 2,4 0,0 1,0 1,3 0.0 9,2 0,7 0,0 0,0 100,0 119 Total 65.5 34.5 41.2 3.0 36.7 1.8 0.2 3.0 0.9 0.2 9.5 2.1 1.1 0.2 100.0 14,328 34 CHAPTER 3 FERTILITY A major objective of the 1997 IDHS is to estimate fertility levels, trends and differentials. As with the 1991 and 1994 IDHS; detailed information on current, cumulative and past levels of fertility was collected in the 1997 IDHS from ever-married women. The fertility information was collected using two procedures. First, each woman was asked a series of questions about the number of live births she had ever had and the number of children surviving. Experience has indicated that certain types of events are underreported. To minimize error, children were identified by sex, whether they lived with their mother or elsewhere, and by whether they were living or dead. Identification by sex improves reporting and allows estimation of sex-specific mortality rates. Second, a full birth history was obtained from each woman, and for each live birth the following information was collected: name, sex, month and year of birth, whether the birth was single or multiple, and the survival status of the child. For living children, the woman was asked whether the child was living in the household or away. For dead children, the age at death was recorded. To reduce underreporting of births when the interval between births was 4 years or longer, interviewers were required to check whether the respondent had had a child during the interval. Information on whether currently married women were pregnant was also solicited. From population censuses and surveys in Indonesia, fertility and mortality rates have been estimated using indirect methods, based on information on the number of children ever born and children surviving. The fertility measures presented here are calculated directly from the birth history. In applying a direct fertility estimation procedure, it is important to note that although the birth history offers a richer set of data for analysis, there are some limitations. Because interviews were conducted only with living women, there was no information on the fertility of women who had died. The fertility rates would be biased if the mortality of women of childbearing age were high and if there were significant differences in fertility between living and dead women. In Indonesia, neither of these appears to be the case. Also, the 1997 IDHS collected birth histories only from ever-married women. Since most births in Indonesia occur within marriage, the number of births to single women is negligible. The accuracy of fertility data is affected primarily by underreporting of births (especially children who died in early infancy) and misreporting of date of birth. Errors in underreporting of births affect the estimates of fertility levels, while misreporting of dates of births can distort estimates of fertility trends. I f these errors vary by socioeconomic characteristics of the women, the differentials in fertility will also be affected. 3.1 Fertility Level and Trends Table 3.1 and Figure 3.1 present the total fertility rates (TFR) and the age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) ~ derived from the 1997 IDHS, along with results from previous data sources. The TFR is calculated 1Numerators of the age-specific fertility rates are calculated by summing the number of live births that occurred in the period 1-36 months preceding the survey (determined by the date of interview and the date of birth of the child), and classifying them by the age (in 5-year groups) of the mother at the time of birth (determined by the mother's date of birth). The denominators of the rates are the number of woman-years lived in each of the specified 5-year groups during the I to 36 months preceding the survey. Since only women who had ever married were interviewed in the IDHS, the numbers of women in the denominators of the rates were inflated by factors calculated from information in the household questionnaire on proportions ever married in order to produce a count of all women. Never-married women are presumed not have given birth. 35 Table 3.1 Fertility rates from various sources Age-specific and cumulative fertility rates from selected sources, Indonesia 1971-1994 1971 1976 Age Census SUPAS group (1967-70) (1971-75) 1997 IDHS 1980 1985 1987 1990 1991 1994 (1995-1997) 2 Census SUPAS NICPS l Census 1991 IDHS (1976-79) (1980-85) (1984-87) 2 (1986-89) (1988-9l) 2 (1991-94) Urban Rural Total 15-19 155 127 116 95 20-24 286 265 248 220 25-29 2/3 256 232 206 30-34 211 199 177 154 35-39 124 118 104 89 40-44 55 57 46 37 45-49 17 18 13 10 TFR 15-49 5.61 5.20 4.68 4.06 TFR 15-44 5.52 5,11 4.62 4.01 GFR CBR 78 71 67 61 32 79 62 188 178 162 147 112 158 143 172 1'72 157 150 143 152 149 126 128 117 109 113 105 108 75 73 73 68 62 67 66 29 31 23 31 17 27 24 10 9 7 4 I 7 6 3.39 3.31 3.02 2.85 2.40 2.98 2.78 3.34 3,27 2.99 2.83 2.39 2.94 2.76 108 101 83.0 104.0 97.0 25.1 23.3 22.0 23.6 23.1 Note: Estimates for 1971 througk 1985 and for 1990 were ¢omputad using the own children methed, while the 1987 NICPS, 1991 IDHS and 1994 IDHS rates were calculated directly from birth history data. TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate (births divided by number of women 15-44), expressed per 1,000 women CBR: Crude birth rate expressed per 1,000 population l Excludes 7 provinces in Outer Java-Bali II 2 1-36 months prior to survey 300 250 200 150 100 50 Figure 3.t Age-Specific Fertility Rates Indonesia, 1967-1997 Births per 1,000 Women 0 I I t r I 15-19 20-24 25"29 30-34 35-39 Age Group I'=" 1967-70 ÷1975-79 #~1984-87 "P 1994-97 I 40-44 45-49 IDH$97 36 by summing the age-specific fertility rate and can be interpreted as the average number of births a hypothetical women would have at the end of her reproductive life if she were subject to the currently prevailing age-specific rates from 15 to 49. It is important to note that the rates are not strictly comparable because of differences in data collection procedures, geographic coverage, and estimation techniques. Nevertheless, they serve the purpose of reflecting recent fertility trends in Indonesia. Table 3. I shows that while the TFR continues to decline, the pace has slowed. The current level of fertility (2.8 births per woman) is half of what was reported for the 1967-1970 period (5.6 births per woman). Results from the 1997 IDHS indicate that the age pattern of fertility by age group is the same as that in the 1994 IDHS; the peak (149 births per 1,000 women) is for women age 25-29. For urban residents, the age-specific fertility rate peaks at age 25-29, while for rural women the peak is at age 20-24. The 1997 IDHS data indicate that there is a gap in fertility between urban and rural residents. Urban women have, on average, 0.6 children fewer than rural women (2.4 compared with 3.0, respectively). The largest urban-rural difference is for women age 15-24. Table 3.1 also presents the general fertility rate (GFR) and the crude birth rate (CBR) for the three years preceding the survey. The GFR is the number of live births per 1,000 women age 15-44. The CBR is the number of births per 1,000 population; it is calculated by summing the product of the age-specific fertility rates and the proportion of women in the specific age group out of the total number of persons who usually live in the selected households. The GFR is 97 and the CBR is 23. Fertility trends can also be investigated using retrospective data from a single survey. Table 3.2 is generated from the birth history data collected in the 1997 IDHS. The numerators of these rates are classified by four-year segments of time preceding the survey and by mother's age at the time of birth in five-year intervals. Since women 50 years and over were not interviewed in the 1997 IDHS, the data in Table 3.2 is truncated. For example, rates cannot be calculated for women age 45-49 for part of the 4-7 years and all of the 8-11 years prior to the survey, because these women would have been 50 years or older at the time of the survey. Table 3.2 A~e-soeeifie fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for four-year periods preceding the survey, by mother's age at the time of birth, Indonesia 1997 Maternal Number of years preceding the survey age at birth 0-3 4-7 8-11 12-15 16-19 15-19 62 79 81 117 127 20-24 145 159 175 220 240 25-29 148 156 172 203 236 30-34 107 125 125 162 [196] 35-39 65 66 86 [112] 40-44 27 34 [69] 45-49 [5] [22] Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. The bottom diagonal of estimates is also partially truncated. As shown in the table for all age groups, the decline is steepest between the periods 12-15 and 8-I 1 years before the survey. For most age groups, this is followed by a plateau or less steep decline between the periods 8-11 and 4-7 years ago, and then by a steeper decline between 4-7 and 0-3 years ago. Table 3.3 presents trends in fertility by marital duration. This table shows the same pattern as in Table 3.2; for the same age group or marriage duration, recent fertility is lower than that in the distant past, and fertility has declined most rapidly in the period 12-15 to 8-11 years before the survey. 37 Table 3.3 Fertility by marital duration Fertility rates by duration (years) since first marriage for four-year periods preceding the survey, Indonesia 1997 Marital duration atbirth Number of years preceding the survey 0-3 4-7 8-11 12-15 16-19 0-4 271 282 282 317 313 5-9 153 170 184 222 269 10-14 113 125 145 184 210 15-19 75 96 107 146 [185] 20-24 47 54 [70] [108] a 25-29 18 [29] a a a Note: Duration-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. a Less than 125 woman-years of exposure 3.2 Fertility Differentials Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 present differentials in fertility by residence, region, level o f education, and province using the TFR as the measure o f current fertility. The first column of each table shows TFRs for the three years prior to the survey (1995 to 1997), the second column presents the percentage o f women who are currently pregnant, and the third column presents the mean number of children ever born (CEB) to the oldest women (age 40-49). The mean number o f CEB is an indicator of cumulative fertility; it reflects the fertility performance o f older women who are nearing the end o f their reproductive period, and thus represents completed fertility. I f fertility had remained stable over time, the two fertility measures, TFR and CEB, would be equal or similar. Table 3.4.1 Fertility: background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey, percentage of all women 15-49 currently pregnant, and mean number of ehildran ever born (CEB) to women age 40-49, by selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Mean number Total Percentage of CEB Background fert i . ty currently to women characteristic rate I pregnant I age 40-49 Residence Urban 2.40 4.29 3.97 Rural 2.98 4.44 4.48 Region/Residence Java-Bali 2.57 4.08 3.87 Urban 2.30 4.22 3.78 Rural 2.75 4.03 3.93 Outer Java-Bali I 3.10 4.77 5.06 Urban 2.62 4.16 4.39 Rural 3.26 4.97 5.29 Outer Java-Bali II 3.20 4.98 4.98 Urban 2.66 5.02 4.56 Rural 3.37 4.95 5.11 Education No education 2.66 2.89 4.27 Some primary 3.23 4.26 4.75 Completed primary 2.96 5.25 4.34 Some secondary+ 2.55 4.24 3.59 Total 2.78 4.38 4.32 1 All women age 15-49 years 38 Table 3.4.2 Fertility: region and province Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey, percentage of all women 15-49 who are currently pregnant, and mean number of children ever born (CEB) to women age 40-49, by region and provinee, Indonesia 1997 Mean number Total Percentage of CEB Region and fertility currently: to women province rate 1 pregnant I age 40-49 Java-Bali 2.57 4.08 3.87 DKI Jakarta 2.04 3.74 4.15 West Java (3.02) 5.19 4.56 Central Java 2.63 3.51 3.92 DI Yogyakarta 1.85 2.78 3.33 East Java 2.33 3.57 3.32 Bali 2.12 4.67 3.46 Outer Java-Bali I 3.10 4.77 5.07 DI Aceh 3.00 3.95 4.85 North Sumatra 3.72 5.72 5.44 West Sumatra (3.40) 5.53 5.24 South Sumatra 2.64 3.70 5.10 Lampung (2.91) 4.35 5.30 West Nusa Tenggara (2.95) 5.42 5.81 West Kalimantan (3.35) 4.30 5.16 South Kalimantan (2.57) 4.26 4.63 North Sulawasi (2.60) 4.64 3.69 South Sulawesi 2.88 4.68 4.51 Outer Java-Bali I! 3.20 4.97 4.98 Riau (3.42) 5.97 5.47 Jambl (2.89) 4.06 4.80 Bengkulu (2.97) 3.45 5.57 East Nusa Tenggara (3.45) 5.23 5.04 East Timor (4.43) 5.95 4.31 Central Kalimantan (2.72) 4.16 4.50 East Kalimantan (2.85) 4.12 4.98 Central Sulawasi (3.04) 6.04 4.83 Southeast Sulawesi (2.92) 4.42 5.20 Maluku (3.31) 4.95 4.51 Irian Jaya (3.38) 5.86 4.81 Total (2.78) 4.38 4.32 Note: Rates in parentheses indicate that one or more of the component age-specific rates is based on fewer than 250 woman-years of exposure. IWomen age 15-49 years In demographic studies of Indonesia, it is important to set the Java-Bali region apart from the rest o f the country because o f its distinct socioeconomic and political context. In addition to the availability o f comparable data from the population censuses and past demographic surveys, family planning programs in this region were initiated earlier than in other regions in the country. Compared with other regions, Java-Bali consistently shows the lowest fertility. However, in recent years, fertility in Outer Java-Bali I I has declined rapidly, narrowing the difference in fertility between this region and the rest o f the country. At current levels, fertility in Java-Bali is 17 percent lower than in Outer Java-Bali I and 20 percent lower than in Outer Java-Bali II. 39 As in the 1994 IDHS, the 1997 IDHS findings show an inverted U-shape relationship between education and fertility, where the peak is for women who have some primary education. Table 3.4.1 also shows that 4 percent of women are currently pregnant. This percentage varies by region, .urban-rural residence, and educational attainment, but the differences are not large except by education. The last column of Table 3.4. I shows that the mean number of CEB among women age 40-49 (4.3) is much higher than the TFR for the three years preceding the survey (2.8), suggesting a substantial reduction in fertility. The same pattern is shown by previous DHS surveys in Indonesia. Table 3.4.2 shows provincial differentials in fertility. Among the six provinces in Java-Bali, two have reached a fertility level of 2 children or fewer per woman--DI Yogyakarta (1.85) and DKI Jakarta (2.04). The TFR is more than 3 children per woman in all provinces in Outer Java-Bali II except in Jambi, Bengkulu, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, and Southeast Sulawesi. 3.3 Children Ever Born and Living In the IDHS questionnaire, the total number of children ever born was ascertained by a sequence of questions designed to maximize recall. Since lifetime fertility reflects the accumulation of births over the past 30 years, it has limited direct relevance to the current situation. Nevertheless, the data are important in providing background information for understanding current fertility. Table 3.5 presents the distribution of all women and of currently married women by the number of children ever born. The table also shows the average number of children ever born and the average number of children still living. Since the respondents in the 1997 IDHS are ever-married women, information on Table 3.5 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and of currently married women age 15-49 by number of children ever born (CEB) and mean number ever born and living, according to five-year age groups, Indonesia 1997 Number of children ever born (CEB) Number Mean no. Mean no. Age of of of living group 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ Total women CEB children ALL WOMEN 15-19 90.6 8.7 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 7,298 0.10 0.09 20-24 46.8 37.7 12.5 2.6 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 6,352 0.72 0.69 25-29 20.3 28.6 31.2 12.7 4.8 1.8 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 6,358 1.61 1.49 30-34 9.3 12.1 30.9 24.5 12.9 6.0 2.9 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 100.0 5,678 2.58 2.38 35-39 5.9 7.8 18.5 24.0 18.9 11.1 7.1 3.8 1.6 1.0 0.6 100.0 5,325 3.43 3.08 40-44 6.3 6.7 13.6 19.0 16.9 12.8 9.0 7.3 3.6 2.4 2.3 100.0 4,122 4.02 3.51 45-49 4.5 6.5 10.6 14.5 15.5 13.7 11.0 9.0 5.0 4.3 5.5 100.0 3,457 4.67 3.98 Total 31A 16.7 16.8 12.8 8.5 5.3 3.4 2.3 1.1 0.8 0.$ 100.0 3g,590 2.11 l.gg CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 47.7 47.8 3.5 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 I00.0 1,246 0.58 0.52 20-24 16.5 58.7 20.0 4.2 0.6 0.I 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3,901 1.14 1.09 25-29 7.0 32.8 36.8 14.8 5.7 2.1 0.7 0.I 0.0 0.0 0.0 I00.0 5,250 1.89 1.76 30-34 3.9 12.2 32.4 26.3 13.9 6.4 3.1 I.l 0.4 0.2 0.I I00.0 5,150 2.76 2.54 35-39 3.1 7.3 18.7 25.0 19.6 11.8 7.4 4.0 1.7 0.9 0.6 100.0 4,876 3.57 3.21 40-44 3.2 6.1 13.9 19.6 17.5 13.5 9.4 7.7 3.8 2.7 2.6 I00.0 3,605 4.22 3.69 45-49 2.6 6.0 10.2 15.0 15.6 14.2 11.5 9.6 5.0 4.6 5.9 100.0 2,854 4.84 4.15 Total 8.0 22.2 22.8 17.3 11.4 7.1 4.6 3.0 1.4 1.1 1.1 100.0 26,886 2.82 2.53 40 the reproductive history of never-married women is not available. However, since almost all births in Indonesia occur within marriage, it is safe to assume that never-married women have had no births. Differences in results between all women and currently married women are greatest at the younger ages because of the large proportion of women who are still single and presumed to have had no births. By the time a woman reaches the end of her childbearing period, she will have given birth to slightly fewer than 5 children. On average, women have less than one child before reaching age 25, close to 3 children by age 35, and more than 4 by their forties. Voluntary childlessness is rare, and married women with no live births are predominantly those unable to bear children. Survey data imply that primary infertility in Indonesia is low; only 3 percent of married women in their late 30s and 40s have not given birth. 3.4 Birth Intervals A child's health status is closely related to the length of the preceding birth interval. Children born after a short birth interval are at greater risk of illness and death than those born after a long interval. Further, the occurrence of closely spaced births gives the mother insufficient time to restore her health, which may limit her ability to take care of her children. The duration of breastfeeding for the older child may be shortened, since the mother must breastfeed the younger child. Table 3.6.1 shows the percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by length of the previous birth interval. First births have been omitted. Overall, relatively long birth intervals prevail in Indonesia. Half of the births in the five years prior to the survey occurred at least 45 months after the preceding birth, and only 15 percent of births took place within two years of a previous birth. As shown in previous surveys, the 1997 IDHS indicates that birth intervals vary little according to the child's birth order (except for very high birth orders), sex of prior birth, urban-rural residence, mother's education, and mother's work status. However, there are significant differences in birth intervals by mother's age and by survival status of the preceding child. Younger women have on average shorter birth intervals than older women; the median for women age 15-19 is 21.3 months, while for women age 40-44 it is 54.8 months. For children whose preceding sibling is alive, the median interval between births is 15 months longer than for children whose preceding sibling died (47 months, compared with 32 months). Table 3.6.1 also indicates that birth intervals vary widely by region. The median birth interval in Java- Bali is one year longer than in other parts of Indonesia (52 months, compared with 39 months in both Outer Java-Bali regions). Table 3.6.2 shows that median birth intervals vary substantially across provinces, ranging from 31 months in East Timor to 59 months in East Java. The same levels were found in the 1994 IDHS. 3.5 Age at First Birth Table 3.7 presents the distribution of women by current age and age at first birth. The table indicates that women are delaying having their first child. The distribution is similar to that in the 1994 IDHS and shows that the prevalence of early childbearing has declined over time. While 8 percent of women age 45-49 had their first child before age 15, less than 1 percent of women age 15-19 did so. Again, the percentage of women who had their first child between 15-17 years of age is highest among women age 45-49 (22 percent), and lowest among women age 15-19 years (5 percent). The increase in median age at first birth among Indonesian women can also be observed in the last column of Table 3.7; 20.4 years for women age 45-49 and 21.6 years for women age 30-34. 41 Table 3.6.1 Birth intervals: background characteristics Percent distribution of non-first births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since previous birth, according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Median Number of months since previous birth number of Number Background months since of characteristic 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48+ Total previous birth births Age of mother 15-19 33.6 37.9 8.9 19.0 0.4 I00.0 21.3 63 20-24 11.1 16.3 30.1 22.9 19.7 100.0 32.3 1,062 25-29 7.2 10.0 22.5 18.0 42.2 100.0 42.3 3,185 30-34 4.9 7.8 19.4 15.8 51.9 100.0 49.0 3,205 35-39 4.1 6.9 17.8 14.1 57.1 100.0 54.4 2,244 40-44 3.9 7.5 17.5 15.6 55.4 100.0 54.8 876 45-49 1.7 8.8 19.2 12.9 57.4 100.0 53.0 232 Birth order 2-3 6.4 9.1 19.2 15.9 49.4 100.0 47.3 6,545 4-6 5.0 7.8 21.9 17.3 47.9 100.0 46.1 3,314 7 + 7.2 15.1 28.1 20.1 29.4 100.0 35.8 1,008 Sex of prior birth Male 6.3 9.1 21.5 16.4 46.7 I00.0 44.9 5,644 Female 5.8 9.5 20.2 17.0 47.5 100.0 45.8 5,222 Survival of prior birth Living 4.9 8.8 20.7 16.8 48.9 100.0 46.9 9,946 Dead 19.0 14.6 23.0 15.9 27.6 100.0 31.7 920 Residence Urban 6.2 9.9 18.5 14.7 50.8 100.0 48.3 2,777 Rural 6.0 9.1 21.7 17.4 45.8 100.0 44.4 8,090 Region/Residence Java-Bali 4.3 7.4 17.9 15.4 54.9 100.0 52.1 5,896 Urban 4.7 8.4 16.8 12.9 57.2 100.0 53.8 1,831 Rural 4.1 7.0 18.4 16.6 53.9 100.0 51.5 4,065 Outer Java-Bali I 8.4 11.5 23.7 18.2 38.2 100.0 39.3 3,405 Urban 9.0 12.4 21.6 18.4 38.8 100.0 40.5 660 Rural 8.2 11.3 24.2 18.2 38.1 100.0 39.0 2,746 Outer Java-Bali II 7.6 11.5 25.9 18.3 36.6 100.0 38.9 1,565 Urban 8.8 13.9 22.5 17.7 37.1 100.0 38.6 286 Rural 7.4 I1.0 26.6 18.5 36.5 100.0 38.9 1,279 Education No education 5.0 8.6 23.5 17.3 45.6 100.0 44.2 1,283 Some primary 5.2 9.1 19.9 17.0 48.8 100.0 46.7 3,308 Completed primary 5.5 8.3 19.8 15.8 50.6 100.0 48.4 3,273 Some secondary+ 8.1 10.8 22.0 17.2 41.9 100.0 41.6 3,002 Work status Worked in past year 6.2 9.2 21.2 17.0 46.4 100.0 45.0 4,416 Did not work 6.0 9.3 20.7 16.5 47.5 100.0 45.7 6,451 Total 6.1 9.3 20.9 16.7 47.1 100.0 45.3 10,867 Note: The interval for multiple births is the number of months since the preceding pregnancy that ended in a live birth. 42 Table 3.6.2 Birth intervals: region and province Percent distribution of non-first births in the five years preceding the survey by number of mouths since previous birth, according to region and province, Indonesia 1997 Median Number of months since previous birth number of Number Region and months since of province 7~17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48+ Total previous birth births Java-Bali 4.3 7.4 17.9 15.4 54.9 100.0 52.1 5,896 DKI Jakarta 6.7 9.4 18.9 12.5 52.4 100.0 48.9 342 West Java 4.1 9.6 19.6 14.0 52.7 100.0 50.0 2,342 Central Java 4.2 4.8 16.0 22.1 52.8 100.0 51.0 1,488 DI Yogyakarta 4.2 7.5 19.8 10.9 57.6 100.0 58.1 105 East Java 3.8 6.2 16.7 12.1 61.2 100.0 58.9 1,504 Bali 7.4 7.0 19.9 15.3 50.4 100.0 49.3 116 Outer Java-Bali I 8.4 11.5 23.7 18.2 38.2 100.0 39.3 3,405 D[ Aceh 6.5 7.2 22.2 17.8 46.4 100.0 45.3 242 North Sumatra 11.8 15.0 27.9 17.3 27.9 100.0 33.1 975 West Sumatra 9.8 12.2 24.2 20.0 34.0 100.0 37.3 268 South Sumatra 6.0 10.1 21.0 18.9 44.0 100.0 43.6 344 Lampung 3.9 8.9 19.8 17.8 49.7 100.0 47.6 368 West Nusa Teuggara 5.4 10.9 24.4 20.5 38.8 100.0 40.9 245 West Kalimantan 8.2 10.0 19.9 19.3 42.6 100.0 41.5 234 South Kalimantan 4.7 8.5 15.9 18.9 52.0 100.0 49.5 141 North Sulawesi 5.5 10.4 19.6 17.6 46.8 100.0 46.4 125 South Sulawesi 10.2 11.5 24.9 17.5 35.7 100.0 37.5 465 Outer Java-Bali I I 7,6 1],5 25,9 18.3 36,6 100.0 38,9 1,565 Riau 10.9 9.7 25.1 17.1 37.2 100.0 38.0 249 Jambi 4.9 9.0 20.9 18.1 47.0 100.0 45.1 162 Bengkulu 6.4 11.8 17.9 19.3 44.6 100.0 43.8 84 East Nusa Tenggara 5.9 13.7 27.5 20.6 32.3 I00.0 37.5 269 East Timor 8.7 18.5 35.9 18.4 18.5 100.0 31.0 90 Central Kalimantan 6.1 7.6 27.7 17.7 40.9 100.0 43.3 107 East Kalimantan 7.8 8.0 19.1 19.5 45.6 100.0 45.9 143 Central Sulawesi 8.0 8.9 32.9 14.3 35.9 100.0 36.2 121 Southeast Sulawesi 6.8 12.3 25.7 17.3 37.9 100.0 39.0 84 Maluku 8.7 14.0 25.9 22.4 28.9 100.0 36.6 132 Irian laya 8.6 14.5 27.5 15.0 33.5 100.0 35.1 123 Total 6.1 9.3 20.9 16.7 47.1 100.0 45.3 10,867 Note: The interval for multiple births is the number of months since the preceding pregnancy that ended in a live birth. Table 3.8.1 presents data on differentials in median age at first bi~h among women age 25-49 years by selected background characteristics. Results of the 1997 IDHS indicate that there are wide differences in the age at which women have their first child. Overall, the median age at first birth is 20.7 years. Urban women start childbearing two years later than their rural counterparts (22.3 years compared with 20.2 years). Women in Java-Bali have their first birth earlier than women in other regions. A positive relationship between educational level and median age at first birth exists. Women with some secondary or higher education start childbearing four years later than women with less than primary education. This relationship is similar for all age groups but is strongest for women age 25-34. The median age at first birth varies substantially by province, ranging from 19.5 years in Lampung to 22 years or older in DKI Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta, West Sumatra, North Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara, East Timor, and Maluku (see Table 3.8.2). Childbearing begins before age 20 in West Java, Lampung, WestNusa Tenggara, and Bengkulu. 43 Table 3.7 A~e at first birth Percent distribution of women 15-49 by age at first birth, according to current age, Indonesia 1997 Women Median with Age at first birth Number age at no of first Curront age bilths <15 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25+ Total women birth 15-19 90.6 0.8 5.4 3.3 NA NA NA 100.0 7,298 a 20-24 46.8 1.7 12.3 17.3 15.8 6.1 NA 100.0 6,352 a 25-29 20.3 4.3 13.1 18.1 18.2 17.7 8.3 100.0 6,358 21.6 30-34 9.1 4.3 18.9 20.4 16.1 16.7 14.5 100.0 5,678 20.7 35-39 5.9 5.9 20.0 21.8 18.1 15.6 12.9 100.0 5,325 20.2 40-44 6.3 5.2 20.6 19.1 18.3 15.8 14.6 100.0 4,122 20.5 45-49 4.5 7.8 22.3 16.7 16.4 17.4 14.9 I00.0 3,457 20.4 NA = Not applicable a Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women in the age group x to x+4 have had a birth by age x Table 3.8.1 Median age at first birth: background characteristics Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 years, by current age and selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Current age Women Background age characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 Residence Urban 24.3 22.9 21.1 21.5 20.8 22.3 Rural 20.7 20.0 20.0 20.1 20.3 20.2 Region/Residence Java-Bali 21.5 20.4 19.9 20.5 20.3 20.6 Urban 24.2 22.3 20.6 21.3 20.9 22.0 Rural 20.5 19.6 19.6 20.0 20.2 20.0 Outer Java-Bali I 21.8 21.5 20,8 20,5 20.l 21,0 Urban 24.8 24.5 22.4 22.2 20.0 23.0 Rural 21.1 20.8 20.4 20.0 20.1 20.5 Outer Java-Bali II 21.8 21.3 21.0 20.5 21.5 21.2 Urban 23.9 23.4 22.0 21.0 21.6 22.7 Rural 21.3 20.6 20.7 20.3 21.4 20.8 Education No education 19.5 18.9 19.6 20.2 19.8 19.6 Some primary. 19.2 19.5 19.7 19.7 20.0 19.6 Completed primary 20.3 20.0 19.7 19.8 20.0 20.0 Some secondary+ 24.2 24.2 22.8 22.9 22.3 23.6 Total 21.6 20.7 20.3 20.5 20.4 20.8 Note: The medians for women age 15-24 could not be determined because half the women have not yet had a birth. 3.6 Adolescent Fertility The topic of teenage fertility is important because teenage mothers and their children are at increased risk of social and health problems. Births to teenage mothers usually follow an early marriage. Because women who marry at an early age often come from poor families with limited education and low health status, their children are more prone to illness and to higher mortality during childhood than other children. 44 Table 3.8.2 Median aae at first birth: region and orovinc¢ Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 years, by current age, region and province, Indonesia 1997 Current age Women Region and age province 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 Java-Bali 21.5 20.4 19.9 20.5 20.3 20.6 DKI Jakarta a 22.9 21,2 21.7 20.7 22.4 .West Java 20.4 19.5 19.3 20.1 19.9 19.8 Central Java 21.5 20.5 19.8 20.5 21.1 20.7 DI Yogyakarta 24.5 22.6 22.0 21.6 22.0 22.5 East Java 21.5 20.3 20.3 20.7 19.3 20.6 Bali 22.9 21.6 20.9 20.7 21.0 21.7 Outer Java-Bali I 21.8 21.5 20,8 20.5 20.1 21.0 DI Aceh 21.8 20.2 21,1 20.2 20.2 20.7 North Sumatra 22.5 22.9 21,4 21.0 19.9 21.7 West Sumatra 24.2 23.1 21,2 20.7 19.4 22.1 South Sumatra 22,0 21.7 20,8 20,3 19.6 21,0 Lampung 19.6 19.2 19,4 19.6 19.5 19.5 West Nusa Tenggara 20.5 19.4 19,7 19.1 19.2 19.7 Wesl Kalimantan 21.1 20.8 21.1 20.2 20.1 20.8 South Kalimantan 21.2 20.6 20,2 19.5 19.2 20.2 North Sulawesi 21.8 22.4 21,5 22.5 22.6 22.0 South Sulawesi 22.3 23.6 21,3 21.4 21.0 21.8 Outer Java-Bali II 21.9 21.3 21.0 20.5 21.5 21.3 Riau 22.8 20.9 20.5 20.2 20.5 21.0 Jambi 20.6 19.6 20.1 19.6 20.7 20.0 Bangkulu 19.8 19.4 18.9 19.7 20.1 19.6 East Nusa Tenggara 23.8 23.4 22.6 21.2 22.3 22.7 East Timer 22.8 22.0 22,4 25.5 26.3 23.0 Central Kalimantan 20.4 20.7 20,3 20.2 21.0 20.5 East Kalimantan 22.7 22.1 21.1 19.4 19.2 21.3 Central Sulawesi 21.8 21.2 21.4 20.5 21.0 21.2 Southeast Sulawasi 21.3 20.8 20.5 20.2 21.6 20.9 Maluku 21.8 22.1 22.0 22,6 24.0 22.3 Irian Jaya 21.5 20.7 19.8 20.7 22.3 20.9 Total 21.6 20.7 20.3 20.5 20.4 20.8 Note: The medians for women age 15-24 could not be determined because half the women have not yet bad a birth. a Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women had had a birth by age 25. Table 3.9.1 presents information on fertility among women age 15-19. Teenagers who have never married are assumed to have had no pregnancies and no births. Overall, 12 percent of women 15-19 have started childbearing; 9 percent have had a child, and 3 percent are currently pregnant with their first child. There are large differentials between subgroups o f women by age, residence, region, and educational attainment. As expected, there is a positive relationship between age and fertility; older women are more likely to have started motherhood. While only 1 percent of 15-year-olds have become mothers and 1 percent are pregnant with their first child, by age 19 one in four women has become a mother and 5 percent are pregnant with their first child. 45 Table3.9.1 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood: backgroundcharaeteristies Percentage of women 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child, by selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Percentage who are: Percentage who have Pregnant begu~ Number Background with first child- of characteristic Mothers child bearing women Age 15 !.2 1.0 2.1 1,729 16 2.3 1.4 3.7 1,391 17 6.7 4.1 10.7 1,511 18 16.1 2.8 18.9 1,435 19 24.6 5.1 29.8 1,232 Residence Urban 4.3 1.3 5.6 2,359 Rural 12.2 3.5 15.8 4,790 Region/Residence Java-Bali 11.0 3.2 14.1 4,183 Urban 4,9 1.4 6.3 1,652 Rural 14.9 4.3 19.2 2,531 Outer Java-Bali I 7.8 2.5 10.3 2,061 Urban 2.4 0.7 3.1 516 Rural 9.6 3.1 12.6 1,545 Outer Java-Bali II 7.5 1.8 9.4 919 Urban 4.2 1.4 5.6 218 Rural 8.6 1.9 10.5 700 Education No education 16.6 6.7 23.3 109 Some primary 17.2 4.9 22.0 868 Completed primary 17.5 5.2 22.7 1,987 Some secondary+ 4.1 1.1 5.2 4,209 Total 9.4 2.7 12.2 7,298 There is a substantial difference in fertility among teenagers who live in urban and rural areas. The proportion of teenagers who have started childbearing is almost three times higher in rural areas than in urban areas. This pattern exists in all regions. Among the regions, Java-Bali has the highest proportion of teenagers who have begun childbearing (14 percent), while in Outer Java-Bali it is 10 percent or less. Women's educational attainment is inversely related to the initiation of childbearing; women with less education are more likely to have begun childbearing at a younger age. While one in five women with primary education or less has become a mother or is expecting her first child, the proportion among women who have secondary or higher education is only 5 percent. Variation in teenage fertility is also found among provinces within regions. Table 3.9.2 shows that among the provinces in Java-Bali, West Java and East Java have the highest percentage of teenagers who have begun childbearing (16 percent). Interestingly, except for Lampung, this percentage is also highest among the 27 provinces in the country. In Outer Java-Bali I, the highest percentage is in Lampung (17 percent), while the lowest is in West Sumatra (4 percent). In the Outer Java-Bali II region, Jambi shows the highest percentage (14 percent), while Maluku and East Timor have the lowest (6 percent or less). 46 Table 3.9.2 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood: region and province Percentage of women 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child, by region and province, Indonesia 1997 Percentage who are: Percentage who have Pregnant begun Number Region and with first child- of province Mothers child bearing women Java-Bali 10.6 3.0 DKI Jakarta 2.5 1.3 West Java 12.7 3.5 Central Java 9.1 3.2 DI Yogyakarta 3.0 1.5 East Java 13.1 3.2 Bali 7.6 2.3 Outer Java-Ball I 7.8 2.5 DI Aeeh 9.4 2.4 Noah Sumatra 4. I 1.8 West Sumatra 2.6 0.9 South Sumatra 7.0 1.3 Lampung 12.3 5.2 West Nusa Tenggara 9.8 4.8 West Kalimantan 10.7 1.9 South Kalimantan 10.6 2.7 North Sulawesi 8.7 3.8 South Sulawesi 8.8 1.9 Outer Java-Bali II 7.6 1.8 Rian 6.1 0.6 Jambi 12.1 1.9 Bengkulu 7.3 1.3 East Nasa Tenggara 5.2 2.2 East Timor 5.1 0.0 Central Kalimantan 9.7 2.4 East Kalimantan 9.4 2.6 Central Sulawesi 7.1 3.1 Southeast Sulawesi 8.9 2.5 Maluku 3.6 1.8 Irian Jaya 9.0 1.2 Total 9.4 2.7 13.7 4,330 3.9 395 16.2 1,479 12.3 1,077 4.5 119 16.3 1,156 9.9 104 10.3 2,066 11.8 165 5.9 467 3.5 157 8.3 259 17.4 226 14.6 184 12.6 122 13.3 101 12.5 77 10.7 307 9.4 912 6.7 137 14.0 114 8.6 61 7.4 128 5.1 28 12.2 67 12.0 84 10.2 77 11.4 65 5.5 81 10.3 70 12.2 7,298 47 CHAPTER 4 KNOWLEDGE AND EVER USE OF FAMILY PLANNING 4.1 Knowledge of Family Planning Methods and Sources Knowledge of family planning methods and of places to obtain family planning services is crucial in the decision whether to use a method and which method to use. Presumably, more widespread knowledge of family planning methods will result in greater use of contraceptives. In the 1997 IDHS, data on knowledge of family planning methods were obtained by first asking the respondent to name the ways that a couple can delay or avoid a pregnancy or birth. I f she did not spontaneously mention a particular method, the method was described by the interviewer and she was asked if she recognized the method. De- scriptions were included in the questionnaire for eleven methods (pill, IUD, injection, intravag 1, condom, implants, female sterili- zation, male sterilization, abortion, periodic abstinence, and with- drawal). In addition, other meth- ods mentioned spontaneously by the respondent such as herbs (iamu), abdominal massage (pijat), and prolonged abstinence were recorded. For each method recog- nized, the respondent was asked whether she had ever used the method. Finally, for all modem methods recognized, she was asked where a person could obtain the method if she wanted to use it. If the respondent recognized periodic abstinence, she was asked where a person could go to obtain advice about the method if she wanted to use it. Table 4.1 indicates that knowledge of family planning methods and sources for methods is practically universal among ever-married women as well as among currently married women. The percentage of women who Table 4.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods Percentage of ever-married women and currently married women who know specific contraceptive methods and who know a source (for information or services), by specific methods, Indonesia 1997 Know method Know a source 1 Ever- Currently Ever- Currently Contraceptive married married married married method women women women women Any method 96.9 97.2 96.2 96.6 Any modern method 96.6 96.9 96.1 96.5 Pill 93.4 93.9 92.0 92.5 IUD 84.3 85.0 80.9 81.6 Injection 93.3 93.9 92.3 93.0 Intravag/Diaphragm/Foam 11.4 11.7 9.5 9.8 Condom 65.5 66.1 56.5 57.0 Implants 80.5 81.3 76.0 76.7 Female sterilization 59.7 60.5 55.3 56.0 Male sterilization 35.7 36.3 33.0 33.7 Abortion 31.1 31.5 26.1 26.4 Any traditional method 39.3 39.8 24.2 24.8 Periodic abstinence 27.0 27.7 24.2 24.8 Withdrawal 17.5 17.8 0.0 0.0 Herbs 12.7 12.7 NA NA Massage 5.8 5.7 NA NA Other traditional methods 0.5 0.5 NA NA Number of women 28,810 26,886 28,810 26,886 Mean number of methods 6.2 6.2 5.5 5.5 ~A = Not applicable For modern methods, source refers to a place where the method or procedure can be obtained. IA spermicide placed in the vagina. 49 know any method is the same among ever-married women and currently married women (97 percent), and virtually all of these women recognize at least one modem method. The most widely known methods among currently married women are the pill, injection, IUD, and implants--known by 94, 94, 85, and 81 percent of women, respectively. Knowledge of the condom and female sterilization is also high, 66 and 61 percent, respectively. Lesser known contraceptive methods include vaginal methods, e.g., intravag, diaphragm, foam, and jelly (12 percent); abortion (32 percent); and traditional methods, known by two out of five married women. Figure 4.1 shows that knowledge of contraceptive methods among married women continues to increase. Knowledge of implants and injection increased substantially; the proportion of women who have heard of implants has increased from 68 percent in 1991 to 81 percent in 1997. The corresponding percentages for injection are 88 percent in 1991 and 94 percent in 1997. Although knowledge of the other methods increased during the period 1991-1994, it appears to have plateaued during the period 1994-1997. Figure 4.1 Percentage of Currently Married Women Who Know Specific Modern Contraceptive Methods, Indonesia, 1991-1997 Pill IUD Injection Condom Implants Female Sterilization Male Sterilization ~ ~ 889194 68 77 ' 'o 0 20 40 60 8 Percent 1~1991 IDHS BII1994 IDHS ~1997 IDHS I 100 IDHS97 Table 4.2. I presents the percentage of currently married women who know of contraceptive methods and sources of services by several background characteristics. Among married women, knowledge of at least one contraceptive method is slightly lower among younger and older women than among women in their 20s and 30s. This pattern also occurs regarding knowledge of modern contraceptive methods and knowledge of places to obtain a modem method. There are no significant differences in knowledge of contraceptive methods and their sources between urban and rural women. The percentage of married women who know at least one family planning method is 99 percent in urban areas and 96 percent in rural areas. The same relationship holds for knowledge era modem method and the place to obtain it. 50 Table 4.2.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods: background characteristics Percentage of currently married women who know at least one contraceptive method and at least one modern contraceptive method and who know a source (for information or services), by selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1997 Know a Know Know source for Number Background any a modern modern of characteristic method method I method women Age I5-i9 94.0 94.0 93.3 1,246 20-24 97.3 97.2 96.9 3,901 25-29 98.6 98.5 98.3 5,250 30-34 98.1 98.0 97.6 5,153 35-39 98.2 98.0 97.6 4,876 40-44 96.3 95.9 95.1 3,605 45-49 93.7 92.6 91.8 2,854 Residence Urban 99.2 99.1 98.9 7,428 Rural 96.4 96.1 95.6 19,457 Region/Residence Java-Bali 98.3 98.1 97.6 16~888 Urban 99.4 99.3 99.1 5,283 Rural 97.8 97.6 97.0 11,605 Outer Java-Bali I 95.3 94.9 94.6 6,983 Urban 98.7 98.5 98.5 1,494 Rural 94.4 93.9 93.6 5,589 Outer Java-Bali II 95.4 94.9 94.6 3,014 Urban 99.0 98.9 98.4 651 Rural 94.4 93,9 93,5 2,364 Education No education 91.2 90.1 89.2 3,415 Some primary 96.5 96.4 95.6 7,304 Completed primary 98.3 98.1 97.8 8A86 Some secondary + 99.3 99.3 99.2 7,680 Total 97.2 96.9 96.5 26,886 llncludes pill, IUD, injection, intravag/diaphragm/foam, condom, female sterilization, male sterilization and implants. There are differences in contraceptive knowledge by education; knowledge is higher as education increases. For example, 91 percent of women with no education have heard of a method. The proportion rises to 97 percent among women with some primary school, and to 99 percent o f women with some secondary or higher education. With respect to knowledge of family planning sources, the pattern is similar. Table 4.2.2 shows that there are only slight differences in contraceptive knowledge among regions. The percentage o f married women who have heard o f at least one contraceptive method in Java-Bali is 98 percent, followed by Outer Java-Bali I and Outer Java-Bali II (95 percent each). Women who said that they knew a particular method were also asked where they thought a person could go i f they wanted to use the method. The responses to this question are summarized in Table 4.3. For 51 all modem methods except for female and male sterilization, the most commonly named source is the public health center (puskesmas). In the case of female and male sterilization, the govemmant hospital is mentioned as a source by 66 percent or more o f women. Women who have heard o f periodic abstinence are most likely to cite friends and relatives as the potential source of information on how to use the method. Table 4.2.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods: re,ion and nrovince Percentage of currently married women who know at least one contraceptive method and one modern contraceptive method and who know a source (for information or services), by region and province, Indonesia 1997 Know a Know Know source for Number Region and any a modem modem of province method method ~ method women Java-Bali 98.3 98.1 97.6 16,888 DKI Jakarta 99.9 99.8 99.8 1,045 West Java 97.7 97.7 97.2 5,412 Central Java 98.2 98.1 97.4 4,367 DI Yogyakarta 99.9 99.9 99.9 412 East Java 98.6 98.2 97.6 5,227 Bali 98.3 98.3 98.1 425 Outer Java-Bali I 95.3 94.9 94.6 6,983 Dista Aceh 89.8 87.1 87.1 517 North Sumatra 90.5 90.4 89.8 1,581 West Sumatra 94.1 94.0 93.6 503 South Sumatra 99.2 99.1 98.9 870 Lampung 99.4 99.4 99.3 880 West Nusa Tenggara 99.1 99.0 99.0 524 West Kalimantan 95.8 95.3 95.0 445 South Kalimantan 99.4 99.3 98.1 389 North Sulawesi 99.2 99.2 99.2 329 South Sulawesi 94.2 93.5 93.3 945 Outer Java-Bali I I 95.4 94.9 94.6 3,014 Riau 97.4 97.3 96.4 450 Jambi 97.2 97.1 97. I 382 Eangkulu 99.9 99.9 99.5 181 East Nusa Tenggara 93.2 92.7 92.6 446 East Timor 63.6 61.9 61.9 116 Central Kalimantan 95.4 94.8 94.5 222 East Kalimantan 99.7 99.6 98.8 345 Central Sulawesi 98.1 98.1 98.1 251 Southeast Sulawesi 95.8 95.3 94.9 168 Malukn 93.0 92.6 92.1 220 Irian Jaya 98.0 95.7 95.4 233 Total 97.2 96.9 96.5 26,886 i Includes pill, IUD, injection, intravag/diaphragm/foam, condom, female sterilization, male sterilization and implants. Famil iarity with private sources such as private doctors and midwives, private hospitals, and pharmacies is acknowledged by a sizeable proportion of women. Twenty-seven percent of women named pharmacies or d

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