Philippines -Demographic and Health Survey - 2004

Publication date: 2004

World Summit for Children Indicators, Philippines 2003 Childhood mortality Clean water supply Sanitary excreta disposal Basic education Family planning Antenatal care Delivery care Low birth weight Vitamin A supplements Night blindness Exclusive breastfeeding Continued breastfeeding Timely complementary feeding Vaccinations Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) Home management of diarrhea Treatment of ARI Malaria treatment HIV/AIDS Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Percent of households with safe water supply1 Percent of households with flush toilets, pit toilet/latrine Proportion of children reaching grade 52 Net primary school attendance rate2 Proportion of children entering primary school2 Contraceptive prevalence rate (any method, currently married women) Contraceptive prevalence rate (any method, all women) Percent of women who received antenatal care from a health professional3 Percent of births in the 5 years preceding the survey attended by a health professional Percent of births in the 5 years preceding the survey at low birth weight4 Percent of children age 6-59 months who received a vitamin A dose in the 6 months preceding the survey Percent of women age 15-49 who received a vitamin A dose in the 2 months after delivery3 Percent of women 15-49 who suffered from night blindness during pregnancy3 Percent of youngest children under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed Percent of children age 12-15 months still breastfeeding Percent of children age 20-23 months still breastfeeding Percent of youngest children age 6-9 months receiving breast milk and complementary foods Percent of children age 12-23 months with tuberculosis vaccination Percent of children age 12-23 months with at least 3 DPT vaccinations Percent of children age 12-23 months with at least 3 polio vaccinations Percent of children age 12-23 months with measles vaccination Percent of mothers who received at least 2 tetanus toxoid vaccinations during pregnancy3 Percent of children age 0-59 months with diarrhea in the 2 weeks preceding the survey who received oral rehydration salts (ORS) or recommended home fluids (RHF) Percent of children age 0-59 months with diarrhea in the 2 weeks preceding the interview who took more fluids than usual and continued eating somewhat less, the same or more food Percent of children age 0-59 months with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the 2 weeks preceding the survey who were taken to a health provider Percent of children age 0-59 months with a fever in the 2 weeks preceding the survey who were treated with an anti-malarial drug Percent of women age 15-49 who correctly stated 2 ways of avoiding HIV infection5 Percent of women age 15-49 who correctly identified 2 misconceptions about HIV/AIDS6 Percent of women age 15-49 who believe that AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child during breastfeeding Percent of women age 15-49 who believe that the risk of AIDS transmission from mother to child can be reduced by mother taking drugs in pregnancy Percent of women age 15-49 who believe that a female teacher with the AIDS virus should not be allowed to continue teaching in the school Percent of men age 15-54 who correctly stated 2 ways of avoiding HIV infection5 Percent of men age 15-54 who correctly identified 2 misconceptions about HIV/AIDS6 Percent of men age 15-54 who believe that AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child during breastfeeding Percent of men age 15-54 who believe that the risk of AIDS transmission from mother to child can be reduced by mother taking drugs in pregnancy Percent of men age 15-54 who believe that a female teacher with the AIDS virus should not be allowed to continue teaching in the school Percent of men age 15-54 who have been tested for the AIDS virus 29 per 1,000 40 per 1,000 79.7 75.3 92.5 85.5 55.3 48.9 31.6 87.6 59.8 20.3 76.0 44.6 7.9 33.5 54.2 26.9 57.9 90.8 78.9 79.8 79.7 37.3 57.6 2.2 54.8 0.2 45 36 65 20 14 56 30 60 21 11 4 1 Piped water or protected well water 2 Based on de jure children 3 For the last live birth in the five years preceding the survey 4 For children without a reported birth weight, the proportion with low birth weight is assumed to be the same as the proportion with low birth weight in each birth size category among children who have a reported birth weight. 5 Having sex with only one partner who has no other partners and using a condom every time they have sex 6 They say that AIDS cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites and by supernatural means. Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey 2003 National Statistics Office Manila, Philippines ORC Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA October 2004 National Statistics Office Manila, Philippines ORC Macro Calverton, Maryland This report summarizes the findings of the 2003 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) carried out by National Statistics Office. ORC Macro provided financial and technical assistance for the survey through the USAID-funded MEASURE DHS+ program, which is designed to assist developing countries to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. The opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the donor organizations. Additional information about the survey may be obtained from National Statistics Office (NSO), Solicarel Building, Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard., P.O. Box 779, Santa Mesa, Manila, Philippines (Telephone: (632) 716-9368 or 713-7081; Fax: 713-7074 or 714-1715; Email: info@.census.gov.ph; Internet: http://www.census.gov.ph). Additional information about the DHS program may be obtained from MEASURE DHS+, ORC Macro, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705, U.S.A. (Telephone: 301-572-0200; Fax: 301-572-0999; Email: reports@orcmacro.com). Recommended citation: National Statistics Office (NSO) [Philippines], and ORC Macro. 2004. National Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Calverton, Maryland: NSO and ORC Macro. Contents | iii CONTENTS Page Tables and Figures . ix Preface . xv Final Report Writers. xvi Summary of Findings . xvii Map of Philippines. xxiv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background .1 1.2 Objectives of the Survey .2 1.3 Organization of the Survey .2 1.4 Questionnaires .2 1.5 Pretest .5 1.6 Training and Fieldwork .4 1.7 Data Processing .4 1.8 Sample Design and Implementation .5 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2.1 Age and Sex Composition of the Household Population .7 2.2 Age Distribution from Selected Sources .9 2.3 Household Composition .9 2.4 Education of Household Population.10 2.4.1 Education Level of the Household Population.10 2.4.2 School Attendance Ratios .12 2.5 Repetition and Dropout Rates.14 2.6 Housing Characteristics.16 2.7 Household Durable Goods .17 2.8 Availability of Drinking Water and Ways to Make Drinking Water Safe .18 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND WOMEN’S STATUS 3.1 Background Characteristics of Respondents .21 3.1.1 Mobility.21 3.2 Educational Attainment.23 3.3 Exposure to Mass Media .25 3.4 Employment .27 iv | Contents 3.4.1 Employment Status .27 3.4.2 Occupation .30 3.5 Characteristics of Women’s Employment .33 3.6 Control Over Women’s Earnings and Contribution of Women’s Earnings to Household Expenditures.34 3.7 Women’s Empowerment .37 3.7.1 Women’s Participation in Decisionmaking.37 3.7.2 Women’s Attitude toward Wife Beating and Refusing Sex with Husband .40 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY 4.1 Current Fertility .41 4.2 Fertility by Background Characteristics .42 4.3 Fertility Trends.44 4.4 Children Ever Born and Living .45 4.5 Birth Intervals .47 4.6 Age at First Birth .49 4.7 Adolescent Fertility .51 4.8 Male Fertility .52 CHAPTER 5 FAMILY PLANNING 5.1 Knowledge of Family Planning .55 5.2 Ever Use of Family Planning Methods .58 5.3 Current Use of Family Planning Methods .59 5.3.1 Trends in Contraceptive Use.60 5.3.2 Differentials in Contraceptive Use.61 5.3.3 Current Use by Woman’s Status .63 5.4 Number of Children at First Use of Family Planning .64 5.5 Knowledge of the Fertile Period.65 5.6 Timing of Sterilization .66 5.7 Source of Supply of Modern Contraceptive Methods .66 5.8 Informed Choice .67 5.9 Contraceptive Discontinuation Rates .70 5.10 Intentions for Family Planning Use among Nonusers .73 5.11 Family Planning Messages in the Mass Media.75 5.12 Contact Communication between Nonusers and Family Planning/Health Service Providers .77 CHAPTER 6 DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY 6.1 Current Marital Status .79 6.2 Age at First Marriage .80 Contents | v 6.2.1 Median Age at First Marriage .80 6.3 Age at First Menstruation .82 6.4 Age at First Sexual Intercourse .82 6.5 Recent Sexual Activity.84 6.6 Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility .86 6.6.1 Median Duration of Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility.87 6.6.2 Median Duration of Postpartum Amenorrheic Period for Breastfeeding Duration.88 6.7 Menopause .89 CHAPTER 7 FERTILITY PREFERENCES 7.1 Desire for Additional Children .91 7.2 Demand for Family Planning .94 7.3 Ideal Number of Children.97 7.4 Unplanned and Unwanted Fertility. 100 7.5 Ideal Number of Children and Unmet Need by Women’s Status . 102 7.6 Family Size Desires of Couples. 104 CHAPTER 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 8.1 Definitions and Assessment of Data Quality . 107 8.2 Levels and Trends in Infant, Child, and Under-Five Mortality . 108 8.3 Socioeconomic Differentials in Childhood Mortality . 109 8.4 Biodemographic Differentials in Childhood Mortality. 110 8.5 Differentials in Childhood Mortality By Women’s Status . 111 8.6 Perinatal Mortality . 113 8.7 High-Risk Fertility Behavior. 114 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH 9.1 Antenatal Care. 117 9.1.1 Antenatal Care Coverage . 117 9.1.2 Components of Antenatal Care Services . 119 9.1.3 Information about Pregnancy Complications. 121 9.1.4 Tetanus Toxoid Injections . 124 9.2 Delivery Care . 125 9.2.1 Place of Delivery . 125 9.2.2 Delivery Assistance . 126 9.2.3 Delivery Characteristics . 128 9.3 Postnatal Care . 130 vi | Contents 9.3.1 Postnatal Care Coverage. 130 9.3.2 Place of First Postnatal Checkup . 132 9.3.3 Type of Postnatal Checkup . 134 9.4 Reproductive Health Care by Woman’s Status . 134 9.5 Immunization of Children. 135 9.6 Acute Respiratory Infection. 138 9.7 Diarrheal Disease and Related Findings . 140 9.7.1 Disposal of Children’s Stools. 140 9.7.2 Prevalence of Diarrhea . 141 9.7.3 Knowledge of ORS Packets. 143 9.7.4 Diarrhea Treatment . 143 9.7.5 Feeding Practices during Diarrhea . 145 9.8 Children’s Health Care by Women’s Status. 145 9.9 Problems in Accessing Health Care . 146 CHAPTER 10 INFANT FEEDING AND SUPPLEMENTATION 10.1 Prevalence of Breastfeeding and Prelacteal Feeding . 149 10.2 Median Duration and Frequency of Breastfeeding . 153 10.3 Reasons for Not Breastfeeding and Reasons for Stopping Breastfeeding. 155 10.4 Type of Foods and Frequency of Feeding . 156 10.5 Micronutrient Intake among Children and Women. 158 CHAPTER 11 HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS 11.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS/STIs . 163 11.2 Knowledge of Ways to Avoid HIV/AIDS/STIs . 165 11.3 Beliefs about AIDS. 167 11.4 Stigma and Discrimination Associated with HIV/AIDS . 170 11.5 Knowledge of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission . 173 11.6 HIV Testing. 176 11.7 Attitudes toward Negotiating Safer Sex . 176 11.8 Sexual Behavior among Young Women and Men . 179 11.9 Self-reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) . 183 11.10 Sti Treatment-seeking Behavior. 185 11.11 Payment for Sexual Relations . 185 11.12 Men Having Sex with Men . 187 CHAPTER 12 TUBERCULOSIS 12.1 Background on TB. 189 12.2 Respondents’ Knowledge of TB . 190 12.3 Self-Reported Diagnosis, Symptoms, and Treatment . 194 12.4 Willingness to Work with Someone Who Has Previously been Treated for Tuberculosis . 200 Contents | vii 12.5 Awareness of the DOTS Chemotherapy Program. 202 12.6 Summary and Conclusion . 203 CHAPTER 13 GENERAL HEALTH 13.1 Communicable Diseases. 203 13.1.1 Dengue Fever. 203 13.1.2 Leprosy . 203 13.1.3 Malaria . 205 13.2 Noncommunicable Diseases. 206 13.2.1 Cancer . 206 13.2.2 Diabetes. 207 13.3 Health Care Financing . 208 13.4 Traditional Medicines . 209 13.5 Health Facility Utilization. 211 13.6 Alternative Health Care . 212 REFERENCES . 215 APPENDIX A SURVEY DESIGN . 217 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 223 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES. 247 APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2003 PHILIPPINES DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . 253 APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRES . 263 Tables and Figures | ix TABLES AND FIGURES Page CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews . 5 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence . 8 Table 2.2 Median age and dependency ratio . 9 Table 2.3 Household composition. 9 Table 2.4.1 Educational attainment of female household population. 10 Table 2.4.2 Educational attainment of male household population. 11 Table 2.5.1 School attendance ratios: primary school. 13 Table 2.5.2 School attendance ratios: secondary school . 14 Table 2.6 Grade repetition and dropout rates. 15 Table 2.7 Household characteristics . 16 Table 2.8 Household durable goods. 18 Table 2.9 Availability of drinking water. 18 Table 2.10 Safe drinking water . 19 Figure 2.1 Distribution of the de facto household population by single year of age and sex. 7 Figure 2.2 Population pyramid . 8 Figure 2.3 Median years of schooling by sex and regon . 12 Figure 2.4 Housing conveniences by residence . 17 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND WOMEN’S STATUS Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 22 Table 3.2 Childhood residence and mobility . 23 Table 3.3.1 Educational attainment by background characteristics: women. 24 Table 3.3.2 Educational attainment by background characteristics: men. 25 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: women. 26 Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: men . 27 Table 3.5.1 Employment status: women. 28 Table 3.5.2 Employment status: men . 29 Table 3.6.1 Occupation: women. 31 Table 3.6.2 Occupation: men . 32 Table 3.7 Type of employment: women. 33 Table 3.8 Decision on use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures. 35 Table 3.9 Women’s control over earnings . 37 Table 3.10 Women’s participation in decisionmaking by background characteristics . 38 x | Tables and Figures Table 3.11 Women’s participation in decisionomaking . 39 Table 3.12 Women’s attitude toward wife beating and refusing sex with husband. 40 Figure 3.1 Decisionmaker on how women’s earnings are used . 36 Figure 3.2 Proportion of household expenditures met by women’s earnings. 36 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY Table 4.1 Current fertility . 41 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics. 43 Table 4.3 Fertility trends. 44 Table 4.4 Age-specific fertility rates . 45 Table 4.5 Children ever born and living. 46 Table 4.6 Birth intervals. 48 Table 4.7 Age at first birth . 49 Table 4.8 Median age at first birth by background characteristics. 50 Table 4.9 Pregnancy and motherhood among young women . 51 Table 4.10 Male fertility and fatherhood . 52 Table 4.11 Mean number of children . 53 Figure 4.1 Age-specific fertility rates, by residence. 42 Figure 4.2 Total fertility rate by residence and education. 44 Figure 4.3 Trends in the total fertility rate . 45 Figure 4.4 Mean number of children ever born among women 15-49. 46 Figure 4.5 Median number of months since previous birth . 49 CHAPTER 5 FAMILY PLANNING Table 5.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . 55 Table 5.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by background characteristics. 57 Table 5.3 Ever use of contraception . 58 Table 5.4 Current use of contraception . 59 Table 5.5 Trends in contraceptive use . 61 Table 5.6 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . 62 Table 5.7 Current use of contraception by regions. 63 Table 5.8 Curret use of contraception by women’s status . 64 Table 5.9 Number of children at first use of contraception . 65 Table 5.10 Knowledge of fertile period. 65 Table 5.11 Timing of sterilization . 66 Table 5.12 Source of contraception. 67 Table 5.13 Informed choice by method/source . 68 Table 5.14 Informed choice by source . 69 Table 5.15 Informed choice by background characteristics. 70 Table 5.16 First-year contraceptive discontinuation rate . 71 Table 5.17 Reasons for discontinuation . 72 Table 5.18 Future use of contraception . 73 Table 5.19 Reason for not intending to use contraception . 74 Table 5.20 Preferred method of contraception for future use . 75 Table 5.21 Exposure to family planning messages. 76 Table 5.22 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 78 Tables and Figures | xi Figure 5.1 Knowledge of contraception among currently married women age 15-49 . 56 Figure 5.2 Use of contraception among currently married women age 15-49 . 60 Figure 5.3 Trends in contraceptive use, Philippines 1968-2003 . 61 CHAPTER 6 DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY Table 6.1 Current marital status. 79 Table 6.2 Age at first marriage . 80 Table 6.3 Median age at first marriage. 81 Table 6.4 Age at menarche . 82 Table 6.5 Age at first sexual intercourse. 82 Table 6.6 Median age at first intercourse . 83 Table 6.7 Recent sexual activity. 85 Table 6.8 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility . 86 Table 6.9 Median duration of postpartum insusceptibility by background characteristics . 87 Table 6.10 Median duration of postpartum amenorrheic period for breastfeeding duration. 88 Table 6.11 Menopause . 89 CHAPTER 7 FERTILITY PREFERENCES Table 7.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children. 92 Table 7.2 Fertility preferences by age . 92 Table 7.3 Desire to limit childbearing. 93 Table 7.4 Need for family planning . 95 Table 7.5 Preferred future method of family planning among women with unmet need. 96 Table 7.6 Willingness to pay for contraceptive method. 97 Table 7.7 Ideal number of children . 98 Table 7.8 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics . 99 Table 7.9 Fertility planning status . 101 Table 7.10 Wanted fertility rates . 102 Table 7.11 Ideal number of children and unmet need by women’s status. 103 Table 7.12 Couples consensus on family size. 104 Figure 7.1 Fertility preferences among currently married women age 15-49 . 91 Figure 7.2 Percentage of currently married women who want nomore children by residence, education, and wealth index quintile . 94 Figure 7.3 Mean ideal number of children for all women by region. 100 Figure 7.4 Currently married women by perceived consensus with husband regarding the number of children desired . 105 CHAPTER 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Table 8.1 Early childhood mortality rates. 108 Table 8.2 Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics and region . 109 Table 8.3 Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics . 110 Table 8.4 Early childhood mortality rates by women’s status. 112 Table 8.5 Perinatal mortality . 113 Table 8.6 High-risk fertility behavior. 115 xii | Tables and Figures Figure 8.1 Under-five mortality rates by background characteristics. 111 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Table 9.1 Antenatal care . 118 Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 119 Table 9.3 Components of antenatal care . 120 Table 9.4 Information about danger signs of pregnancy . 122 Table 9.5 Places to go in case of pregnancy complications . 123 Table 9.6 Tetanus toxoid injections . 124 Table 9.7 Place of delivery . 125 Table 9.8 Assistance during delivery . 127 Table 9.9 Place and assistance during delivery. 128 Table 9.10 Delivery characteristics . 129 Table 9.11 Reason for caesarean operation . 130 Table 9.12 Postnatal care by background characteristics. 131 Table 9.13 Place of postnatal care . 133 Table 9.14 Postnatal care services . 134 Table 9.15 Reproductive health care by women’s status. 135 Table 9.16 Vaccinations by source of information . 136 Table 9.17 Vaccinations by background characteristics. 137 Table 9.18 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI and fever. 139 Table 9.19 Drugs taken for fever . 140 Table 9.20 Disposal of children’s stools . 141 Table 9.21 Prevalence of diarrhea . 142 Table 9.22 Knowledge of ORS packets . 143 Table 9.23 Diarrhea treatment . 144 Table 9.24 Children’s health care by women’s status. 146 Table 9.25 Problems in accessing health care . 147 Figure 9.1 Feeding practices during diarrhea . 145 CHAPTER 10 INFANT FEEDING AND SUPPLEMENTATION Table 10.1 Initial breastfeeding . 150 Table 10.2 Breastfeeding status by age . 152 Table 10.3 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding. 154 Table 10.4 Reasons for stopping breastfeeding . 156 Table 10.5 Foods consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview . 157 Table 10.6 Frequency of foods consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview . 158 Table 10.7 Micronutrient intake among children . 159 Table 10.8 Treatment with iron. 160 Table 10.9 Micronutrient intake among mothers . 161 Figure 10.1 Reasons for never breastfeeding. 155 CHAPTER 11 HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS Table 11.1 Knowledge of AIDS. 164 Table 11.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods . 166 Tables and Figures | xiii Table 11.3.1 Beliefs about AIDS: women . 168 Table 11.3.2 Beliefs about AIDS: men. 169 Table 11.4.1 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV: women. 171 Table 11.4.2 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV: men . 172 Table 11.5.1 Knowledge of prevention of mother-to child transmission of HIV: women. 174 Table 11.5.2 Knowledge of prevention of mother-to child transmission of HIV: men. 175 Table 11.6 HIV testing status of men . 177 Table 11.7 Attitudes toward negotiating safer sex with husband . 178 Table 11.8 Knowledge of a source for condoms among young people. 180 Table 11.9 Premarital sex and use of condoms among young women and men. 181 Table 11.10 Multiple sex partners among young men. 182 Table 11.11 Condom use at first sex among young men. 183 Table 11.12 Self-reporting of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and STI symptoms . 184 Table 11.13 Men seeking treatment for STIs. 185 Table 11.14 Payment for sex . 186 Table 11.15 Men having sex with men. 187 Figure 11.1 Percentage of men and women who have heard of AIDS and who believe there is a way to avoid HIV/AIDS. 165 Figure 11.2 Percentage of men and women who know of two specific ways to avoid HIV/AIDS . 167 Figure 11.3 Beliefs about AIDS. 170 CHAPTER 12 TUBERCULOSIS Table 12.1 Knowledge of tuberculosis . 190 Table 12.2 Knowledge of specific symptoms of tuberculosis . 191 Table 12.3 Knowledge of the cause of tuberculosis. 191 Table 12.4 Knowledge of the modes of transmission of tuberculosis . 192 Table 12.5 Knowledge of TB causes and transmission modes by background characteristics . 193 Table 12.6 Diagnosis of tuberculosis. 194 Table 12.7 Source of TB treatment. 195 Table 12.8.1 Experience of symptoms of tuberculosis: women . 196 Table 12.8.2 Experience of symptoms of tuberculosis: men. 197 Table 12.9.1 Reasons for not seeking treatment for symptoms of tuberculosis: women. 198 Table 12.9.2 Reasons for not seeking treatment for symptoms of tuberculosis: men . 199 Table 12.10 Reasons for choosing source of treatment for symptoms of TB . 200 Table 12.11 Positive attitudes towardsthose with TB. 201 Table 12.12 Awareness of DOTS. 202 Figure 12.1 Percentage of women and men who ever had symptoms of tuberculosis . 195 CHAPTER 13 GENERAL HEALTH Table 13.1 Dengue fever prevention . 204 Table 13.2 Perceived mode of transmission of leprosy. 204 Table 13.3 Perceived transmission of malaria . 206 Table 13.4 Signs and symptoms of cancer . 207 Table 13.5 Awareness of diabetes . 208 Table 13.6 Profile of PhilHealth members . 209 xiv | Tables and Figures Table 13.7 Familiarity with herbal medicines. 210 Table 13.8 Usage of herbal medicines. 211 Table 13.9 Utilization of health facilities. 212 Table 13.10 Alternative health care modalities . 213 Figure 13.1 Percent distribution of household respondents by whether they think leprosy is curable . 205 APPENDIX A SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION Table A.1.1 Sample implementation: results of the household interview: women. 218 Table A.1.2 Sample implementation: results of the individual interview: women. 219 Table A.2.1 Sample implementation: results of the household interview: men. 220 Table A.2.2 Sample implementation: results of the individual interview: men. 221 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors . 226 Table B.2 Sampling errors for national sample . 227 Table B.3 Sampling errors for urban sample. 228 Table B.4 Sampling errors for rural sample. 229 Table B.5 Sampling errors for National Capital Region sample . 230 Table B.6 Sampling errors for Cordillera Administrative Region sample. 231 Table B.7 Sampling errors for I - Ilocos sample . 232 Table B.8 Sampling errors for II - Cagayan Valley sample . 233 Table B.9 Sampling errors for III - Central Luzon sample. 234 Table B.10 Sampling errors for IVA - CALABARZON sample . 235 Table B.11 Sampling errors for IVB - MIMAROPA sample. 236 Table B.12 Sampling errors for V - Bicol sample . 237 Table B.13 Sampling errors for VI - Western Visayas sample . 238 Table B.14 Sampling errors for VII - Central Visayas sample. 239 Table B.15 Sampling errors for VIII - Eastern Visayas sample . 240 Table B.16 Sampling errors for IX - Zamboanga Peninsula sample . 241 Table B.17 Sampling errors for X - Northern Mindanao sample. 242 Table B.18 Sampling errors for XI - Davao sample . 243 Table B.19 Sampling errors for XII - SOCCSKSARGEN sample . 244 Table B.20 Sampling errors for XIII - Caraga sample. 245 Table B.21 Sampling errors for Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) sample. 246 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES Table C.1 Household age distribution. 247 Table C.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women. 248 Table C.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 248 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting . 249 Table C.4 Births by calendar years . 249 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 250 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months . 251 Preface | xv PREFACE The National Statistics Office (NSO) is pleased to present the final report on the 2003 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The 2003 NDHS is the eighth in a series of surveys conducted every five years since 1968 that mainly aim to measure levels and trends in demographic and family planning indicators. Fieldwork for the 2003 NDHS was carried out from June 16 to September 3, 2003 covering a national sample of approximately 13,000 households, 14,000 women aged 15 to 49 years and 5,000 men aged 15 to 54 years. The successful completion of the 2003 NDHS was made possible by the collaborative efforts of a number of organizations and individuals, whose participation we would like to acknowledge with grati- tude. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Philippines provided substantial financial assistance for the implementation of the data collection. Dr. Mercedes Concepcion, the Depart- ment of Health (DOH), the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI), Population Com- mission (POPCOM), the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) and PhilHealth provided inputs during the development of the question- naires. The DOH and UPPI likewise assisted in the training of trainers and regional supervisors for the survey, and in writing this report. Dr. Elizabeth Go, who formerly worked with the NSO, also assisted in writing the report. ORC Macro, through the MEASURE DHS+ program, provided technical assistance at various stages of the project. As part of its technical assistance to the NSO in the design and implementa- tion of a new master sample for household-based surveys, the Asian Development Bank through its con- sultants, Dr. Graham Kalton and Dr. Arturo Pacificador, Jr., provided invaluable assistance in the design and selection of the NDHS sub-sample. The survey would not have gotten off the ground without the untiring efforts and dedication of the staff of the Demographic and Social Statistics Division (DSSD) of the Household Statistics Depart- ment, selected personnel of the Information Resources Department, employees in the regional and pro- vincial offices, the trainers and regional supervisors, and the 44 interviewing teams composed of team supervisors, field editors and interviewers. Our gratitude also goes to the data processors who patiently worked for long hours during weekdays and weekends in order to meet the target date of completion of data entry and machine editing. Finally, we are ever indebted to the survey respondents who generously shared their time and in- formation to enable us to gather crucial data for our country’s future planning. CARMELITA N. ERICTA Administrator Manila, Philippines October 2004 xvi | Final Report Writers FINAL REPORT WRITERS Macro International. Inc. Dr. Jeremiah Sullivan National Statistics Office Paula Monina G. Collado (Deputy Administrator) Dr. Socorro D. Abejo Benedicta A. Yabut Aurora T. Reolalas Apolinar F. Oblea Erma Y. Aquino Glenn B. Barcenas University of the Philippines Population Institute Dr. Nimfa B. Ogena Dr. Zelda C. Zablan Dr. Josefina V. Cabigon Department of Health Dr. Aura C. Corpuz Free-lance Researcher Dr. Elizabeth M. Go NSO Technical Assistants Luzviminda G. Buensalida Maritess Q. Tan Summary of Findings | xvii SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The 2003 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) is a nationally representative sur- vey of 13,945 women age 15-49 and 5,009 men age 15-54. The main purpose of the 2003 NDHS is to provide policymakers and program managers with detailed information on fertility, family plan- ning, childhood and adult mortality, maternal and child health, and knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted in- fections. The 2003 NDHS also collects high qual- ity data on family health: immunizations, preva- lence and treatment of diarrhea and other diseases among children under five, antenatal visits, assis- tance at delivery and breastfeeding. The 2003 NDHS is the third national sample survey undertaken in Philippines under the aus- pices of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys program. CURRENT STATUS AND PROGRESS FERTILITY The 2003 NDHS indicates that there has been a steady decline in fertility in the Philippines in the past three decades from 6.0 children per woman in 1970 to 3.5 children per woman in 2001. However, compared with current fertility levels in Southeast Asia, fertility in the Philip- pines is relatively high. Only Laos (4.7 children per woman) and Cambodia (4.0 children per woman) are higher. Fertility varies substantially across sub- groups of women. Urban women have, on aver- age, 1.3 children fewer than rural women (3.0 and 4.3 children per woman, respectively). The differ- ences are also substantial across regions. The Na- tional Capital Region (NCR) has the lowest fertil- ity rate (2.8 children per woman) while MIMA- ROPA has the highest (5.0 children per woman). Fertility level has a negative relationship with education. The fertility rate of women with college or higher education (2.7 children per woman) is about half that of women with no edu- cation (5.3 children). Fertility is also negatively asso- ciated with wealth index quintile: women in wealthier households have fewer children than those in poorer households. WHY DID FERTILITY DECLINE? The decline in fertility is brought about by, among other things, longer birth intervals, and desire for fewer children. Longer birth intervals. Fertility decline in the Philippines can be attributed to longer intervals be- tween births. Results of the 2003 NDHS indicate that half of births occur 30.5 months after the previous birth, which is longer than the median birth interval reported in the 1998 NDHS (28 months). Gap between wanted fertility and actual fertil- ity rates. Despite increasing use of contraception, the survey data indicate that one in four pregnancies is mistimed and one in five is not wanted at all. If un- wanted births could be prevented, the total fertility rate in the Philippines would be 2.5 births per woman instead of the actual level of 3.5. This gap between wanted fertility and actual fertility is the same as that observed in the 1998 survey, but the fertility levels in 2003 are lower than in 1998 (2.7 and 3.7 births per woman, respectively). Increased use of contraception. Contraceptive use among currently married women in the Philip- pines over the past 35 years has more than tripled, from 15 percent in 1968 to 49 percent in 2003. Most of the rise in contraceptive prevalence is due to the increase in use of modern contraceptive methods, from 25 percent in 1993 to 33 percent in 2003. USE OF CONTRACEPTION Method mix. Not only has the contraceptive prevalence rate in the Philippines increased, the pro- portion of married women who use modern contracep- tive methods has increased from 28 percent in 1998 to 33 percent in 2003, while use of traditional methods has decreased from 18 percent in 1998 to 16 percent in 2003. xviii | Summary of Findings Large differentials in use of contraception. There are large differences in the use of modern contraceptive methods across subgroups of mar- ried women. More than half of women with at least a high school education are current users of contraception compared with less than one in five women with no formal education. Use of any method of family planning also increases with wealth status. Contraceptive preva- lence is 37 percent among women in the lowest wealth quintile, 54 percent for those in the fourth quintile, and 51 percent for women in the highest wealth quintile. Contraceptive use shows an inverted U- shaped relationship with the number of living children. Use of any method ranges from 6 per- cent among women with no living children to 61 percent for women with three to four children, after which it declines to 46 percent for women with five or more children. Contraceptive prevalence among married women by region ranges from 19 percent in ARMM to 59 percent in Davao Peninsula. How- ever, use of modern methods shows a different pattern. The proportion of currently married women who use modern methods of contraception is 40 percent or more in Central Luzon, Davao, and Cagayan Valley, and only 12 percent in ARMM. Traditional methods are most popular in Bicol Region (24 percent) and least popular in Cagayan Valley (4 percent). Source of supply. Over two-thirds of current users of modern methods obtain their contracep- tive supplies and services from a public source (67 percent), 29 percent from a private medical source, and 3 percent from other sources. Com- pared with data from the 1998 NDHS, there has been a decrease in reliance to the public sector (from 72 percent) and an increase in use of private sector (from 26 percent). Unmet need for family planning. Unmet need for family planning is defined as the percent- age of currently married women who either do not want any more children or want to wait before having their next birth, but are not using any method of family planning. The 2003 NDHS data show that the total unmet need for family planning in the Philippines is 17 percent, of which 8 per- cent is for limiting and 9 percent is for spacing. The level of unmet need has declined from 20 percent in 1998. Overall, the total demand for family planning in the Philippines is 69 percent, of which 75 percent has been satisfied. If all of this need were satisfied, a con- traceptive prevalence rate of about 69 percent could, theoretically, be expected. Comparison with the 1998 NDHS indicates that the percentage of demand satis- fied has increased only slightly from 72 percent. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Antenatal care. Nine in ten mothers received care from a medical professional during their preg- nancy; 50 percent received care from a nurse or a midwife and 38 percent from a doctor. Traditional birth attendants provide antenatal care to 7 percent of women. Six percent of pregnant women received no antenatal care. These figures show little change from those recorded in the 1998 NDHS. The Philippines Department of Health (DOH) recommends that all pregnant women have at least four antenatal care visits during each pregnancy. The 2003 NDHS data show that seven in ten women with a live birth in the five years before the survey had the recommended number of antenatal care visits during the pregnancy for the last live birth. The DOH further recommends that for early de- tection of pregnancy-related health problems, the first antenatal check up should occur in the first trimester of the pregnancy. More than half (53 percent) of women who had at least one live birth in the five years before the survey adopt this recommendation. For three in 10 women, the first visit was made when their pregnancy was 4-5 months, while one in 10 had the first antenatal care when they were 6-7 months preg- nant. Information about the danger signs of preg- nancy. Five in ten women with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey were informed about the danger signs of pregnancy complications. This is an increase from 33 percent in 1998. Tetanus toxoid injections. The DOH also rec- ommends that women receive at least two tetanus toxoid (TT) injections during their first pregnancy. The 2003 NDHS shows that 37 percent of women who had a live birth in the five years before the survey met this recommendation. TT coverage in 2003 is Summary of Findings | xix similar to that recorded in the 1998 NDHS (38 percent). Delivery care. Thirty-eight percent of live births in the five years before the survey were de- livered in a health facility and 61 percent were born at home. These figures show an increase in the proportion of births occurring in a health facil- ity from 34 percent in 1998 and a decline in the percentage of births delivered at home (66 percent in 1998). Assistance during delivery. Six in ten births in the five years before the survey were assisted by health professionals; 34 percent by a doctor and 26 percent by a midwife or a nurse. While coverage of births attended by a health profes- sional has increased in the last five years from 56 percent in 1998, it remains lower than the target set by DOH (80 percent by 2004). Postnatal care. The DOH recommends that mothers receive a postpartum checkup within two days of delivery. Women who delivered in a health facility are assumed to receive postnatal care. One in three women who delivered outside a health facility had their first postnatal checkup within two days of delivery. With another 17 per- cent of the women receiving their first postnatal checkup from 3 to 6 days after delivery, 51 per- cent of women received a postnatal checkup within six days of delivery. Combined with 38 percent of women delivering their last birth in a health facility, a total of 89 percent of women re- ceived postnatal care in the 6 days after delivery. This percentage is higher than the target set by the DOH (80 percent). CHILD HEALTH Childhood immunization. Information from health cards and mothers’ reports (combined) shows that 60 percent of children 12-23 months have been immunized with vaccines against the six preventable childhood diseases—tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, and mea- sles—before one year of age. Seventy percent of children age 12-23 months have received the vac- cines. This rate is higher than in the 1998 NDHS (65 percent). The proportion of children age 12 to 23 months who have received no vaccination (7 percent) is similar to that in the 1998 NDHS (8 percent). Childhood illnesses. Acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhea, and malaria are common causes of childhood illness and death. In the 2003 NDHS, acute respiratory infection was identified by mother’s re- ports on the prevalence of symptoms of ARI—cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing—in the two weeks preceding the survey. One in 10 children under age five had symptoms of ARI. Eleven percent of children under age five were reported to have diarrhea during the two-week period before the survey, which indicates a slight increase from the 7 percent level in the 1998 NDHS. Thirty-two percent of children who were reported to have had diarrhea were taken to a health facility for treatment. Fifty-nine percent of children with diarrhea were treated with ORT, either ORS packets (42 per- cent), recommended homemade fluids (RHF) (24 per- cent), or increased fluids (2 percent). Other treatments for diarrhea were pills or syrup (30 percent), a home remedy (18 percent), injection (1 percent), or intrave- nous solution (1 percent). Breastfeeding. The prevalence of breastfeeding in the Philippines has remained the same, at least since the 1993 survey. Eighty-seven percent of chil- dren born in the five years preceding the 2003 NDHS were breastfed. There has been no change in this prac- tice since 1993 (87 percent in 1993 and 88 percent in 1998). Overall, the most common reason given by mothers for not breastfeeding their babies is that they do not have enough milk (20 percent), that they have nipple or breast problems, or that they are working (5 percent and 13 percent, respectively). Twelve percent of mothers reported that the child refused to breast- feed. The median duration of any breastfeeding in- creased from 12.8 months in 1998 to 14.1 months in 2003. However, the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding declined slightly from 1.4 months in 1998 to 0.8 months in 2003. Perceived problems in accessing health care. In the 2003 NDHS, women were asked whether they have problems seeking medical advice or treatment for themselves. Getting money for treatment is the problem most often cited (67 percent). Other problems include not wanting to go alone (28 percent), access to the health facility because of the distance (27 percent), and because they have to take transport to go to the health facility (26 percent). xx | Summary of Findings AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and ways to avoid HIV/AIDS. While the vast majority of the 2003 NDHS respondents have heard of AIDS (95- 96 percent), knowledge of the three principal ways to reduce HIV transmission—abstinence, use of condoms, and reducing the number of part- ners—is not widespread. Less than half of women and 62 percent of men know that HIV can be pre- vented by using condom, 77 percent or women and men say that limiting sex to one uninfected partner can reduce the risk of getting HIV. Forty- five percent of women and 56 percent of men know that the combination of the two preventive measures can reduce the risk of HIV infection. Misconceptions about the transmission of AIDS are high in the Philippines; only 36 percent of women and 30 percent of men reject the two most common misconceptions about AIDS in the Philippines (i.e., AIDS can be transmitted by mosquito bites and by sharing food with a person who has AIDS). Knowledge of mother-to-child transmis- sion (MTCT). In the 2003 NDHS, respondents were asked if the virus that causes AIDS can be transmitted from a mother to a child. The general knowledge about HIV transmission during preg- nancy, delivery, and breastfeeding is relatively high (63 to 73 percent among women and 60 to 68 percent among men). However, few women and men (20 to 21 percent) know that the risk of MTCT can be reduced if a mother takes special drugs during pregnancy. This knowledge varies widely across subgroups of women and men. Ur- ban residence, education, and household eco- nomic status have a positive impact on the re- spondent’s knowledge of MTCT. Stigma and Discrimination Associated with HIV/AIDS. The majority of respondents (76 percent of women and 79 percent of men) feel that HIV-positive status should not be kept confiden- tial. When asked if they would be willing to care for a relative who became sick with AIDS in his/her own household, 34 percent of women and 29 percent of men gave a positive response. To assess whether there is a discrimination against persons with AIDS in the workplace, the respon- dents were asked if they believe that an HIV- infected female teacher should be allowed to con- tinue teaching. Only a small percentage of respon- dents (14 percent of women and 11 percent of men) agreed with the question. Self-reporting of sexually transmitted infec- tions (STIs). Less than 2 percent of men reported hav- ing had an STI and/or symptoms of an STI in the 12 months preceding the survey. However, less than half of the men sought care (46 percent) for the infection. Men having sex with men. Among men who have ever had sex, 5 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with a man; less than 1 percent re- ported having sex with a man in the 12 months pre- ceding the survey. Nonmarried men and men with high school education are more likely to engage in homosexual relations than other men. TUBERCULOSIS Knowledge of tuberculosis (TB). Almost all of the women and men surveyed (97 percent of women and 96 percent of men) have heard of TB. However, the percentage of respondents who believe that TB can be cured is a little lower (92 percent for women and 89 percent for men). About half of the respon- dents know that TB is transmitted through the air when coughing (52 percent for women and 46 percent for men). Self-reporting TB infection. Less than 1 per- cent of women and 1 percent of men reported that they had been told by a doctor or a health professional that they had TB in the five years preceding the sur- vey. Differentials across subgroups of respondents were small. Stigma and Discrimination Associated with TB. Six in ten women and men who have heard of TB say they are willing to work with someone who has previously been treated for TB. GENERAL HEALTH In the 2003 NDHS, household respondents were interviewed on their knowledge, practice, and atti- tudes toward health. Communicable Diseases Knowledge of dengue fever. Results of the 2003 NDHS show that effective ways to prevent dengue fever are well known in the Philippines. More than Summary of Findings | xxi two-thirds of household respondents reported that removing mosquito breeding places is a way to avoid dengue. Knowledge of leprosy. About three in four household respondents (76 percent) have heard of leprosy. However, knowledge of the mode of transmission, contact with leprosy patient and skin-to-skin transmission, were correctly identi- fied by only 31 and 28 percent of household re- spondents, respectively. A considerable propor- tion (26 percent) of respondents did not know how leprosy spreads from one person to another. Knowledge of malaria. Nine in ten house- hold respondents have heard of malaria, and 61 percent of them are right in saying that a mosquito bite is the major means of transmission. Noncommunicable Diseases Knowledge of cancer. Survey results show that 94 percent of the household respondents are aware of cancer. Of those, 35 percent mentioned that the most obvious symptom of cancer is the presence of a lump or mass in any part of a per- son’s body. Diabetes. Almost all Filipino households (95 percent) have heard of diabetes. Awareness of this disease is high in all regions (86 percent in CAR to 98 percent in Western Visayas). Health Care Financing In the 2003 NDHS, household respon- dents were asked whether they or anyone in the household were members of Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) and, if so, what type of members they were. Thirty percent of household respondents in the 2003 NDHS re- ported having at least one member in their house- hold with PhilHealth membership. The largest proportion (43 percent) of PhilHealth members are employed in privately owned businesses or establishments, followed by government employ- ees (27 percent). Individual/voluntary payers and indigents compose smaller percentages (15 and 11 percent, respectively), while overseas Filipino workers (OFW) and nonpaying members compose the smallest percentages (2 percent each). Traditional Medicines DOH continues to promote locally produced herbs with scientifically proven medicinal uses through its Traditional Medicine Program. The 2003 NDHS investigated the familiarity of Filipino house- holds with these herbal medicines and their medicinal uses. The most popular herbal medicines are bayabas (guava, 98 percent), bawang (garlic, 92 percent), and ampalaya (bitter gourd, 88 percent). Health Facility Utilization In the 2003 NDHS, respondents were asked if a member of their household visited any health facility in the six months preceding the survey. More than half (57 percent) of the households utilized a health facil- ity. Barangay health stations, which are public health facilities operating at the grassroots level, are the most utilized health facilities (22 percent each). MORTALITY Childhood Mortality. The infant mortality rate in the Philippines has declined from 34 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 29 deaths in 2000. At cur- rent mortality levels, 40 of every 1,000 children born in the Philippines die before the fifth birthday. Mortality levels in urban areas are much lower than those in rural areas (24 deaths per 1,000 live births compared with 36 deaths per 1,000 live births). Childhood mortality is inversely related to the mother’s education level and wealth status. The IMR for children whose mother have no education is 65 deaths per 1,000 live births compared with 15 deaths per 1,000 live births for children whose mother have college or higher education. The IMR is higher than the national average in seven regions: MIMAROPA, Western Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Northern Min- danao, Davao, Caraga, and ARMM. CONTINUING CHALLENGES • Despite increased use of family planning, in- creased age at first birth, and the continued decline in fertility, the 2003 NDHS reveals continuing chal- lenges. Twenty-four percent of births in the five years preceding the survey were wanted, but at a later time, and 20 percent were not wanted at all. While the pro- portion of mistimed births declined from 27 percent in xxii | Summary of Findings 1998 to 24 percent in 2003, the proportion of un- wanted births increased from 18 percent in 1998 to 20 percent in 2003. • As use of family planning has increased over time, there has been greater reliance on mod- ern contraceptive methods. The largest increase in use of modern methods involves supply meth- ods—the pill, and injectables. Greater program emphasis needs to be placed on long-term meth- ods such as the IUD and sterilization. • In the maternal health sector, while se- lected health indicators have shown improvement, others show deterioration. The Department of Health recommends that all pregnant women have at least four antenatal care visits during each pregnancy, but only seven in ten women had the recommended number of antenatal care visits dur- ing the last pregnancy resulting in a live birth. • In the area of child health, while coverage of childhood immunizations against the six major dis- eases increased from 65 percent in 1998 to 70 percent in 2003, the percentage of women who have been immunized against neonatal tetanus has stayed at about 37 percent. • Although childhood mortality continues to decline, 54 percent of births in the Philippines have an elevated mortality risk that is avoidable. These include births in which the mother is too young (under age 18) or too old (age 35 or older), the birth interval is too short (less than two years), or the mother has had too many prior births (more than three). • While 95 to 96 percent the 2003 NDHS re- spondents have heard of AIDS, knowledge of ways to reduce the transmission of HIV is limited, and mis- conceptions about AIDS transmission are high. There is need for better information on the modes of trans- mission and ways to prevent HIV/AIDS. BATAN ES MOUNTAIN PROVINCE IFUGAO CAGAYAN ISABELA QUIRINONUEVA VIZCAYA ILOCOS NORTE ABRA ILOCOS SUR LA UNION PANGASINAN ZAMBALES TARLAC NUEVA ECIJA PAMPANGA BULACAN NORTHERN SAMAR WESTERN SAMAR EASTERN SAMAR LEYTE SOUTHER N LEYTE CEBU BOHOL SIQUIJOR CAMIGUIN ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL ZAMBOANGA SIBUGAY ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR MISAMIS ORIENTAL BUKIDNON AGUSAN DEL NORTE AGUSAN DEL SUR BASILAN SULU TAWI -TAWI SURIGAO DEL NORTE SURIGAO DEL SUR Republic of the Philippines NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE Manila Philippine Map N Region I ILOCOS Region II CAGAYAN VALLEY Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) Region III CENTRAL LUZON National Capital Region (NCR) Region IV-B MIMAROPA Region VI WESTERN VISAYAS Region IX ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) Region X NORTHERN MINDANAO Region XIII CARAGA Region VIII EASTERN VISAYAS Region V BICOL P H ILIP P IN E S EA S O U T H C H IN A S E A LU ZO N S EA L U Z O N S T R A I T PALAWAN Region VII CENTRAL VISAYAS ALBAY CAMARINES NORTE CAMARINES SUR MASBATE SORSOGON CATANDUANES RIZAL CAVITE BATANGAS LAGUNA QUEZON ROMBLON NEGROS ORIENTAL Region XI DAVAO Region XII SOCCSKSARGEN Zamboanga City BILIRAN SIBUYAN SEA VISAYAN SEA CAMOTES SEA S U L U S E A BOHOL SEA M O R O G U L F GUIMARAS BABUYAN CHANNEL BENGUET KALINGA APAYAO BATAAN AURORA SULTAN KUDARAT SARANGANI SOUTH COTABATO COTABATO D A V A O GULF DAVAO DEL SUR DAVAO DEL NORTE DAVAO ORIENTAL. COMPOSTELA VALLEY LANAO DEL NORTE MAGUINDANAO LANAO DEL SUR NEGROS OCCIDENTAL AKLAN ILOILO CAPIZ ANTIQUE OCCIDENTAL MINDORO ORIENTAL MINDORO MARINDUQUE Region IV-A CALABARZON xxiv l Map of Philippines Introduction | 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 BACKGROUND In the absence of comprehensive registration of population and vital statistics, demographic surveys are the primary source of data used in monitoring the progress and evaluating the impact of the population program of the country. The Philippine Population Program was officially launched in 1970. Since then, it has undergone many changes in its policy and program directions. In the beginning, the program was centered on fertility reduction and contraceptive distribution, using a clinic-based approach. In the 1970s, the family planning program shifted to a family welfare approach, adopting a combined clinic and community-based delivery approach. In the 1980s, the population policy was restated, calling for the broadening of population concerns beyond fertility reduction to cover family formation, the status of women, maternal and child health, morbidity and mortality, population distribution and urbanization, internal and international migration, and population structure (Commission on Population, 1997: 1). The Philippine Population Management Program (PPMP) was developed in 1993 to supplant the Philippine Population Program (Philippine NGO Council on Population, Health and Welfare, Inc., 1998: 25). The PPMP adopted the population, resources and environment (PRE) framework, which defines the connection between population and sustainable development. Its overall goal is the improvement of quality of life by creating a favorable environment for achieving rational growth and distribution of population, defined in relation to resources and environment. Since 1998, the program has aimed to promote the reproductive health approach in the implementation of population policies and programs. Specifically, the Philippine Family Planning Program promotes family planning within a comprehensive package of reproductive health services (Commission on Population, 1997: 17). The action agenda includes the following (Commission on Population, 1997: 19): 1) Reducing unmet need for family planning services 2) Reducing incidence of high-risk pregnancies 3) Making available high-quality family planning services 4) Reducing abortion 5) Increasing the participation and sharing of responsibility of men in the practice of family planning. The Department of Health (DOH) is the lead agency for the reproductive health and family planning component of the PPMP. The Commission on Population (POPCOM) is the coordinating body of the PPMP (Commission on Population, 1997: 5-6). The PPMP Directional Plan for 2001-2004 aimed to continue pursuing responsible parenthood within the context of sustainable development, with emphasis on the health rationale of family planning and on the exercise of reproductive health and sexual rights. The Directional Plan aimed to reduce or eliminate the unmet need for family planning and ultimately achieve replacement-level fertility, that is about 2 children per couple in the year 2004 (POPCOM, 2000). The PPMP Directional Plan was updated during the administration of President Gloria-Macapagal- Arroyo through the development of Strategic Operational Plan (SOP). The PPMP SOP will focus on Introduction | 2 addressing the unmet need for family planning among poor couples, and the sexuality and fertility information needs of the adolescents and youth, especially among those who are poor (POPCOM, 2002). The strategic actions areas are: 1) service delivery, 2) IEC/advocacy, and 3) capacity building. POPCOM, in coordination with the DOH, will advocate for the promotion of the Family Planning/Reproductive Health (FP/RF) services. The DOH will implement the clinic-based delivery of FP/RH services. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE SURVEY The 2003 Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) is designed to provide up- to-date information on population, family planning, and health to assist policymakers and program managers in evaluating and designing strategies for improving health and family planning services in the country. In particular, the 2003 NDHS has the following objectives: • Collect data at the national level, which will allow the calculation of demographic rates and, particularly, fertility and under-five mortality rates. • Analyze the direct and indirect factors that determine the level and trends of fertility. Indicators related to fertility will serve to inform plans for social and economic development. • Measure the level of contraceptive knowledge and practice by method, urban-rural residence, and region. • Collect data on knowledge and attitudes of women and men about sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and evaluate patterns of recent behavior regarding condom use. • Collect high-quality data on family health, including immunizations, prevalence and treatment of diarrhea and other diseases among children under five, antenatal visits, assistance at delivery, and breastfeeding. 1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE SURVEY The 2003 NDHS was implemented by the Philippines National Statistics Office (NSO) from June 16 to September 3, 2003. Financial support for the local costs of the survey was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). ORC Macro provided technical assistance to the project through the MEASURE DHS+ program. The 2003 NDHS is the eighth in a series of demographic surveys in the Philippines taken at five- year intervals since 1968. It is the third survey conducted under the auspices of the Demographic and Health Surveys program. Thus, the data collected in the 2003 NDHS provide updated estimates of basic demographic and health indicators covered in previous NDHS surveys. 1.4 QUESTIONNAIRES The 2003 NDHS used four questionnaires: Household Questionnaire, Health Module, Women’s Questionnaire, and Men’s Questionnaire. The content of the Women’s Questionnaire was based on the MEASURE DHS+ Model “A” Questionnaire, which was developed for use in countries with high levels of contraceptive use. To modify the questionnaire to reflect relevant family planning and health issues in the Philippines, program input was solicited from Department of Health (DOH), Commission on Population (POPCOM), the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI), the Food and Nutrition Research Introduction | 3 Institute (FNRI), the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), USAID, the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB), the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and Dr. Mercedes B. Concepcion, professor emeritus at the University of the Philippines, as well as managers of USAID-sponsored projects in the Philippines. The questionnaires were translated from English into six major languages: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Bicol, Hiligaynon, and Waray. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all of the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Basic information collected for each person listed includes age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. Information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor of the house, and ownership of various durable goods, was also recorded in the Household Questionnaire. These items are indicators of the household’s socioeconomic status. The Health Module was aimed at apprising concerned agencies on the health status, practices, and attitude of the population. The module included the following topics: - Health facility utilization - Noncommunicable diseases - Infectious diseases - Traditional medicines, healing practices, and alternative health care modalities - Health care financing - Environmental health. The Women’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics: - Background characteristics (e.g., education, media exposure) - Reproductive history - Knowledge and use of family planning methods - Fertility preferences - Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care - Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices - Vaccinations and childhood illnesses - Marriage and sexual activity - Woman’s work and husband’s background characteristics - Infant’s and children’s feeding practices - Childhood mortality - Awareness and behavior regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections - Awareness and behavior regarding tuberculosis. The Men’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-54 living in every third household in the NDHS sample. The Men’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information found in the Women’s Questionnaire but was shorter because it did not contain questions on reproductive history, maternal and child health, and nutrition. Instead, men were asked about their knowledge and participation in health-seeking practices for their children. Introduction | 4 1.5 PRETEST Three pretests were conducted prior to finalizing the survey instruments. The first pretest was conducted on January 6 through 10, 2003, in Caloocan City and Marikina City, both located in the National Capital Region (NCR). It was aimed at checking the flow of questions and the practicability of administering the Men’s Questionnaire, which was used for the first time in the Philippines NDHS. The second pretest was carried out in Bulacan Province. The aim was to test the Tagalog translation of the questionnaires and also the field operation procedures. Training for the pretest field staff took place in the NSO Central Office in Manila from February 24 through March 7, 2003, with fieldwork on March 10 through 22, 2003. The NDHS questionnaires were later translated into other dialects—Cebuano, Ilocano, Bicol, Hiligaynon, and Waray—with assistance from staff of the Regional Statistics Offices (RSOs). The third pretest was mainly carried out to check the translation of the questionnaires. It was conducted on April 2 through 9, 2003, in the NSO Central Office, with personnel assigned at the Household Statistics Department and the NSO NCR office who spoke any of the five dialects acting as the interviewers. Selected male and female employees from different departments of NSO who spoke the dialects were interviewed with the translated questionnaires. Some of the third pretest interviewers administered the translated questionnaires to their neighbors and relatives who spoke the dialects. 1.6 TRAINING AND FIELDWORK Training of the field staff was conducted in two phases. The first was the Task Force training (instructors and regional coordinators), followed by training of the interviewing teams. The Task Force training was conducted in Manila from April 28 through May 17, 2003. Thirty-six persons participated as trainees: 17 from RSOs and 19 from the NSO Central Office. The trainers were staff of the Demographic and Social Statistics Division (DSSD) at NSO and professors from UPPI. Staff from DOH and PhilHealth served as resource persons in the training. The second-level training took place from May 21 through June 6, 2003, in eight training centers: Antipolo, Rizal; San Fernando, La Union; Legazpi City; Iloilo City; Cebu City; Zamboanga City; Cagayan de Oro City; and Davao City. Instructors in this training were members of the Task Force who were trained in the first-level training. Data collection was carried out from June 16 to September 3, 2003, by 44 interviewing teams. Each team consisted of a team supervisor, a field editor, three or four female interviewers, and one male interviewer. 1.7 DATA PROCESSING All completed questionnaires and the control forms were returned to the NSO Central Office in Manila for data processing, which consisted of manual editing, data entry and verification, and editing of computer-identified errors. An ad hoc group of seven regular employees of DSSD was created to work full time in the NDHS Data Processing Center. This group was responsible for the different aspects of NDHS data processing. There were 10 manual processors and 25 data encoders hired to process the data. Manual editing started on July 15, 2003, and data entry started on July 21, 2003. The computer package program called CSPro (Census and Survey Processing System) was used for data entry, editing, and tabulation. To prepare the data entry programs, two NSO staff members spent three weeks in ORC Macro offices in Calverton, Maryland, in April and May 2003. Data processing was completed in October 29, 2003. Introduction | 5 1.8 SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The 2003 NDHS is the first survey that used the new master sample created for household surveys on the basis of the 2000 Census of Population and Housing. The 2003 NDHS used one of the four replicates of the master sample. The sample was designed to represent the country as a whole, urban and rural areas, and each of the 17 administrative regions. In each region, a stratified, three-stage cluster sampling design was employed. In the first stage, 819 primary sampling units (PSUs) were selected with probability proportional to the number of households in the 2000 census. PSUs consisted of a barangay or a group of contiguous barangays. In the second stage, in each PSU, enumeration areas (EAs) were selected with probability proportional to the number of EAs. An EA is defined as an area with discernable boundaries consisting of about 150 contiguous households. All households in the selected EAs were listed in a separate field operation conducted May 7 through 21, 2003. In the third stage, from each EA, an average of 17 households was selected using systematic sampling. For the 2003 NDHS sample, 13,914 households were selected, of which 12,694 were occupied (Table 1.1). Of these households, 12,586 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 99 percent. Household response rates are similar in rural areas and in urban areas (99 percent). Among the households interviewed, 13,945 women were identified as eligible respondents, and interviews were completed for 13,633 women, yielding a response rate of 98 percent. In a subsample of every third household, 5,009 men were identified to be eligible for individual interview. Of these, 4,766 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 95 percent. The principal reason for nonresponse among women and men was the failure to find individuals at home, despite interviewers’ repeated visits to the household. Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Residence ––––––––––––––––– Result Urban Rural Total ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Household interviews Households selected 6,878 7,036 13,914 Households occupied 6,247 6,447 12,694 Households interviewed 6,183 6,403 12,586 Household response rate 99.0 99.3 99.1 Interviews with women Number of eligible women 7,610 6,335 13,945 Number of eligible women interviewed 7,436 6,197 13,633 Eligible woman response rate 97.7 97.8 97.8 Interviews with men Number of eligible men 2,526 2,483 5,009 Number of eligible men interviewed 2,379 2,387 4,766 Eligible man response rate 94.2 96.1 95.1 Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 7 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2 This chapter provides a summary of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the household population in the 2003 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). It provides valu- able input for social and economic development planning and is also useful for understanding and identi- fying the major factors that determine or influence the basic demographic indicators of the population. The Household Questionnaire used in the 2003 NDHS collected data on the demographic and so- cial characteristics of the members and visitors in each sample household. A household, as defined in the survey, refers to a person or group of persons who usually sleep in the same housing unit and have a common arrangement for the preparation and consumption of food. A visitor is someone who is not a usual resident of the household but had slept in the household the night prior to the interview. In the 2003 NDHS, information was collected on each household’s ownership of a number of consumer items, such as radio, television, or car, as well as on dwelling characteristics and sanitation fa- cilities. A wealth index was constructed by assigning a weight or factor score to each household asset through principal components analysis. These scores were summed by household, and individuals were ranked according to the total score of the household in which they resided. The sample was then divided into quintiles—five groups with the same number of individuals each. 2.1 AGE AND SEX COMPOSITION OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION Age and sex are important demographic variables and are the primary basis of demographic clas- sification in vital statistics, censuses, and surveys. They are also important variables in the study of mor- tality, fertility, and nuptiality. In general, the presentation of indicators according to sex is a useful analy- sis. An examination of the quality of data indicates that age reporting in the Philippines is fairly accu- rate. Slight heaping is notable in selected ages (Figure 2.1). Figure 2.1 Distribution of the De Facto Household Population by Single Year of Age and Sex 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Percent Male Female NDHS 2003 8 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics The 2003 NDHS enumerated a total of 58,449 persons, almost equally divided between males and females. The overall sex ratio, the number of males per 100 females, is 101. The sex ratio differs by resi- dence; it is lower in urban areas than in rural areas (97 and 106, respectively). The proportion of popula- tion below age 15 years is larger in rural than in urban areas (41 and 35 percent, respectively), indicating a younger age structure of the rural population (Table 2.1 and Figure 2.2). Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age groups, according to sex and resi- dence, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban Rural Total ––––––––––––––––––––––– –––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––– Age Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– <5 12.2 11.3 11.7 13.0 13.3 13.2 12.6 12.2 12.4 5-9 12.4 10.8 11.6 14.1 13.9 14.0 13.3 12.3 12.8 10-14 11.8 11.6 11.7 13.9 14.1 14.0 12.8 12.8 12.8 15-19 10.4 10.3 10.4 10.3 8.4 9.4 10.4 9.4 9.9 20-24 9.9 9.5 9.7 7.3 6.2 6.7 8.6 8.0 8.3 25-29 8.0 7.9 8.0 6.4 6.5 6.5 7.2 7.2 7.2 30-34 7.2 7.3 7.2 6.2 6.4 6.3 6.7 6.9 6.8 35-39 6.3 6.9 6.6 6.1 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.6 6.4 40-44 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.2 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.5 45-49 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 50-54 3.5 4.3 3.9 3.7 4.2 3.9 3.6 4.3 3.9 55-59 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.8 60-64 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.3 65-69 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.6 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.8 1.6 70-74 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.2 75-79 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.7 80+ 0.5 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 14,910 15,428 30,337 14,490 13,622 28,112 29,399 29,050 58,449 Figure 2.2 Population Pyramid 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 0246810 0 2 4 6 8 10 NDHS 2003 Age Male Percent Female Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 9 Table 2.3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size, according to residence, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Residence ––––––––––––– Characteristic Urban Rural Total –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Sex of head of household Male 81.9 87.6 84.6 Female 18.1 12.4 15.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 4.1 4.2 4.1 2 9.8 10.5 10.1 3 15.9 14.9 15.4 4 19.9 17.8 18.9 5 17.9 17.8 17.8 6 13.5 12.7 13.1 7 8.4 9.2 8.8 8 4.6 6.3 5.4 9+ 5.9 6.5 6.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 6,583 6,003 12,586 Mean size 4.8 4.9 4.8 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: Table is based on de jure members, i.e., usual residents. 2.2 AGE DISTRIBUTION FROM SELECTED SOURCES The percent distributions of population by broad age groups, according to the 1970, 1980, 1990, 1995, and 2000 census of population and the 1993, 1998, and 2003 NDHS are presented in Table 2.2. There appears to be a progressive decline in the proportion of population under 15 and, concomitantly, an increase in the median age since 1970. The growing proportion of population age 15-64 results in a de- clining dependency ratio, defined as the ratio of persons in the “dependent ages” (under 15 and 65 and over) to those in the “economically active” ages (15-64). This slight aging of the population has taken place in the recent past as a result of continuous, albeit slow, decline in fertility levels. The 1993, 1998, and 2003 NDHS data show fairly similar distributions by age, which lends support to the representative- ness of the survey population. 2.3 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION Information on the distribution of house- holds by selected background characteristics is useful for several reasons. For example, female- headed households are often found to be poorer than male-headed households. The size and compo- sition of the household influence the allocation of limited resources and affect the living conditions of individuals in the household. Information on the size and composition of the sample households by urban-rural residence is presented in Table 2.3. Fifteen percent of households are headed by women. This proportion is higher in urban areas than in rural areas (18 and 12 percent, respec- tively). On average, a household is composed of 4.8 persons, with a negligible difference in average household size between urban and rural areas. Table 2.2 Median age and dependency ratio Percent distribution of the household population by broad age groups for various census years and the NDHS, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1970 1980 1990 1993 1995 1998 2000 2003 Age group census census census NDHS census NDHS census NDHS ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Less than 15 45.7 42.0 39.5 39.3 38.4 38.5 37.0 38.0 15-64 51.4 54.6 57.1 56.8 58.1 57.3 59.2 57.8 65+ 2.9 3.4 3.4 3.9 3.5 4.2 3.8 4.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median age 16.0 18.0 19.0 20.1 20.0 20.6 21.4 21.3 Dependency ratio 94.6 83.2 75.1 76.1 72.2 74.5 69.0 73.0 10 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics 2.4 EDUCATION OF HOUSEHOLD POPULATION Studies show that education is one of the major socioeconomic factors that influence a person’s behavior and attitudes. In general, better-educated women are more knowledgeable about the use of health facilities, family planning methods, and the health of their children. Education is highly valued by Filipino families. This is reflected in the country’s constitution, which states that education up to high school level is a basic right of all Filipino children. Furthermore, in September 2000, the United Nations General Assembly encouraged all member countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, spe- cifically goal 2, which is aimed to achieve universal primary education and gender equity by 2015. 2.4.1 Education Level of the Household Population Information on the highest level of education attended by the population, according to selected background characteristics, is presented in Tables 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 for females and males, respectively. Table 2.4.1 Educational attainment of female household population Percent distribution of the de facto female household population age six and over by highest level of education attended, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Don’t Median Background No High College or know/ number characteristic education Elementary school higher missing Total Number of years ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 6-9 39.8 60.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,829 0.4 10-14 1.8 72.7 25.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 3,707 4.7 15-19 0.9 13.4 69.7 16.0 0.0 100.0 2,734 8.6 20-24 1.0 14.5 43.0 41.5 0.0 100.0 2,311 9.7 25-29 1.6 18.0 42.5 37.9 0.0 100.0 2,099 9.6 30-34 1.4 24.4 38.7 35.5 0.0 100.0 1,995 9.4 35-39 2.5 27.6 37.0 32.9 0.0 100.0 1,926 9.2 40-44 2.5 36.0 32.1 29.4 0.0 100.0 1,614 8.7 45-49 2.7 41.2 31.4 24.5 0.2 100.0 1,376 7.3 50-54 4.9 46.8 23.7 24.4 0.2 100.0 1,240 5.9 55-59 4.8 52.3 21.8 21.1 0.0 100.0 831 5.7 60-64 8.9 59.8 17.3 13.6 0.4 100.0 703 5.3 65+ 14.4 61.5 13.6 9.9 0.6 100.0 1,400 4.3 Residence Urban 5.3 31.7 34.9 28.0 0.1 100.0 13,340 8.3 Rural 9.6 49.9 28.8 11.6 0.1 100.0 11,428 5.4 Region National Capital Region 4.5 25.9 36.7 32.8 0.1 100.0 3,832 9.2 Cordillera Admin Region 9.8 35.0 26.8 28.1 0.2 100.0 381 6.9 I - Ilocos 5.3 39.4 36.1 19.2 0.0 100.0 1,244 7.0 II - Cagayan Valley 7.8 45.3 28.8 17.9 0.2 100.0 810 5.8 III - Central Luzon 6.1 39.8 35.6 18.3 0.2 100.0 2,601 6.7 IVA - CALABARZON 4.8 34.6 36.6 23.9 0.1 100.0 3,242 7.9 IVB - MIMAROPA 10.0 49.6 28.5 11.9 0.0 100.0 672 5.5 V - Bicol 7.1 47.2 29.9 15.8 0.0 100.0 1,419 5.8 VI - Western Visayas 8.5 44.7 29.1 17.4 0.3 100.0 1,859 5.8 VII - Central Visayas 6.7 45.3 30.2 17.9 0.0 100.0 1,965 5.9 VIII - Eastern Visayas 8.0 53.5 24.8 13.7 0.0 100.0 1,133 5.4 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 9.7 49.6 25.1 15.3 0.3 100.0 904 5.4 X - Northern Mindanao 6.8 43.5 31.0 18.7 0.0 100.0 1,077 6.0 XI - Davao 7.9 41.7 31.0 19.1 0.3 100.0 1,154 6.0 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 11.0 41.5 31.8 15.6 0.0 100.0 986 5.8 XIII - Caraga 6.0 46.0 30.1 17.9 0.0 100.0 648 5.9 ARMM 23.1 42.7 23.0 11.2 0.0 100.0 842 4.5 Wealth index quintile Lowest 16.7 60.3 20.2 2.6 0.1 100.0 4,407 3.9 Second 8.2 50.9 33.0 7.8 0.1 100.0 4,670 5.5 Middle 5.7 41.6 38.0 14.6 0.1 100.0 4,894 6.4 Fourth 4.0 32.1 37.4 26.3 0.2 100.0 5,147 8.3 Highest 3.4 21.5 30.7 44.3 0.1 100.0 5,651 9.7 Total 7.2 40.1 32.1 20.4 0.1 100.0 24,769 6.5 Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 11 The results of the 2003 NDHS indicate that the vast majority of the population has some formal educa- tion. Among women age 6 and over, only 7 percent have had no formal education. For men and women, two in five had elementary school only, three in ten attended high school only, and one in five attended higher education. No major gender differences are observed for education. However, a significant difference is noted between urban and rural areas; the educational system favors residents of urban areas. Table 2.4.2 Educational attainment of male household population Percent distribution of the de facto male household population age six and over by highest level of education attended or com- pleted, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Don’t Median Background No High College or know/ number characteristic education Elementary1 school2 higher3 missing Total Number of years ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 6-9 44.5 55.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 100.0 3,091 0.2 10-14 3.2 79.3 17.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 3,778 4.2 15-19 1.9 26.1 61.0 10.9 0.1 100.0 3,056 7.8 20-24 1.1 21.7 42.7 34.5 0.0 100.0 2,527 9.4 25-29 1.6 24.5 39.7 34.1 0.1 100.0 2,130 9.4 30-34 1.9 30.7 37.6 29.8 0.0 100.0 1,964 9.1 35-39 2.1 31.3 37.5 29.1 0.0 100.0 1,823 9.1 40-44 2.8 36.2 34.4 26.5 0.0 100.0 1,620 8.5 45-49 1.7 40.4 30.2 27.5 0.1 100.0 1,364 7.8 50-54 2.5 47.2 29.4 20.7 0.2 100.0 1,062 6.0 55-59 4.7 52.1 23.2 19.7 0.4 100.0 781 5.7 60-64 6.2 55.9 20.9 16.6 0.4 100.0 632 5.5 65+ 12.5 56.8 19.0 11.3 0.3 100.0 1,063 5.1 Residence Urban 6.1 33.0 35.0 25.7 0.1 100.0 12,697 7.9 Rural 10.0 53.7 26.5 9.7 0.1 100.0 12,194 5.2 Region National Capital Region 5.3 26.2 36.6 31.8 0.1 100.0 3,509 9.1 Cordillera Admin Region 9.5 42.6 27.6 20.1 0.2 100.0 385 5.8 I - Ilocos 5.3 41.5 36.4 16.9 0.0 100.0 1,324 6.5 II - Cagayan Valley 7.8 47.4 28.8 15.8 0.2 100.0 816 5.7 III - Central Luzon 6.2 40.4 35.3 17.8 0.3 100.0 2,581 6.7 IVA - CALABARZON 6.0 33.8 37.5 22.6 0.1 100.0 3,127 7.8 IVB - MIMAROPA 9.1 55.4 26.2 9.2 0.1 100.0 697 5.1 V - Bicol 7.7 49.6 30.1 12.4 0.2 100.0 1,493 5.6 VI - Western Visayas 9.5 50.1 27.3 13.1 0.1 100.0 1,900 5.4 VII - Central Visayas 8.4 46.4 27.0 18.1 0.1 100.0 1,958 5.6 VIII - Eastern Visayas 9.9 59.3 21.1 9.6 0.0 100.0 1,227 4.6 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 9.8 55.4 22.0 12.8 0.0 100.0 1,003 5.0 X - Northern Mindanao 8.8 50.3 27.8 13.2 0.0 100.0 1,074 5.4 XI - Davao 10.0 46.1 28.7 15.0 0.2 100.0 1,208 5.5 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 10.5 48.3 28.6 12.5 0.1 100.0 1,075 5.3 XIII - Caraga 9.0 49.2 26.3 15.5 0.0 100.0 680 5.4 ARMM 19.2 47.9 22.6 10.0 0.3 100.0 835 4.3 Wealth index quintile Lowest 16.5 65.2 16.5 1.8 0.0 100.0 4,933 3.4 Second 8.6 54.8 30.3 6.0 0.2 100.0 5,073 5.3 Middle 6.4 41.8 38.3 13.4 0.0 100.0 5,080 6.3 Fourth 4.7 31.3 39.7 24.2 0.1 100.0 5,080 8.4 Highest 3.8 21.9 28.7 45.5 0.2 100.0 4,725 9.7 Total 8.0 43.2 30.8 17.9 0.1 100.0 24,891 5.9 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1 Completed grade 6 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 4 at the secondary level 3 Have attended college 12 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics The distribution of population by highest level of education attended differs greatly among the regions of the country (Figure 2.3). The National Capital Region (NCR) and CALABARZON have a much better educated population compared to the rest of the country; the median duration of schooling in these regions is nine and eight years, respectively, compared with four to seven years in the other regions. On the other hand, residents of Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) have the lowest me- dian duration of schooling (4.5 years for women and 4.3 years for men). 2.4.2 School Attendance Ratios The net attendance ratio (NAR) in primary school is the proportion of population age 6-11 who are enrolled in primary school, and the NAR in secondary school is the proportion of population age 12- 17 who are enrolled in secondary school. The gross attendance ratio (GAR) is the proportion of students expressed “as official school age” at each level of schooling. The GAR is almost always higher than the NAR for the same level because the GAR includes participation by those who may be older or younger than the official age range for that level. A NAR of 100 percent indicates that all children in the official age range of a particular education level are attending that level. The GAR can exceed 100 percent if there is significant overage or underage participation at a given level of schooling. Tables 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 present information on primary and secondary school attendance, respectively, in terms of NARs and GARs for the de jure household population by level of schooling and sex. For primary school, the NAR is 83 percent and the GAR is 99 percent (Table 2.5.1). The NAR is higher in urban areas and among females, compared with other populations. For instance, the NAR for females is 85 percent, compared with 81 percent for males. Among regions, the NAR is highest in Cordil- lera Administrative Region (CAR) (91 percent) and lowest in ARMM (70 percent). There are negligible variations in GAR by urban-rural residence and gender. Among regions, CAR and ARMM also show the highest and lowest GAR in the country, respectively (113 percent in CAR and 93 percent in ARMM). Figure 2.3 Median Years of Schooling by Sex and Region Na tio na l C ap ita l R eg ion Co rd ille ra Ad mi n R eg ion I - Ilo co s II - C ag ay an V all ey III - C en tra l L uz on IV A - C AL AB AR ZO N IV B - M IM AR OP A V - B ico l VI - W est ern V isa ya s VI I - C en tra l V isa ya s VI II - Ea ste rn Vis ay as IX - Z am bo an ga Pe nin su la X - N ort he rn Mi nd an ao XI - D av ao XII - SO CC SK SA RG EN XII I - Ca rag a AR MM Region 0 2 4 6 8 10 Median years of schooling Female Male NDHS 2003 Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 13 The last column in Table 2.5.1 presents the gender parity index. The overall index is 1.01, which indicates that in the Philippines, women are slightly more advantaged than men in terms of education. There are no differences by urban-rural residence and small differences by region. The largest deviation from 1.00 (no gender difference) is in Caraga (1.06), and the smallest difference (0.01) is observed in Ilocos, Central Luzon, MIMAROPA, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, and Northern Mindanao. The NAR and GAR by wealth quintile index show an increasing pattern; respondents from the poorest households have the lowest NAR and GAR, while those in the highest quintile have the highest NAR and second-highest GAR. Table 2.5.2 shows that for secondary school, the NAR is 49 percent and the GAR is 53 percent. As in the case of primary education, the NAR is higher in urban areas and for females. Among regions, the NAR is highest in Ilocos Region (59 percent) and lowest in ARMM (32 percent). The GAR is highest in CALABARZON (62 percent) and lowest in ARMM (37 percent). Table 2.5.1 School attendance ratios: primary school Net attendance ratios (NARs) and gross attendance ratios (GARs) for the de jure household population by level of schooling and sex, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Gender Background –––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––– parity characteristic Male Female Total Male Female Total index3 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Residence Urban 83.8 87.9 85.7 99.3 101.7 100.4 1.02 Rural 78.6 83.2 80.9 98.1 97.7 97.9 1.00 Region National Capital Region 82.4 88.1 85.1 96.5 100.6 98.5 1.04 Cordillera Admin Region 89.5 93.4 91.3 110.6 115.5 112.9 1.04 I - Ilocos 84.5 89.1 86.4 97.7 98.9 98.2 1.01 II - Cagayan Valley 84.0 87.8 86.0 98.9 96.5 97.7 0.98 III - Central Luzon 85.9 85.9 85.9 100.6 99.2 99.9 0.99 IVA - CALABARZON 85.6 89.7 87.6 97.8 101.4 99.6 1.04 IVB - MIMAROPA 82.2 85.6 83.8 100.5 97.4 99.1 0.97 V - Bicol 82.6 84.6 83.5 98.5 99.4 99.0 1.01 VI - Western Visayas 79.0 84.7 81.8 97.7 100.4 99.0 1.03 VII - Central Visayas 82.4 86.3 84.2 101.9 100.7 101.3 0.99 VIII - Eastern Visayas 74.8 82.1 78.4 98.6 99.3 98.9 1.01 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 76.5 82.4 79.4 102.5 96.0 99.3 0.94 X – Northern Mindanao 79.6 85.2 82.3 102.8 101.3 102.1 0.99 XI - Davao 78.2 81.8 80.0 98.3 96.2 97.2 0.98 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 76.5 82.8 79.5 96.3 99.0 97.6 1.03 XIII - Caraga 76.6 83.2 79.8 94.0 99.9 96.8 1.06 ARMM 67.4 71.8 69.6 90.8 94.2 92.5 1.04 Wealth index quintile Lowest 68.6 75.4 71.9 90.6 92.5 91.5 1.02 Second 79.1 84.7 81.8 100.6 100.8 100.7 1.00 Middle 84.8 90.3 87.4 99.7 102.5 101.0 1.03 Fourth 89.2 90.4 89.8 105.7 101.4 103.6 0.96 Highest 89.8 90.7 90.2 99.6 103.4 101.4 1.04 Total 81.0 85.3 83.1 98.7 99.5 99.1 1.01 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1 The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school-age (7-12 years) population that is attending primary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. 2 The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the offi- cial primary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. 3 The gender parity index for primary school is the ratio of the primary school GAR for females to the GAR for males. 14 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics The NAR and GAR in secondary education have even stronger associations by wealth quintile index, as compared with those in primary education. They are lowest for students in the poorest house- holds and highest for those in households with higher wealth quintiles. 2.5 REPETITION AND DROPOUT RATES By asking about the grade that children were attending during the previous and the current school year, it is possible to calculate dropout and repetition rates. The repetition rate is the percentage of stu- dents in a given grade the previous school year who repeat that grade in the current school year. The dropout rate is the percentage of students in a given grade in the previous school year who are not cur- rently attending school. Table 2.6 shows the repetition and dropout rates for the de jure household population age 5-24 years by school grade. In general, repetition rates are highest in grade 1 (8 percent). Male students, those Table 2.5.2 School attendance ratios: secondary school Net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de jure household population by level of schooling and sex, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Gender Background –––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––– parity characteristic Male Female Total Male Female Total index3 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Residence Urban 50.4 54.9 52.7 56.6 58.6 57.6 1.03 Rural 37.8 52.8 44.8 42.3 56.0 48.7 1.32 Region National Capital Region 51.3 52.4 51.9 57.8 56.0 56.9 0.97 Cordillera Admin Region 47.8 52.6 50.2 51.6 57.5 54.5 1.12 I - Ilocos 57.2 60.0 58.6 60.0 61.9 61.0 1.03 II - Cagayan Valley 48.7 55.9 52.3 51.6 59.4 55.5 1.15 III - Central Luzon 41.7 56.8 49.7 47.5 59.9 54.0 1.26 IVA - CALABARZON 53.5 60.5 57.1 58.5 65.4 62.1 1.12 IVB - MIMAROPA 43.2 55.6 48.8 45.4 58.2 51.2 1.28 V - Bicol 45.6 55.8 50.4 51.1 58.1 54.4 1.14 VI - Western Visayas 40.5 54.0 47.0 45.8 56.3 50.9 1.23 VII - Central Visayas 43.1 51.0 47.1 51.3 54.7 53.0 1.07 VIII - Eastern Visayas 37.3 48.7 42.2 40.8 54.9 46.9 1.34 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 32.6 51.0 40.4 38.0 53.6 44.6 1.41 X - Northern Mindanao 34.8 57.0 45.5 39.6 59.4 49.2 1.50 XI - Davao 40.1 50.3 45.3 46.2 52.9 49.6 1.15 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 36.2 50.8 42.9 42.8 54.1 47.9 1.26 XIII - Caraga 44.4 51.1 47.6 50.5 52.2 51.3 1.04 ARMM 29.3 35.6 32.2 34.2 41.2 37.4 1.21 Wealth index quintile Lowest 21.6 33.8 26.9 24.0 36.3 29.3 1.51 Second 32.3 52.1 41.4 37.8 55.0 45.7 1.46 Middle 49.2 59.3 54.2 55.8 62.1 58.9 1.11 Fourth 56.9 65.4 61.1 61.7 69.8 65.7 1.13 Highest 63.8 55.0 58.8 71.7 59.1 64.5 0.82 Total 43.9 54.0 48.9 49.3 57.4 53.2 1.16 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1 The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school-age (13-16 years) population that is at- tending secondary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. 2 The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. 3 The gender parity index for secondary school is the ratio of the secondary school GAR for females to the GAR for males. Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 15 who live in rural areas, and those from the poorest households are most likely to repeat in grade 1. The rates vary greatly across regions, ranging from 3 percent or less in NCR, CALABARZON, Central Visayas, and ARMM to 18 percent in Northern Mindanao. Repetition rates in grade 1 are 12 percent or higher in Western Visayas, Davao, Bicol, and Northern Mindanao. Repetition rates in higher grades are much lower than those in grade 1. Bicol has the highest repetition rates in grades 1, 2, and 4. Dropout rates show a different pattern: They increase with grade, ranging from 1 percent in grade 1 to 8 percent in grade 6. Again, rural and poor students are most likely to drop out in grade 6. Male students in general have higher dropout rates than female students. Across regions, the dropout rate in grade 6 is 12 percent or higher in Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, and SOCCSKSARGEN. Table 2.6 Grade repetition and dropout rates Repetition and dropout rates for the de jure household population age 5-24 years by school grade, according to background charac- teristics, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Repetition rate1 Dropout rate2 Background ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– characteristic 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Sex Male 8.3 3.9 2.9 2.6 0.9 2.5 0.8 2.6 2.9 2.5 4.4 8.6 Female 6.8 0.9 0.8 1.4 0.5 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.8 1.0 7.5 Residence Urban 5.1 1.9 1.6 1.8 0.4 2.1 1.6 1.0 1.7 0.9 1.3 5.5 Rural 9.4 3.0 2.1 2.2 0.9 1.7 0.7 2.9 2.5 3.3 4.0 10.6 Region National Capital Region 3.0 1.7 1.9 1.5 0.5 5.5 2.3 0.0 2.4 0.2 0.4 2.9 Cordillera Admin Region 5.3 3.8 1.8 1.5 2.0 4.7 0.0 2.5 1.7 0.0 6.4 1.9 I - Ilocos 4.5 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.5 1.3 0.0 2.8 1.6 0.0 II - Cagayan Valley 8.2 1.5 3.2 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 4.6 III - Central Luzon 8.0 1.7 0.9 3.6 0.9 2.4 0.0 3.0 1.7 0.0 1.9 7.8 IVA - CALABARZON 2.2 2.0 2.6 0.9 0.0 1.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 1.5 2.5 4.4 IVB - MIMAROPA 4.6 0.0 3.8 3.1 0.0 3.1 0.0 1.4 1.2 1.7 3.4 9.2 V - Bicol 16.3 8.3 4.1 4.9 0.0 1.7 2.2 6.4 3.3 2.9 6.1 9.6 VI - Western Visayas 12.1 4.4 0.9 2.6 0.0 1.1 0.0 2.2 1.5 3.5 2.3 10.3 VII - Central Visayas 2.6 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 2.1 2.7 3.1 2.4 12.8 VIII - Eastern Visayas 5.4 0.9 2.1 1.2 1.3 1.0 2.7 1.8 2.2 2.2 4.0 13.3 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 11.6 3.7 0.0 1.2 2.6 0.0 1.0 3.6 3.8 3.5 6.4 12.3 X - Northern Mindanao 18.1 3.5 4.8 4.1 1.8 0.0 0.9 4.2 4.9 4.0 1.7 13.7 XI - Davao 12.9 1.1 0.0 4.7 1.4 2.9 3.2 2.2 5.6 3.4 1.5 10.4 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 5.7 1.2 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 2.2 3.1 6.1 13.8 XIII - Caraga 6.1 5.5 2.3 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 3.5 5.6 5.6 11.6 ARMM 1.9 2.6 0.0 0.0 2.9 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 4.4 Wealth index quintile Lowest 11.8 2.7 1.5 1.6 0.7 1.5 1.6 5.3 3.9 5.1 6.6 17.7 Second 9.8 2.3 2.6 3.3 0.9 2.1 1.7 2.1 2.9 3.5 4.0 12.2 Middle 4.7 3.2 2.9 2.3 0.6 1.9 1.0 0.0 1.6 0.6 1.4 3.6 Fourth 3.9 3.4 1.5 1.6 0.6 2.2 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.2 0.0 4.5 Highest 2.1 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 1.2 4.0 Total 7.6 2.5 1.8 2.0 0.7 1.9 1.1 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.7 8.0 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1 The repetition rate is the percentage of students in a given grade in the previous school year who are repeating that grade in the current school year. 2 The dropout rate is the percentage of students in a given grade in the previous school year who are not attending school. 16 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.7 Household characteristics Percent distribution of households by household characteristics, according to residence, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Residence Household ––––––––––––– characteristic Urban Rural Total ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Electricity Yes 92.0 59.8 76.6 No 7.9 40.2 23.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source of drinking water Piped into dwelling 50.9 16.0 34.3 Piped into yard/plot 4.8 5.9 5.3 Public tap 11.1 15.2 13.1 Open dug well 0.7 8.7 4.5 Protected well 18.6 35.3 26.6 Developed spring 0.9 8.1 4.3 Undeveloped spring 0.6 6.1 3.2 River/stream/pond/lake/dam 0.2 1.6 0.9 Rainwater 0.1 0.8 0.4 Tanker truck/peddler 2.2 0.8 1.5 Bottled water/refilling station 9.8 1.3 5.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to water source Percentage <15 minutes 92.5 80.9 87.0 Median time to source 0.0 2.4 0.0 Sanitation facility Flush toilet: own 76.7 53.6 65.7 Flush toilet: shared 15.9 10.7 13.4 Close pit 1.5 10.7 5.9 Open pit 0.8 6.8 3.7 Drop/overhang 1.1 2.8 1.9 No toilet/field/bush 3.9 15.4 9.3 Other 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Earth, sand 8.9 16.9 12.7 Wood planks 11.2 14.1 12.6 Palm, bamboo 5.8 23.0 14.0 Parquet, polished wood 0.8 0.5 0.7 Vinyl, asphalt strips 1.3 0.2 0.8 Ceramic tiles 6.8 1.8 4.4 Cement 62.5 43.2 53.3 Marble 2.6 0.3 1.5 Main material of outer walls Concrete/brick/stone 52.4 27.3 40.5 Wood 16.8 22.1 19.3 Half concrete/brick/stone/and half wood 20.0 14.4 17.3 Galvanized iron/aluminum 0.9 1.0 0.9 Bamboo/sawali/cogon/nipa 8.7 34.6 21.0 Makeshift/salvaged/improvised materials 0.9 0.5 0.7 No walls 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tenure status of lot Owned/being amortized 53.0 54.6 53.8 Rented 21.3 6.5 14.2 Rent-free with consent of owner 23.0 36.5 29.4 Rent-free without consent of owner 2.6 2.1 2.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 6,583 6,003 12,586 2.6 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS The physical characteristics of households are important indicators of health and of the general socioeconomic condition of the population. In the 2003 NDHS, respondents were asked about access to electricity; sources of drinking water and time taken to reach the nearest source; type of toilet facility; main material of the floor and walls; and tenure status. The percent distribution of households by their housing character- istics according to urban-rural residence is shown in Table 2.7. Table 2.7 and Figure 2.4 shows that eight in ten households have electricity, with a significant difference between urban and rural areas: 92 per- cent in urban areas, compared with 60 percent in rural areas. Safe drinking water is important for health and sanitation. Two out of five households (40 percent) have piped water into dwelling/yard/plot as their main source of drinking water. The main source of drinking water in rural areas is protected wells (35 percent), while in urban areas the main source is piped water (56 percent). The majority of the households live within 15 minutes from the source of water (87 percent). Two in three households have a private flush toilet. This type of sanitation facility is much more common in urban areas than in rural areas (77 and 54 percent, respectively). Furthermore, 15 percent of households in rural areas have no toilet facility, compared with only 4 percent in urban areas. More than half of all households (53 percent) have cement flooring. Urban households are more likely to have cement floors than rural households (63 and 43 percent, respectively). Palm and bamboo are used as flooring materials in 23 percent of households in the rural areas. Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 17 The most common material of the outer walls is concrete, brick, and stone, used by two in five households. However, there are urban-rural differentials; urban households are more likely to use con- crete, brick, and stone (52 percent), while the rural households are more likely to use bamboo, sawali, cogon, or nipa for the outer walls (35 percent). The 2003 NDHS also collected information on the tenure status of the lot in which the household resides. More than half of the households (54 percent) own or amortize their lot, 14 percent are renting, and 29 percent of households occupy the lot rent-free with the consent of the owner. Urban and rural households are equally likely to own or amortize their lot. However, urban households are more likely than rural households to rent (21 and 7 percent, respectively). Rural households, on the other hand, tend to use the lot rent-free with consent of the owner (37 percent). Two percent of households occupy the lot without paying rent to the owner; this is true in urban and rural areas. 2.7 HOUSEHOLD DURABLE GOODS In the 2003 NDHS, information on the possession of selected durable consumer goods was also collected at the household level. The percentages of households possessing various durable consumer goods are shown in Table 2.8. There is a vast difference between urban and rural households, with urban households much more likely to own these durable consumer items than rural households. The urban- rural difference is especially pronounced for ownership of modern conveniences such as television, tele- phone, washing machine, refrigerator/freezer, CD/VCD/DVD player, component or karaoke player, and personal computer. Thirteen percent of the total households do not possess any of the durable consumer goods listed. Rural households are much more likely than urban households not to have any of these consumer goods. Figure 2.4 Housing Conveniences by Residence Electricity Water piped into dwelling/yard/plot Own/share flush toilet Cement flooring 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Urban Rural Total NDHS 2003 18 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.8 Household durable goods Percentage of households possessing various durable consumer goods, by residence, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Residence ––––––––––––––––– Durable consumer goods Urban Rural Total –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Radio/radio cassette 75.8 66.3 71.3 Television 80.6 43.9 63.1 Landline telephone 20.9 2.3 12.0 Cellular telephone 50.9 19.7 36.0 Washing machine 43.9 12.8 29.1 Refrigerator/freezer 52.3 22.0 37.8 CD/VCD/DVD player 48.7 19.3 34.7 Component/karaoke 36.9 17.0 27.4 Personal computer 11.1 1.6 6.6 Tractor 1.0 2.9 1.9 Motorized banca/boat 2.2 7.2 4.6 Car/jeep/van 14.3 4.2 9.5 Motorcycle/tricycle 13.7 11.0 12.4 Bicycle/pedicab 22.0 17.2 19.7 None of the above 7.0 20.4 13.4 Number of households 6,583 6,003 12,586 2.8 AVAILABILITY OF DRINKING WATER AND WAYS TO MAKE DRINKING WATER SAFE Information on the availability of drinking water sources and ways to make drinking water safe are shown in Tables 2.9 and 2.10, respectively. Table 2.9 shows that drinking water is reported to be regu- lar in 90 percent of households, available several hours a day in 8 percent of households, and only once or twice a week in 2 percent of households. Water is reported to be usually always available in 97 percent of households in which the source of drinking water is surface water (river, stream, pond, lake, or dam) and in 96 percent of households using protected wells. On the other hand, as expected, water is the least regu- lar when the source is rainwater (34 percent). Table 2.9 Availability of drinking water Percent distribution of households by availability of drinking water, according to source, Philippines 2003 Water availability last month Source of drinking water Usually always Several hours per day Once or twice a week Infrequently Missing Total Number Piped into dwelling 87.7 10.5 1.0 0.6 0.1 100.0 4,314 Piped into yard/plot 84.7 12.3 1.1 1.9 0.0 100.0 670 Public tap 82.6 14.5 2.0 0.4 0.4 100.0 1,647 Open dug well 93.6 2.5 0.6 2.7 0.6 100.0 569 Protected well 96.3 2.2 0.4 0.4 0.9 100.0 3,344 Developed spring 91.7 6.5 1.5 0.2 0.2 100.0 542 Undeveloped spring 94.1 3.2 0.9 0.7 1.1 100.0 404 River/stream/pond/lake/dam 96.9 0.7 2.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 115 Rainwater 34.4 1.3 8.1 54.0 2.2 100.0 52 Tanker truck/peddler 73.9 12.7 12.9 0.5 0.0 100.0 193 Bottled water/refilling station 90.7 2.7 6.4 0.1 0.1 100.0 723 Other/missing 61.2 5.0 0.0 0.0 33.8 100.0 12 Total 89.6 7.6 1.5 0.9 0.4 100.0 12,586 Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 19 Fifty-eight percent of households do nothing to make their drinking water safer, 27 percent boil the water, and 11 percent use an improvised filter (Table 2.10). Boiling water to make it safe for drinking is most common among households that have water piped into the dwelling, obtain water from a public tap, use surface water, or get the water from a tanker truck or a peddler (30 percent or higher). House- holds that collect rainwater for their drinking water are the most likely to use an improvised filter (43 per- cent). Filter equipment is used in 11 percent of households in which drinking water is piped into the house. Table 2.10 Safe drinking water Percent of households that employ specific procedures to make drinking water safe by source of water, Philippines 2003 Procedures to make water safe Source of drinking water Nothing Boiling Chlori- nation Filter equipment Improvised filter Other Number Piped into dwelling 49.9 31.8 1.9 11.3 9.7 0.3 4,314 Piped into yard/plot 63.7 25.7 1.2 3.1 9.3 0.2 670 Public tap 60.2 30.7 1.2 1.9 9.0 0.4 1,647 Open dug well 48.7 29.9 1.8 1.4 23.9 0.0 569 Protected well 61.8 24.5 2.3 2.8 10.9 0.5 3,344 Developed spring 66.5 18.9 1.0 1.9 15.0 0.0 542 Undeveloped spring 64.1 17.9 0.5 1.0 18.4 0.3 404 River/stream/pond/lake/dam 48.9 32.3 0.8 4.0 21.4 0.8 115 Rainwater 27.1 27.9 3.5 1.8 42.7 1.8 52 Tanker truck/peddler 61.2 30.2 2.1 1.5 7.5 0.7 193 Bottled water/refilling station 77.2 9.6 0.4 7.7 5.7 1.2 723 Other/missing 43.6 11.3 5.6 0.0 5.7 0.0 12 Total 57.9 27.0 1.7 5.7 11.0 0.4 12,586 Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 21 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND WOMEN’S STATUS 3 This chapter highlights the basic characteristics of women and men who were interviewed in the 2003 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). This information is essential for the interpreta- tion of findings presented later in the report. The chapter begins by describing background characteristics, such as age, marital status, educational level, and residential characteristics. More detailed information on education, literacy, and exposure to mass media is then discussed. This is followed by data on the em- ployment and earnings of women, decisionmaking in the household, and attitudes on women’s position in relation to others in the household. 3.1 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS The distribution of women and men interviewed by selected background characteristics is shown in Table 3.1. About half of the women and men in the survey are under age 30. Three in ten women and four in ten men have never married, while 64 percent of women and 58 percent of men are married or are living together. More than half of the respondents live in urban areas (58 percent of women and 54 per- cent of men). Education in the Philippines is almost universal; less than 2 percent of women and men have no formal education, while 31 percent of women and 25 percent of men have some college education. The majority of the respondents are Roman Catholic (82 percent of women and 83 percent of men). Other re- ligions with notable proportions are Protestant and Islam (4 to 6 percent each). Three in five respondents (59 percent) are from Luzon, the largest major island in the country, with 18 percent of women coming from the National Capital Region (NCR), 9 percent from the northern regions (Ilocos, Cagayan Valley, and Cordillera Administrative Region [CAR]), and 32 percent from the rest of Luzon. The remaining 41 percent are from the two other major islands: 22 percent from Mindanao and 19 percent from Visayas. 3.1.1 Mobility The questions on childhood residence and mobility are intended to provide a basis for developing an index of rural to urban migration, which has been shown to be a better predictor of contraceptive use and fertility than either childhood or current residence alone (ORC Macro, 2001). The question on previ- ous residence is asked of respondents who have moved from their place of birth and respondents who are visitors in the interviewed households. Table 3.2 presents the distribution of women and men by residence until they are 12 years old and by residence prior to current residence. The majority of women and men (63 percent each) spent their childhood in a barrio, 19 to 20 percent lived in a town, and 17 to 18 percent lived in a city. Less than 1 percent of the respondents are visitors. Thirty-seven percent of women and 45 percent of men have never moved from the area where they were born. Thirty percent of women and 26 percent of men report that they previously resided in a barrio, while 20 percent of women and 16 percent of men say that they moved from a city. 22 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men by background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of women Number of men ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Background Weighted Weighted characteristic percent Weighted Unweighted percent Weighted Unweighted ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 19.4 2,648 2,646 19.3 918 920 20-24 16.2 2,209 2,214 16.5 785 765 25-29 14.9 2,034 2,048 13.6 647 653 30-34 14.3 1,954 1,949 12.4 593 611 35-39 13.7 1,873 1,892 12.3 586 579 40-44 11.5 1,564 1,541 10.1 483 481 45-49 9.9 1,351 1,343 8.7 416 415 50-54 na na na 7.1 338 342 Marital status Never married 32.2 4,388 4,309 40.2 1,914 1,889 Married/living together 63.6 8,671 8,764 57.6 2,746 2,766 Divorced/not living together 2.7 373 355 1.9 88 93 Widowed 1.5 201 205 0.4 17 18 Residence Urban 57.8 7,877 7,436 53.6 2,553 2,379 Rural 42.2 5,756 6,197 46.4 2,213 2,387 Region National Capital Region 17.5 2,387 2,168 15.5 740 676 Cordillera Admin Region 1.6 216 482 1.5 72 154 I - Ilocos 4.7 642 633 4.9 232 231 II - Cagayan Valley 3.1 426 531 3.4 163 202 III - Central Luzon 10.7 1,459 1,079 10.9 520 385 IVA - CALABARZON 13.9 1,890 1,425 13.7 652 483 IVB - MIMAROPA 2.5 340 481 2.5 119 168 V - Bicol 5.2 713 724 5.0 236 238 VI - Western Visayas 6.7 910 784 6.7 322 276 VII - Central Visayas 7.8 1,070 927 7.8 373 320 VIII - Eastern Visayas 4.1 555 647 4.8 229 268 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 3.4 465 552 4.0 189 224 X - Northern Mindanao 4.1 565 592 4.2 202 216 XI - Davao 4.8 654 725 4.5 212 225 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 3.8 524 655 4.5 216 255 XIII - Caraga 2.4 327 545 2.6 125 206 ARMM 3.6 489 683 3.5 166 239 Education No education 1.4 186 231 1.8 84 102 Elementary 23.1 3,146 3,241 30.2 1,441 1,499 High school 44.8 6,109 6,035 43.0 2,048 1,991 College or higher 30.7 4,192 4,126 25.0 1,193 1,174 Religion Roman Catholic 81.5 11,116 10,818 83.0 3,957 3,854 Protestant 5.5 749 850 4.1 194 226 Iglesia Ni Kristo 2.9 393 383 2.8 134 130 Aglipay 1.3 181 189 1.8 85 84 Islam 4.2 579 748 4.0 189 253 None 0.1 9 10 0.2 11 13 Others 2.2 293 324 2.3 109 119 Born-again/Jehovah's Witness/SDA 2.2 304 302 1.8 84 85 Missing 0.1 9 9 0.1 3 2 Total 100.0 13,633 13,633 100.0 4,766 4,766 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was completed. na = Not applicable; SDA = Seventh-Day Adventist Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 23 3.2 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.2 present the percent distribution of women and men, respectively, by high- est level of schooling attained or completed according to their background characteristics. Young women and men are more likely to have attended school than the older respondents; the proportion of respondents who have never attended school rises with increasing age for both men and women. For example, 86 per- cent of women age 15-19 have attained secondary education, compared with 56 percent of women age 45-49. Urban women are as likely as rural women to have reached only secondary school (45 percent). However, rural women are less likely to continue to college or higher levels of education than urban women (20 and 39 percent, respectively). Women in NCR, CAR, Ilocos, and CALABARZON have higher educational attainment than women in other parts of the country. In these regions, about 80 percent of women have secondary or higher education. On the other hand, 15 percent of women in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) have no education, and only half (52 percent) have secondary or higher education. As expected, women in the wealthier quintiles are more likely to be better educated than those in the poorer quintiles. While 93 percent of women in the wealthiest quintile have secondary or higher education, the corresponding proportion for women in the poorest group is 41 percent. The variations in educational attainment among men are similar to those for women. Younger, urban, and richer men are more likely to be better educated than other men (Table 3.3.2). Men in NCR and CALABARZON have the highest percentages for high school education or higher (86 and 79 percent, respectively). On the other hand, less than 50 percent of men in ARMM, Eastern Visayas, and Zambo- anga Peninsula have attended high school or higher education. Across all background characteristics, women consistently have more years of schooling than men. For age 15-19, the median years of schooling for women is 0.6 years more than men. In rural areas, the median years of schooling for women is 1.6 years more than for men. Especially striking are gender differences across regions; they range from 0.2 median years in NCR and Central Luzon to 2.1 median years in Eastern Visayas. Table 3.2 Childhood residence and mobility Percent distribution of women and men by residence until age 12 and previous residence, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of women Number of men –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Weighted Weighted Residence percent Weighted Unweighted percent Weighted Unweighted –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Residence until age 12 years City 17.7 2,416 2,311 16.8 802 761 Town 19.0 2,597 2,594 19.5 929 873 Barrio 63.0 8,588 8,697 63.4 3,023 3,119 Previous residence Live in current residence since birth 36.6 4,995 5,002 45.4 2,163 2,181 Moved from City 19.8 2,699 2,631 16.4 780 742 Town 11.9 1,627 1,653 10.8 515 494 Barrio 29.8 4,065 4,090 26.3 1,254 1,291 Visitor 0.8 110 122 0.8 37 40 Total 100.0 13,633 13,633 100.0 4,766 4,766 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: Total includes women and men with missing information on residence. 24 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.3.1 Educational attainment by background characteristics: women Percent distribution of women by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median number of years of schooling, according to back- ground characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Education ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number Median Background No High College of years of characteristic education Elementary school or higher Total women schooling ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 0.6 13.2 70.1 16.2 100.0 2,648 8.6 20-24 0.5 14.3 43.8 41.4 100.0 2,209 9.7 25-29 1.3 17.7 43.3 37.7 100.0 2,034 9.6 30-34 1.1 24.5 39.2 35.2 100.0 1,954 9.4 35-39 2.3 27.7 37.5 32.4 100.0 1,873 9.2 40-44 2.2 36.0 32.8 29.0 100.0 1,564 8.7 45-49 2.5 41.5 31.4 24.6 100.0 1,351 7.3 Residence Urban 0.6 15.7 44.9 38.8 100.0 7,877 9.6 Rural 2.4 33.2 44.7 19.7 100.0 5,756 8.0 Region National Capital Region 0.2 11.5 45.8 42.5 100.0 2,387 9.8 Cordillera Admin Region 2.2 17.4 36.2 44.2 100.0 216 9.7 I - Ilocos 0.8 16.7 50.8 31.6 100.0 642 9.4 II - Cagayan Valley 1.3 28.2 42.7 27.8 100.0 426 9.0 III - Central Luzon 0.3 22.0 48.9 28.8 100.0 1,459 9.3 IVA - CALABARZON 0.2 17.5 48.6 33.7 100.0 1,890 9.5 IVB - MIMAROPA 3.3 33.2 43.1 20.4 100.0 340 8.0 V - Bicol 0.3 27.6 45.2 26.9 100.0 713 8.7 VI - Western Visayas 1.8 27.0 44.0 27.2 100.0 910 9.1 VII - Central Visayas 1.3 29.8 42.7 26.2 100.0 1,070 8.7 VIII - Eastern Visayas 0.6 37.1 38.8 23.4 100.0 555 7.8 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 1.1 36.1 38.4 24.4 100.0 465 7.8 X - Northern Mindanao 0.3 26.9 43.9 28.9 100.0 565 8.8 XI - Davao 1.0 26.7 42.3 30.0 100.0 654 9.1 XII - SOCCSKARGEN 4.0 25.3 46.7 24.0 100.0 524 8.5 XIII - Caraga 0.9 26.4 43.2 29.5 100.0 327 9.0 ARMM 15.0 33.2 33.9 18.0 100.0 489 6.4 Wealth index quintile Lowest 6.3 53.1 35.4 5.2 100.0 2,161 5.6 Second 1.1 33.5 51.8 13.6 100.0 2,412 7.8 Middle 0.5 21.6 54.4 23.4 100.0 2,682 9.1 Fourth 0.2 12.8 48.6 38.4 100.0 2,940 9.6 Highest 0.1 6.8 35.0 58.0 100.0 3,438 11.1 Total 1.4 23.1 44.8 30.7 100.0 13,633 9.2 Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 25 3.3 EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA The 2003 NDHS collected information on the exposure of respondents to the various mass media. Respondents were asked how often they read a newspaper, listened to the radio, or watched television. This information is useful in determining the media channels to use in disseminating health and other in- formation to target audiences. Furthermore, it is important for knowing the likelihood of reaching the re- spondents by media. Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 show that television is the most popular mass media among women and men (80 and 82 percent, respectively), followed by radio, with 78 percent of women and 82 percent of men listening to the radio weekly. Newspaper and magazine reading is not as popular as the other two media: 44 percent of women and 47 percent of men read the newspaper or magazine weekly. Overall, about four in ten women and men are exposed to all three media, and less than 8 percent are not exposed to any of these media. Table 3.3.2 Educational attainment by background characteristics: men Percent distribution of men by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median number of years of schooling, according to back- ground characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Education ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number Median Background No High College of years of characteristic education Elementary school or higher Total men schooling ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 1.8 24.2 62.6 11.5 100.0 918 8.0 20-24 0.4 21.2 44.4 34.0 100.0 785 9.4 25-29 1.5 24.4 43.9 30.2 100.0 647 9.3 30-34 1.9 33.2 37.3 27.6 100.0 593 9.0 35-39 2.4 31.4 39.2 27.0 100.0 586 9.0 40-44 2.3 35.1 36.5 26.1 100.0 483 8.3 45-49 2.0 42.4 29.3 26.2 100.0 416 7.0 50-54 2.9 49.6 27.1 20.4 100.0 338 5.9 Residence Urban 0.8 17.8 47.4 34.0 100.0 2,553 9.4 Rural 2.9 44.6 37.8 14.8 100.0 2,213 6.4 Region National Capital Region 0.2 13.6 46.1 40.1 100.0 740 9.6 Cordillera Admin Region 2.9 23.5 37.9 35.8 100.0 72 9.2 I - Ilocos 0.5 29.8 49.5 20.3 100.0 232 8.5 II - Cagayan Valley 1.0 37.0 36.8 25.2 100.0 163 8.2 III - Central Luzon 0.8 27.7 44.6 26.9 100.0 520 9.1 IVA - CALABARZON 0.5 20.2 53.5 25.8 100.0 652 9.2 IVB - MIMAROPA 4.3 39.8 35.3 20.5 100.0 119 6.8 V - Bicol 0.9 34.9 43.5 20.7 100.0 236 8.0 VI - Western Visayas 3.3 34.6 44.2 17.9 100.0 322 7.7 VII - Central Visayas 2.2 32.0 42.0 23.9 100.0 373 8.3 VIII - Eastern Visayas 1.9 54.2 31.0 12.9 100.0 229 5.7 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 1.8 49.5 30.4 18.3 100.0 189 5.9 X - Northern Mindanao 0.9 36.7 40.4 22.1 100.0 202 7.3 XI - Davao 1.5 34.1 41.6 22.8 100.0 212 8.2 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 1.1 37.6 41.5 19.8 100.0 216 7.2 XIII - Caraga 2.5 34.6 36.8 26.1 100.0 125 7.9 ARMM 15.5 42.2 28.7 13.6 100.0 166 5.6 Wealth index quintile Lowest 7.1 63.7 25.8 3.4 100.0 884 5.0 Second 1.4 43.2 45.0 10.4 100.0 937 6.6 Middle 0.6 25.4 54.0 20.0 100.0 992 8.7 Fourth 0.0 16.0 52.5 31.5 100.0 957 9.4 Highest 0.2 6.8 36.2 56.8 100.0 996 10.8 Total 1.8 30.2 43.0 25.0 100.0 4,766 8.6 26 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 also show that younger, urban, better-educated, and wealthier respondents are more likely to be exposed to mass media than other respondents. There are large variations in the ex- posure to mass media across regions. While more than 90 percent of women in NCR and in Central Lu- zon watch television at least once a week, the corresponding proportion in ARMM is only 33 percent. Moreover, 64 percent of women in NCR have access to all three media, while only 10 percent of women in ARMM do. This pattern of regionally disparate access to mass media also holds for men. Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: women Percentage of women who usually read a newspaper at least once a week, watch television at least once a week, and listen to the radio at least once a week, by background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Reads a Watches Listens to newspaper television the radio at least at least at least Number Background once once once All three No of characteristic a week a week a week media media women –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 49.6 86.3 83.3 43.6 5.1 2,648 20-24 48.1 83.0 79.6 41.6 6.8 2,209 25-29 44.3 79.7 77.4 36.6 7.0 2,034 30-34 42.8 79.0 75.4 34.4 8.6 1,954 35-39 42.0 77.5 75.1 34.8 10.2 1,873 40-44 37.7 76.4 76.3 31.3 8.5 1,564 45-49 34.4 75.8 74.3 28.6 9.0 1,351 Residence Urban 55.3 91.1 81.1 48.2 3.3 7,877 Rural 27.7 65.7 73.5 21.2 13.5 5,756 Region National Capital Region 72.2 95.8 84.8 63.6 1.2 2,387 Cordillera Admin Region 46.9 67.1 75.0 33.7 11.8 216 I - Ilocos 49.2 86.6 85.3 43.6 4.0 642 II - Cagayan Valley 45.0 72.4 81.0 37.2 9.4 426 III - Central Luzon 49.1 92.1 73.0 40.8 2.8 1,459 IVA - CALABARZON 49.9 89.9 77.3 43.2 5.0 1,890 IVB - MIMAROPA 23.1 54.7 64.3 15.1 18.3 340 V - Bicol 31.0 75.4 82.5 25.0 7.9 713 VI - Western Visayas 29.3 76.6 80.3 24.7 7.8 910 VII - Central Visayas 42.9 81.3 81.3 37.1 5.2 1,070 VIII - Eastern Visayas 28.3 63.0 68.2 24.3 19.7 555 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 28.8 53.1 68.4 19.3 18.9 465 X - Northern Mindanao 26.0 73.4 74.4 20.4 10.5 565 XI - Davao 32.3 79.7 80.1 26.8 5.3 654 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 23.4 70.3 76.9 19.4 12.8 524 XIII - Caraga 21.0 79.7 83.2 18.9 7.6 327 ARMM 19.4 32.8 58.7 9.7 32.6 489 Education No education 0.4 27.8 48.3 0.0 43.3 186 Elementary 18.7 59.6 67.0 13.2 17.6 3,146 High school 42.2 83.8 79.4 35.3 5.4 6,109 College or higher 66.5 93.3 85.1 58.3 1.8 4,192 Wealth index quintile Lowest 13.9 34.5 59.4 7.1 30.0 2,161 Second 28.2 69.3 75.8 20.5 9.2 2,412 Middle 41.6 89.2 78.1 34.5 3.7 2,682 Fourth 53.0 95.3 82.7 46.4 1.5 2,940 Highest 66.9 97.2 86.6 60.5 0.9 3,438 Total 43.7 80.4 77.9 36.8 7.6 13,633 Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 27 3.4 EMPLOYMENT 3.4.1 Employment Status Women and men interviewed in the 2003 NDHS were asked if they were engaged in any eco- nomic activity in the 12 months preceding the survey, regardless of whether they were paid or not. Table 3.5.1 shows that more than half of the women interviewed (52 percent) were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey. Older women, women who have more living children, those who live in urban ar- eas, and those who fall in the wealthier quintiles are more likely to be engaged in an economic activity. Women who are no longer married are more likely than those who never married and are currently mar- ried to be employed in the 12 months preceding the survey. Women with no education and those with col- lege or higher education are more likely to be employed than other women. Women’s economic activity varies significantly by region, ranging from 66 percent in Davao to 38 percent in ARMM. Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: men Percentage of men who usually read a newspaper at least once a week, watch television at least once a week, and listen to the radio at least once a week, by background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Reads a Watches Listens to newspaper television the radio at least at least at least Number Background once once once All three No of characteristic a week a week a week media media men –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 40.4 85.8 84.3 36.0 5.5 918 20-24 52.3 87.5 86.7 46.1 4.1 785 25-29 52.1 82.9 81.7 44.9 6.1 647 30-34 48.0 79.3 81.9 40.9 6.5 593 35-39 50.1 79.8 82.4 42.4 6.2 586 40-44 45.9 78.4 76.5 37.9 9.9 483 45-49 47.0 79.4 79.6 37.9 6.0 416 50-54 39.7 76.0 76.6 32.2 7.5 338 Residence Urban 59.8 91.5 83.5 51.8 3.0 2,553 Rural 32.7 71.2 80.4 27.1 9.9 2,213 Region National Capital Region 77.4 95.5 87.1 69.2 0.7 740 Cordillera Admin Region 46.4 73.2 76.6 36.7 11.1 72 I - Ilocos 55.0 85.8 84.4 45.5 1.7 232 II - Cagayan Valley 42.8 76.8 84.9 35.1 2.9 163 III - Central Luzon 68.1 89.3 82.0 59.4 5.4 520 IVA - CALABARZON 41.5 90.8 76.0 31.8 4.0 652 IVB - MIMAROPA 28.7 69.6 68.8 23.5 12.7 119 V - Bicol 42.9 83.7 96.4 38.2 0.7 236 VI - Western Visayas 36.0 79.0 83.1 30.5 6.4 322 VII - Central Visayas 52.2 84.6 86.2 44.7 4.7 373 VIII - Eastern Visayas 16.4 65.6 67.9 13.0 19.1 229 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 22.2 57.1 82.6 17.2 12.8 189 X - Northern Mindanao 28.1 77.6 90.9 26.3 5.9 202 XI - Davao 36.7 78.8 82.4 30.8 2.8 212 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 30.0 73.3 81.4 24.5 7.1 216 XIII - Caraga 34.5 87.6 88.7 33.0 4.5 125 ARMM 31.9 44.8 61.0 29.0 35.7 166 Education No education 0.0 27.5 55.3 0.0 39.6 84 Elementary 23.4 64.7 75.0 17.8 12.6 1,441 High school 49.3 88.6 85.4 43.5 3.6 2,048 College or higher 75.5 95.8 86.8 65.1 0.6 1,193 Wealth index quintile Lowest 19.4 45.7 70.5 14.1 21.7 884 Second 35.5 76.3 80.7 28.4 6.8 937 Middle 52.1 92.5 84.7 44.2 1.8 992 Fourth 57.7 95.9 85.7 51.3 1.2 957 Highest 67.9 96.4 87.5 60.5 1.0 996 Total 47.2 82.1 82.1 40.4 6.2 4,766 28 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Eight in ten men were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey (Table 3.5.2). Men over the age of 30, men who have ever been married, those with living children, those in rural areas, and those who fall into the poorer quintiles are more likely to be employed. The data also show that the employment status of men has a negative relationship with their educational attainment: Better-educated men are less likely to be employed. Across regions, the proportions of men employed in the 12 months preceding the survey range from 75 percent in NCR to 90 percent in Cagayan Valley. Table 3.5.1 Employment status: women Percent distribution of women by employment status, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Employed in the 12 months Not preceding the survey employed ––––––––––––––––––– in the Not 12 months Number Background Currently currently preceding of characteristic employed employed the survey Total women ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 20.4 5.5 74.2 100.0 2,648 20-24 39.0 10.3 50.6 100.0 2,209 25-29 45.8 7.9 46.2 100.0 2,034 30-34 52.2 6.2 41.6 100.0 1,954 35-39 56.6 4.4 39.0 100.0 1,873 40-44 60.9 3.3 35.8 100.0 1,564 45-49 62.1 3.7 34.2 100.0 1,351 Marital status Never married 37.7 6.6 55.7 100.0 4,388 Married/living together 47.9 5.8 46.3 100.0 8,671 Divorced/not living together 66.8 8.6 24.6 100.0 373 Widowed 74.8 5.5 19.7 100.0 201 Number of living children 0 38.6 7.7 53.7 100.0 5,012 1-2 45.0 6.4 48.5 100.0 3,747 3-4 51.4 4.5 44.2 100.0 2,961 5+ 55.6 4.1 40.3 100.0 1,912 Residence Urban 47.2 6.2 46.7 100.0 7,877 Rural 43.3 6.1 50.6 100.0 5,756 Region National Capital Region 47.9 6.5 45.6 100.0 2,387 Cordillera Admin Region 54.3 6.6 39.1 100.0 216 I - Ilocos 39.5 4.3 56.2 100.0 642 II - Cagayan Valley 40.8 4.0 55.1 100.0 426 III - Central Luzon 37.0 6.8 56.0 100.0 1,459 IVA - CALABARZON 43.5 5.5 51.0 100.0 1,890 IVB - MIMAROPA 38.2 6.1 55.7 100.0 340 V - Bicol 46.9 7.8 45.3 100.0 713 VI - Western Visayas 49.9 6.1 43.9 100.0 910 VII - Central Visayas 48.1 6.0 45.9 100.0 1,070 VIII - Eastern Visayas 46.7 6.2 47.1 100.0 555 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 43.7 1.9 54.4 100.0 465 X - Northern Mindanao 50.6 7.8 41.5 100.0 565 XI - Davao 55.3 11.0 33.6 100.0 654 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 51.4 5.0 43.6 100.0 524 XIII - Caraga 50.5 8.5 41.0 100.0 327 ARMM 36.1 2.2 61.7 100.0 489 Education No education 53.4 3.3 43.3 100.0 186 Elementary 49.6 5.5 44.9 100.0 3,146 High school 37.6 6.4 56.0 100.0 6,109 College or higher 53.7 6.4 39.9 100.0 4,192 Wealth index quintile Lowest 42.5 6.0 51.5 100.0 2,161 Second 40.7 7.7 51.6 100.0 2,412 Middle 42.0 6.6 51.4 100.0 2,682 Fourth 44.2 6.3 49.4 100.0 2,940 Highest 54.7 4.6 40.7 100.0 3,438 Total 45.5 6.1 48.3 100.0 13,633 Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 29 Table 3.5.2 Employment status: men Percent distribution of men by employment status, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Employed in the 12 months Not preceding the survey employed ––––––––––––––––––– in the Not 12 months Don’t Number Background Currently currently preceding know/ of characteristic employed employed the survey missing Total men ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 25.8 11.5 61.8 0.8 100.0 918 20-24 57.5 15.8 26.0 0.7 100.0 785 25-29 80.9 12.1 6.9 0.1 100.0 647 30-34 85.5 9.1 5.4 0.0 100.0 593 35-39 88.8 7.6 3.6 0.0 100.0 586 40-44 90.5 5.7 3.9 0.0 100.0 483 45-49 91.3 4.8 3.9 0.0 100.0 416 50-54 85.6 5.5 8.7 0.2 100.0 338 Marital status Never married 42.8 13.8 42.7 0.6 100.0 1,914 Married/living together 89.2 6.8 3.9 0.1 100.0 2,746 Divorced/not living together 71.5 20.7 7.7 0.0 100.0 88 Widowed * * * * * 17 Number of living children 0 46.8 14.0 38.5 0.6 100.0 2,154 1-2 87.3 8.5 4.2 0.0 100.0 1,092 3-4 90.3 6.0 3.8 0.0 100.0 923 5+ 92.3 3.9 3.7 0.0 100.0 596 Residence Urban 65.2 11.4 23.2 0.2 100.0 2,553 Rural 76.0 8.2 15.4 0.4 100.0 2,213 Region National Capital Region 63.1 12.1 24.8 0.0 100.0 740 Cordillera Admin Region 67.4 13.1 18.6 0.8 100.0 72 I - Ilocos 77.3 10.0 12.7 0.0 100.0 232 II - Cagayan Valley 85.1 4.6 10.3 0.0 100.0 163 III - Central Luzon 68.7 11.9 19.4 0.0 100.0 520 IVA - CALABARZON 64.3 12.5 22.9 0.2 100.0 652 IVB - MIMAROPA 77.1 8.9 14.0 0.0 100.0 119 V - Bicol 70.8 6.1 21.2 1.9 100.0 236 VI - Western Visayas 77.1 8.3 14.6 0.0 100.0 322 VII - Central Visayas 66.8 10.8 21.7 0.7 100.0 373 VIII - Eastern Visayas 68.3 13.7 17.6 0.4 100.0 229 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 76.7 4.1 19.2 0.0 100.0 189 X - Northern Mindanao 70.5 11.2 18.2 0.0 100.0 202 XI - Davao 73.6 7.3 18.4 0.7 100.0 212 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 73.8 6.6 19.6 0.0 100.0 216 XIII - Caraga 68.9 8.5 21.2 1.4 100.0 125 ARMM 81.8 3.1 14.3 0.8 100.0 166 Education No education 93.2 2.0 4.8 0.0 100.0 84 Elementary 84.3 7.6 7.8 0.3 100.0 1,441 High school 61.9 11.9 25.9 0.3 100.0 2,048 College or higher 65.9 9.9 24.0 0.3 100.0 1,193 Wealth index quintile Lowest 82.3 7.6 9.8 0.3 100.0 884 Second 78.1 9.3 12.1 0.4 100.0 937 Middle 68.9 12.3 18.6 0.3 100.0 992 Fourth 63.8 10.8 24.8 0.6 100.0 957 Highest 59.6 9.3 31.2 0.0 100.0 996 Total 70.2 9.9 19.6 0.3 100.0 4,766 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 30 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status 3.4.2 Occupation The distributions of currently employed women and men by occupation and selected background characteristics are presented in Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2, respectively. Eighty-six percent of women and 63 percent of men work in nonagricultural jobs. Residence determined the type of occupation: 96 percent of women and 85 percent of men in urban areas are employed in nonagricultural jobs. Occupation also var- ies widely by background characteristics: Respondents who are no longer married, those with a larger number of living children, those with less education, and those who fall in the poorest quintiles tend to work in agriculture. Among men who work in agriculture, those in the youngest group are the most likely to work on someone else’s land (31 percent). Women and men in NCR, CALABARZON, and Central Visayas are more likely to be engaged in nonagricultural jobs than those in other regions. Women and men in ARMM are more likely to do agri- cultural work. Sales and services and professional, technical, or managerial occupations are the most common jobs for working women in all groups, although those with no education are generally engaged in agricul- ture, working on their own land or someone else’s land. Employed men generally do unskilled manual work or agricultural work on someone else’s land. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 31 Table 3.6.1 Occupation: women Percent distribution of women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Nonagricultural ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Agricultural Profes- –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– sional/ Some- tech- one nical/ Sales Un- Number Background Own Family else’s Rented mana- and Skilled skilled of characteristic land land land land Missing gerial Clerical services manual manual Missing Total women –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 1.4 2.4 3.8 0.4 0.2 4.9 4.6 71.4 4.8 4.6 1.4 100.0 684 20-24 1.9 1.2 3.1 0.4 0.5 18.6 13.4 45.6 6.4 7.0 1.9 100.0 1,090 25-29 3.1 1.6 4.7 0.8 0.5 26.5 14.3 35.6 7.2 4.6 1.1 100.0 1,093 30-34 4.1 1.7 6.9 0.9 0.7 30.9 11.0 35.5 5.9 1.6 0.9 100.0 1,140 35-39 5.1 2.5 7.0 1.1 1.0 28.3 9.0 36.8 6.7 1.9 0.6 100.0 1,142 40-44 5.9 2.5 8.9 1.2 0.8 28.6 8.3 33.4 7.8 1.9 0.7 100.0 1,004 45-49 6.7 2.1 9.9 1.1 0.8 28.2 5.4 37.6 6.0 1.0 1.3 100.0 889 Marital status Never married 1.1 0.9 2.3 0.1 0.2 18.9 12.6 51.4 6.0 5.4 1.1 100.0 1,944 Married/living together 5.4 2.3 8.1 1.2 0.9 27.3 8.8 36.0 6.5 2.4 1.0 100.0 4,656 Divorced/not living together 2.4 1.9 4.2 0.0 0.3 25.1 9.0 44.6 7.8 2.2 2.4 100.0 281 Widowed 6.5 3.6 10.0 0.0 0.5 19.9 8.4 40.9 8.3 1.1 0.8 100.0 162 Number of living children 0 1.4 1.0 2.4 0.3 0.3 21.1 12.2 48.1 6.5 5.4 1.2 100.0 2,320 1-2 3.5 1.4 4.7 0.7 0.4 31.7 13.0 33.5 6.5 3.3 1.2 100.0 1,927 3-4 4.7 2.9 7.8 1.0 0.9 28.4 7.6 38.7 5.5 1.5 0.9 100.0 1,653 5+ 9.7 3.4 15.1 2.1 1.3 14.9 3.0 41.1 7.9 0.9 0.8 100.0 1,142 Residence Urban 1.1 0.4 1.6 0.2 0.4 27.5 12.3 44.4 6.7 4.2 1.1 100.0 4,201 Rural 8.5 4.2 13.4 1.8 1.0 20.6 6.2 35.3 6.2 1.7 1.0 100.0 2,842 Region National Capital Region 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 26.2 15.8 47.2 5.5 2.7 2.2 100.0 1,298 Cordillera Admin Region 16.2 3.8 11.4 3.4 0.3 25.3 9.3 28.3 1.0 0.7 0.3 100.0 131 I - Ilocos 5.3 1.8 13.4 0.7 1.1 19.3 3.9 46.6 4.3 2.8 0.7 100.0 281 II - Cagayan Valley 11.1 2.5 21.5 1.7 1.3 34.3 6.8 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 100.0 191 III - Central Luzon 1.2 1.2 4.7 0.2 2.3 24.8 8.4 43.7 9.8 3.1 0.6 100.0 639 IVA - CALABARZON 0.7 0.2 2.3 0.1 0.4 28.7 12.2 32.2 13.3 9.3 0.6 100.0 926 IVB - MIMAROPA 7.7 2.9 8.3 0.5 0.0 19.7 9.7 43.4 5.2 1.0 1.6 100.0 150 V - Bicol 2.3 2.3 4.2 1.5 1.5 19.4 9.2 50.1 7.7 1.8 0.0 100.0 391 VI - Western Visayas 5.6 1.4 12.0 0.7 0.0 17.5 8.8 44.7 6.9 2.3 0.2 100.0 510 VII - Central Visayas 1.8 1.6 4.3 0.6 0.4 18.8 7.9 50.4 9.3 4.7 0.2 100.0 579 VIII - Eastern Visayas 4.6 2.7 7.9 0.3 0.0 27.5 6.7 42.1 7.3 0.6 0.3 100.0 294 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 11.2 10.2 9.8 1.6 2.2 29.5 6.1 19.3 0.4 1.8 7.8 100.0 212 X - Northern Mindanao 5.6 5.1 7.5 0.8 0.3 29.7 6.5 42.8 0.8 0.8 0.0 100.0 331 XI - Davao 6.0 2.2 6.3 0.6 0.6 24.4 11.2 42.1 4.2 1.9 0.4 100.0 434 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 7.8 5.0 11.8 5.7 0.4 23.7 5.8 33.5 2.9 2.5 0.8 100.0 296 XIII - Caraga 8.4 3.4 9.3 1.8 0.3 27.0 7.9 35.3 3.7 2.2 0.6 100.0 193 ARMM 18.0 4.1 20.3 2.3 0.8 26.8 4.7 19.5 0.0 0.0 3.6 100.0 187 Education No education 27.9 4.5 26.0 4.8 0.0 9.8 0.7 22.6 2.7 1.1 0.0 100.0 106 Elementary 9.0 3.8 15.5 1.7 1.4 9.5 1.6 47.8 7.0 1.7 1.1 100.0 1,734 High school 3.0 2.1 4.9 0.8 0.7 14.9 5.0 53.7 9.5 4.5 0.8 100.0 2,685 College or higher 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.1 46.2 21.1 22.8 3.1 3.0 1.4 100.0 2,518 Wealth index quintile Lowest 15.3 8.0 22.1 2.2 0.7 8.0 2.0 32.8 6.3 1.3 1.3 100.0 1,049 Second 5.8 2.0 11.5 1.9 0.9 14.2 4.4 46.8 7.9 3.7 1.0 100.0 1,166 Middle 2.7 1.6 4.0 0.9 1.1 20.7 9.8 43.9 9.1 5.4 0.9 100.0 1,304 Fourth 1.4 0.7 1.9 0.1 0.5 28.7 13.9 40.1 8.0 4.0 0.7 100.0 1,485 Highest 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 39.0 14.1 39.9 3.0 1.9 1.5 100.0 2,039 Total 4.1 2.0 6.4 0.9 0.6 24.7 9.8 40.7 6.5 3.2 1.1 100.0 7,043 32 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.6.2 Occupation: men Percent distribution of men employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Non-agricultural ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Agricultural Profes- –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– sional/ Some- tech- one nical/ Sales Un- Number Background Own Family else’s Rented mana- and Skilled skilled of characteristic land land land land Missing gerial Clerical services manual manual Missing Total men –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 3.8 7.9 30.9 2.3 1.3 1.8 1.0 21.4 10.4 13.5 5.6 100.0 343 20-24 5.2 5.1 16.3 2.7 3.4 6.7 3.6 19.5 13.0 23.0 1.5 100.0 575 25-29 5.1 4.5 15.8 3.9 1.4 10.3 2.7 18.1 12.2 25.1 1.0 100.0 602 30-34 10.2 7.1 14.1 3.4 2.9 12.0 1.1 15.1 11.6 21.7 0.9 100.0 561 35-39 9.5 3.1 14.8 4.8 2.2 12.5 2.3 12.3 13.8 23.4 1.3 100.0 565 40-44 9.1 4.9 16.8 3.7 0.6 13.0 1.8 14.7 11.7 22.6 0.9 100.0 464 45-49 10.4 3.6 19.7 3.8 1.7 14.1 2.5 11.2 13.6 18.8 0.7 100.0 400 50-54 14.4 5.2 18.3 4.7 2.8 13.0 2.0 13.3 12.1 13.0 1.0 100.0 308 Marital status Never married 5.7 5.5 19.9 3.3 2.4 8.0 2.9 20.5 10.7 18.5 2.5 100.0 1,084 Married/living together 9.2 4.8 16.5 3.8 1.9 11.7 1.9 13.7 12.9 22.4 1.1 100.0 2,636 Divorced/not living together 7.8 8.7 19.2 4.8 2.8 4.1 2.5 19.8 18.7 11.5 0.0 100.0 81 Widowed * * * * * * * * * * * * 17 Number of living children 0 6.1 5.7 19.2 3.5 2.1 7.8 2.7 19.9 11.2 19.5 2.3 100.0 1,310 1-2 7.0 4.9 13.5 2.9 1.6 13.2 2.7 16.3 12.0 24.5 1.4 100.0 1,046 3-4 10.6 3.8 15.4 3.4 2.1 13.4 1.7 12.9 13.5 22.1 1.0 100.0 888 5+ 11.4 6.1 24.5 5.9 2.9 7.2 1.0 9.8 14.2 16.6 0.5 100.0 574 Residence Urban 3.0 1.3 7.1 1.3 1.8 15.0 3.4 21.1 15.9 28.4 1.6 100.0 1,954 Rural 13.6 9.1 28.5 6.2 2.4 5.8 1.0 10.2 8.6 13.3 1.3 100.0 1,864 Region National Capital Region 0.6 0.3 1.5 0.0 0.3 20.0 3.4 27.9 15.3 28.6 2.1 100.0 556 Cordillera Admin Region 15.5 5.9 19.0 4.0 0.8 14.5 1.5 10.6 11.6 16.7 0.0 100.0 58 I - Ilocos 13.7 2.1 18.0 13.3 2.5 8.4 2.0 6.5 15.2 16.9 1.5 100.0 202 II - Cagayan Valley 24.2 8.0 28.9 0.5 1.1 6.9 0.6 7.3 8.4 14.2 0.0 100.0 146 III - Central Luzon 6.4 1.6 9.9 7.6 3.0 7.7 2.3 13.0 15.1 31.4 1.9 100.0 419 IVA - CALABARZON 2.7 1.9 11.4 0.0 0.8 11.3 3.0 19.0 16.5 31.8 1.4 100.0 501 IVB - MIMAROPA 19.9 6.2 36.6 4.1 1.4 4.1 3.4 7.1 8.3 8.9 0.0 100.0 102 V - Bicol 9.1 5.4 17.4 4.4 14.3 7.4 1.1 17.0 6.7 16.9 0.3 100.0 182 VI - Western Visayas 7.5 5.1 33.5 3.4 0.9 7.1 1.6 13.5 10.9 16.0 0.4 100.0 275 VII - Central Visayas 4.5 4.5 12.0 4.5 2.0 8.4 1.9 20.3 16.3 24.9 0.8 100.0 289 VIII - Eastern Visayas 15.3 11.4 34.4 2.3 0.0 4.5 1.3 14.5 9.0 7.3 0.0 100.0 188 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 14.6 12.5 19.0 7.3 1.1 16.9 1.7 5.6 5.1 9.6 6.6 100.0 153 X - Northern Mindanao 4.3 11.0 25.7 2.2 2.2 8.0 1.6 19.8 13.3 11.8 0.0 100.0 165 XI - Davao 5.9 10.2 24.8 1.2 2.0 9.6 2.2 16.3 7.3 20.1 0.5 100.0 172 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 7.4 7.3 24.4 7.3 3.9 9.0 2.0 11.6 11.1 15.4 0.5 100.0 174 XIII - Caraga 11.1 10.5 12.2 7.0 0.0 7.9 4.0 12.4 13.7 19.8 1.2 100.0 97 ARMM 24.7 10.5 32.5 2.6 1.5 11.9 0.0 4.0 1.7 3.7 7.1 100.0 141 Education No education 20.5 4.2 51.0 4.0 1.5 3.9 0.0 4.6 5.5 4.3 0.4 100.0 80 Elementary 11.4 8.6 30.2 6.3 3.3 1.9 0.4 10.6 9.9 16.2 1.0 100.0 1,324 High school 7.0 3.6 13.8 2.8 1.7 5.6 1.6 18.8 16.2 27.1 1.7 100.0 1,511 College or higher 4.5 2.4 2.3 1.2 0.9 31.8 6.0 19.3 10.2 19.4 2.0 100.0 904 Wealth index quintile Lowest 15.9 10.8 40.7 4.6 4.1 2.7 0.3 6.7 6.2 7.1 0.9 100.0 795 Second 8.8 6.6 24.6 6.4 2.2 3.6 0.5 12.4 13.6 19.8 1.5 100.0 820 Middle 6.9 3.9 10.9 3.8 2.0 6.2 2.9 18.4 17.3 26.4 1.1 100.0 805 Fourth 5.4 2.1 6.9 2.4 1.6 11.7 3.1 21.0 14.1 29.8 2.0 100.0 713 Highest 3.0 1.2 1.2 0.4 0.0 31.7 4.7 21.9 10.6 23.4 2.1 100.0 686 Total 8.2 5.1 17.6 3.7 2.1 10.5 2.2 15.8 12.4 21.0 1.5 100.0 3,819 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: An sterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 33 Table 3.7 Type of employment: women Percent distribution of women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and continuity of employment, according to type of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural), Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Employment Agricultural Nonagricultural characteristic work work Total ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Type of earnings Cash only 29.0 74.8 71.5 Cash and in-kind 25.5 12.0 13.0 In-kind only 8.2 1.0 1.6 Not paid 37.1 12.1 13.9 Missing 0.2 0.0 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Type of employer Employed by family member 46.9 15.3 17.6 Employed by nonfamily member 31.8 58.4 56.5 Self-employed 20.5 26.2 25.7 Missing 0.7 0.1 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Continuity of employment All year 55.5 65.6 64.8 Seasonal 39.2 26.1 27.1 Occasional 5.1 8.2 7.9 Missing 0.2 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 510 6,456 7,043 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: Total includes women with missing information on type of employ- ment who are not shown separately. 3.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT Table 3.7 presents the percent distribution of women who were employed in the 12 months pre- ceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and whether they work all year or not, according to agricultural and nonagricultural occupations. Overall, 72 percent of women receive cash payment. This proportion varies by the type of occupation: While 75 percent of women working in nonagricultural jobs are paid in cash, the corresponding proportion for women in agricultural occupations is 29 percent. Whereas 37 percent of women who work in agriculture receive no payment, only 12 percent of women who work in the nonagricultural sector receive no payment. Overall, 18 percent of women are employed by a family member, 57 percent are employed by a nonfamily member, and 26 percent are self-employed. Women who work in agriculture are much more likely to be employed by a family member than those who are employed in nonagricultural jobs. For ex- ample, whereas 47 percent of women working in the agricultural sector are employed by a family mem- ber, the corresponding proportion for women in nonagricultural jobs is 15 percent. Women who work in the nonagricultural sector are more likely to be self-employed than those in agriculture (26 and 20 per- cent, respectively). Regardless of the type of occupation, the majority of women work all year long (56 percent in ag- riculture and 66 percent in nonagriculture). 34 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status 3.6 CONTROL OVER WOMEN’S EARNINGS AND CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN’S EARNINGS TO HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES In the 2003 NDHS, employed women who earn cash for their work were asked about the primary decisionmaker with regard to the use of their earnings. This information allows the assessment of women’s control over their own earnings. In addition, they were asked about the proportion of household expenditures met by their earnings. This information allows an evaluation of the relative importance of women’s earnings in the household economy, which may have bearing on women’s empowerment. Em- ployment and earnings are expected to empower women if they perceive their earnings as important for meeting the needs of their households. Table 3.8 and Figure 3.1 show how respondent’s degree of control over the use of their earnings and the extent to which the earnings of women meet household expenditures vary by background charac- teristics. Seven in ten women report that they alone decide how their earnings are to be spent, and 23 per- cent decide jointly with someone else. Five percent of women report that someone else makes the deci- sion on how their earnings are used. Table 3.8 also shows that the respondent’s degree of control over the use of their earnings varies by background characteristics. Women who are married tend to make decisions jointly, while women who are not married (either never married or no longer married) are significantly more likely than women who are married to decide alone how their earnings are used (90 percent or higher and 60 percent, respec- tively). In general, younger women, women with no children, those who live in urban areas, those with high school education, and those in wealthier quintiles are more likely than other women to make house- hold decisions on their own. The proportion of women who decide how their earnings are used varies across regions: While 80 percent or more of women in NCR, Western Visayas, and Davao say that they themselves decide how their earnings are used, the corresponding proportion in ARMM is only 36 percent. When asked about the proportion of household expenditures that are met by their earnings, 24 percent of women reported that their earnings support all of the household expenditures, and 45 percent reported that their earnings support half or more (Figure 3.2). Across subgroups, the data show that older women; those who are widowed, separated, or divorced; rural women; and those who are less educated are more likely to meet all of their household’s expenditures (Table 3.8). The proportion of household expenditures that are met by the women’s earnings varies widely across regions. While 40 percent of women in Central Luzon and Caraga support all of the household ex- penditures, the corresponding proportion in SOCCSKSARGEN is less than 10 percent. The proportion of women who reported that they are responsible for all the household expendi- tures decreases with increasing wealth status. While 34 percent of women in the poorest households sup- port all of the household expenses, only 15 percent of women in the wealthiest households do. Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 35 Table 3.8 Decision on use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures Percent distribution of women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey receiving cash earnings by person who decides how earnings are to be used and by proportion of household expenditures met by earnings, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Person who decides Proportion of household how earnings are used expenditures met by earnings –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Someone Almost Less Number Background Self else none/ than Over of characteristic only Jointly1 only2 Total none half half All Total women –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 80.4 9.1 10.6 100.0 22.3 23.4 48.6 5.7 100.0 616 20-24 80.2 15.2 4.6 100.0 19.0 26.7 45.0 9.2 100.0 1,002 25-29 72.6 22.9 4.5 100.0 9.4 27.2 46.2 17.2 100.0 949 30-34 64.6 29.8 5.3 100.0 7.0 16.8 46.6 29.4 100.0 941 35-39 68.6 26.0 5.2 100.0 6.8 18.1 45.1 29.9 100.0 941 40-44 68.5 27.9 3.4 100.0 5.9 14.7 41.4 37.7 100.0 792 45-49 68.8 25.6 5.1 100.0 5.6 15.6 43.0 35.3 100.0 711 Marital status Never married 89.9 4.7 5.3 100.0 19.5 28.3 46.6 5.6 100.0 1,811 Married/living together 60.4 33.6 5.8 100.0 6.8 17.7 45.3 30.0 100.0 3,763 Divorced/not living together 97.7 0.8 1.2 100.0 6.2 16.9 36.1 40.7 100.0 242 Widowed 99.4 0.6 0.0 100.0 5.9 5.8 37.7 50.6 100.0 136 Number of living children 0 85.1 9.2 5.7 100.0 17.9 27.3 47.4 7.3 100.0 2,140 1-2 65.5 29.3 5.1 100.0 8.3 18.9 48.2 24.6 100.0 1,657 3-4 64.5 30.1 5.1 100.0 5.6 15.9 42.4 35.9 100.0 1,307 5+ 61.8 32.8 5.0 100.0 4.7 14.3 37.6 43.1 100.0 847 Residence Urban 75.3 19.2 5.3 100.0 11.9 21.8 45.4 20.6 100.0 3,800 Rural 65.6 29.0 5.3 100.0 8.4 18.5 44.6 28.5 100.0 2,152 Region National Capital Region 80.1 14.5 5.2 100.0 16.5 28.4 42.8 12.3 100.0 1,256 Cordillera Admin Region 69.5 20.6 9.9 100.0 9.9 19.7 46.0 24.4 100.0 85 I - Ilocos 70.7 22.7 6.5 100.0 7.7 13.9 43.5 35.0 100.0 248 II - Cagayan Valley 56.9 36.6 6.5 100.0 6.0 15.1 47.4 31.5 100.0 177 III - Central Luzon 66.7 28.1 4.9 100.0 6.3 15.2 38.7 39.6 100.0 597 IVA - CALABARZON 69.3 25.8 4.9 100.0 10.8 17.5 42.9 28.8 100.0 847 IVB - MIMAROPA 64.2 30.9 5.0 100.0 14.0 17.0 33.0 35.3 100.0 114 V - Bicol 77.9 17.6 4.6 100.0 8.8 16.1 46.4 28.6 100.0 301 VI - Western Visayas 80.0 12.3 7.7 100.0 6.0 33.3 43.2 17.4 100.0 464 VII - Central Visayas 77.1 17.3 5.6 100.0 7.2 14.0 55.6 23.2 100.0 399 VIII - Eastern Visayas 74.8 19.7 5.5 100.0 6.0 16.9 52.0 25.1 100.0 188 IX – Zamboanga Peninsula 76.8 20.2 3.0 100.0 12.4 9.7 52.8 25.1 100.0 147 X – Northern Mindanao 68.5 26.9 3.7 100.0 21.0 25.2 40.7 12.2 100.0 296 XI - Davao 81.7 15.3 3.0 100.0 11.8 18.3 50.6 19.3 100.0 246 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 55.3 38.2 6.6 100.0 5.9 23.3 62.0 8.9 100.0 250 XIII -Caraga 61.6 33.0 3.3 100.0 8.9 16.9 32.2 39.9 100.0 169 ARMM 36.3 57.2 6.5 100.0 5.6 13.0 55.4 26.1 100.0 169 Education No education 49.6 42.4 7.0 100.0 4.9 7.9 51.0 35.3 100.0 79 Elementary 67.1 25.9 6.7 100.0 8.5 14.4 42.4 34.4 100.0 1,295 High school 73.4 21.0 5.6 100.0 11.4 20.5 44.8 23.2 100.0 2,289 College or higher 73.6 22.1 4.2 100.0 11.3 24.6 46.8 17.2 100.0 2,289 Wealth index quintile Lowest 60.9 33.3 5.7 100.0 5.5 15.9 44.4 34.1 100.0 720 Second 68.0 25.5 6.3 100.0 7.0 18.2 44.8 29.7 100.0 954 Middle 70.5 23.0 6.3 100.0 9.4 19.4 42.2 28.8 100.0 1,091 Fourth 71.4 22.4 6.0 100.0 10.6 20.8 46.7 21.6 100.0 1,302 Highest 78.9 17.4 3.6 100.0 15.2 24.2 46.1 14.5 100.0 1,886 Total 71.8 22.7 5.3 100.0 10.6 20.6 45.1 23.5 100.0 5,952 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: Total includes women with missing information. 1 With husband or someone else 2 Includes husband 36 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Figure 3.1 Decisionmaker on How Women’s Earnings Are Used 1 2 1 Includes husband 2 With husband or someone else NDHS 2003 Self only 72% Someone else only 5% Jointly 23% Figure 3.2 Proportion of Household Expenditures Met by Women’s Earnings NDHS 2003 Over half 49% Less than half 21% Almost none/none 11% All 24% Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 37 Table 3.9 shows the percent distribution of women by the decisionmaker in how the women’s earnings are used and the proportion of household expenditures that are met by their earnings. The data are presented to gauge whether women’s contribution to household expenditures empower them in mak- ing decisions on how to use their income. Figures in the table show that women’s contribution to house- hold expenditures has no association with who makes the decision on how their income is used. While 63 percent of married women whose earnings support all of the household expenses make the decision alone, the corresponding proportion of women who make no contribution to household expenditures is 69 per- cent. The absence of association between women’s contribution to household expenditures and who makes the decision on how their income is used is also true for nonmarried women. While 93 percent of women whose earnings support all of the household expenses make the decision alone, the corresponding proportion of women who make no contribution to household expenditures is 96 percent. 3.7 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT 3.7.1 Women’s Participation in Decisionmaking To assess women’s decisionmaking autonomy, the 2003 NDHS collects information on women’s participation in five different types of decisions: on the respondent’s own health care, on making large household purchases, on making household purchases for daily needs, on visits to family or relatives, and on what food should be cooked each day. Table 3.10 shows the percent distribution of women according to who in the household usually has the final say on each one of specified decisions, by background char- acteristics. In general, the majority of women (60 percent or higher), alone or jointly, have a say in at least one of the five specified areas of decisionmaking. The proportions range from 88 percent for decisions regarding their own health care to 60 percent for making large purchases. Table 3.9 Women’s control over earnings Percent distribution of women who received cash earnings for work in the 12 months preceding the survey, by person who decides how earnings are used, according to marital status, and the proportion of household expenditures met by earnings, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Currently married or living together Not married1 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Jointly Jointly Some- Jointly Some- Contribution with with Hus- one Number with one Number to household Self hus- someone band else of Self someone else of expenditures only band else2 only only3 Total women only else only Total women –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Almost none/none 68.9 24.7 1.6 3.6 1.1 100.0 257 95.6 1.7 2.4 100.0 377 Less than half 66.4 26.8 0.0 6.5 0.2 100.0 666 93.1 2.9 4.1 100.0 561 Half or more 55.7 37.5 0.5 6.1 0.2 100.0 1,704 88.5 5.7 5.8 100.0 982 All 62.5 32.3 0.5 4.7 0.0 100.0 1,129 92.6 3.5 4.0 100.0 268 Total 60.4 33.1 0.5 5.6 0.2 100.0 3,763 91.4 4.0 4.5 100.0 2,189 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: Total includes women with missing information on contribution to household expenditures 1 Never married, divorced, separated or widowed women 2 With husband or someone else 3 Includes husband 38 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status Table 3.10 Women’s participation in decisionmaking by background characteristics Percentage of women who say that they alone or jointly have the final say in specific decisions, by background characteris- tics, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Alone or jointly have final say in –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– What None Own Making Making Visits to food All of the Number Background health large daily family or to cook specified specified of characteristic care purchases purchases relatives each day decisions decisions women –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Age 15-19 67.0 15.9 18.5 33.3 22.3 11.3 26.3 2,648 20-24 86.0 45.2 50.3 63.7 53.6 33.2 7.5 2,209 25-29 92.4 66.8 74.8 79.7 76.5 54.5 2.4 2,034 30-34 94.9 75.0 83.5 83.6 85.6 62.8 1.3 1,954 35-39 94.8 81.2 88.6 87.7 90.7 70.0 1.0 1,873 40-44 95.9 84.1 90.8 90.4 90.8 74.0 0.7 1,564 45-49 94.3 81.1 88.9 89.5 92.1 71.7 1.1 1,351 Marital status Never married 74.3 22.0 23.7 40.3 26.3 14.7 19.9 4,388 Married/living together 94.1 78.0 86.9 87.0 89.3 66.5 1.1 8,671 Divorced/not living together 93.2 73.9 74.9 83.1 75.6 62.6 3.8 373 Widowed 96.4 85.8 90.3 92.8 89.4 82.0 1.4 201 Number of living children 0 76.5 28.5 31.1 45.9 33.3 20.3 17.5 5,012 1-2 93.6 74.7 82.9 85.2 84.6 62.6 1.9 3,747 3-4 94.9 80.1 89.9 88.5 92.0 69.8 0.7 2,961 5+ 94.5 82.5 89.5 88.5 94.0 72.1 0.6 1,912 Residence Urban 88.2 57.3 64.0 70.3 65.3 47.2 7.1 7,877 Rural 87.0 63.6 69.4 74.2 73.3 53.7 7.3 5,756 Region National Capital Region 91.8 59.3 64.9 71.5 66.1 50.1 5.1 2,387 Cordillera Admin Region 89.4 59.1 68.6 75.0 71.6 50.3 4.5 216 I - Ilocos 87.4 56.8 62.1 70.0 69.5 45.7 7.1 642 II - Cagayan Valley 96.0 75.1 80.5 80.4 78.7 67.7 2.3 426 III - Central Luzon 87.1 60.4 68.7 73.3 68.5 51.7 7.4 1,459 IVA - CALABARZON 87.1 58.4 66.1 72.8 66.9 49.2 7.8 1,890 IVB - MIMAROPA 86.9 70.7 78.1 81.0 81.6 62.2 6.6 340 V - Bicol 86.9 57.2 62.3 66.8 63.2 44.5 8.4 713 VI - Western Visayas 65.0 51.4 61.6 66.0 66.0 42.6 22.1 910 VII - Central Visayas 86.4 60.8 66.6 69.4 70.3 47.9 8.3 1,070 VIII - Eastern Visayas 91.7 56.6 58.3 72.4 64.1 49.4 4.6 555 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 91.6 70.2 70.5 77.4 76.3 60.4 3.8 465 X - Northern Mindanao 93.1 57.7 62.5 63.1 66.2 44.2 4.0 565 XI - Davao 90.4 55.5 61.8 71.2 64.9 40.0 4.9 654 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 87.1 64.8 73.9 79.0 75.1 55.3 6.1 524 XIII -Caraga 93.7 66.9 70.2 73.0 71.0 52.7 3.4 327 ARMM 89.9 62.9 68.5 76.4 75.6 57.5 5.6 489 Education No education 88.0 72.7 80.8 82.8 85.2 64.9 7.0 186 Elementary 90.4 71.7 77.9 80.9 81.9 61.2 3.6 3,146 High school 84.1 52.5 59.6 65.7 63.1 44.1 10.6 6,109 College or higher 91.0 61.5 66.7 73.9 66.2 49.4 5.0 4,192 Wealth index quintile Lowest 88.0 68.2 73.8 77.7 80.7 58.7 6.0 2,161 Second 88.3 64.8 72.8 74.5 76.5 54.9 6.9 2,412 Middle 87.3 62.1 69.0 73.9 71.1 52.4 7.0 2,682 Fourth 87.1 57.3 64.5 70.2 65.3 47.5 7.5 2,940 Highest 88.0 52.0 56.4 66.6 56.7 41.1 8.1 3,438 Employment Not employed 83.8 52.3 59.5 65.8 64.2 44.2 10.3 7,399 Employed for cash 93.0 68.0 73.2 79.2 72.0 55.9 3.4 5,198 Employed not for cash 89.7 74.9 79.9 79.5 84.8 61.1 3.9 1,004 Missing 86.3 61.6 71.8 77.1 67.8 50.6 8.1 32 Total 87.7 60.0 66.3 72.0 68.7 49.9 7.2 13,633 Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status | 39 Women’s decisionmaking autonomy generally increases with age. For example, while 11 percent of women age 15-19 participate in all specified decisions, the corresponding proportion for women age 45-49 is 72 percent. Widowed women are more likely to have a final say in all specified decisions than other women. Women’s autonomy increases with the number of living children they have. Women’s edu- cation has a nonlinear relationship with decisionmaking; those with the least education are most likely to have the final say in all specified decisions (65 percent), whereas those with high school or higher educa- tion are the least likely to have a say in all decisions. Similarly, this autonomy decreases with increasing wealth status. While 59 percent of women in the poorest quintile have a final say in all specified deci- sions, the corresponding proportion for women in the wealthiest quintile is 41 percent. There are significant variations in the proportion of women who have a final say in all five speci- fied areas of decisionmaking across regions, ranging from 40 percent in Davao to 68 percent in Cagayan Valley. Twenty-two percent of women in Western Visayas participate in none of the specified decisions. Table 3.11 shows the percent distribution of women according to who in the household usually has the final say on each one of the specified decisions, by marital status and employment status. Non- married women tend to have someone else make decisions for them. This is probably because most of these women are still living with their parents. For married women or those who have a live-in partner, there are small variations in women’s participation in decisionmaking by their employment status. Cur- rently married women or those who live with their partners are more likely to make all of the specified household decisions by themselves than women who are currently not married. For instance, 75 percent of married women decide by themselves on their own health care, compared with 70 percent of nonmar- ried women. Table 3.11 Women’s participation in decisionmaking Percent distribution of women by person who has the final say in making specific decisions, according to current marital status and type of deci- sion, Philippines 2003 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Currently married or living together Not married1 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Decision Decision not not Jointly made/ Jointly made/ Jointly with Some- not with Some- not with some- Hus- one appli- Number some- one appli- Number Self hus- one band else cable/ of Self one else cable/ of Decision only band else only only missing Total women only else only missing Total women ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Employed in last 12 months Own health care 75.3 19.3 0.5 4.3 0.6 0.0 100.0 4,150 83.8 3.4 12.3 0.6 100.0 2,055 Large household purchases 23.8 56.9 1.1 15.1 2.9 0.3 100.0 4,150 31.7 12.0 50.5 5.7 100.0 2,055 Daily household purchases 58.4 28.8 1.4 8.3 2.8 0.2 100.0 4,150 33.8 11.4 49.5 5.1 100.0 2,055 Visits to family or relatives 27.3 59.6 1.4 9.6 1.4 0.6 100.0 4,150 50.6 10.2 34.3 4.9 100.0 2,055 What food to cook each day 65.5 21.1 2.2 6.9 3.9 0.5 100.0 4,150 31.2 13.2 49.5 6.0 100.0 2,055 Not employed in last 12 months Own health care 75.5 17.2 0.5 5.4 1.3 0.1 100.0 4,499 60.5 8.7 29.4 1.4 100.0 2,901 Large household purchases 20.0 53.6 1.0 19.5 5.1 0.8 100.0 4,499 7.2 10.5 72.3 9.9 100.0 2,901 Daily household purchases 55.5 28.6 1.2 9.6 4.7 0.3 100.0 4,499 9.8 9.8 70.8 9.5 100.0 2,901 Visits to family or relatives 27.1 57.6 1.1 10.3 2.8 1.0 100.0 4,499 23.4 11.5 57.1 8.0 100.0 2,901 What food to cook each day 69.7 18.3 2.0 5.0 4.7 0.4 100.0 4,499 12.0 12.3 66.9 8.8 100.0 2,901 Total Own health care 75.4 18.2 0.5 4.9 1.0 0.1 100.0 8,671 70.1 6.5 22.3 1.1 100.0 4,962 Large household purchases 21.7 55.2 1.1 17.4 4.1 0.6 100.0 8,671 17.3 11.2 63.3 8.2 100.0 4,962 Daily household purchases 56.9 28.7 1.3 9.0 3.8 0.3 100.0 8,671 19.7 10.5 62.0 7.7 100.0 4,962 Visits to family or relatives 27.2 58.5 1.2 10.0 2.1 0.8 100.0 8,671 34.7 10.9 47.6 6.7 100.0 4,962 What food to cook each day 67.7 19.6 2.1 5.9 4.3 0.4 100.0 8,671 19.9 12.7 59.7 7.6 100.0 4,962 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Note: Total includes women with missing information on employment status. 1 Never-married, divorced, separated, or widowed women 40 | Characteristics of Respondents and Women’s Status For nonmarried women, employment status makes a difference in decisionmaking in the house- hold. Women who were not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey have much less say in all of the specific decisions. 3.7.2 Women’s Attitude toward Wife Beating and Refusing Sex with Husband Female respondents in the 2003 NDHS were asked “Sometimes a husband is annoyed or angered by things that his wife does. In your opinion, is a husband justified in hitting or beating his wife in the following situations?” Five situations were presented to women for their opinion: if she burns the food, if she argues with him, if she goes out without telling him, if she neglects the children, and if she refuses to have sex with him. Responses to these questions are used to assess women’s degree of acceptance of wife beating. The same respondents were also asked whether a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband under four circumstances: she knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease, she knows her husband has sex with other women, she has recently given birth, and she is tired or not in the mood. These four circumstances for which women’s opinions were sought have been chosen because of their effectiveness in combining issues of women’s rights and consequences for women’s health. Table 3.12 shows the percentage of women who say that a husband is justified in hitting or beat- ing his wife and the percentage of women who say that a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband for specific reasons. The data show that 24 percent of women agree with at least one reason a husband is justified in hitting his wife. The table also shows that a woman is most likely to agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she neglects the children (21 percent). Less than 9 percent of women agree with any of the other four reasons. Ninety percent or more of women agree with any one of the reasons for refusing sex with their husband. While 84 percent of women agree with all of the reasons for a wife to refuse having sex with her husband, only 3 percent of women agree with none of the specified reasons. Table 3.12 Women’s attitude toward wife beating and refusing sex with husband Percentage of women who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife and percentage of women who be- lieve that a wife is justified in refusing sex with her husband for specific reasons, Philippines 2003 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Specific reasons Percent –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: Burns the food 3.1 Argues with him 5.1 Goes out without telling him 8.8 Neglects the children 20.5 Refuses to have sex with him 3.3 Agrees with at least one specified reason 24.1 Wife is justified in refusing to have sex with husband if she: Knows husband has a sexually transmitted disease 94.7 Knows husband has sex with other women 89.9 Has recently given birth 94.7 Is tired or not in the mood 90.4 Agrees with all of the specified reasons 84.0 Agrees with none of the specified reasons 3.2 Number of women 13,633 Fertility | 41 FERTILITY 4 To measure fertility levels, trends, and differentials, the Philippines 2003 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) included a set of carefully worded questions to obtain accurate and reliable data on fertility. The fertility indicators discussed in this chapter are based on a pregnancy history pro- vided by women in the NDHS. All women age 15-49 were asked to report on all pregnancies that re- sulted in a live birth, a miscarriage, or stillbirth. For live births, questions were asked about children still living at home, those living elsewhere, and those who had died. The women were asked the month and year of pregnancy termination as well as the duration of pregnancy for pregnancies not ending in a live birth. For pregnancies that were lost before full term, women were asked whether a doctor or anyone else did something to end the pregnancy. This approach maximizes recall of all pregnancies and provides a richer data set for fertility analysis than just asking for a history of live births only. Fertility of women age 15-24 years and males age 15-54 years are also discussed in the last two sections of this chapter. 4.1 CURRENT FERTILITY The most commonly used measures of current fertility are the total fertility rate (TFR) and its components, age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs). The TFR is a summary measure of fertility and can be interpreted as the number of births a woman would have on aver- age at the end of her reproductive life if she were subject to the cur- rently prevailing ASFRs throughout her reproductive years (15-49). The ASFRs are a valuable measure of the age pattern of childbearing. They are defined as the number of live births to women in a particu- lar age group divided by the number of woman-years in that age group during the specified period. To reduce sampling errors and to avoid any possible problems of displacement of births, a three-year TFR was computed to provide the most recent estimates of current levels of fertility.1 Table 4.1 shows that the age pattern of fertility rates shows an inverted-U form that peaks at age 25-29. Table 4.1 also shows a general fertility rate of 119 live births per 1,000 women age 15-44 years and a crude birth rate of 26 births per 1,000 population. Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 show that urban women have a lower fertility rate than their rural counterparts (3.0 and 4.3 births per woman, respec- tively). Lower urban fertility is observed across all age groups. 1 Numerators of the ASFRs are calculated by summing the number of live births that occurred in the period 1 to 36 months preceding the survey (determined by the date of interview and the date of birth of the child) and classifying them by the age (in five-year groups) of the mother at the time of birth (determined by the mother’s date of birth). The denominators of the rates are the number of woman-years lived in each of the specified five-year groups during the 1 to 36 months preceding the survey. Table 4.1 Current fertility Age-specific and cumulative fertility rates, the general fertility rate, and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey, by urban-rural residence, Philippines 2003 Residence Age group Urban Rural Total 15-19 40 74 53 20-24 157 213 178 25-29 170 219 191 30-34 124 164 142 35-39 77 118 95 40-44 29 61 43 45-49 3 8 5 TFR 3.0 4.3 3.5 GFR 101 144 119 CBR 24.7 26.7 25.6 Note: Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased because of trunca- tion. TFR: Total fertility rate for age 15-49, expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate (births di- vided by the number of women age 15-44), expressed per 1,000 women CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population 42 | Fertility 4.2 FERTILITY BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS Current and cumulative fertility, as shown in Table 4.2, varies across urban-rural residence, re- gion, educational background, and economic status. The mean number of children ever born (CEB) to women age 40-49 is an indicator of completed fertility. It reflects the fertility performance of women who are nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan. If fertility had remained stable over time, the two fertil- ity measures, TFR and CEB, would be equal or similar. Although this approach may be biased because of understatement of parity reported by older women, comparison of completed fertility among women age 40-49 years with the TFR provides an indication of fertility change. The 2003 NDHS data show consis- tency in differences between the two measures with respect to urban-rural and educational differentials. As noted earlier, urban women have fewer children than their rural counterparts. The differences are also substantial across regions. The National Capital Region (NCR), the center of business, com- merce, and industry in the country, exhibits the lowest TFR (2.8 children per woman) and the lowest mean number of CEB (3.2 children per woman). MIMAROPA, one of the least developed regions in the country, shows the highest TFR (5.0 children per woman) and a mean CEB of 5.1 children per woman. The difference in fertility indicators between the two contrasting regions is about two children, which may be interpreted as arising from differences in levels of development. This is supported with the low TFR of regions adjacent to NCR, which host the spillover from the metropolitan area, namely, Central Luzon and CALABARZON (3.1 and 3.2 births per woman, respectively). Likewise, Davao region, the gateway to the southern Philippines from other Southeast Asian countries, also exhibits a low TFR (3.1 births per woman). The negative relationship between fertility and education is present in the Philippines. The fertil- ity rate of women with college or higher education (2.7 children per woman) is about half that of women with no education (5.3 children) (Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2). Education as a tool for fertility reduction can be considered in policy formulation. Education enables women to be more proactive in addressing their reproductive health and economic well-being. This is further substantiated with the fertility rates by wealth index quintile, which shows that women have a decreasing number of children as the wealth index increases. Figure 4.1 Age-Specific Fertility Rates, by Residence + + + + + + + * * * * * * * & & & & & & & 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Births per 1,000 women Urban Rural Total& * + NDHS 2003 Fertility | 43 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey, per- centage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant, and mean num- ber of children ever born to women age 40-49, by background characteristics, Philippines 2003 Background characteristic Total fertility rate1 Percentage currently pregnant1 Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 Residence Urban 3.0 5.1 3.8 Rural 4.3 6.3 5.0 Region National Capital Region 2.8 4.7 3.2 Cordillera Admin Region 3.8 7.5 4.7 I - Ilocos 3.8 5.4 3.9 II - Cagayan Valley 3.4 6.0 4.1 III - Central Luzon 3.1 5.5 4.1 IVA - CALABARZON 3.2 4.9 3.8 IVB - MIMAROPA 5.0 9.8 5.1 V - Bicol 4.3 5.5 5.5 VI - Western Visayas 4.0 5.4 4.9 VII - Central Visayas 3.6 4.5 4.4 VIII - Eastern Visayas 4.6 6.8 5.4 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 4.2 6.8 4.9 X - Northern Mindanao 3.8 5.5 4.8 XI - Davao 3.1 5.7 4.6 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 4.2 6.8 5.0 XIII - Caraga 4.1 8.3 5.4 ARMM 4.2 7.1 5.2 Education No education 5.3 7.0 6.1 Elementary 5.0 6.7 5.3 High school 3.5 5.7 4.2 College or higher 2.7 4.7 2.9 Wealth index quintile Lowest 5.9 9.6 6.0 Second 4.6 8.0 5.2 Middle 3.5 5.1 4.4 Fourth 2.8 4.1 3.7 Highest 2.0 3.2 3.0 Total 3.5 5.6 4.3 1 Women age 15-49 years Table 4.2 also shows that about 6 percent of respondents reported being pregnant at the time of the survey. This proportion varies from less than 5 percent in Central Visayas and NCR to 10 percent in MIMAROPA. 44 | Fertility 4.3 FERTILITY TRENDS Age-specific fertility rates obtained from the 2003 NDHS reflect recent change in fertility trends in the Philippines. The 2003 NDHS rates can be compared with corresponding rates from periodic na- tional demographic surveys from 1973 to 1998. Discrepancies reflect a combination of actual change, differences in geographic coverage, change in data collection procedures, and estimation techniques in one or in all surveys. Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3 show fertility rates for the 30-year period preceding the survey. The rates reflect a five-year average centered on midperiod years for the 1973, 1978, and 1983 surveys and a three-year rate for the 1986, 1993, 1998 and 2003 surveys. Over the three decades, the TFR declined by 2.5 births, from 6.0 children per woman in 1970 to 3.5 children in 2001. The pace of fertility decline var- ied over time. In the early 1970s, the TFR declined by 2.7 percent annually. This was followed by a smaller decline of 0.4 percent during the succeeding five-year period. A larger decline was during the first half of the 1980s, estimated at 2.7 percent annually. The latter half of the 1980s once again revealed a slide back in the progress of fertility reduction, with a decline of just 1.4 percent annually during the period from 1984 to 1991. Between 1991 and 1996, the TFR decreased annually by 1.9 percent. From 1996 to 2001, the decline slowed even more, to about 1 percent per year. Table 4.3 Fertility trends Age-specific and total fertility rates from various surveys, Philippines, 1970- 2001 Age 1973 NDS (1970) 1978 RPFS (1975) 1983 NDS (1980) 1986 CPS (1984) 1993 NDS (1991) 1998 NDHS (1996) 2003 NDHS (2001) 15-19 56 50 55 48 50 46 53 20-24 228 212 220 192 190 177 178 25-29 302 251 258 229 217 210 191 30-34 268 240 221 198 181 155 142 35-39 212 179 165 140 120 111 95 40-44 100 89 78 62 51 40 43 45-49 28 27 20 15 8 7 5 TFR 6.0 5.2 5.1 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.5 Note: Rates for 1970 to 1989 are five-year averages and rates for 1984 to 2001 are three-year averages centered on the year in parentheses. Source: 1970-1996: NSO and Macro International Inc., 1994, Table 3.3 3.0 4.3 5.3 5.0 3.5 2.7 Urban Rural No education Elementary High school College or higher Figure 4.2 Total Fertility Rate by Residence and Education Residence Education NDHS 2003 Children per woman Fertility | 45 The observed decline in fertility can be attributed to changes in family planning practices and programs. Over the past 30 years, the female mean age at first marriage has remained high and relatively stable, at around 22 years (see Chapter 6). Fertility trends can also be established using retro- spective data from a single survey. The ASFRs are progres- sively truncated with increasing number of years from the time of survey. Because of truncation, changes over the past 20 years are observed for women up to age 29 years. ASFRs for the past 20 years by five-year periods based on the 2003 NDHS are shown in Table 4.4. The data confirm the decline in fertility; for each age group, ASFR consistently declines from the distant past to the recent period. 4.4 CHILDREN EVER BORN AND LIVING Information on lifetime fertility is useful for examin- ing the momentum of childbearing and for estimating levels of primary infertility. The number of CEB or parity is based on a cross-sectional view at the time of survey. It does not refer directly to the timing of fertility of the individual re- spondent but is a measure of her completed fertility. The number of CEB by age of women for all women and currently married women and the corresponding mean number of CEB as well as mean number of living children are presented in Table 4.5. Among all women, at least one out of three do not have children. Among married women, only 8 percent do not have children. Table 4.5 and Figure 4.4 show that, on average, women have given birth to less than one child by their early twenties, 3.5 children by their late thirties, and 4.6 children by the end of their reproductive period. Table 4.5 also shows that, overall, the mean number of CEB is 2.2 children for all women and 3.2 for currently married women. Table 4.4 Age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for five-year periods preceding the survey, by mother's age at the time of the birth, Philippines 2003 Number of years preceding the survey Mother's age at birth 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 15-19 55 55 66 69 20-24 182 188 206 210 25-29 190 208 230 240 30-34 146 169 180 [214] 35-39 93 116 [137] - 40-44 44 [71] - - 45-49 [6] - - - Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. 6.0 5.2 5.1 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.5 1973 NDS 1978 RPFS 1983 NDS 1986 CPS 1993 NDS 1998 NDHS 2003 NDHS Children per woman Figure 4.3 Trends in the Total Fertility Rate 46 | Fertility Table 4.5 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and currently married women by number of children ever born, and mean number of children ever born and mean number of living children, according to age group, Philippines 2003 Number of children ever born Age 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ Total Number of women Mean number of children ever born Mean number of living children ALL WOMEN 15-19 93.9 5.1 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,648 0.07 0.07 20-24 55.5 24.1 14.9 4.4 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,209 0.71 0.69 25-29 27.2 22.4 22.4 15.6 8.0 2.9 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,034 1.70 1.64 30-34 15.9 13.1 21.3 18.5 13.5 9.2 4.2 2.6 1.3 0.3 0.2 100.0 1,954 2.70 2.58 35-39 10.2 9.3 15.6 19.7 16.3 10.2 7.0 5.4 2.7 1.9 1.8 100.0 1,873 3.53 3.34 40-44 7.6 8.1 11.2 17.9 18.3 11.5 7.9 6.1 4.5 3.0 3.9 100.0 1,564 4.10 3.81 45-49 6.5 5.8 11.1 16.0 16.0 12.3 9.7 7.2 5.5 3.5 6.4 100.0 1,351 4.57 4.20 Total 36.5 12.9 13.5 12.0 9.2 5.7 3.5 2.6 1.6 1.0 1.4 100.0 13,633 2.18 2.05 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 40.6 47.5 11.0 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 239 0.73 0.70 20-24 16.5 43.7 29.0 8.7 1.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,095 1.36 1.31 25-29 9.7 26.2 28.4 19.8 10.1 3.8 1.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,548 2.15 2.06 30-34 6.6 12.8 23.9 20.9 15.4 10.6 4.9 2.9 1.5 0.3 0.3 100.0 1,663 3.05 2.91 35-39 4.1 8.5 16.3 21.4 18.0 11.1 7.4 6.0 3.0 2.0 2.1 100.0 1,633 3.84 3.63 40-44 2.4 7.2 12.0 18.9 19.3 12.3 8.1 7.0 5.2 3.3 4.3 100.0 1,341 4.42 4.12 45-49 2.5 5.0 11.3 17.0 16.7 13.2 10.0 7.6 5.7 3.7 7.3 100.0 1,152 4.86 4.46 Total 7.7 17.3 20.1 17.9 13.6 8.5 5.1 3.9 2.4 1.4 2.1 100.0 8,671 3.21 3.02 0.1 0.7 1.7 2.7 3.5 4.1 4.6 2.2 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 15-49 Age 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Number of children Figure 4.4 Mean Number of Children Ever Born among Women 15-49 NDHS 2003 Fertility | 47 The proportion of all women as well as currently married women without any children at younger ages is high. This is partly due to the law that sets the minimum legal age at first marriage at 18 years. Considering that most births occur within marriage, the small overall proportion of married women who are childless suggests that high fertility is expected in Philippine society. The proportion of childless women may also be interpreted as an estimate to primary sterility, assuming that voluntary childlessness within marriage is rare. Three percent of married women age 45-49 are childless. The corresponding pro- portion for all women age 45-49 is 7 percent. The difference between these figures reflects the combined impact of marital dissolution, infertility, and celibacy. Although 1 in 15 women age 45-49 are childless, the same proportion has 10 or more births. In addition to giving a description of average family size, information on CEB and number of children surviving also gives an indication on the extent of childhood and adult mortality. On average, women have two living children, and currently married women have three. The difference between mean number of CEB and children still living for the two groups of women increases with the woman’s age. By the end of the reproductive period, women have lost almost one in ten children. 4.5 BIRTH INTERVALS The influence of the timing of births on both fertility and mortality is well documented. Evidence that women with closely spaced births have higher fertility than women with longer birth intervals has been observed in many countries. It has also been shown that short birth intervals, par

View the publication

You are currently offline. Some pages or content may fail to load.