Namibia - Demographic and Health Survey - 2003

Publication date: 2003

1 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2000 Ministry of Health and Social Services Windhoek, Namibia October 2003 2 This report presents the findings from the 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (2000 NDHS), which was undertaken by the Ministry of Health and Social Services in collaboration with the Central Bureau of Statistics of the National Planning Commission. The Ministry of Health and Social Services was the main source of funding for the survey with additional financial assistance from UNICEF, HSSSP, UNFPA, French Cooperation, EU, GTZ, WHO, Spanish Cooperation and NaSoMa. Technical assistance was provided by the Demographic and Health Surveys programme at ORC Macro under contract with MOHSS. Additional information about the 2000 NDHS may be obtained free of charge from the Ministry of Health and Social Services, Directorate Policy, Planning and Human Resource Development, Private Bag 13198, Harvey Street, Windhoek, Namibia (telephone: 264-61 203 9111; fax: 264-61 227 607, website: healthforall.net/grnmhss). Information about the DHS Project may be obtained by contacting ORC Macro, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705, U.S.A. (telephone: 301-572-0200; fax: 301-572-0999). Selected citation: Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) [Namibia]. 2003. Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2000. Windhoek, Namibia: MOHSS Contents | iii CONTENTS Tables and Figures . vii Foreword. xiii Preface .xv Abbreviations. xvii Summary of Findings. xix Map of Namibia . xxii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Geography, History and Economy.1 1.2 Population .2 1.3 Health Services and Programmes .2 1.4 Survey Objectives and Implementation of the Project.3 CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS 2.1 Population by Age and Sex.9 2.2 Household Composition .10 2.3 Fosterhood and Orphanhood.11 2.4 Education Level of Household Population .13 2.5 School Attendance .17 2.6 Housing Characteristics .19 2.7 Background Characteristics of Respondents.25 2.8 Educational Level of Survey Respondents .27 2.9 Access to Media.30 2.10 Employment and Occupation.31 2.11 Women’s Status .40 CHAPTER 3 FERTILITY 3.1 Current Fertility .47 3.2 Fertility Differentials .48 3.3 Fertility Trends .49 3.4 Children Ever Born.50 3.5 Births Intervals.51 3.6 Age at First Birth .53 3.7 Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood.54 3.8 Attempts to Investigate Induced Abortion .56 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY REGULATION 4.1 Knowledge of Family Planning .57 4.2 Ever Use of Family Planning.59 4.3 Current Use of Contraception .62 4.4 Number of Children at First Use of Contraception.68 iv | Contents 4.5 Knowledge of the Ovulatory Cycle .68 4.6 Timing of Sterilisation .69 4.7 Sources of Contraceptive Methods .69 4.8 Informed Choice .70 4.9 Intention to Use Family Planning Among Nonusers .71 4.10 Exposure to Messages about Condoms.73 4.11 Attitudes Towards Family Planning .74 CHAPTER 5 OTHER DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY 5.1 Current Marital Status.79 5.2 Polygyny .80 5.3 Age at First Marriage .82 5.4 Age at First Sexual Intercourse.84 5.5 Recent Sexual Activity .86 5.6 Postpartum Amenorrhoea, Abstinence and Insusceptibility .89 5.7 Termination of Exposure to Pregnancy .90 CHAPTER 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES 6.1 Desire for More Children.91 6.2. Need for Family Planning Services .96 6.3 Ideal Number of Children .98 6.4 Fertility Planning .101 CHAPTER 7 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 7.1 Definitions, Methodology and Assessment of Data Quality.105 7.2 Childhood Mortality Levels and Trends .106 7.3 Childhood Mortality Differentials .107 7.4 Perinatal Mortality .110 7.5 High-Risk Fertility Behaviour .110 CHAPTER 8 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY 8.1 The Data.113 8.2 Direct Estimates of Adult Mortality .114 8.3 Estimates of Maternal Mortality .115 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH 9.1 Antenatal Care .117 9.2 Delivery Care.121 9.3 Postnatal Care .125 9.4 Constraints to Accessing Health Care.126 9.5 Birth Registration.128 9.6 Childhood Vaccinations.130 9.7 Acute Respiratory Infection and Fever .133 9.8 Use of Bednets .136 9.9 Stool Disposal .136 9.10 Prevalence and Treatment of Diarrhoea .137 Contents | v CHAPTER 10 INFANT FEEDING AND CHILDHOOD NUTRITION 10.1 Initiation of Breastfeeding .143 10.2 Breastfeeding Status by Age.143 10.3 Duration of Breastfeeding.146 10.4 Types and Frequency of Supplemental Foods .146 10.5 Micronutrient Supplementation .148 10.6 Nutritional Status of Children.150 CHAPTER 11 HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS 11.1 Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Prevention .155 11.2 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Issues .159 11.3 Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Mitigation .160 11.4 HIV Testing .166 11.5 Knowledge of Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Infections .170 11.6 Number of Sexual Partners .172 11.7 Awareness, Availability and Use of Male Condoms .175 11.8 Men’s Attitudes Towards Condoms and Contraception .179 CHAPTER 12 SMOKING, ALCOHOL USE, AND WOMEN’S HEALTH TESTS 12.1 Smoking.181 12.2 Use of Alcohol .182 12.3 Women’s Health Tests.184 CHAPTER 13 ACCESS TO AND COST OF HEALTH CARE 13.1 Distance to Government Health Facilities .185 13.2 Time to government health facilities .186 13.3 Type of transport to government health facilities .187 13.4 Cost of Deliveries .188 13.5 Cost of Inpatient and Outpatient Care .188 REFERENCES .193 APPENDIX A SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION .195 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS .197 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES.205 APPENDIX D SURVEY PERSONNEL .213 APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRES .219 Tables and Figures | vii TABLES AND FIGURES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews .6 CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence .9 Table 2.2 Population by age, according to selected sources.10 Table 2.3 Household composition .11 Table 2.4 Children=s living arrangements .12 Table 2.5.1 Educational attainment of household population: women.14 Table 2.5.2 Educational attainment of household population: men.15 Table 2.6 School attendance ratios .18 Table 2.7 Housing characteristics.19 Table 2.8 Characteristics of households by background characteristics.21 Table 2.9 Characteristics of household salt .22 Table 2.10 Use of iodised salt.23 Table 2.11 Household durable goods .24 Table 2.12 Background characteristics of respondents .26 Table 2.13.1 Educational attainment by background characteristics: women.27 Table 2.13.2 Educational attainment by background characteristics: men.28 Table 2.14 Literacy.29 Table 2.15 Access to mass media .31 Table 2.16 Employment .32 Table 2.17.1 Occupation: women.34 Table 2.17.2 Occupation: men.35 Table 2.18.1 Employer and form of earnings: women .36 Table 2.18.2 Employer and form of earnings: men .37 Table 2.19 Decision on use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures.39 Table 2.20 Men's agreement with reasons for wife beating .41 Table 2.21.1 Reasons for refusing to have sexual relations with husband: women .42 Table 2.21.1 Reasons for refusing to have sexual relations with husband: men .43 Table 2.22 Men's agreement with certain actions husbands are justified in taking if a wife refuses sexual relations .45 Figure 2.1 Population pyramid of Namibia.10 Figure 2.2 Parental living arrangements of children under 15.13 Figure 2.3 Percentage of women and men who have no education by age group, Namibia 1992 and 2000.16 Figure 2.4 Percentage of households with electricity and sanitary toilet by region.22 Figure 2.5 Percentage of households owning various durable goods .24 Figure 2.6 Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by employment status .33 viii | Tables and Figures CHAPTER 3 FERTILITY Table 3.1 Current fertility .47 Table 3.2 Fertility by background characteristics.48 Table 3.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates .50 Table 3.4 Children ever born and living.50 Table 3.5 Birth intervals .52 Table 3.6 Age at first birth.53 Table 3.7 Median age at first birth by background characteristics .54 Table 3.8 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood .55 Figure 3.1 Age-specific fertility rates by urban-rural residence .48 Figure 3.2 Total fertility rates by residence .49 Figure 3.3 Pregnancy and childbearing among women age 15-19 .56 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY REGULATION Table 4.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods .58 Table 4.2 Trends in knowledge of contraceptive methods .58 Table 4.3.1 Ever use of contraception: women .60 Table 4.3.2 Ever use of contraception: men .61 Table 4.4 Current use of contraception.63 Table 4.5 Current use of contraception by background characteristics .65 Table 4.6 Trends in contraceptive use .67 Table 4.7 Number of children at first use of contraception .68 Table 4.8 Knowledge of fertile period.68 Table 4.9 Timing of sterilisation .69 Table 4.10 Source of supply .70 Table 4.11 Informed choice.71 Table 4.12 Future use of contraception .72 Table 4.13 Reason for not intending to use contraception .72 Table 4.14 Preferred method of contraception for future use.73 Table 4.15 Exposure to messages about condoms.74 Table 4.16 Discussion of family planning by couples.75 Table 4.17 Approval of family planning . 76 Table 4.18 Attitudes of couples toward family planning.77 Table 4.19 Perception of spouse=s approval of family planning.78 Figure 4.1 Trends in contraceptive knowledge among al women age 15-49, 1992-2000 .59 Figure 4.2 Family planning methods currently used.64 Figure 4.3 Current use of contraceptives among sexually active women age 15-49 .66 Figure 4.4 Trends in current contraceptive use among women age 15-49, 1992-2000 .67 CHAPTER 5 OTHER DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY Table 5.1 Current marital status.79 Table 5.2 Polygyny.81 Table 5.3 Age at first marriage .83 Table 5.4 Median age at first marriage .84 Table 5.5 Age at first sexual intercourse .85 Table 5.6 Median age at first sexual intercourse .86 Table 5.7.1 Recent sexual activity: women .87 Table 5.7.2 Recent sexual activity: men.88 Tables and Figures | ix Table 5.8 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility .89 Table 5.9 Median duration of postpartum insusceptibility by background characteristics .90 Table 5.10 Menopause.90 Figure 5.1 Marital status of women 15-49.80 CHAPTER 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children .92 Table 6.2 Fertility preferences by age .94 Table 6.3 Desire to limit childbearing by background characteristics.95 Table 6.4 Need for family planning.97 Table 6.5 Ideal and actual number of children .98 Table 6.6 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics .101 Table 6.7 Fertility planning status .102 Table 6.8 Wanted fertility rates .103 Figure 6.1 Fertility preferences of women age 15-49 .93 Figure 6.2 Desire to limit childbearing among women 15-49 and men 15-59, by number of living children .93 Figure 6.3 Trends in mean ideal number of children among women, 1992-2000 .100 CHAPTER 7 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Table 7.1 Early childhood mortality rates .106 Table 7.2 Early childhood mortality by background characteristics .108 Table 7.3 Early childhood mortality by demographic characteristics . 109 Table 7.4 High-risk fertility behaviour .111 Figure 7.1 Age-specific mortality rates for five-year periods prior to the 1992 and 2000 NDHSs .107 Figure 7.2 Under-five mortality for the ten-year period preceding the survey by background characteristics .108 CHAPTER 8 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY Table 8.1 Data on siblings .114 Table 8.2 Adult mortality rates.115 Table 8.3 Direct estimates of maternal mortality .116 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Table 9.1 Antenatal care .118 Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy .119 Table 9.3 Antenatal care content .120 Table 9.4 Place of delivery .121 Table 9.5 Assistance during delivery.123 Table 9.6 Delivery characteristics .124 Table 9.7 Postnatal care by background characteristics .126 Table 9.8 Perceived problem in accessing women's health care .127 Table 9.9 Birth registration coverage .129 Table 9.10 Vaccinations by source of information.131 Table 9.11 Vaccinations by background characteristics.132 Table 9.12 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection. 133 x | Tables and Figures Table 9.13 Prevalence of fever and sources of treatment .135 Table 9.14 Use of mosquito nets .136 Table 9.15 Disposal of children's stool.137 Table 9.16 Prevalence of diarrhoea .138 Table 9.17 Knowledge of ORS packets.139 Table 9.18 Diarrhoea treatment .140 Table 9.19 Feeding practices during diarrhoea.141 Figure 9.1 Antenatal and delivery care indicators .119 Figure 9.2 Percentage of children age 12-23 months who have received specific vaccinations .131 CHAPTER 10 INFANT FEEDING AND CHILDHOOD NUTRITION Table 10.1 Initial breastfeeding .143 Table 10.2 Breastfeeding status by child's age .145 Table 10.3 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding .146 Table 10.4 Foods consumed by children in preceding 24 hours .147 Table 10.5 Micronutrients .149 Table 10.6 Nutritional status of children .152 Figure 10.1 Percentage of children under age 5 who live in households that use adequately iodised salt, by region.150 Figure 10.2 Percentage of children with low height-for-age, low weight-for-height, and low weight-for-age, by age of child.153 CHAPTER 11 HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS Table 11.1 Knowledge of ways to avoid HIV/AIDS.156 Table 11.2.1 Knowledge of programmatically important ways to avoid HIV/AIDS: women .157 Table 11.2.2 Knowledge of programmatically important ways to avoid HIV/AIDS: men .158 Table 11.3 Knowledge of AIDS-related issues .159 Table 11.4 Discussion of HIV/AIDS with partner .161 Table 11.5.1 Social aspects of AIDS prevention and mitigation: women .162 Table 11.5.2 Social aspects of AIDS prevention and mitigation: men.163 Table 11.6 Discussion of HIV/AIDS.165 Table 11.7.1 HIV/AIDS testing: women .167 Table 11.7.2 HIV/AIDS testing: men .168 Table 11.8 Desire for HIV testing .169 Table 11.9 Knowledge of female signs and symptoms .171 Table 11.10 Knowledge of male signs and symptoms .172 Table 11.11 Number of sexual partners of married women and men.174 Table 11.12 Number of sexual partners of unmarried women and men.175 Table 11.13 Knowledge and use of male condoms .176 Table 11.14.1 Use of condoms: women .177 Table 11.14.2 Use of condoms: men .178 Table 11.15 Men's attitudes towards condoms and contraception.180 Figure 11.1 Percentage of women and men with views on various social aspects of AIDS .164 Figure 11.2 Indicators of HIV testing coverage and need .170 Figure 11.3 Percentage of women and men who used a condom at last sex, by type of partner .179 Tables and Figures | xi CHAPTER 12 SMOKING, ALCOHOL USE, AND WOMEN’S HEALTH TESTS Table 12.1.1 Use of smoking tobacco: women.181 Table 12.1.2 Use of smoking tobacco: men .182 Table 12.2 Use of alcohol: men.183 Table 12.3 Other health indicators for women .184 CHAPTER 13 ACCESS TO AND COST OF HEALTH CARE Table 13.1 Distance to government health services .186 Table 13.2 Time to reach government health services .187 Table 13.3 Cost of deliveries .188 Table 13.4 Use of health services .189 Table 13.5 Cost of inpatient health facility services.190 Table 13.6 Cost of outpatient health services .191 APPENDIX A SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION Table A.1.1 Sample implementation: women .195 Table A.1.2 Sample implementation: men .196 APPENDIX B SAMPLING ERRORS Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors 2000. Table B.2 Sampling errors: National sample .201 Table B.3 Sampling errors: Urban sample .202 Table B.4 Sampling errors: Rural sample .203 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES Table C.1 Household age distribution.205 Table C.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women.206 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting.207 Table C.4 Births by calendar years .208 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days .209 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months .210 Table C.7 Current use of contraception by background characteristics .211 4 FOREWORD In 1992, two years after Namibia’s independence, the Ministry of Health and Social Services implemented the first ever nation-wide Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). At that stage, a large- scale reorganisation of Namibia’s health service was still ongoing and most primary health care programmes were only just being established. The results of the 1992 NDHS therefore provided a valuable source of data for planners and system developers, who required reliable baseline information on the most important health and demographic indicators for Namibia. Since 1992, my Ministry has made considerable progress in strengthening and consolidating our health programmes. The development projects and programmes implemented as part of the First National Development Plan (NDP1) from 1995 to 2000 provided particularly strong impetus to the health sector. During the year 2000 all government line-ministries started compiling the Second National Development Plan (NDP2). The need arose, therefore, to implement a Demographic and Health Survey, which could inform both the NDP1 review and NDP2 planning processes. In addition, Namibia is party to the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was signed by our Head of State, President Sam Nujoma, at the World Summit for Children in New York in 1990. At the time, the Summit affirmed that progress on the agreed goals would be measured after 10 years. The 2000 NDHS therefore provides results on the relevant child health and welfare indicators. Also, by taking account of government’s decentralisation policy, the design of the 2000 NDHS has ensured that valuable information on all 13 regions is included in this report. Having studied the results of the survey, I am gratified to find convincing evidence of the considerable progress our health service has made over the past 10 years. Generally, the indicators show great improvement in the overall health of our nation and thus bear witness to the many concerted efforts government and all partners in health have put in place since independence. We nevertheless need to take note that the results related to some programme areas highlight the need for more focused attention over the medium term. Also, the fact that the impact of the AIDS epidemic will become more pronounced over the coming years, calls for a redoubling of our efforts. Only then can we expect that the results of the next NDHS (to be undertaken in 2005) will show a continuation of the current trends. I trust that the 2000 NDHS report will be widely read and utilised by our communities, our health and social workers, the relevant line ministries and civil society organisations, all regional councils, as well as our development partners. I am convinced that the information contained in the report will greatly assist the programming of health interventions, which will take us closer to our aim of improved health and social wellbeing for all Namibians. As this report shows: Together we can make a difference! DR. LIBERTINA AMATHILA MINISTER FOR HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES 5 PREFACE The 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) marks a major milestone in the history of the Ministry of Health and Social Services. It provides a comprehensive source of information on a large number of health and demographic indicators at a point in time when the ministry looks back on the first 10 years of a unified and comprehensive health service for the whole of Namibia and its people. I am therefore particularly pleased to present this report. The 2000 NDHS has been a large-scale research project. Twenty field teams interviewed more than 6,500 women and 3,000 men over a three-month period (October to December 2000) in 260 enumeration areas that covered all 13 regions of the country. It was also clear that the success of this project hinged upon the effective cooperation of the large number of players involved. Most of all, the 2000 NDHS would have been impossible without the friendly cooperation given to our survey field workers by households all over the country. I am therefore particularly thankful to all the families and individuals, who welcomed our interviewers into their homes and made their precious time available to this important exercise. Furthermore, I would like to express the gratitude of my Ministry to the following individuals, groups, institutions or agencies, whose contribution ensured that the 2000 NDHS became a success: the Health and Social Sector Support Programme Phase 2 (HSSSP2), Finland; UNICEF; UNFPA; Primary Health Care Support Project, France; Namibia Integrated Health Programme (NIHP), EU; GTZ, Germany; World Health Organisation; the Spanish Cooperation; and NaSoMa. The smooth implementation of the survey fieldwork was ensured by the field teams and support staff of the Social Impact Assessment and Policy Analysis Corporation (SIAPAC) and the Multi- disciplinary Research Centre (MRC) at the University of Namibia (UNAM), who worked as a joint venture. My Ministry’s regional directors and regional management teams, as well as all districts, provided valuable support in form of transport, accommodation and liaison with the communities and thereby ensured that the fieldwork could proceed at a steady pace. Particular thanks are due to the nurses, who acted as field editors, and the drivers, who ensured that all teams arrived safely at their destinations. Very valuable support in raising awareness about the survey and generating cooperation from communities was provided by all 13 regional councils, governors, councilors and staff; various town and city councils and their staff; and the Namibia Agricultural Union and local farmer associations. Important support to the determination of the sample, the mapping of enumeration areas and general survey design was provided by the Central Bureau of Statistics of the National Planning Commission Secretariat. Highly appreciated technical support on a multitude of aspects during all phases of the survey was provided by staff from the DHS Project of ORC Macro in the USA, who visited Namibia on a short-term consultancy basis on a number of occasions. 6 Finally, I should like to express my sincere gratitude to the overall 2000 NDHS project coordinating team at my Ministry’s head office from the Directorate of Policy, Planning and Human Resource Development and the Epidemiology Unit of the Directorate of Primary Health Care Services for their tireless work in ensuring that the survey was completed successfully. DR. K. SHANGULA PERMANENT SECRETARY Abbreviations | xvii ABBREVIATIONS AIDS Acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome BCG Bacille Billé de Calmette et Guérin (vaccine) BF Breastfeeding Cm Currently married CMR Child mortality rate CDC Centres for Disease Control DHS Demographic and Health Survey DPT Diphteria, pertussis and tetanus EA Enumeration Area EU European Union EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization GTZ Technical Cooperation GPS Global positioning system HIS Health Information System HSSSP2 Health and Social Sector Support Programme Phase 2 HIV Human immuno-deficiency virus HH Household IUD Intra-uterine contraceptive device IMR Infant mortality rate ISSA Integrated System for Survey Analysis LBW Low birth weight MOHSS Ministry of Health and Social Services MRC Multidisciplinary Research Centre MMR Maternal mortality rate NDHS Namibia Demographic and Health Survey NaSoMa Namibia Social Marketing Association ns Numbers N/A Not available NCHS National Centre for Health Statistics ORS Oral rehydration sachets PHC Primary health care PSU Primary sampling unit ppm Parts per million SIAPAC Social Impact Assessment and Policy Analysis Corporation TBA Traditional birth attendant UNAM University of Namibia UNICEF United Nations Children Fund UNFPA United Nations Population Fund U5MR Under 5 mortality rate UNAIDS United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS wtd Weighted WHO World Health Organisation 7 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was implemented to assess the progress made in the health sector since the 1992 NDHS. It therefore focused on measuring achievements related to the same indicators as in 1992, but also included new aspects, e.g. HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, the 2000 NDHS was designed to obtain reliable data for all 13 administrative regions, which had not been established at the time of the 1992 NDHS. In addition, data for the four MOHSS Regional Directorates are included, which provide comparison to the 1992 NDHS results at the sub-national level. A nationally representative sample of 6,755 women age 15-49 and a sub-sample of about 2,954 men age 15-59 were interviewed in the 2000 NDHS. Twenty mobile teams conducted the interviews from late September to mid- December 2000. Household Characteristics As part of the 2000 NDHS, households were assessed as to the availability of various amenities. The survey found that 79 percent of households have access to safe drinking water, compared to only 68 percent in 1992 Nationally, 45 percent of households have sanitary means of excreta disposal, compared to 40 percent in 1992. There are large disparities by residence, with 85 percent of households in urban areas having sanitary toilets, compared to only 19 percent of rural households. Overall, some 63 percent of households consume adequately iodised salt. The disparity between urban and rural areas is small at 68 percent and 60 percent, respectively. Fertility The total fertility rate (TFR) for the three-year period before the survey is 4.2 births per woman. This represents a sharp decline from 5.4 births per woman for the 3-year period prior to 1992, a net reduction of 1.2 children or a 22 percent decline over the past eight years. The effect of the higher fertility rates prevailing in the past is evident in the mean number of children ever born. On average, women have given birth to almost two children by their late 20s, four children by their late 30s, and over five children by their late 40s. The difference between the mean number of children ever born to women 45-49 years (5.5) and the total fertility rate (4.2) is more than one child, indicative of the declining fertility which Namibia has experienced in the past two decades. Family planning Some knowledge of family planning is nearly universal among Namibian women, 97 percent of whom have heard of at least one method. Knowledge of methods is only slightly higher among married women than all women. There has been a dramatic increase in awareness of some methods. For example, the proportion of women who know of the male condom has increased from 72 percent in 1992 to 93 percent in 2000 and knowledge of the IUD has increased from 36 to 52 percent. Overall, 38 percent of all women in Namibia are currently using a contraceptive method, with 37 percent using modern methods. Contraceptive use is higher among currently married women, 44 percent of whom are using 8 a method, and is even higher among sexually active women, 52 percent of whom are using a method. There has also been a substantial increase in contraceptive use, from 23 percent of all women age 15-49 in 1992 to 38 percent in 2000 (i.e. an increase of 62 percent). The most commonly used method among all women is injectables (17 percent), followed by male condom (9 percent), and the pill (6 percent). Some women are more likely to use contraception than others. Teenagers tend to rely on male condoms and injectables, while women in their 20s and early 30s overwhelmingly use injectables and to a lesser extent, male condoms and pills. Women age 35-39 use injectables, female sterilisation and the pill. By the time women reach their 40s, female sterilisation is the most commonly used method. Urban women, women in the Central Directorate, and better educated women are considerably more likely to be using contraception than other women. Fertility Preferences Overall, close to half (48 percent) of all women age 15-49 either do not want any more children or have already been sterilised. Forty-five percent of women would like to have a child in the future; however, half of these women (22 percent) would like to wait two or more years before having another child. The mean ideal family size among all women has declined from 5.0 in 1992 to 3.3 in 2000 and among married women from 5.7 to 4.0. Among women with no children, the proportion who regard three or fewer children as the ideal number increased from 38 percent in 1992 to 75 percent in 2000. Maternal Health Survey results show that the vast majority of pregnant women in Namibia (93 percent) receive antenatal care. More than 9 in 10 women receive antenatal care from a medical professional (91 percent), mostly from nurses and midwives (78 percent). Doctors provide 13 percent of antenatal care services, while traditional birth attendants provide only 2 percent of antenatal care. Urban women are more likely to receive antenatal care, especially from doctors, than rural women. Also, more educated women are more likely to receive antenatal care from doctors. Forty-six percent of women who delivered in the previous year said they received at least one injection against tetanus during the pregnancy. The proportion of births delivered in health facilities has increased from 67 percent in 1992 to 75 percent in 2000. More than three in four women who gave birth in the five years preceding the survey were assisted by trained medical personnel (doctors, nurses, or midwives), while 6 percent were assisted by traditional birth attendants, 17 percent were assisted by relatives, and less than 1 percent had no assistance during delivery. There are large differences in type of delivery assistance by background characteristics. Urban women are more than twice as likely to receive assistance at delivery from a doctor as rural women. At first glance, it would appear that the maternal mortality ratio has increased over time, from 225 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births for the 10-year period prior to 1992 to 271 for 1991-2000. However, the methodology used and the sample size implemented in the 2000 NDHS do not allow for precise estimates of maternal mortality. The sampling errors around each of the estimates are large and consequently, they are not 9 significantly different; thus it is impossible to say whether or not maternal mortality is changing over time. Child Health According to the health passport and mothers’ reports, 65 percent of children 12-23 month have received all the recommended vaccinations, and only 5 percent have not received any vaccinations. When compared to the 1992 NDHS, the percentage of children aged 12-23 months who had received all vaccinations has improved, from 58 percent in 1992 to 65 percent in 2000. Thirty-eight percent of children under five have received a high dose vitamin A supplement in the six months before the survey. The median duration of breastfeeding is almost 19 months in Namibia. Although exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 4-6 months of life, only 26 percent of children under four months old are exclusively breastfed One-quarter (24 percent) of Namibian children under five are short for their age or stunted, while 8 percent are severely stunted. Nine percent of children under five are thin for their height, or wasted, and 2 percent are severely wasted. Comparison with data from the 1992 NDHS shows some improvement in nutritional status of children; the proportion of children under five who are stunted has declined, while the proportion who are wasted has remained steady. Overall, the 2000 NDHS found that the prevalence of diarrhoea among children under five has declined by almost 50 percent since 1992. The use of ORS has declined since 1992, but only marginally. The 2000 NDHS confirms that both infant and child mortality have been declining steadily over the past ten to fifteen years. Infant mortality declined from 57 per 1,000 during 1988-92 to 38 per 1,000 during 1996-2000. Improvements are observed in all regional directorates with the most marked decline in the Northeast Directorate (84 to 24); the Northwest Directorate improved from 56 infant deaths per 1,000 births to 50 per 1,000, and the Central/South Directorate from 56 per 1,000 to about 35 per 1,000. The under-five mortality rate for Namibia for the period 1996-2000 is 62 per 1000, which is an improvement of 25 percent on the figure of 83 per 1000 for the period 1988-1992 found by the 1992 NDHS. HIV/AIDS Awareness of AIDS is almost universal in Namibia, with 98 percent of women and over 99 percent of men saying they had heard of AIDS. It is very encouraging to note that large majorities of both women (81 percent) and men (87 percent) spontaneously mention condoms as a means of avoiding HIV. The vast majority of women (83 percent) and men (87 percent) are aware that a healthy- looking person can be infected with the HIV virus. About the same proportion (86 percent of women and 84 percent of men) are aware that HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her child during pregnancy or childbirth. Fewer respondents say that HIV can be transmitted through breastfeeding. The 2000 NDHS included question designed to gauge the level of stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. Respondents were asked whether they thought that an HIV-positive teacher who is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching in school. About two-thirds of women and just over half of men said that such a teacher should be allowed to continue teaching. 10 Only about one-quarter of women and one-third of men felt that an HIV-positive person should be allowed to keep his/her status private Another indicator of attitudes towards HIV/AIDS is the extent to which people are willing to care for sick relatives. In Namibia, over 90 percent of women and men say they are willing to care for relatives with AIDS in their own households, a finding that should be encouraging for home-based care programmes. HIV testing is one of the important interventions in the fight against AIDS. NDHS results show that about one-quarter of women and men have been tested for HIV. Seven in ten respondents who have not been tested, say they know a place where they could be tested. In conclusion, the 2000 NDHS provides a valuable source of data on a wide variety of indicators, which permit the assessment of progress achieved over the past 8 years. In general, considerable improvements have occurred in the health sector. However, many challenges remain to further improve the health of the Namibian nation. xxii | Map of Namibia MAP OF NAMIBIA Omaheke Omusati Oshana Ohangwena Oshikoto Kavango Caprivi Otjozondjupa Erongo Khomas Hardap Karas Kunene Introduction | 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY AND ECONOMY Geography Namibia is situated in South-Western Africa and covers approximately 824, 000 square kilometres. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, Botswana and Zimbabwe in the east, South Africa in the south and Angola and Zambia in the north. The Namib Desert, the oldest desert in the world, stretches along the whole west coast of the country, while the Kalahari Desert runs along the southeastern border with Botswana. Namibia’s name is derived from the Namib Desert, a unique geological feature renowned for the pristine and haunting quality of its landscape. The Namibian climate varies from arid and semi-arid to subtropical with the generally temperate desert coast offering sometimes fog-ridden days with temperatures between 5°C and 20°C. The central, southern and coastal areas constitute some of the most arid landscapes south of the Sahara. The hottest months are January and February, with average daytime temperatures varying between 9°C and 30°C. During the winter months that stretch from May to September, temperatures can fluctuate between -6°C and 10°C at night to 20°C in the day. Frost occurs over large areas of the country during winter, but in general winter days are clear, cloudless and sunny. Overall, Namibia is a summer rainfall area, with limited showers occurring from October and building up to peak in January and February. History On March 21, 1990, Namibia achieved its independence after a century of colonial rule, first by Germany and then by South Africa, following the successful implementation of the United Nations Resolution 435. The country, with a constitution based on Roman-Dutch law, has a multi-party system with general elections held every five years. A bicameral legislature consists of the National Council (two members chosen from each region of the regional council) and the National Assembly. The ruling party is the South West People’s Organization (SWAPO) and there are approximately five opposition parties. Administratively, the country is divided into 13 regions, namely: the Caprivi, Kavango, Kunene, Omusati, Ohangwena, Oshana, and Oshikoto Regions in the north, the Omaheke, Otjozondjupa, Erongo, and Khomas Regions in the central areas and the Hardap and Karas Regions in the south. Economy The economy of Namibia is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export; mining accounts for almost 25 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP). Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of non-fuel minerals and the world’s fifth-largest producer of uranium. The agricultural sector accounts for approximately 15 percent of the GDP, of which less than a third is generated through subsistence agriculture. Beef production accounts for 85 percent of the nation’s gross agricultural income. Half of the population depends on agriculture. 2 | Introduction Another sector contributing to the national output is the fishing industry. This sector has grown from less than 2 percent of GDP at independence to 4 percent by 1996. Namibia is now a significant player in the international fishing industry, ranking amongst the top ten in the world in terms of value of catches. Namibia is also one of Africa’s biggest fisheries nations in terms of production and exports. However, the manufacturing base remains small, with fish and meat processing being the largest individual sub-sectors, although beverages, other food products, metal and pre-cast concrete products, furniture, paints, detergents, and leather goods are also produced. Namibia is ranked as a middle-income country, but it has one of the most skewed incomes per capita in the world. The disparities in per capita income among the major segments of the population are the result of lopsided development, which characterised the Namibian economy in the past. 1.2 POPULATION According to the 2001 Population and Housing Census, the Namibian population consists of 1,826,854 people, of which 936,718 are female and 890,136 are male. The country has a relatively youthful population, with 43 percent of the population under 15 years of age and less than 4 percent over 65. Despite rapid urbanisation, Namibia is still a mainly rural society, with less than 30 percent of the population living in urban areas. Regional population densities vary enormously, with almost two-thirds of the population living in the four northern regions and less than one-tenth living in the south. Despite its small population, Namibia has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, including Owambos, Hereros, Namas, Damaras, Caprivians, Sans, Twanas, Germans, Afrikaners, Coloureds, and Basters. English is the official language and more than 11 languages are indigenous to Namibia, but with its cosmopolitan society, languages from around the world are spoken in Namibia. People commonly speak two or three languages and more than 50 percent of the population speaks Oshiwambo. Among the European languages spoken in Namibia are German, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Arabic and Chinese. 1.3 HEALTH SERVICES AND PROGRAMMES The Ministry of Health and Social Services has adopted a primary health care (PHC) approach in the delivery of health services to the Namibian population. Hence the PHC programmes established were to reflect the eight elements of PHC: • Promotion of proper nutrition and adequate supply of safe water; • Maternal and child care, including family spacing; • Immunisation against the major infectious diseases; • Basic housing and basic sanitation; • Prevention and control of locally endemic diseases; • Education and training in the prevention and control of prevailing community health problems; • Appropriate treatment for common diseases and injuries; and • Community participation in health and social matters. Other programmes designed to support the strategy have been organised into functional units: policy, planning and human resources development; tertiary health care and clinical support services; developmental social welfare services; and finance and resource management. The strong secondary and tertiary curative care services, which were present at independence, have been maintained and further strengthened or appropriately developed to provide an integral national system of referral support for PHC services. Three intermediate/referral hospitals are Oshakati Hospital in Introduction | 3 Oshana Region, Rundu Hospital in Kavango Region, and Katutura Hospital in Khomas Region, while Windhoek Central Hospital serves as the overall national referral hospital. The hospital hierarchy is based on the principle of a cost-effective referral chain, so that health care provision is based on specific need rather than on factors such as historical forces or skewed incentives. As part of the health sector reform, restructuring has meant that authority is decentralised to the 13 Regional Management Teams (RMT) and their respective districts at the operational level. RMTs are responsible for the planning, organisation, implementation, and evaluation of regional health plans and for other management activities. Because of the fact that PHC includes diverse interventions, intersectoral collaboration has been recognised as an important aspect in health and social care delivery. Many partners in health and social care are playing a major role in this sector. Although the government is the main service provider, private and mission facilities continue to make important contributions, although the latter is 100 percent subsidised by the government. As for the private sector, it is mainly urban-based, providing health care from 11 medium-sized hospitals, as well as from private pharmacies, doctors’ surgeries and nursing homes. 1.4 SURVEY OBJECTIVES AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT Objectives The primary objective of the 2000 NDHS was to provide up-to-date information on fertility and mortality, family planning, fertility preferences, maternal and child health, and knowledge and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS. The 2000 NDHS was patterned after the 1992 NDHS so as to maximise the ability to measure trends on similar indicators between 1992 and 2000. The ultimate intent is to use this information to evaluate existing programmes and design new strategies in order to ensure delivery of health and social welfare services to the population in a cost effective and efficient manner. The 2000 NDHS utilised technical support and survey design from the MEASURE/Demographic and Health Surveys programme at ORC Macro in Calverton, Maryland. Thus, it will form part of the archive of the more than 140 surveys that have been conducted in 67 countries, including Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Mozambique, Malawi, Madagascar, and Namibia itself (in 1992). Organisation As in the 1992 survey, the 2000 NDHS was undertaken by the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS), in collaboration with the Central Bureau of Statistics and the MEASURE/Demographic and Health Surveys programme at ORC Macro. The University of Namibia and a private research group, SIAPAC, provided additional technical assistance. The National Survey Director of the 2000 NDHS was the Deputy Director of the Planning Directorate, MOHSS, and the Technical Coordinators were also from the MOHSS. The Director and Coordinators were supported by a multisectoral Technical Committee. Moreover, the MOHSS established a Steering Committee, which consisted of some 10-15 members, including representatives of all the major organisations that were expected to utilise the survey data and all potential funding agencies. In addition to being responsible for the overall coordination of the project, MOHSS was also responsible for developing, translating, and pretesting the questionnaires, training the field staff, and supervising the data collection process. The Central Bureau of Statistics bore responsibility for providing the information necessary for selecting the sampling points, providing maps, and locating sampling points in the field. 4 | Introduction SIAPAC and UNAM provided support in terms of field staff training, fieldwork implementation, data processing, and data analysis. Staff from ORC Macro provided technical assistance to the MOHSS mostly during a series of eight visits to Namibia at crucial stages of the survey. Macro provided the services of a sampling statistician, demographers, and a data processing specialist. Macro staff also provided backstopping assistance in the form of administrative support, editing, and report formatting. Sample Design and Implementation The 2000 NDHS sample was designed to produce reliable estimates of most of the major survey variables for the country as whole; for urban and rural areas separately; and for each of the 13 regions. The design called for a nationally representative probability sample of 6,500 women age 15-49 and a subsample of about 3,000 men age 15-59. The 2000 NDHS sample was largely based on the Central Bureau of Statistics’ master sample, drawn from the list of enumeration areas (EAs) created for the 1991 census. In 1997, new EAs were demarcated in Walvis Bay, which was not part of Namibia at the time of the 1991 census. The new EAs were incorporated into the 1991 census frame and the number of primary sampling units (PSUs) in the master sample was increased. A PSU corresponds to an entire EA or a group of EAs. Due to considerable rural-urban migration, extensive peripheral development and intensive development of previously rural areas has taken place since 1991, particularly in Windhoek. At the time of the 2000 NDHS sample design, new EAs were being demarcated for the upcoming population census. A list of the new EAs in the urban areas of Caprivi, Hardap, Kunene, Omaheke, Oshana, and Otjozondjupa Regions was made available for the sample selection. Finally, in Khomas Region, a quick count of dwellings both in the old EAs within Windhoek and in the newly demarcated EAs in the informal settlement zones on the outskirts of Windhoek was implemented in order to get an up-to-date measure of size for the capital city. The sampling frame for the 2000 NDHS was obtained by supplementing the master sample with the list of the new EAs in urban areas in selected regions and the updated EAs in Khomas Region. It should also be noted that the urban-rural classification of EAs was changed in the master sample so as to reflect the recent proclamation of municipalities, towns and villages. Some of the EAs were also shifted from one region to another following changes in regional boundaries. The 2000 NDHS sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 260 PSUs (106 urban and 154 rural) were selected with probability proportional to the number of households within the PSU. Each selected PSU was divided into segments, one of which was retained in the sample. All households residing in the selected segment were included in the sample and all women age 15-49 listed in these households were eligible for individual interview. In one-half of the households, all men age 15-59 were also eligible. Questionnaires The 2000 NDHS involved three questionnaires: 1) a household questionnaire, 2) a questionnaire for individual women 15-49, and 3) a questionnaire for individual men 15-59. These instruments were based on the model questionnaires developed for the international DHS program, as well as on the questionnaires used in the 1992 NDHS. The questionnaires were developed in English and translated into six local languages—Afrikaans, Damara/Nama, Herero, Kwangali, Lozi, and Oshiwambo. People other than the initial translators did back translations into English with the goal of verifying the accuracy of the translations. Introduction | 5 The household questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including his/her age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the household questionnaire was to identify women and men eligible for individual interview and children under five who were to be weighed and measured. In addition, information was collected about the dwelling itself, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used to construct the house, ownership of various consumer goods, use of iodised salt, and household expenditures on health care. The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women aged 15-49 and covered the following topics: • Background characteristics (age, education, religion, etc.); • Reproductive history; • Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods; • Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care (including tetanus toxoid testing); • Breastfeeding and weaning practices; • Child health and immunisation; • Marriage and recent sexual activity; • Fertility preferences; • Knowledge of HIV/AIDS (condom use, number of partners, etc.); • Maternal mortality; • Husband’s background and respondent’s work. In every second household, in addition to the women, all men age 15-59 were eligible to be interviewed with the Man’s Questionnaire, which covered: • Background characteristics (age, education, religion, etc.); • Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods; • Marriage and recent sexual activity; • Fertility preferences; • Knowledge of HIV/AIDS (condom use, number of partners, etc.); • Respondent’s work. The survey instruments were pretested in three areas (one urban and two rural) outside the segments drawn in the sample. About 200 women and 200 men were interviewed in the pretest, the results of which were used to modify the survey instruments as necessary. Training and Fieldwork Training for the main survey took place from 21st August to 20th September 2000 at the University of Namibia. Fieldwork was organised in 20 teams, each composed of a supervisor (team leader), a field editor (nurse), three female interviewers, one male interviewer, and a driver. Candidates for field positions were recruited on the basis of maturity, friendliness, education, language ability, and willingness to work away from home for up to four months. The training program included a detailed description of the content of the questionnaires, how to fill the questionnaires, interviewing techniques, contraceptive methods, and how to use the anthropometric measuring equipment and the salt-testing kits. Due to the inclusion of tetanus toxoid blood testing, field editors received training on how to collect and store blood spots from recent mothers. Supervisors received training on mapping, segmentation, household listing and use of global positioning system units. Fieldwork started on 22 September and was completed on 15 December 2000. Field teams were supervised frequently by senior staff from headquarters. 6 | Introduction Data Processing After field editing and correction in the field, all completed questionnaires were sent to the Multisdisciplinary Research Centre at the University of Namibia in Windhoek for logging in and supplementary editing prior to data entry. The processing operation consisted of office editing, coding of open-ended questions, initial data entry and subsequent re-entry (verification) of all questionnaires to ensure correct capturing of data, and editing of inconsistencies found by the computer programs. ORC Macro staff provided assistance in developing the programs for data entry, training of data processing personnel and editing in the Integrated System for Survey Analysis (ISSA) computer package. A team of two supervisors and 16 data entry operators, working in two six-hour shifts, completed data processing activities in February 2001. Response Rates Table 1.1 presents the survey response rates. In all, 6,849 households were selected for the 2000 NDHS, of which 6,594 were reported occupied at the time of the interview. The primary reasons for the difference were households that were away for an extended period of time and dwellings that were vacant. Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence, Namibia 2000 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Residence ––––––––––––––––– Result Urban Rural Total –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ______________________________________________________ Household interviews Households sampled 3,008 3,841 6,849 Households occupied 2,876 3,718 6,594 Households interviewed 2,760 3,632 6,392 Household response rate 96.0 97.7 96.9 Individual interviews: women Number of eligible women 3,392 3,916 7,308 Number of eligible women interviewed 3,102 3,653 6,755 Eligible woman response rate 91.5 93.3 92.4 ______________________________________________________ MEN ______________________________________________________ Household interviews Households sampled 1,474 1,867 3,341 Households occupied 1,408 1,806 3,214 Households interviewed 1,341 1,763 3,104 Household response rate 95.2 97.6 96.6 Individual interviews: men Number of eligible men 1,652 1,899 3,551 Number of eligible men interviewed 1,337 1,617 2,954 Eligible man response rate 80.9 85.2 83.2 Introduction | 7 Interviews were completed in 6,392 households or 97 percent of the occupied households. In the interviewed households, 7,308 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview, of which 6,755 (92 percent) were successfully interviewed. Of the 3,551 men identified as eligible in every second household, 2,954 (83 percent) were interviewed. The principal reason for non-responses among eligible women and men was the failure to find them at home despite repeated visits to the household. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 9 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS 2 This chapter is a descriptive summary of some demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population in the sampled households in Namibia and the individual respondents interviewed, such as: age, sex, residence and educational level. This chapter presents this information in three parts: characteristics of the household population, housing characteristics, and background characteristics of survey respondents—both women and men. Information on characteristics of the households and the individual women and men interviewed is useful for the interpretation of survey findings and can provide an approximate indication of the representativeness of the survey. A household was defined as a person or a group of persons who live together and share a common source of food. The Household Questionnaire (see Appendix F) was used to collect information on all usual residents and visitors who spent the night preceding the survey in the sampled household. This allows the calculation of either de jure (usual residents) or de facto (those there at the time of the survey) populations. 2.1 POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX The distribution of the household population in the 2000 NDHS is shown in Table 2.1 by five- year age groups, according to sex and urban rural residence. The distribution generally conforms to the pattern characteristic of high fertility populations, with a much higher proportion of the population in the younger than in the older age groups (Figure 2.1). The proportion of the population age 65 and over Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age group, according to sex and residence, Namibia 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban Rural Total _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80 + Missing/don't know Total Number 11.8 10.8 11.3 16.4 14.6 15.4 14.8 13.4 14.0 11.2 11.2 11.2 16.9 15.8 16.3 15.0 14.3 14.6 9.8 11.2 10.6 16.6 14.7 15.6 14.3 13.6 13.9 9.4 9.8 9.6 12.1 10.0 11.0 11.2 10.0 10.5 10.7 11.7 11.2 8.2 7.5 7.8 9.1 8.8 8.9 11.6 10.8 11.2 5.4 5.9 5.6 7.5 7.4 7.5 8.9 9.2 9.0 4.2 5.0 4.6 5.8 6.3 6.1 6.7 6.9 6.8 3.0 4.1 3.6 4.3 5.0 4.7 6.1 5.5 5.8 2.3 3.5 2.9 3.6 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.5 3.8 2.4 2.4 2.4 3.0 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.3 2.0 3.8 2.9 2.4 3.7 3.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.1 1.6 1.8 2.3 2.8 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.3 0.8 0.6 0.7 1.7 2.0 1.9 1.4 1.6 1.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.9 1.4 1.2 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.3 0.6 0.5 1.6 2.2 1.9 1.2 1.7 1.4 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5,187 5,453 10,639 9,997 11,628 21,627 15,184 17,081 32,267 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Table is based on the de facto population; i.e., persons who stayed in the household the night before the interview. Total includes 2 people whose sex was not stated. 10 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Figure 2.1 Population Pyramid of Namibia NDHS 2000 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age 0246810 0 2 4 6 8 10 Male Female Percent (5 percent) has not changed since the 1992 NDHS; however, the under-5-year age group has declined from 16 percent in 1992 to 14 percent in 2000, implying a decline in fertility. There is some evidence of distortion in the female population age 50-54, with more women reported to be 50-54 than 45-49. Since this “heaping” does not occur among men in the same age group, it suggests that some interviewers may have deliberately pushed women out of the age range eligible for the individual interview in order to reduce their workload. This conclusion is bolstered by the fact that the number of women reported to be age 14 was 38 percent greater than the number reported to be 15 (see Appendix Table C.1), which also implies deliberate displacement of respondents out of the eligible age range. Although such distortions are disturbing, because they occur at the youngest and oldest age groups, they are unlikely to have a large effect on the survey results. Table 2.2 shows the percent distribution of the population by broad age group, according to selected sources. Forty-three percent of the population is below age 15, with 52 percent in the age group 15-64; the remaining 5 percent are age 65 and over. The population has a low median age of 18 years. 2.2 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION Table 2.3 presents information about the composition of households by sex of the head of the household and size of the household. This table includes the percentage of households with foster children. The data show that currently, men head 59 percent of households in Namibia, a reduction of 10 percentage points since 1992 (69 percent). Female headed households are more common in rural areas (44 percent) than urban areas (38 percent). The average household size in Namibia is 5.1 persons, compared to 6.0 in 1992. Rural households are larger than urban households; in 2000, the mean household size was 5.5 in rural areas and 4.3 in urban areas. Table 2.2 Population by age, according to selected sources Percent distribution of the de facto population by age group, according to selected sources, Namibia 2000 _________________________________ Age group 1992 2000 _________________________________ <15 15-64 65+ Missing/don't know Total Median age 42.9 42.6 50.7 51.9 5.3 5.2 1.1 0.3 100.0 100.0 NA 18.4 NA = Not applicable Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 11 Table 2.3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household, household size, and presence of foster children in household, according to residence, Namibia 2000 ____________________________________ Residence _____________ Characteristic Urban Rural Total _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Note: Table is based on de jure members; i.e., usual residents. Sex of head of household Male Female Total Number of usual members 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9+ Total Mean size Percentage with foster children 62.1 56.1 58.5 37.8 43.9 41.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 11.1 8.5 9.5 17.7 11.7 14.1 15.9 11.4 13.1 15.8 12.2 13.6 13.2 12.0 12.4 8.5 10.4 9.6 6.4 8.2 7.5 4.2 8.0 6.5 7.2 17.6 13.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.3 5.5 5.1 18.8 45.8 35.3 Over one-third (35 percent) of households have foster children, that is, children under age 15 living with neither their biological mother nor father. Foster children include orphans. The percentage of households with foster children declined from 37 percent in 1992 to 35 percent in 2000. With the current high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, the percentage of households with foster children in Namibia is likely to rise. 2.3 FOSTERHOOD AND ORPHANHOOD Table 2.4 shows the percent distribution of children under age 15 by survival status of parents and child’s living arrangements, according to background characteristics. The table shows that only one- quarter (26 percent) of children under 15 years are living with both their biological parents; One-third are living with their mothers but not with their fathers, 4 percent are living with their fathers but not their mothers, and fully one-third are living with neither of their natural parents (Figure 2.2). This extremely high level of fosterhood has implications for the health and well-being of the children in Namibia. 12 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents The table also provides data on the extent of orphanhood, that is, the proportion of children whose biological parents have both died. Of children under 15 years, 9 percent have lost their fathers and 4 percent have lost their mothers. One percent of children under 15 have lost both their biological parents (orphaned). Table 2.4 Children=s living arrangements Percent distribution of de jure children under age 15 by survival status of parents and children's living arrangements, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Living Living with mother with father but not father but not mother Not living with either parent Missing Living _____________ ____________ __________________________ informa- with Only Only tion on Background both Father Father Mother Mother Both father mother Both father/ characteristic parents alive dead alive dead alive alive alive dead mother Total Number ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age <2 3-5 6-9 10-14 Sex Male Female Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 31.5 47.5 1.6 1.2 0.0 13.7 0.5 0.7 0.2 3.1 100.0 2,734 29.3 31.7 2.9 3.2 0.2 25.9 1.4 2.3 0.4 2.6 100.0 2,611 24.8 25.2 4.4 4.5 0.6 30.2 2.4 4.1 0.9 2.8 100.0 3,833 22.9 20.3 5.3 4.5 0.6 31.3 2.8 5.9 2.2 4.2 100.0 4,464 26.1 29.9 4.1 4.0 0.4 25.0 2.0 3.9 1.1 3.3 100.0 6,630 26.6 28.7 3.6 3.2 0.3 27.8 1.9 3.5 1.1 3.3 100.0 7,012 35.7 32.4 3.4 4.5 0.5 16.6 1.2 1.3 1.1 3.4 100.0 3,502 23.2 28.2 4.0 3.3 0.3 29.8 2.2 4.5 1.1 3.2 100.0 10,140 16.3 30.8 4.1 2.9 0.2 33.8 2.6 5.6 1.0 2.6 100.0 6,807 40.2 23.2 5.6 5.0 0.9 16.1 1.7 2.1 2.6 2.7 100.0 2,116 35.3 26.0 2.9 4.4 0.4 22.6 1.1 1.6 0.7 5.0 100.0 1,940 34.4 32.5 2.6 3.6 0.6 18.9 1.1 1.7 0.5 4.0 100.0 2,779 37.1 23.0 8.5 4.4 1.0 14.3 2.6 3.9 3.9 1.3 100.0 801 48.2 23.7 5.9 2.6 0.4 11.5 0.3 1.0 1.5 4.9 100.0 455 28.8 28.4 3.6 3.1 0.8 23.6 1.7 3.4 0.4 6.0 100.0 562 34.1 27.7 4.7 3.2 0.6 19.0 1.7 2.6 0.7 5.8 100.0 426 42.0 23.3 3.9 5.4 0.8 17.2 1.1 1.1 1.8 3.5 100.0 1,314 35.1 38.9 2.1 3.6 0.2 15.7 0.8 0.9 0.4 2.3 100.0 1,390 23.0 31.7 1.7 4.9 0.2 28.0 1.1 1.9 0.3 7.1 100.0 442 17.1 30.6 3.3 2.4 0.1 35.8 2.6 5.3 1.0 1.7 100.0 2,117 40.1 21.3 0.9 4.3 1.2 23.6 1.0 1.5 0.7 5.4 100.0 402 15.5 26.8 4.5 2.6 0.2 36.9 3.3 5.8 1.2 3.2 100.0 2,000 18.4 32.4 4.7 3.9 0.0 29.4 2.9 6.4 0.6 1.4 100.0 1,397 13.8 35.7 4.2 3.2 0.4 30.7 1.5 4.7 1.2 4.7 100.0 1,294 34.8 24.5 2.1 5.0 0.4 25.1 1.5 1.8 0.5 4.2 100.0 1,043 26.4 29.3 3.9 3.6 0.4 26.4 2.0 3.7 1.1 3.3 100.0 13,643 As expected, younger children are more likely than older children to be living with one or both parents and are less likely to have a parent who has died. Children in the Northwest Directorate are considerably less likely than children in the other directorates to be living with both parents, mainly because 43 percent are living away from both parents. The proportion of children with one or both parents dead is about twice as high in the Northwest and Northeast Directorates than in the Central and South Directorates. For example, about 10 percent of children in the two northern directorates have lost their fathers, compared with about 5 percent of those in the Central and South Directorates. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 13 NDHS 2000 Figure 2.2 Parental Living Arrangements of Children Under 15 Living with mother, not father 33% Living with both parents 26% Missing information 3% Not living with either parent 33% Living with father, not mother 4% Note: Total may not add to 100 due to rounding Differences by region are even more pronounced, although some may be due to differences in the relative proportions of older versus younger children. In Oshikoto, Omusati, Ohangwena and Oshana Regions, less than 20 percent of children under 15 live with both their natural parents, compared with almost half of the children in Erongo Region. Adult mortality appears to be substantially higher in Caprivi Region than in the other regions, since 16 percent of children under 15 have lost their fathers and 8 percent have lost their mothers. 2.4 EDUCATION LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLD POPULATION Namibia’s education system comprises seven years of primary and five years of secondary education. Within the formal school system, the first stage is the universal primary education (grades 1-7). Junior Secondary education comprises grades 8-10 and senior secondary education grades 11 and 12. The Junior Secondary Certificate is offered at the successful completion of grade 10, whilst for senior secondary education, the final school examinations are the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and the Higher International General Certificate of Secondary Education (HIGCSE). In 1994, the IGCSE replaced the Senior Certificate Examination of Cape Education Department, which had been the foundation before independence. The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate administers the IGCSE and HIGCSE. The IGCSE is the entry requirement for higher education institutions in Namibia, while the HIGCSE was designed specifically to give matriculation exemption to students applying to South African and other foreign universities. Other Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) countries such as Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have similar examination systems, except South Africa and Zimbabwe, which have localised examination systems. Education is a key determinant of the life style and status an individual enjoys in a society. It affects many aspects of human life, including demographic and health behaviour. Studies have consistently shown that educational attainment has strong effects on reproductive behaviour, contraceptive use, fertility, childhood mortality, morbidity, and issues related to family health and hygiene. 14 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents In the NDHS, information on educational attainment was collected for each person listed on the Household Questionnaire. Tables 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 show the percent distribution of the female and male population age six and over, by the highest level of education attended and the median number of years of schooling completed, according to selected background characteristics. Table 2.5.1 Educational attainment of household population: women Percent distribution of the de facto female household populations age six and over by highest level of education attained, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Level of education ____________________________________________________________ Com- No Com- Some pleted More Don't Number Median Background educa- Some pleted second- second- than know/ of years of characteristic tion primary primary1 ary ary2 secondary missing Total women schooling ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 6-93 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 48.8 49.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 100.0 1,998 0.0 5.3 82.9 6.8 4.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 2,321 3.7 4.5 26.2 18.5 47.2 3.5 0.0 0.2 100.0 1,702 7.0 8.1 11.4 9.5 48.9 19.5 1.9 0.8 100.0 1,505 8.5 8.7 17.5 9.5 39.9 21.0 2.4 1.0 100.0 1,272 8.4 11.1 23.2 11.6 39.1 9.7 4.1 1.1 100.0 1,082 7.4 13.5 27.6 11.1 31.2 10.1 5.0 1.5 100.0 859 6.7 19.8 26.5 11.8 28.0 7.3 4.7 1.9 100.0 702 6.2 23.7 28.4 13.2 23.7 5.3 4.7 0.9 100.0 469 5.6 33.8 32.7 8.0 14.1 6.8 3.2 1.4 100.0 626 3.3 37.6 35.0 5.5 9.1 6.5 2.9 3.3 100.0 372 2.2 40.7 36.7 6.6 8.9 2.0 1.2 3.9 100.0 416 1.5 54.9 29.8 2.0 7.8 1.6 0.6 3.3 100.0 972 0.0 11.4 27.4 9.0 32.2 15.2 3.5 1.2 100.0 4,760 7.1 25.2 42.3 8.2 19.3 2.6 0.8 1.5 100.0 9,587 3.6 20.5 43.3 7.9 21.4 4.1 1.3 1.6 100.0 6,689 4.3 24.7 41.7 9.4 19.5 2.5 0.5 1.8 100.0 1,954 3.5 23.9 28.9 8.5 25.9 8.5 3.1 1.2 100.0 2,293 5.5 16.5 28.8 9.1 28.8 13.5 2.3 1.0 100.0 3,411 6.5 25.6 36.8 10.7 23.2 2.8 0.6 0.4 100.0 771 3.8 7.7 23.2 9.8 37.0 16.7 4.7 0.9 100.0 684 7.9 13.6 37.3 12.6 26.7 7.1 1.0 1.7 100.0 630 5.8 9.1 31.0 7.2 34.9 13.7 2.1 2.1 100.0 503 7.1 24.1 44.9 8.5 17.1 2.3 0.5 2.7 100.0 1,183 3.4 13.6 25.3 9.0 30.6 17.9 3.1 0.5 100.0 1,889 7.2 38.8 31.6 7.1 14.8 4.1 2.2 1.5 100.0 423 1.9 27.0 50.8 5.5 14.5 0.8 0.5 0.9 100.0 1,832 2.9 44.6 29.3 6.0 15.5 2.7 0.8 1.1 100.0 389 1.0 24.2 41.3 8.2 20.2 2.4 1.1 2.6 100.0 1,895 4.0 10.5 39.0 9.7 28.3 9.8 2.1 0.5 100.0 1,582 6.0 18.0 41.0 8.8 24.1 4.2 1.5 2.3 100.0 1,379 4.8 27.9 31.2 8.4 23.4 5.4 2.5 1.3 100.0 1,185 4.7 20.6 37.3 8.5 23.6 6.8 1.7 1.4 100.0 14,347 4.8 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Total includes 49 women missing information on age. 1 Completed grade 7 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 12 at the secondary level 3 It appears that the inclusion of a code A0" for pre-school (kindergarten, nursery school) resulted in some young children being erroneously coded as not having attended school when in fact they had attended primary school. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 15 Table 2.5.2 Educational attainment of household population: men Percent distribution of the de facto male household populations age six and over by highest level of education attained, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Level of education ____________________________________________________________ Com- No Com- Some pleted More Don't Number Median Background educa- Some pleted second- second- than know/ of years of characteristic tion primary primary1 ary ary2 secondary missing Total men schooling ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 6-93 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 50.5 48.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 100.0 1,870 0.0 7.9 84.2 4.4 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.9 100.0 2,168 3.2 8.2 35.2 15.3 36.9 2.9 0.2 1.3 100.0 1,700 6.4 10.5 17.3 8.8 45.4 15.7 1.6 0.7 100.0 1,377 8.1 11.7 21.2 6.4 30.5 24.7 3.8 1.6 100.0 1,139 8.4 14.0 21.0 9.6 30.9 17.1 5.0 2.5 100.0 877 7.5 16.8 19.6 7.8 32.3 14.5 7.4 1.6 100.0 651 7.5 21.2 21.7 8.2 25.1 13.2 6.7 3.9 100.0 544 6.6 22.5 25.3 8.5 23.7 12.8 3.5 3.7 100.0 448 6.0 30.8 24.4 5.8 20.1 8.9 6.7 3.2 100.0 363 4.8 33.1 29.2 5.7 17.2 8.4 3.3 3.1 100.0 311 3.4 42.5 31.0 4.1 10.7 4.2 4.2 3.3 100.0 336 1.5 48.5 31.4 2.9 7.3 2.8 1.4 5.7 100.0 692 0.0 11.8 28.3 7.1 29.6 16.8 4.4 2.0 100.0 4,460 7.2 26.8 44.5 6.5 15.8 3.3 0.9 2.1 100.0 8,073 3.1 23.7 48.2 6.0 14.5 3.9 1.0 2.8 100.0 5,240 3.2 21.2 41.6 7.3 20.9 6.2 1.2 1.6 100.0 1,649 4.0 24.6 29.4 7.2 23.5 9.8 4.3 1.2 100.0 2,274 5.3 16.1 28.9 7.4 28.4 14.4 3.1 1.8 100.0 3,370 6.6 23.7 36.6 7.8 24.0 7.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 621 4.3 6.8 26.6 7.1 34.0 17.6 7.0 1.0 100.0 650 8.2 16.4 35.1 10.2 27.4 6.9 1.3 2.6 100.0 533 5.7 9.8 32.6 8.2 26.2 14.8 2.6 5.7 100.0 485 6.6 19.7 44.7 7.0 19.1 5.7 1.3 2.6 100.0 1,028 3.9 12.2 25.7 6.4 32.3 18.6 4.1 0.6 100.0 1,956 7.6 34.8 29.9 6.0 16.8 6.0 3.7 2.8 100.0 403 3.0 32.4 51.0 4.6 9.3 1.4 0.5 0.8 100.0 1,427 1.9 42.5 31.9 7.0 12.8 2.8 1.1 1.8 100.0 397 1.2 24.1 51.0 6.3 13.2 1.8 0.6 3.0 100.0 1,511 3.0 15.1 46.4 7.2 19.5 7.7 1.2 2.9 100.0 1,214 4.3 21.1 42.9 6.1 17.4 5.8 1.8 4.9 100.0 1,088 3.8 30.7 30.8 7.5 20.2 7.0 3.1 0.7 100.0 1,221 4.2 21.5 38.8 6.7 20.7 8.1 2.2 2.1 100.0 12,533 4.3 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Total includes 49 women missing information on age. 1 Completed grade 7 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 12 at the secondary level 3 It appears that the inclusion of a code A0" for pre-school (kindergarten, nursery school) resulted in some young children being erroneously coded as not having attended school when in fact they had attended primary school. 16 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents The data show that overall, about one-fifth of women and men have never been to school, while 37-39 percent have only had some primary schooling. At the other end of the spectrum, 7-8 percent have completed secondary school and about 2 percent have gone beyond secondary school. Differences in educational attainment between the sexes are minimal and have changed over time. Whereas older men are somewhat more educated than older women, the reverse is true at younger ages, where women are less likely to have never been to school and the median years of schooling is slightly higher for women than men. Educational attainment has improved dramatically over time. This is indicated by the fact that the percentage who have never been to school declines with age. For example, 55 percent of women age 65 and over have no education, compared to only 5 percent of those age 10-14 (Figure 2.3). Another way of examining trends in educational attainment is to compare data from the 1992 and 2000 NDHSs. This comparison also shows that there has been an increase in educational levels attained by women and men. For example, the proportion of women age 15-19 who completed primary school or higher has increased from 43 percent in 1992 to 69 percent in 2000.1 Overall, educational attainment is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The proportion of women and men with no education in rural areas (25-27 percent) is double that in urban areas (11-12 percent). Similarly, about one in five women and men in urban areas complete secondary school, compared to only about 4 percent of women and men in rural areas. Erongo and Karas Regions have the best educational profile, while Omaheke, Kunene, and Ohangwena Regions have the worst. In Erongo Region, only 7-8 percent of men and women age 6 and over have never been to school, compared with 43-45 percent of those in Omaheke Region. 1 The questions on educational attainment were identical in 1992 and 2000 except that the later survey allowed a code for the pre-school level (nursery, kindergarten). It appears that in the 2000 survey, many more young children were erroneously coded as having attended ‘0’ level of school when in fact they had attended primary school. This would account for the precipitous increase in the proportion of children age 6-9 who have no education (from around 18 percent in 1992 to 50 percent in 2000). Moreover, in the report on the 1992 survey, the tables for males and females were erroneously reversed (MOHSS, 1993:10-11). Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 17 2.5 SCHOOL ATTENDANCE More detailed information can be obtained from the 2000 NDHS than the 1992 survey with regard to current school attendance and attendance during the previous school year. These data can be used to calculate attendance ratios. Table 2.6 presents net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) by school level, residence and region. The NAR for primary school level measures the proportion of children of primary school age who are attending primary school, while the GAR represents the total number of primary school students of any age from 5 to 24 as a percentage of children of primary school age. The GAR is almost always higher than the NAR because the GAR includes participation of those who may be older or younger than the official age range for that level. Students who are overage for a given level of school may have started school late, may have repeated one or more grades in school, or may have dropped out of school and later returned. The NAR indicates that 86 percent of children who should be attending primary school are doing so. Furthermore, there is no discrimination between male and female children in attending primary school; the NAR is 86 for boys and 87 for girls. Net attendance ratios for primary school are higher in urban than in rural areas and are highest in Oshana and Karas Regions (95 percent) and lowest in Omaheke Region (69 percent). The GAR indicates that there are children in primary school who are not of primary-school age, with ratios of 113 for males and 109 for females. As expected, both ratios are lower at the secondary school level. The NAR indicates that 43 percent of the secondary-school age population is attending secondary school. Secondary school attendance is higher for females (NAR of 47) than for males (NAR of 39). Erongo and Karas Regions have the highest NARs at the secondary level (73 percent), while Ohangwena has the lowest (23 percent). The GAR shows that there are many secondary school students who are not of secondary school age. Discrepancies between the NAR and GAR are largest in Oshana region, where 56 percent of secondary- school-age children are attending secondary school, but where there are almost as many secondary school students who are either overage or underage (GAR of 91). 18 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Table 2.6 School attendance ratios Net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de jure household population by level of schooling and sex, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Net attendance ratio (NAR)1 Gross attendance ratio (GAR)2 Background ______________________________ _____________________________ characteristic Male Female Total Male Female Total ___________________________________________________________________________________________ PRIMARY SCHOOL ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 92.8 91.5 92.2 107.0 103.2 105.0 83.6 84.7 84.2 115.0 111.6 113.2 87.3 89.1 88.2 122.4 120.8 121.6 82.6 81.4 82.0 111.7 101.4 106.3 80.2 81.7 81.0 95.0 91.8 93.3 88.7 87.2 87.9 100.2 98.2 99.2 78.2 77.9 78.0 95.8 88.8 92.1 93.6 90.5 92.0 102.7 96.7 99.5 87.0 88.7 87.9 97.7 101.9 100.0 94.8 94.3 94.6 105.8 104.5 105.2 85.4 83.6 84.5 121.8 109.2 115.2 93.2 88.8 90.9 104.6 99.3 101.8 65.7 73.6 69.6 85.1 82.8 83.7 79.2 86.8 83.2 112.4 120.9 116.8 68.1 69.6 68.9 81.6 80.1 80.9 88.7 89.2 88.9 125.1 123.5 124.3 96.8 92.7 94.8 124.9 116.2 120.7 86.8 88.8 87.9 131.4 121.1 126.0 79.9 80.5 80.2 95.4 93.1 94.3 85.9 86.5 86.2 113.0 109.4 111.2 SECONDARY SCHOOL ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 63.2 63.5 63.4 90.5 81.0 85.3 30.1 40.4 35.3 54.8 61.4 58.1 30.4 44.9 37.7 58.9 70.7 64.9 27.9 34.4 31.5 56.4 48.9 52.3 48.4 55.6 52.1 64.2 64.7 64.4 60.3 59.1 59.7 80.9 74.5 77.7 29.9 42.7 37.6 69.2 50.9 58.2 71.4 74.4 73.0 93.0 84.9 88.8 60.8 49.5 55.2 68.9 57.9 63.4 60.9 82.4 72.7 71.9 92.1 83.0 26.9 28.5 27.7 49.9 47.4 48.6 67.7 59.7 63.6 100.2 80.4 90.1 32.2 39.2 35.3 43.0 49.7 45.9 14.5 31.0 22.9 43.6 47.8 45.7 31.3 41.2 35.6 38.9 54.3 45.6 33.9 45.3 39.6 59.6 68.6 64.1 48.2 62.0 55.8 85.4 96.3 91.4 29.6 43.5 36.1 53.4 77.1 64.5 42.6 50.2 46.6 57.2 58.0 57.6 38.5 47.3 43.0 63.8 67.3 65.6 1 The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school-age (7-13 years) population that is attending primary school. The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school-age (14- 18 years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. 2 The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, among those of any age, expressed as the percentage of the official primary-school-age population. The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students 5-24 years, expressed as the percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 19 2.6 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS By asking respondents about their household environment, e.g., access to electricity, sources of drinking water, time to water sources, type of toilet facilities, and floor materials, the 2000 NDHS provides an assessment of socio- economic conditions in Namibia. This informa- tion is summarised in Table 2.7. As the table shows, only 37 percent of Namibian households have electricity. As ex- pected, electricity is much more common in urban areas (73 percent) than rural areas (13 percent). The percentage of households having electricity in Namibia has increased from 26 percent in 1992 to 37 percent in 2000. The pace of electrification has been more rapid in rural areas, with the proportion of households with electricity increas- ing from 4 percent in 1992 to 13 percent in 2000. In terms of electrical coverage, Namibia com- pares quite well with other southern African countries; the proportion of households with elec- tricity is 65 percent in South Africa, 38 percent in Zimbabwe, 17 in Zambia, and 8 percent in Tanzania. Accessibility to safe drinking water is important because waterborne diseases—includ- ing diarrhoea and dysentery—are prevalent in the country. Sources of water expected to be rela- tively free of disease-causing organisms are piped water, protected wells, protected springs, and rainwater. Other sources, like unprotected open wells, rivers and streams, ponds and lakes are more likely to carry the bacteria that bring about these diseases. Table 2.7 shows that overall, about 80 percent of Namibian households can be said to have safe drinking water; almost two-thirds of all households have access to piped water, while 17 percent get their drinking water from other relatively safe sources like protected dug wells or springs. Less than 20 percent of all households rely on less safe sources of drinking water such as unprotected wells and springs and surface water from ponds and rivers. A greater proportion of urban than rural households have safe drinking water during the rainy season (98 versus 68 percent). In urban areas, 95 percent of households have access to water within 15 minutes during the rainy season, compared with 68 percent of rural Table 2.7 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by household characteristics, according to residence, Namibia 2000 _________________________________________________________ Residence ______________ Characteristic Urban Rural Total _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Continued. Electricity Yes No Total Source of drinking water (rainy season) Piped into dwelling Piped into yard/plot Public tap Borehole with pump Protected dug well Protected spring Rainwater Open dug well Open spring River/stream/pond/lake Tanker truck Bottled water Other Missing Total Percentage <15 minutes Source of drinking water (dry season) Piped into dwelling Piped into yard/plot Public tap Borehole with pump Protected dug well Protected spring Rainwater Open dug well Open spring River/stream/pond/lake Tanker truck Bottled water Other Missing Total Percentage <15 minutes Sanitation facility Flush toilet Pour flush latrine Ventilated improved pit latrine Traditional pit toilet Bucket No facility/bush/field Other Missing Total 73.2 13.2 36.5 26.8 86.7 63.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 57.8 8.4 27.6 19.3 11.4 14.5 20.9 20.5 20.6 0.0 11.1 6.8 0.0 1.2 0.8 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.0 14.9 9.1 0.0 17.1 10.5 0.0 2.6 1.6 0.0 9.7 5.9 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.9 2.2 2.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.0 67.7 78.3 57.8 8.5 27.6 19.2 11.6 14.6 20.9 40.6 33.0 0.0 13.4 8.2 0.0 1.8 1.1 0.0 0.7 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 10.7 6.6 0.0 1.0 0.6 0.0 8.0 4.9 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.9 2.7 2.4 0.0 0.4 0.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.8 48.3 66.3 64.5 8.2 30.0 13.0 1.1 5.7 2.1 2.9 2.6 4.9 7.6 6.5 1.1 1.2 1.2 11.4 78.5 52.5 2.5 0.1 1.0 0.4 0.5 0.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 20 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents households. Differences between sources of drinking water during the rainy and dry seasons are mostly due to rural households shifting from using rainwater and open dug wells during the rainy season to using public taps during the dry season. The source of water for rural households is farther away during the dry season; less than half of rural households are within 15 minutes of their source of drinking water in the dry season. Modern sanitation facilities are not yet available to more than 60 percent of Namibian households. Despite government efforts, there seems to have been little change in the use of pit latrines; use of traditional pit latrines increased from 6 percent of households in 1992 to 7 per- cent in 2000, while use of ventilated improved pit toilets increased from less than one percent of households in 1992 to 3 percent in 2000. Households with no toilet facilities are more exposed to the risk of diseases such as dysen- tery, diarrhoea, and typhoid fever. Overall, 53 percent of the households in Namibia have no toilet facilities. This problem is more common in rural areas, where 79 percent of the house- holds have no toilet facilities, compared with 11 percent of households in urban areas. Wood is the predominant type of fuel for cooking in Namibia, used by 58 percent of households. It is especially common among rural households (86 percent), while 59 percent of urban households use electricity for cooking. Electricity is used by just over one-third of households as a source of lighting, but almost as many households use candles (33 percent) and 23 percent use paraffin. As expected, elec- tricity is more commonly used for lighting in urban households, while rural households are more likely to use candles or paraffin. Almost half of all households in Namibia live in residences with floors made of earth or sand, while 25 percent live in houses with cement floors, exactly the same proportions as in 1992. Earthen floors predominate in rural areas, while urban households tend to have more modern floors, especially those made of cement, linoleum or ceramic, and carpet. As a measure of crowding, information was collected on the number of rooms households use for sleeping. Sleeping density per room has worsened since 1992 and the increase is more evident in rural areas. In 1992, the mean number of persons per sleeping room was 2.2 in rural areas, compared to 3.0 in 2000. Overall, the figure has increased from 2.3 to 2.7 persons per bedroom. Table 2.7 Housing characteristics—Continued Percent distribution of households by background characteristics, according to residence, Namibia 2000 ___________________________________________________ Residence ______________ Characteristic Urban Rural Total ____________________________________________________ Type of cooking fuel Electricity 59.4 5.5 26.4 LPG/natural gas 15.4 3.3 8.0 Kerosene 9.8 0.7 4.2 Charcoal 1.1 1.2 1.2 Firewood/straw 14.0 86.3 58.3 Other 0.1 3.0 1.8 Missing 0.3 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Type of fuel for lighting Electricity 72.3 12.5 35.7 LPG, natural gas 0.6 0.6 0.6 Kerosene/paraffin 7.3 32.6 22.8 Candle 19.3 41.2 32.7 Other 0.1 12.7 7.8 Missing 0.4 0.4 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Earth, sand 13.6 71.5 49.0 Dung 0.4 5.0 3.2 Wood planks/palm/bamboo 1.0 0.3 0.5 Vinyl/linoleum/ceramic 27.3 2.2 11.9 Cement 33.0 19.2 24.6 Carpet 24.6 1.7 10.6 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Persons per sleeping room <2 persons 59.0 49.2 53.0 3 4 persons 38.1 31.3 34.0 5 6 persons 2.4 12.7 8.7 7+ persons 0.2 6.6 4.1 Missing 0.3 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean sleeping rooms per household 2.1 2.3 2.2 Mean persons per room 2.3 3.0 2.7 Total 2,479 3,913 6,392 Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 21 Table 2.8 provides an overview of housing characteristics according to residence by urban-rural residence, directorate, and region. As expected, households in urban areas are far more likely than those in rural areas to have each of the amenities listed. Perhaps because the South and Central Directorates are more urbanised, the households there are also more likely to have each of the amenities than households in the Northwest and Northeast Directorates. The differences can be quite large. For example, about two- thirds of households in the Central and South Directorates have either flush toilets or pit latrines, compared to only 14 percent of households in the Northeast. Sixty-four percent of households in the South Directorate have electricity, compared to only 9 percent of those in the Northwest. Table 2.8 Characteristics of households by background characteristics Percentage of households with specific characteristics, according to residence, Namibia 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage with: ——————————————————————————————— Wood/ Safe Electric/ cement/ water in gas/ linoleum/ Number Background rainy Sanitary kerosene Electric carpet of characteristic Electricity season1 toilet2 cooker lighting floor households ____________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 73.2 98.0 84.5 84.6 72.3 85.9 2,479 13.2 67.6 19.7 9.4 12.5 23.4 3,913 9.4 66.9 25.0 12.6 8.7 13.4 2,388 14.3 61.4 13.5 9.4 13.9 14.9 788 59.9 93.4 64.2 56.4 59.3 79.2 1,407 63.6 92.7 69.7 71.8 62.4 82.5 1,809 8.9 72.3 3.7 3.3 8.3 7.8 392 91.5 100.0 99.2 97.1 91.2 97.3 426 67.0 94.7 63.7 49.6 64.6 82.9 297 71.8 98.6 80.6 77.4 69.9 96.9 263 19.7 50.7 23.1 15.3 19.5 21.8 397 69.7 92.6 78.8 89.6 69.2 84.3 1,027 27.2 79.6 38.8 24.7 26.1 50.5 244 0.5 61.7 5.2 0.2 0.1 0.4 614 20.9 83.8 22.3 12.4 19.4 56.2 222 0.0 56.7 16.0 2.4 0.0 2.4 642 16.5 83.1 47.6 30.6 16.1 25.2 594 23.1 67.3 33.5 19.0 20.9 28.6 537 52.5 94.1 52.4 43.4 51.8 78.3 737 36.5 79.4 44.9 38.6 35.7 47.6 6,392 ____________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Refers to piped water, or water from a public tap, tubewell, borehole, protected well, protected spring, and rainwater. 2 Refers to any type of flush toilet, ventilated improved pit toilet, or a traditional pit latrine. 22 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents These differences are even more pronounced by region. As shown in Figure 2.4, the proportion of households with electricity ranges from virtually none in Omusati region to 92 percent in Erongo Region. Only 4 percent of households in Caprivi Region have a sanitary toilet, compared to 99 percent of those in Erongo Region. Based on the household characteristics listed in the table, households in Ohangwena, Omusati, and Caprivi Regions appear to be the least advantaged, while those in Erongo and Karas Regions are the most advantaged. 9 92 67 72 20 70 27 1 21 0 17 23 53 4 99 64 81 23 79 39 5 22 16 48 34 52 Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otzozondjupa 0 20 40 60 80 100 Electricity Sanitary toilet NDHS 2000 Figure 2.4 Percentage of Households with Electricity and Sanitary Toilet by Region Another household characteristic measured in the 2000 NDHS was the use of iodised salt. Iodine deficiency in the diet can lead to serious nutritional deficiencies such as goitre, nutritional stunting, mental retardation and cretinism. The Gov- ernment of Namibia has emphasised the addition of iodine to salt to prevent the occurrence of these health problems. Interviewers asked household re- spondents about the type of salt they use and where they obtain their salt. They also asked for a teaspoon of salt that was used for cooking. The salt was then tested for iodine content, using portable test kits. Table 2.9 shows that half of Namibian households use granular salt that is kept in a con- tainer with a lid (which helps to reduce iodine loss), while one-quarter of households use block salt. More than three in four households buy their salt at shops or supermarkets; only 4 percent obtain their salt from a salt pan. As expected, urban households are more likely than rural households to use granular salt that is kept in a closed container and to buy salt at shops and supermarkets. Table 2.9 Characteristics of household salt Percent distribution of households by type and source of salt, according to residence, Namibia 2000 ___________________________________________________ Residence Type/ ________________ source of salt Urban Rural Total ___________________________________________________ Type of salt Granular salt in container with lid 75.7 34.5 50.5 Uncovered granular salt 10.1 14.2 12.6 Block salt 3.9 38.1 24.8 Other 3.6 0.5 1.7 No salt/salt not seen 4.8 11.0 8.6 Missing 2.0 1.7 1.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source of salt Shop/supermarket 90.3 68.4 76.9 Open market 2.2 6.9 5.1 Salt pan 1.0 5.9 4.0 Other 0.8 6.3 4.2 No salt/salt not seen 4.8 11.0 8.6 Don't know 0.0 0.4 0.2 Missing 0.8 1.1 1.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 2,479 3,913 6,392 Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 23 Salt from 90 percent of households was tested for iodine content. As shown in Table 2.10, almost two-thirds of the salt was found to be adequately iodised, while the salt used by 37 percent of household was either not iodised at all or contained an inadequate amount of iodine.2 Urban households are more likely to use iodised salt (68 percent) than rural areas (60 percent). Programmes to increase the use of iodised salt should focus on Otjozondjupa and Kavango Regions, where less than half the households use iodised salt and especially on Omaheke Region, where less than one-quarter of the households use iodised salt. Table 2.10 Use of iodised salt Percent distribution of households by whether salt was tested for iodine content and by level of iodine content of salt, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Among households tested, Among all households percent distribution by iodine content: ____________________ ________________________________________________________ Number Number of Background Percentage of None Inadequate Adequate households characteristic tested households (0 ppm) (<15 ppm) (15+ ppm) Total tested ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 93.3 2,479 7.4 24.6 68.0 100.0 2,313 87.6 3,913 23.8 16.7 59.5 100.0 3,429 92.6 2,388 16.0 12.4 71.6 100.0 2,211 77.1 788 26.7 14.8 58.5 100.0 608 88.8 1,407 17.4 29.4 53.2 100.0 1,250 92.5 1,809 15.1 24.6 60.3 100.0 1,673 71.7 392 4.6 22.8 72.6 100.0 281 94.1 426 6.3 27.1 66.5 100.0 401 84.0 297 20.2 25.2 54.6 100.0 249 95.8 263 14.7 26.1 59.2 100.0 252 82.4 397 45.7 7.9 46.4 100.0 327 95.6 1,027 5.1 25.6 69.3 100.0 981 69.1 244 24.0 21.9 54.2 100.0 169 87.3 614 7.0 14.1 78.8 100.0 536 85.9 222 60.4 16.6 23.0 100.0 191 96.0 642 22.4 14.7 62.9 100.0 616 94.4 594 21.4 7.2 71.4 100.0 561 92.6 537 11.6 13.5 74.9 100.0 498 92.3 737 22.3 32.5 45.1 100.0 680 89.8 6,392 17.2 19.9 62.9 100.0 5,742 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Salt that contains at least 15 parts per million (ppm) is considered to be adequately iodised. 2 Salt that contains at least 15 parts per million of iodine is considered to be adequately iodised. 24 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents In addition to providing an indicator of socio- economic status, ownership of durable goods provides measures of other aspects of life as well. Ownership of radios and televisions can increase awareness of the larger world and access to educational programmes. Refrigerator ownership indicates a capacity for more hygienic food storage and ownership of a bicycle, motorcycle or a private car shows the means of transport available to households. Table 2.11 shows the proportion of households that own specific durable goods. Possession of durable goods is increasing in Namibia. Seven in ten households own a radio, 3 in ten own a television, and 2 in ten own a telephone (Figure 2.5). Refrigerators are also common; 32 percent of households have refrigerators. Cars and pickup trucks (bakkies) and bicycles are the most common types of transport owned by households; 22 percent of households have a car or bakkie and 18 percent own a bicycle. Despite the relatively widespread ownership of these durable goods, it is interesting to note that one in five Namibian households do not own any of these items. Urban households are more likely than rural households to own all the items listed in the table except donkey carts or horses. Ownership of radios, televisions and refrigerators has increased since the 1992 NDHS. Figure 2.5 Percentage of Households Owning Various Durable Goods 71 29 19 32 9 18 2 22 Radio TV Telephone Refrig- erator Donkey cart/ horse Bicycle Motorcycle Car/truck 0 20 40 60 80 100 NDHS 2000 Table 2.11 Household durable goods Percentage of households possessing various durable consumer goods, by residence, Namibia 2000 ______________________________________________ Residence Durable ______________ consumer goods Urban Rural Total ______________________________________________ Radio Television Telephone Refrigerator Donkey cart/horse Bicycle Motorcycle Car/truck None of the above Number of households 82.0 64.6 71.4 60.0 9.4 29.0 41.4 5.3 19.3 64.6 10.5 31.5 0.8 14.3 9.0 20.4 15.8 17.6 3.0 1.1 1.8 35.9 13.6 22.2 11.0 28.7 21.8 2,479 3,913 6,392 Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 25 2.7 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS Table 2.12 shows the distribution of female and male respondents by selected background characteristics. To assess their age, respondents were asked two questions in the individual interview: “In what month and year were you born?” and “How old were you at your last birthday?” Interviewers were trained in probing techniques for situations in which respondents did not know their age or date of birth, and they were instructed as a last resort to record their best estimate of the respondent’s age. The distribution of respondents by age group shows the effects of high fertility in the past, with the proportions declining with age. Data on marital status at the time of the survey show that a surprisingly high proportion of respondents—54 percent of women and 60 percent of men—have never married. Thirty-nine percent of women and 35 percent of men are in a union, whether a formal marriage with a certificate, a customary marriage, or a consensual union. Seven percent of women and 5 percent of men are widowed, divorced, or separated. The percentage of formally married women has declined from 27 percent in 1992 to 23 percent in 2000, while the proportion in consensual unions has increased slightly (from 15 to 16 percent).3 The data show that over 40 percent of respondents live in urban areas and that men are slightly more likely to live in urban areas than women (44 vs. 41 percent). The Northwest Directorate is the most populated and the Northeast is the least. About one in five respondents lives in Khomas Region. Survey results indicate that women are more educated than men in Namibia. The proportion of women age 15-49 who have never attended school is lower than that of men age 15-59 (10 vs. 13 percent) and the proportion who have completed at least primary school is higher (70 percent of women and 62 percent of men). The 2000 NDHS results show that education levels for women have increased since 1992; for example, the proportion of women who have completed primary school or higher has increased from 47 to 70 percent. Three-quarters of women and men are Protestant and about one-fifth are Catholic. Almost half of respondents speak Oshiwambo. 3 In the remainder of this report, the term “married” or “in union” refers to respondents in either formal or consensual unions. 26 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Table 2.12 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men by background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Number of women Number of men __________________ __________________ Background Weighted Un- Weighted Un- characteristic percent Weighted weighted percent Weighted weighted ______________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Marital status Never married Married With certificate By custom Consensual union Divorced/separated/ widowed Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incomplete secondary Completed secondary + Religion Roman Catholic Protestant No religion Other Missing Language Afrikaans Damara/Nama English Herero Kwangali Lozi Oshiwambo San Tswana Other Total 22.2 1,499 1,430 23.5 694 640 19.8 1,339 1,318 20.7 610 551 16.4 1,104 1,108 15.2 448 452 15.0 1,013 1,007 12.8 378 384 11.1 751 791 8.3 247 285 9.4 633 654 7.3 216 234 6.2 415 447 5.9 174 182 NA NA NA 6.4 188 226 54.3 3,667 3,401 59.7 1,764 1,600 22.7 1,532 1,582 22.6 669 697 16.2 1,096 1,156 15.7 462 520 6.5 436 426 7.0 207 177 16.0 1,078 1,245 12.8 378 487 7.1 478 527 4.8 143 170 41.2 2,786 3,102 44.4 1,312 1,337 58.8 3,969 3,653 55.6 1,642 1,617 41.3 2,792 1,993 35.4 1,047 746 12.5 842 825 10.6 313 239 18.2 1,231 1,814 20.8 615 880 28.0 1,890 2,123 33.2 980 1,089 4.8 322 316 3.9 114 94 5.9 399 586 6.6 195 303 4.3 292 494 4.3 128 203 3.9 261 485 4.2 123 237 7.7 520 509 6.7 198 145 17.1 1,152 550 21.1 624 332 3.0 205 625 3.5 103 286 10.1 684 499 9.3 275 187 2.7 185 594 3.5 104 317 10.6 714 427 9.2 271 154 11.7 789 566 8.5 251 197 8.9 604 501 8.4 249 208 9.3 627 603 10.7 317 291 9.5 641 796 12.8 379 423 20.9 1,409 1,372 25.2 744 765 12.2 827 800 9.6 283 291 43.0 2,907 2,799 37.7 1,115 1,043 14.4 971 988 14.7 434 432 19.7 1,333 1,596 23.7 700 785 77.7 5,250 4,951 73.2 2,162 2,054 1.1 75 97 2.2 65 73 1.2 83 95 0.5 13 25 0.2 14 16 0.5 14 17 10.1 683 895 10.5 311 400 14.7 991 1,473 14.9 439 653 0.7 47 52 1.0 31 28 10.3 694 854 10.9 323 382 8.9 600 540 7.2 212 173 4.1 277 289 4.9 146 111 48.9 3,302 2,446 47.7 1,408 1,099 1.3 90 108 1.8 52 65 0.2 12 25 0.3 10 18 0.9 60 73 0.8 22 25 100.0 6,755 6,755 100.0 2,954 2,954 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Education refers to the highest level ever attended whether or not that level was completed. NA = Not applicable Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 27 2.8 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS Tables 2.13.1 and 2.13.2 present the percent distribution of women and men respectively by highest level of schooling attained and median number of years of schooling, according to selected background characteristics. As mentioned above, survey results indicate that women are more educated than men in Namibia. Ten percent of women age 15-49 have had no formal education, compared with 13 percent of men age 15-59. The proportion of respondents who have some secondary education is higher among women than men. Table 2.13.1 Educational attainment by background characteristics: women Percent distribution of women by highest level of schooling attained and median number of years of schooling, by background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Highest level of schooling attained _______________________________________________________________ Number Median Background No edu- Incomplete Completed Incomplete Completed of years of characteristic cation primary primary1 secondary secondary+ Total women schooling ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 3.6 21.2 18.8 52.5 3.9 100.0 1,499 7.4 6.9 10.5 8.7 52.5 21.4 100.0 1,339 8.6 7.4 17.8 8.6 43.1 23.0 100.0 1,104 8.5 9.6 22.9 10.9 40.5 16.1 100.0 1,013 7.6 13.5 27.5 12.6 32.9 13.4 100.0 751 6.7 20.6 29.2 11.1 28.3 10.8 100.0 633 6.0 20.2 31.1 14.2 24.9 9.6 100.0 415 5.8 4.6 12.1 10.1 47.8 25.3 100.0 2,786 8.7 12.9 27.0 13.7 39.7 6.7 100.0 3,969 6.7 6.3 26.5 13.0 43.5 10.6 100.0 2,792 7.3 14.1 25.8 15.1 38.1 6.8 100.0 842 6.7 15.5 18.2 10.3 40.6 15.4 100.0 1,231 7.5 8.2 12.0 11.1 46.2 22.6 100.0 1,890 8.3 10.3 18.1 19.5 44.4 7.7 100.0 322 7.2 2.4 12.3 8.7 50.8 25.8 100.0 399 9.0 5.8 13.8 18.2 47.9 14.3 100.0 292 7.8 2.7 12.7 7.4 52.9 24.3 100.0 261 8.9 16.5 30.6 12.4 34.2 6.2 100.0 520 6.2 5.2 10.4 10.1 47.1 27.2 100.0 1,152 8.9 30.5 20.8 8.9 28.4 11.4 100.0 205 5.8 10.3 40.7 12.1 33.9 2.9 100.0 684 5.9 37.8 18.2 10.7 28.0 5.3 100.0 185 4.5 6.2 24.2 15.3 47.4 6.8 100.0 714 7.4 2.0 18.3 12.7 46.3 20.7 100.0 789 8.1 7.7 24.1 11.8 46.0 10.5 100.0 604 7.4 19.0 21.1 11.7 38.0 10.2 100.0 627 6.8 9.5 20.9 12.2 43.0 14.4 100.0 6,755 7.6 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Completed grade 7 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 12 at the secondary level Education is inversely related to age; older women and men are generally less educated than younger women and men. The percentage with no education rises with age, from 4 percent of women and 7 percent of men age 15-19 to 21 percent of women and men age 40-44. Almost one in three men in their 50s has never attended school. This implies that younger women and men have had better educational opportunities than older people. Comparing the current survey results with those from the 1992 NDHS also shows that there has been a remarkable improvement in the level of education of women at all ages. 28 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Table 2.13.2 Educational attainment by background characteristics: men Percent distribution of men by highest level of schooling attained and median number of years of schooling, by background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Highest level of schooling attained _______________________________________________________________ Number Median Background No edu- Incomplete Completed Incomplete Completed of years of characteristic cation primary primary1 secondary secondary+ Total men schooling ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 6.8 31.9 14.8 43.1 3.4 100.0 694 6.8 8.6 14.4 8.0 53.7 15.3 100.0 610 8.2 9.4 25.0 8.3 32.1 25.2 100.0 448 8.2 13.2 23.2 6.9 34.7 22.1 100.0 378 7.7 18.0 23.4 7.9 32.0 18.8 100.0 247 7.1 20.6 28.0 9.7 24.1 17.5 100.0 216 6.1 24.9 30.1 7.8 25.5 11.6 100.0 174 5.3 29.5 34.2 7.4 20.1 8.9 100.0 188 3.8 8.4 17.1 7.4 43.1 24.0 100.0 1,312 8.6 16.3 31.7 11.3 33.4 7.3 100.0 1,642 6.2 13.3 32.6 11.5 33.7 8.9 100.0 1,047 6.4 6.3 26.4 9.0 43.8 14.4 100.0 313 7.9 15.6 23.8 8.6 36.1 15.9 100.0 615 7.2 12.7 17.7 8.3 41.1 20.2 100.0 980 8.0 8.4 25.8 9.8 37.8 18.2 100.0 114 7.9 1.6 19.6 4.0 46.1 28.6 100.0 195 9.0 9.0 24.4 12.0 43.1 11.5 100.0 128 7.3 4.6 16.0 9.7 48.1 21.6 100.0 123 8.4 5.2 26.8 8.6 47.2 12.3 100.0 198 7.9 10.7 14.8 7.2 43.2 24.1 100.0 624 8.8 19.0 23.3 10.1 32.7 14.9 100.0 103 6.8 27.1 37.0 9.5 24.3 2.2 100.0 275 4.2 38.2 28.8 8.5 18.2 6.4 100.0 104 2.8 9.8 32.4 13.1 42.4 2.3 100.0 271 6.6 5.0 29.1 13.2 36.4 16.3 100.0 251 7.2 10.1 31.5 10.3 32.1 16.0 100.0 249 6.8 23.2 26.5 10.9 31.0 8.4 100.0 317 6.0 12.8 25.29.6 37.7 14.7100.0 2,954 7.2 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Completed grade 7 at the primary level 2 Completed grade 12 at the secondary level It is hardly surprising to find that urban residents have more education than rural residents. Eighty-three percent of urban women have completed primary education, compared to only 60 percent of rural women, while 25 percent of urban women have completed secondary school, compared to only 7 percent of rural women. Among men, the percentage who have completed primary school is 75 percent in urban areas and 52 percent in rural areas. Omaheke region has the highest percentages of women and men with no formal education (38 percent for both). The level with no education is also high in Kunene, Ohangwena, and Otjozondjupa Regions. Educational levels are much higher in Erongo, Karas, and Khomas Regions (and Oshana for women), where the median number of years of schooling is more than eight years for women and men. The percentage of women with no formal education has declined in all four directorates. The Central Region shows the largest decline, from 28 percent in 1992 to 16 percent in 2000. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 29 The level of literacy is often viewed as an indicator of the basic level of socio-economic development of a country. In the NDHS, women age 15-49 and men age 15-59 who were interviewed individually were asked to read a simple sentence in the language they preferred. Interviewers then coded their reading ability on the questionnaire. Those with at least some secondary education were not asked to read the sentence, but were assumed to be able to read. This small literacy test marks a departure from previous surveys in which respondents were asked if they could read or not. Table 2.14 shows the percent distribution of both women and men by level of literacy according to background characteristics. Table 2.14 Literacy Percent distribution of women and men by level of literacy, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Women Men __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Can Can Can Can read a read read a read whole part of Cannot Number whole part of Cannot Number Background sen- a sen- read of sen- a sen- read of characteristic tence1 tence at all Missing2 Total women tence1 tence at all Missing2 Total men _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Total 85.5 5.8 5.8 2.9 100.0 1,499 81.1 4.5 9.4 5.0 100.0 694 85.8 4.4 8.4 1.4 100.0 1,339 82.2 5.4 10.8 1.6 100.0 610 81.8 8.1 7.5 2.6 100.0 1,104 79.7 8.3 11.1 0.9 100.0 448 75.7 10.7 11.9 1.7 100.0 1,013 74.9 10.2 14.3 0.6 100.0 378 70.9 9.2 15.7 4.2 100.0 751 69.6 10.6 16.4 3.5 100.0 247 65.8 12.2 18.5 3.4 100.0 633 64.0 11.0 20.8 4.2 100.0 216 61.1 14.5 21.1 3.3 100.0 415 64.7 18.3 16.1 1.0 100.0 174 NA NA NA NA NA NA 60.8 12.8 22.2 4.1 100.0 188 86.9 6.5 5.9 0.8 100.0 2,786 85.9 6.9 6.7 0.6 100.0 1,312 72.7 9.3 14.1 3.9 100.0 3,969 67.9 9.5 18.4 4.2 100.0 1,642 83.7 7.9 7.2 1.1 100.0 2,792 75.3 8.2 14.4 2.2 100.0 1,047 60.0 10.3 17.0 12.8 100.0 842 75.6 4.1 7.5 12.7 100.0 313 72.5 10.7 15.5 1.3 100.0 1,231 67.5 13.0 18.7 0.7 100.0 615 83.0 5.9 10.0 1.0 100.0 1,890 81.8 6.8 10.3 1.2 100.0 980 62.2 6.5 8.7 22.5 100.0 322 60.2 0.0 6.2 33.7 100.0 114 85.7 9.2 4.4 0.7 100.0 399 85.9 9.6 4.4 0.1 100.0 195 78.5 7.3 11.8 2.3 100.0 292 70.4 12.5 15.9 1.1 100.0 128 91.1 1.6 5.5 1.8 100.0 261 89.3 2.8 6.1 1.8 100.0 123 58.6 12.6 22.1 6.6 100.0 520 84.5 6.5 8.3 0.8 100.0 198 87.2 6.6 6.1 0.2 100.0 1,152 89.0 5.6 5.4 0.0 100.0 624 57.6 10.1 30.8 1.4 100.0 205 68.4 8.6 21.7 1.3 100.0 103 71.3 14.4 13.4 1.0 100.0 684 60.0 11.0 28.2 0.8 100.0 275 53.2 5.8 37.7 3.3 100.0 185 43.8 11.4 37.5 7.3 100.0 104 88.8 5.7 4.2 1.3 100.0 714 76.9 11.0 9.0 3.2 100.0 271 90.6 3.8 4.9 0.6 100.0 789 85.1 3.5 7.9 3.4 100.0 251 82.8 8.3 7.0 2.0 100.0 604 80.4 7.0 11.5 1.1 100.0 249 69.0 11.8 17.6 1.5 100.0 627 55.9 16.6 26.6 0.9 100.0 317 78.5 8.1 10.7 2.6 100.0 6,755 75.8 8.3 13.2 2.6 100.0 2,954 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Includes those with at least some secondary school 2 Includes cases in which there was no card with the appropriate language available. NA = Not applicable 30 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Illiteracy is higher among men than women; 11 percent of all women are illiterate, compared with 13 percent of men. Eight percent of women could read only part of a sentence and 79 percent of women could read a whole sentence. Among men, 8 percent could read part of a sentence and 76 percent could read the whole sentence. As expected, illiteracy increases with age. Illiteracy rates are also higher in rural than in urban areas. For both sexes, illiteracy is the highest in Omaheke Region (38 percent for both women and men), followed for women by Kunene Region (31 percent) and for men by Ohangwena (28 percent) and Otjozondjupa (27 percent) Regions. The lowest illiteracy levels—less than 5 percent—are found in Erongo Region, and for women in Omusati and Oshana Regions.4 2.9 ACCESS TO MEDIA Individual respondents—both female and male—were asked if they usually read a newspaper, listen to the radio or watch television at least once a week. This information is useful for planning the dissemination of family planning and health messages. Table 2.15 shows the percentage of female and male respondents exposed to different types of mass media by age, place of residence, and level of education. The results show that radio is still the most widely accessed of the mass media, with 73 percent of women and 82 percent of men listening to the radio at least once a week. Newspapers and magazines have a slight edge over television; 38 percent of women and 47 percent of men read a newspaper or magazine weekly, compared with 36 percent of women and 42 percent of men who watch television at least once a week. Only 20 of women and 14 percent of men are not exposed to any of these media on a weekly basis. Surprisingly, there are only small differences in access to mass media by age. Urban residents are much more likely than rural residents to read newspapers, watch television and listen to the radio. Women and men in the South and Central Directorates, as well as those in Erongo, Karas and Khomas Regions are more likely to access all three media. Educated persons are more likely to read newspapers or magazines, watch television, and listen to the radio than less educated persons. Compared with data from the 1992 NDHS, fewer women are reading newspapers or listening to the radio now, while more are watching television. 4 The information for Caprivi is unreliable, given the high proportion of respondents whose literacy was not tested due to the lack of a card with sentences in the appropriate language (23 percent of women and 34 percent of men). Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 31 Table 2.15 Access to mass media Percentage of women and men who usually read a newspaper weekly, watch television weekly, and listen to the radio weekly, by selected background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Women Men _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Reads Watches Listens Reads Watches Listens a news- tele- to the All No Number a news- tele- to the All No Number Background paper vision radio three mass of paper vision radio three mass of characteristic weekly weekly weekly media media women weekly weekly weekly media media men _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Total 38.4 32.3 70.1 17.5 21.1 1,499 41.8 40.2 80.8 25.4 14.0 694 42.0 37.8 76.6 21.4 14.7 1,339 48.4 43.4 83.6 29.0 11.9 610 39.3 38.3 75.0 23.1 18.8 1,104 53.5 45.6 82.6 33.8 11.7 448 38.2 36.7 71.6 22.0 21.5 1,013 51.1 41.8 81.4 30.8 15.4 378 34.4 36.1 74.1 20.1 19.9 751 50.2 48.7 84.3 35.9 10.2 247 29.4 34.5 67.3 19.3 28.7 633 45.0 43.5 84.8 31.2 11.7 216 30.9 37.0 72.3 21.8 22.0 415 42.3 37.3 77.4 27.1 19.3 174 NA NA NA NA NA NA 34.6 27.6 79.7 19.2 17.8 188 57.5 68.8 82.9 42.9 8.0 2,786 67.9 69.9 90.4 50.9 3.7 1,312 23.4 12.9 65.6 4.9 28.7 3,969 29.6 19.4 75.4 11.7 21.3 1,642 31.4 15.2 68.0 8.3 25.1 2,792 38.8 23.1 75.0 16.2 20.7 1,047 15.6 18.8 57.2 7.8 38.6 842 25.8 20.2 79.0 10.3 19.7 313 42.8 55.8 82.8 31.0 10.3 1,231 46.6 56.6 87.1 35.8 8.7 615 52.8 61.3 80.0 37.6 11.0 1,890 61.7 59.5 87.3 44.7 6.8 980 12.1 16.2 73.7 5.8 23.5 322 37.2 17.6 91.3 17.6 8.7 114 68.1 83.0 88.6 56.4 2.1 399 70.0 82.0 94.6 58.8 0.2 195 45.2 48.9 78.0 26.6 11.3 292 45.8 52.7 90.3 30.9 4.0 128 55.2 69.5 86.3 37.7 4.6 261 61.9 70.4 90.3 51.2 4.2 123 17.8 20.5 47.0 9.0 48.0 520 19.2 21.7 72.0 6.2 26.1 198 58.7 68.5 80.3 44.4 10.3 1,152 72.6 65.6 87.7 52.6 5.7 624 24.6 27.0 70.8 13.6 22.4 205 26.2 31.4 69.5 8.0 19.9 103 27.1 5.1 55.5 2.5 38.3 684 19.8 4.9 61.9 1.2 36.1 275 24.7 24.8 72.6 12.3 23.9 185 15.9 18.6 77.9 6.7 19.8 104 26.4 8.4 66.6 3.8 26.4 714 26.3 21.9 62.9 11.1 29.9 271 39.3 25.8 75.5 16.8 18.0 789 69.8 32.3 90.2 27.2 3.0 251 31.6 20.7 74.3 9.1 17.8 604 41.9 35.3 87.4 27.2 11.4 249 32.6 48.0 83.1 20.6 11.6 627 39.0 49.3 88.3 30.8 10.2 317 2.1 12.2 49.9 0.3 47.3 641 7.8 16.0 67.1 4.6 32.0 379 14.9 15.2 61.7 4.1 34.0 1,409 21.3 19.6 73.0 8.7 23.6 744 24.4 25.6 70.9 10.4 23.6 827 38.3 34.5 80.1 16.7 13.9 283 46.2 41.7 78.5 24.0 12.3 2,907 63.1 53.7 89.0 38.8 5.2 1,115 78.7 73.3 88.1 56.5 2.5 971 87.1 76.9 94.1 68.9 1.0 434 37.5 35.9 72.7 20.6 20.1 6,755 46.6 41.9 82.0 29.1 13.5 2,954 2.10 EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATION Table 2.16 presents the distribution of women and men by employment status, according to background characteristics. This table does not reflect a true employment rate, because the survey did not attempt to measure the economically active population. Information was collected about current employment, earnings, and occupation for women age 15-49 and men age 15-59. 32 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Table 2.16 Employment Percent distribution of women and men by employment status, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Women Men _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Not Not currently employed currently employed ________________ ________________ Did not Did not Worked work in Worked work in Background Currently last 12 last 12 Currently last 12 last 12 characteristic employed months months Missing Total Number employed months months Missing Total Number ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Marital status Never married Married In a consensual union Divorced, separated, widowed Number of children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Total 4.5 1.8 93.6 0.0 100.0 1,499 7.1 3.7 89.2 0.0 100.0 694 27.8 5.4 66.6 0.2 100.0 1,339 35.5 9.5 62.1 0.0 100.0 610 41.6 4.1 54.2 0.2 100.0 1,104 50.6 9.2 39.0 1.2 100.0 448 45.6 4.0 50.3 0.1 100.0 1,013 65.9 8.6 25.4 0.0 100.0 378 50.5 3.2 46.5 0.0 100.0 751 73.4 5.7 20.9 0.0 100.0 247 46.5 3.0 50.5 0.0 100.0 633 71.7 4.1 24.3 0.0 100.0 216 41.7 2.5 55.7 0.1 100.0 415 57.5 7.0 35.3 0.0 100.0 174 NA NA NA NA NA NA 54.7 5.6 38.0 1.6 100.0 188 23.8 3.1 73.1 0.1 100.0 3,667 25.9 6.7 67.4 0.0 100.0 1,764 47.1 2.5 50.2 0.2 100.0 1,532 65.7 6.0 27.3 0.9 100.0 669 36.6 4.9 58.4 0.0 100.0 1,078 71.1 7.4 20.9 0.6 100.0 378 46.1 6.8 47.1 0.0 100.0 478 50.1 11.8 38.1 0.0 100.0 143 15.1 2.6 82.0 0.1 100.0 2,181 21.4 6.1 72.5 0.0 100.0 1,510 39.7 4.7 55.4 0.1 100.0 2,387 62.7 9.7 26.8 0.8 100.0 689 45.6 3.7 50.7 0.1 100.0 1,296 71.3 5.3 23.1 0.4 100.0 336 37.6 2.1 60.2 0.0 100.0 891 57.8 6.3 35.5 0.4 100.0 419 51.1 4.9 43.8 0.1 100.0 2,786 58.3 7.9 33.6 0.1 100.0 1,312 19.7 2.5 77.7 0.1 100.0 3,969 28.6 6.1 64.8 0.4 100.0 1,642 19.3 2.7 77.8 0.0 100.0 2,792 20.6 4.8 74.5 0.1 100.0 1,047 26.1 1.1 72.7 0.2 100.0 842 24.3 6.0 67.9 1.7 100.0 313 39.5 4.0 56.5 0.0 100.0 1,231 62.0 9.0 28.8 0.2 100.0 615 50.8 5.5 43.6 0.2 100.0 1,890 57.5 8.1 34.3 0.1 100.0 980 8.6 1.0 89.9 0.5 100.0 322 22.5 5.9 71.6 0.0 100.0 114 42.3 4.4 53.3 0.0 100.0 399 66.0 14.2 19.5 0.2 100.0 195 35.8 6.4 57.5 0.3 100.0 292 44.8 19.4 35.7 0.0 100.0 128 50.8 11.6 37.2 0.3 100.0 261 69.8 9.1 20.6 0.5 100.0 123 36.8 1.2 62.0 0.0 100.0 520 25.4 6.0 65.8 2.7 100.0 198 58.2 3.1 38.5 0.2 100.0 1,152 55.9 5.4 38.6 0.0 100.0 624 34.8 3.6 61.6 0.1 100.0 205 40.8 7.9 50.6 0.6 100.0 103 16.2 1.8 82.0 0.0 100.0 684 12.8 4.4 82.8 0.0 100.0 275 27.4 10.2 62.4 0.0 100.0 185 67.8 9.3 22.8 0.0 100.0 104 12.5 0.9 86.7 0.0 100.0 714 11.5 9.1 79.0 0.5 100.0 271 28.0 3.0 69.0 0.0 100.0 789 30.4 2.1 67.4 0.0 100.0 251 20.2 5.6 74.1 0.2 100.0 604 29.3 3.1 67.6 0.0 100.0 249 39.2 3.8 56.9 0.0 100.0 627 66.5 6.1 27.4 0.0 100.0 317 26.0 2.3 71.7 0.0 100.0 641 56.8 5.2 37.6 0.4 100.0 379 22.7 3.6 73.7 0.0 100.0 1,409 34.7 6.8 58.5 0.0 100.0 744 29.6 3.0 67.2 0.2 100.0 827 31.4 9.4 59.2 0.0 100.0 283 29.9 3.7 66.2 0.2 100.0 2,907 33.9 7.3 58.0 0.6 100.0 1,115 62.1 4.1 33.7 0.0 100.0 971 68.0 5.9 26.0 0.0 100.0 434 32.6 3.5 63.7 0.1 100.0 6,755 41.9 6.9 50.9 0.3 100.0 2,954 Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 33 The data show that 33 percent of women and 42 percent of men report being currently employed, while an additional 4 percent of women and 7 percent of men were employed at some time during the 12 months prior to the survey (Figure 2.6). The proportion currently employed is considerably lower among the younger respondents; especially those age 15-19, many of whom are no doubt still in school. Probably for the same reason, single women and men are also less likely to be working than those who are married or formerly married. The proportion working is higher among women and men in urban areas than those in rural areas. Employment is much higher in the South and Central Directorates than it is in the Northwest and Northeast Directorates. The proportion of women and men who are currently employed is particularly low in Caprivi, Omusati, and Ohangwena Regions. This is surprising, since women in Omusati Region have a low illiteracy rate and are among the better educated. However, the data show little difference in levels of current employment by education for women except among those who have completed secondary school, more of whom are working. A majority of men with no schooling and those who have completed at least secondary school are employed, compared with around one-third of men with intermediate levels of education. NDHS 2000 Figure 2.6 Percent Distribution of Women Age 15-49 by Employment Status Currently employed 33% Did not work in last 12 months 64% Worked during last 12 months 4% Tables 2.17.1 and 2.17.2 indicate the type of occupation in which working women and men are engaged. More than one-quarter of working women are involved in unskilled manual jobs, while about one-fifth work in professional or technical jobs, and another one-fifth work in sales and services. Women are slightly more likely than men to be employed in professional, clerical and sales jobs. Men, on the other hand, are more likely than women to be employed in skilled manual jobs and in agricultural work. Almost one in five working men is engaged in agricultural activities, compared with slightly more than one in ten employed women. Among both women and men, agricultural jobs are more common in rural than urban areas. As expected, educated women and men are more likely to be employed in professional and technical occupations and less likely to work as manual labourers or in agriculture. For example, 42 percent of women and 49 percent of men who have completed secondary school or higher are employed in professional and technical occupations. 34 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Table 2.17.1 Occupation: women Percent distribution of currently employed women by type of occupation, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Nonagricultural ________________________________________ Other/ Prof./ Sales Don't Number Background tech./ and Manual Manual Agri- know/ of characteristic manag. Clerical services skilled unskilled culture missing Total women _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Current marital status Never married Married In a consensual union Divorced, separated, widowed Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Total 12.4 7.8 25.1 0.5 31.2 22.3 0.8 100.0 68 15.0 17.1 30.5 3.6 22.1 11.1 0.6 100.0 372 14.6 20.5 25.5 4.8 21.9 12.2 0.6 100.0 459 23.1 14.9 19.4 4.5 26.8 10.5 0.8 100.0 462 23.1 16.1 17.8 6.2 25.9 9.8 1.1 100.0 378 28.9 11.2 9.2 2.9 37.5 9.6 0.8 100.0 294 20.4 8.0 11.3 4.5 41.7 11.4 2.7 100.0 173 15.5 16.0 29.3 4.9 25.9 7.8 0.6 100.0 870 31.2 19.1 14.3 3.5 18.1 13.0 0.8 100.0 721 12.3 7.5 16.1 5.5 41.0 16.2 1.4 100.0 395 16.7 14.5 13.6 3.3 41.2 9.0 1.6 100.0 220 23.2 19.7 26.8 2.2 17.1 10.3 0.7 100.0 332 21.1 18.8 22.9 4.9 22.7 8.7 1.0 100.0 949 19.9 13.2 15.0 4.2 35.2 11.5 0.9 100.0 590 15.2 5.3 16.9 5.1 38.3 18.0 1.1 100.0 336 18.9 20.7 19.2 4.0 26.9 9.2 1.1 100.0 1,425 22.6 5.6 22.7 5.0 28.9 14.6 0.6 100.0 781 27.2 8.3 35.8 7.4 19.4 0.6 1.3 100.0 542 26.2 6.7 9.4 2.4 12.8 31.4 1.0 100.0 219 17.6 17.4 19.8 4.9 34.5 4.7 1.1 100.0 486 16.2 20.3 14.6 2.8 32.0 13.4 0.6 100.0 959 (39.6) (6.8) (27.6) (2.3) (23.6) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 28 19.1 26.5 18.2 8.5 27.4 0.3 0.0 100.0 169 18.3 11.3 17.0 5.5 41.1 5.4 1.3 100.0 105 27.3 17.1 17.4 3.7 28.9 4.2 1.3 100.0 133 24.3 6.7 6.8 2.5 11.3 47.4 1.1 100.0 192 14.1 23.5 13.5 2.4 28.7 17.4 0.4 100.0 671 22.3 10.2 27.3 1.9 29.3 7.5 1.5 100.0 71 28.0 5.0 37.3 9.9 19.3 0.0 0.4 100.0 111 9.9 4.1 17.4 1.2 65.4 1.4 0.6 100.0 51 (26.7) (7.1) (31.7) (10.4) (24.2) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 89 26.2 5.2 44.3 6.9 14.3 0.8 2.3 100.0 221 28.7 17.9 21.9 3.9 25.1 1.2 1.3 100.0 122 15.2 13.3 18.7 3.3 41.0 6.8 1.7 100.0 246 2.3 1.7 10.7 3.0 53.3 28.7 0.4 100.0 167 8.3 1.6 16.3 3.8 41.5 27.6 0.9 100.0 320 8.7 4.0 21.2 4.9 45.6 14.9 0.7 100.0 245 16.2 14.4 26.0 6.6 28.9 6.8 1.2 100.0 871 41.8 32.5 17.1 1.6 3.9 2.3 0.8 100.0 604 20.2 15.4 20.4 4.4 27.6 11.1 0.9 100.0 2,207 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Prof./Tech./Manag. includes professional, technical, and managerial occupations. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 cases. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 35 Table 2.17.2 Occupation: men Percent distribution of currently employed men by type of occupation, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Nonagricultural ________________________________________ Other/ Prof./ Sales Don't Number Background tech./ and Manual Manual Agri- know/ of characteristic manag. Clerical services skilled unskilled culture missing Total men _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Current marital status Never married Married In a consensual union Divorced, separated, widowed Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Total 2.7 5.1 17.7 18.3 15.3 40.9 0.0 100.0 49 9.2 4.5 18.9 29.2 9.5 26.8 1.9 100.0 173 17.1 5.7 20.6 24.9 14.0 16.8 1.1 100.0 226 17.4 2.6 11.8 33.8 19.8 14.2 0.4 100.0 250 23.2 4.5 16.1 23.0 12.7 18.9 1.6 100.0 181 15.6 6.6 16.0 27.8 17.9 14.2 1.9 100.0 155 27.2 3.6 16.3 30.3 10.7 10.7 1.1 100.0 100 23.8 0.6 9.9 21.9 17.0 23.8 3.1 100.0 103 12.5 2.7 19.7 27.1 15.3 21.5 1.3 100.0 456 27.7 5.1 12.7 26.8 13.4 12.9 1.3 100.0 440 13.6 5.0 12.0 29.8 16.2 22.0 1.5 100.0 269 2.7 5.2 27.3 22.2 15.8 25.5 1.2 100.0 72 13.9 2.8 15.0 26.8 15.9 23.5 2.1 100.0 323 19.5 6.3 14.7 27.6 12.3 19.2 0.4 100.0 432 23.9 3.8 13.8 26.5 15.7 16.1 0.3 100.0 240 12.7 2.9 21.7 28.2 17.1 14.2 3.1 100.0 242 19.2 6.1 19.1 35.0 16.7 2.7 1.2 100.0 766 14.8 1.2 10.9 14.8 11.8 44.8 1.7 100.0 472 19.3 2.0 15.6 27.9 17.2 14.5 3.5 100.0 216 35.9 7.6 21.0 13.3 5.4 13.6 3.1 100.0 76 13.3 4.1 12.6 27.0 16.4 26.2 0.5 100.0 382 17.3 4.7 17.8 29.2 14.2 16.0 0.9 100.0 564 (21.1) (5.7) (15.2) (8.2) (9.5) (40.2) (0.0) 100.0 26 18.4 4.9 10.5 36.0 20.7 9.0 0.5 100.0 129 16.6 2.8 3.9 33.3 11.4 29.2 2.8 100.0 57 12.8 5.2 8.0 26.8 18.9 27.6 0.6 100.0 86 (43.5) (8.6) (24.0) (15.9) (3.3) (0.0) (4.7) 100.0 50 20.8 5.5 25.2 32.8 13.7 1.0 0.8 100.0 349 20.3 2.1 12.1 11.4 13.8 39.6 0.7 100.0 42 * * * * * * * 100.0 35 5.6 1.5 4.0 10.7 13.0 65.2 0.0 100.0 71 * * * * * * * 100.0 31 19.9 5.6 22.8 36.2 13.7 0.5 1.2 100.0 76 21.1 0.0 15.8 21.8 16.0 20.9 4.4 100.0 73 8.7 4.0 13.9 24.6 14.4 33.9 0.5 100.0 211 5.3 0.8 7.7 17.2 25.0 42.6 1.5 100.0 215 2.0 0.8 15.2 30.5 20.6 30.5 0.3 100.0 258 9.0 0.0 24.0 30.7 11.0 21.7 3.5 100.0 89 12.7 5.3 19.9 37.1 15.5 8.1 1.4 100.0 380 48.8 9.6 15.2 18.3 2.7 3.8 1.5 100.0 295 17.5 4.2 16.0 27.3 14.9 18.8 1.4 100.0 1,237 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Prof./Tech./Manag. includes professional, technical, and managerial occupations. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 36 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Women and men who reported themselves as employed at the time of the survey were asked if they worked for a member of their family, for someone else, or if they were self-employed. They were also asked if they earned cash for their work (Tables 2.18.1 and 2.18.2). Seventeen percent of working women are self-employed, while 73 percent work for non-relatives, and 10 percent are employed by relatives. For working men, 10 percent are self-employed, 86 percent work for non-relatives, and 4 percent are employed by relatives. The vast majority of those employed—83 percent of working women and 95 percent of working men—earn cash for their work. Table 2.18.1 Employer and form of earnings: women Percent distribution of currently employed women by employer and type of earnings (cash, in kind, no payment), according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employed by a Employed by Self-employed nonrelative a relative _______________ ______________ _______________ Does Does Does Number Background Earns not earn Earns not earn Earns not earn of characteristic cash1 cash2 cash1 cash2 cash1 cash2 Missing Total women _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Occupation Agriculture Nonagricultural Total 7.7 13.6 45.0 7.3 10.4 16.0 0.0 100.0 68 8.5 7.4 68.3 1.3 5.6 8.9 0.0 100.0 372 6.5 5.7 72.4 1.6 5.9 7.8 0.0 100.0 459 9.4 8.4 71.8 1.2 2.4 6.6 0.1 100.0 462 10.6 11.2 68.9 1.4 2.3 5.4 0.1 100.0 378 9.4 8.9 77.0 0.4 1.9 2.4 0.0 100.0 294 4.3 13.8 76.7 1.4 1.8 1.4 0.6 100.0 173 5.8 5.6 77.6 1.2 2.3 7.4 0.0 100.0 1,425 13.2 14.6 59.2 1.9 6.5 4.5 0.2 100.0 781 12.9 12.5 62.2 0.8 9.4 2.1 0.1 100.0 542 5.8 37.8 40.1 1.5 1.6 12.9 0.1 100.0 219 12.4 0.5 83.3 1.3 1.9 0.5 0.1 100.0 486 4.4 4.3 77.1 1.8 2.1 10.2 0.1 100.0 959 (20.4) (0.0) (73.3) (6.3) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 28 8.2 0.4 90.1 0.3 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 169 7.9 1.9 82.6 2.5 0.9 3.4 1.0 100.0 105 9.0 0.6 83.2 1.1 6.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 133 3.7 43.3 35.3 0.8 1.9 14.8 0.2 100.0 192 2.3 5.6 74.6 1.8 1.5 14.1 0.0 100.0 671 23.0 2.0 66.6 1.1 5.4 1.8 0.0 100.0 71 28.9 1.1 56.2 0.0 7.9 5.5 0.4 100.0 111 12.5 2.2 81.7 2.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 51 (21.8) (13.3) (44.2) (0.0) (20.8) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 89 6.3 19.7 65.1 1.0 5.9 1.9 0.0 100.0 221 3.9 9.3 75.3 1.7 8.8 0.8 0.0 100.0 122 12.2 0.2 83.5 2.1 1.5 0.4 0.1 100.0 246 5.5 15.9 64.8 2.7 1.8 9.3 0.0 100.0 167 11.8 22.4 48.7 2.7 3.0 11.1 0.2 100.0 320 10.8 15.9 60.4 0.1 3.5 9.3 0.0 100.0 245 9.5 5.7 71.3 1.5 5.4 6.4 0.2 100.0 871 4.9 1.2 88.7 0.9 2.5 1.8 0.0 100.0 604 1.9 39.2 12.1 1.2 0.4 45.3 0.0 100.0 246 9.2 5.0 78.5 1.5 4.2 1.5 0.1 100.0 1,961 8.4 8.8 71.1 1.4 3.8 6.4 0.1 100.0 2,207 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Total includes women with missing information on type of employer or earnings and/or employment status. 1 Includes both women who receive only cash and those who receive cash and in-kind payment. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 2 Includes both women who receive only in-kind payment and those who receive no payment. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 37 Table 2.18.2 Employer and form of earnings: men Percent distribution of currently employed men by employer and type of earnings (cash, in kind, no payment), according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employed by a Employed by Self-employed nonrelative a relative _______________ ______________ _______________ Does Does Does Number Background Earns not earn Earns not earn Earns not earn of characteristic cash1 cash2 cash1 cash2 cash1 cash2 Missing Total men ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Occupation Agriculture Nonagricultural Total 0.5 0.0 82.7 1.9 10.1 4.7 0.0 100.0 49 5.2 6.2 79.2 0.1 6.9 1.0 1.4 100.0 173 4.6 3.8 85.6 0.3 4.5 1.1 0.1 100.0 226 6.7 1.0 87.7 0.5 2.4 0.5 1.2 100.0 250 7.6 5.6 85.7 0.0 0.9 0.2 0.0 100.0 181 6.7 1.3 87.4 2.5 0.2 1.4 0.7 100.0 155 16.4 5.4 76.9 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 100 4.8 0.9 91.0 0.9 2.2 0.3 0.0 100.0 103 6.6 2.2 88.0 0.2 2.3 0.3 0.4 100.0 766 6.7 5.0 80.1 1.4 4.4 1.7 0.8 100.0 472 12.6 0.5 81.3 0.6 3.6 0.9 0.5 100.0 216 4.1 13.8 64.8 1.7 5.0 4.4 6.3 100.0 76 5.8 3.2 87.2 1.0 1.6 1.0 0.3 100.0 382 5.2 2.9 87.7 0.3 3.7 0.3 0.0 100.0 564 (0.0) (0.0) (73.4) (0.0) (0.0) (13.0) (13.7) 100.0 26 4.9 0.8 90.4 0.0 1.2 1.8 0.8 100.0 129 5.4 0.0 89.9 0.7 3.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 57 11.1 1.0 87.3 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 86 (6.2) (20.8) (60.4) (2.5) (7.6) (0.0) (2.5) 100.0 50 3.1 3.6 90.9 0.0 2.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 349 6.8 2.0 77.5 1.4 9.3 3.0 0.0 100.0 42 * * * * * * * 100.0 35 7.9 4.5 70.5 1.6 13.4 2.1 0.0 100.0 71 * * * * * * * 100.0 31 14.0 0.0 85.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 76 5.8 0.0 89.7 1.7 0.0 2.7 0.0 100.0 73 6.2 4.8 87.1 1.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 211 3.5 1.3 86.2 2.4 5.9 0.6 0.0 100.0 215 4.8 6.0 83.6 0.0 3.0 2.1 0.5 100.0 258 7.9 0.0 88.7 1.2 0.3 0.7 1.2 100.0 89 7.1 3.7 84.9 0.1 3.4 0.1 0.6 100.0 380 9.3 2.7 84.2 0.4 1.7 0.8 0.8 100.0 295 4.4 6.1 75.5 1.9 8.1 3.4 0.6 100.0 232 7.1 2.6 87.2 0.3 2.0 0.3 0.5 100.0 1,005 6.6 3.3 85.0 0.6 3.1 0.8 0.6 100.0 1,237 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Total includes men with missing information on type of employer or earnings and/or employment. Figures in parentheses re based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Includes both men who receive only cash and those who receive cash and in-kind payment 2 Includes both men who receive only in-kind payment and those who receive no payment 38 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Younger workers, especially those ages 15-19, are more likely to work for relatives and less likely to earn cash for their work than are older workers. Rural women are more likely than urban women to be self-employed and not to earn cash, but for men, there are surprisingly few differences in type of employer by urban-rural residence. In the Northeast Directorate, women and men who work are more likely to be self-employed or employed by a relative, while those in the Central and South Directorates are more likely to be employed by non-relatives. Education affects the type of employer and form of earnings. Working women who have completed secondary school are more likely to be employed by a non-relative and much more likely to be paid in cash than are less educated women. For men, differences are very small. As expected, women who work in agriculture tend to be self-employed or work for relatives and are much less likely to earn cash than non-agricultural workers. However, among men, differences between those engaged in agricultural and non-agricultural work are small. Working women who earn cash for their work were asked who mainly decides how her earnings will be used. Seventy-seven percent of working women decide for themselves how their own earnings are used, while 12 percent decide jointly with their husband or someone else, and 11 percent say they do not participate in the decision at all (Table 2.19). As expected, single women and those who are divorced, widowed, or separated are more likely than married women to decide for themselves how their earnings are used. Working women were also asked what proportion of the household expenditures was provided by their earnings. As shown in Table 2.19, two-thirds of working women provide for at least half their household expenditures, with 16 percent providing for all expenditures. The proportion of working women who provide for at least half of their household expenditures is particularly high in Erongo Region (84 percent) and Kavango Region (83 percent). Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 39 Table 2.19 Decision on use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures Percent distribution of women currently employed and receiving cash earnings by person who decides how earnings are used and by proportion of household expenditures met by earnings, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Person who decides Proportion of household how earnings are used expenditures met by earnings ________________________________ __________________________________________ Some- Less Half Number Background Self one Almost than or of characteristic only Jointly1 else2 Missing Total none half more All Missing Total women _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15 19 (77.8) (12.7) (8.2) (1.3) 100.0 (27.5) (34.8) (26.1) (11.6) (0.0) 100.0 43 20 24 86.2 6.6 7.2 0.0 100.0 11.8 26.5 48.0 13.6 0.0 100.0 306 25 29 78.6 12.3 9.1 0.0 100.0 15.8 20.4 50.2 13.6 0.0 100.0 389 30 34 75.3 11.3 13.4 0.0 100.0 8.7 17.4 57.7 16.1 0.1 100.0 387 35 39 72.0 16.7 11.2 0.0 100.0 10.0 25.5 46.7 17.9 0.0 100.0 309 40 44 73.3 12.5 14.1 0.0 100.0 13.1 18.0 51.8 15.4 1.8 100.0 260 45 49 71.7 18.4 8.7 1.2 100.0 16.3 25.2 39.6 18.9 0.0 100.0 144 Marital status Never married 94.6 2.4 2.7 0.3 100.0 13.6 26.1 45.6 14.5 0.3 100.0 744 Married or in union 57.6 22.9 19.5 0.0 100.0 12.2 18.0 53.6 15.9 0.3 100.0 906 Divorced, separated, widowed 98.3 1.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 10.9 25.2 47.0 16.9 0.0 100.0 189 Residence Urban 75.6 13.1 11.3 0.0 100.0 12.3 21.3 49.1 17.2 0.2 100.0 1,222 Rural 79.2 11.0 9.6 0.3 100.0 13.2 23.4 50.8 12.1 0.4 100.0 616 Directorate Northwest 88.2 6.9 4.5 0.4 100.0 15.3 31.1 45.5 7.5 0.6 100.0 458 Northeast 76.7 18.4 4.9 0.0 100.0 5.1 14.3 66.3 14.2 0.0 100.0 105 Central 69.6 11.3 19.1 0.0 100.0 5.0 18.4 48.7 27.8 0.1 100.0 475 South 74.5 15.4 10.0 0.1 100.0 16.5 19.9 50.4 12.9 0.3 100.0 801 Region Caprivi (64.0) (24.9) (11.1) (0.0) 100.0 (14.6) (13.1) (56.7) (15.6) (0.0) 100.0 26 Erongo 65.0 16.9 18.0 0.0 100.0 2.7 12.9 48.7 35.7 0.0 100.0 168 Hardap 71.3 18.8 9.9 0.0 100.0 24.1 24.4 40.4 11.1 0.0 100.0 96 Karas 72.1 22.0 5.4 0.4 100.0 10.7 21.9 44.8 22.6 0.0 100.0 131 Kavango 80.9 16.2 2.9 0.0 100.0 2.0 14.7 69.5 13.7 0.0 100.0 79 Khomas 76.4 12.7 10.9 0.0 100.0 16.9 18.7 53.2 10.9 0.4 100.0 527 Kunene 78.2 12.6 9.2 0.0 100.0 8.7 24.9 56.0 10.5 0.0 100.0 68 Ohangwena 88.8 7.0 4.2 0.0 100.0 2.8 43.6 45.4 8.2 0.0 100.0 103 Omaheke 66.0 21.1 12.9 0.0 100.0 13.6 19.1 55.3 12.0 0.0 100.0 48 Omusati (87.4) (6.6) (6.0) (0.0) 100.0 (44.8) (28.5) (21.5) (5.3) (0.0) 100.0 77 Oshana 88.4 7.0 3.5 1.0 100.0 7.8 29.1 54.8 6.7 1.6 100.0 171 Oshikoto 88.1 6.9 5.1 0.0 100.0 18.1 24.3 48.1 9.5 0.0 100.0 107 Otjozondjupa 70.3 6.9 22.7 0.0 100.0 5.6 20.5 46.5 27.2 0.1 100.0 239 Educational levels No education 78.9 8.0 13.1 0.0 100.0 13.5 16.8 48.4 21.4 0.0 100.0 120 Incomplete primary 76.1 11.1 12.7 0.0 100.0 20.7 21.6 40.3 16.4 1.0 100.0 204 Completed primary 74.4 16.9 8.5 0.3 100.0 18.5 37.0 37.1 7.4 0.0 100.0 183 Incomplete secondary 80.0 9.5 10.5 0.0 100.0 12.7 22.0 51.2 13.8 0.4 100.0 752 Complete secondary+ 73.1 16.2 10.5 0.3 100.0 7.7 18.6 55.2 18.6 0.0 100.0 580 Total 76.8 12.4 10.7 0.1 100.0 12.6 22.0 49.7 15.5 0.3 100.0 1,839 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 With husband or someone else 2 Includes husband 40 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents 2.11 WOMEN’S STATUS In the 2000 NDHS, several sets of questions were included to assess women’s and men’s attitudes towards wife beating and sexual autonomy. The questions were designed to assess attitudes towards women. Men interviewed in the 2000 NDHS were asked if they thought that a man was justified in hitting or beating his wife in three situations: if she neglects the children, if she argues with him, and if she refuses to have sex with him. The data in Table 2.20 indicate that wife beating is widely accepted by men in Namibia. Almost four in ten men say that a man is justified in hitting his wife if she neglects the children. More than one-quarter feel that wife beating is justified if she argues with him. Refusing sexual advances is considered more acceptable; only 13 percent of men say that wife beating is justified in that circumstance. Although 44 percent of men agree with at least one of the reasons mentioned, on the other hand, 56 percent of men said that wife beating is not justified in any of the circumstances. Differentials in attitudes towards wife beating are not pronounced except by region and education. Men in Caprivi Region appear to be particularly accepting of wife beating under all three situations, while those in Karas Region are notable for disapproving of wife beating. The more educated a man is, the less likely he is to agree that wife beating is justified. The extent of control women have over when they have sex has important implications for demographic and health outcomes. In the 2000 NDHS, women and men were asked if they think a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband in four circumstances: if she is tired or not in the mood, if she has recently given birth, if she knows her husband has sexual relations with other women, and if she knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease. These circumstances were chosen because they combine issues of women’s rights and consequences for women’s health. Tables 2.21.1 and 2.21.2 show how women and men responded. The results show that both women and men are largely supportive of a woman’s right to refuse sex with her husband. Two-thirds of women and more than 60 percent of men say that a wife is justified in refusing her husband’s sexual advances in all four situations postulated. Moreover, the proportions who agree with a wife’s right to refuse sex are roughly equal in all four situations, implying that respondents did not differentiate between the circumstances. Respondent’s age makes little difference in attitudes towards women’s rights to refuse sex, except that adolescent women, as well as childless women, are less likely to agree with the reasons given for refusing sex. Although urban women are more sympathetic than rural women to a wife’s right to refuse her husband in all four circumstances, the pattern is reversed among men. Surprisingly, among women, education has only a marginal relationship with attitudes towards a woman’s right to refuse sex. Women who have completed secondary school are more likely than less educated women to agree that a wife is justified in refusing sex with her husband under all four situations; however, almost as many uneducated women agree as well. Among men, there is a direct, positive relationship between the level of education and the percentage who agree with a woman’s right to refuse sex with her husband. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 41 Table 2.20 Men's agreement with reasons for wife beating Percentage of men who agree with specific reasons justifying a husband beating his wife and percentage who agree with at least one or with none of the reasons, according to background characterisitics, Namibia 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Reasons justifying a husband beating his wife ______________________________ Agrees Agrees Neglects with any with no Number Background the Argues Refuses selected selected of characteristic children with him sex reason reason men ______________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Marital status Never married Married or in union Divorced/separated/ widowed Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Complete primary Incomplete secondary Complete secondary + Current employment Not employed Working for cash Working, not for cash Total 39.0 27.2 12.0 47.2 52.8 694 40.3 31.3 13.0 49.1 50.9 610 39.0 30.2 15.6 45.0 55.0 448 39.7 26.2 14.7 41.9 58.1 378 34.6 24.0 13.6 37.6 62.4 247 38.6 23.8 13.6 40.8 59.2 216 34.5 25.1 11.9 40.8 59.2 174 35.6 24.4 10.0 39.1 60.9 188 40.4 29.7 14.1 47.7 52.3 1,764 35.8 24.9 12.1 39.7 60.3 1,047 34.3 20.3 10.3 39.2 60.8 143 39.2 29.5 14.2 46.8 53.2 1,510 35.0 22.8 11.3 39.3 60.7 689 34.4 24.7 9.8 37.8 62.2 336 44.6 30.7 15.4 49.5 50.5 419 35.2 22.3 11.0 39.6 60.4 1,312 41.1 31.8 14.9 48.3 51.7 1,642 90.1 73.5 69.4 90.8 9.2 114 28.9 12.6 1.9 31.8 68.2 195 20.4 17.8 5.3 34.3 65.7 128 8.3 5.7 2.8 10.6 89.4 123 34.1 24.4 7.3 37.5 62.5 198 45.0 32.2 18.8 49.8 50.2 624 41.6 30.7 9.2 49.8 50.2 103 50.9 50.6 17.8 64.3 35.7 275 19.5 13.9 2.9 23.1 76.9 104 51.5 29.5 14.2 58.9 41.1 271 37.9 29.5 15.0 44.9 55.1 251 33.4 22.5 6.3 38.8 61.2 249 22.3 9.8 3.6 26.1 73.9 317 46.6 38.2 21.8 53.8 46.2 379 46.7 31.4 14.9 51.9 48.1 744 40.9 31.4 13.4 49.6 50.4 283 36.8 26.4 10.9 43.3 56.7 1,115 19.8 12.3 8.7 22.9 77.1 434 43.0 32.1 15.7 50.6 49.4 1,709 31.8 20.7 10.0 35.7 64.3 1,174 42.1 32.9 2.8 42.1 57.9 60 38.5 27.6 13.2 44.4 55.6 2,954 42 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Table 2.21.1 Reasons for refusing to have sexual relations with husband: women Percentage of women who agree with specific reasons justifying a wife refusing to have sexual relations with her husband and percentages who agree with all and with none of the reasons, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage who agree with specific reasons: ________________________________________ Knows husband Knows Percentage has sexual husband Percentage who agree Tired, Gave relations has who agree with none Number Background not in birth with other an STD with all of the of characteristic mood recently women or AIDS reasons reasons women _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Marital status Never married Married or in union Divorced, separated, widowed Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Current employment Not employed Employed for cash Employed, not for cash Total 66.2 69.6 68.4 75.0 55.1 19.0 1,499 79.1 81.3 76.7 80.4 68.8 13.1 1,339 80.9 85.2 81.4 84.0 73.5 11.4 1,104 80.5 85.0 78.9 85.0 72.1 11.3 1,013 82.8 84.8 79.7 83.0 72.7 10.9 751 79.3 85.9 81.8 85.2 72.3 10.4 633 78.0 83.8 77.0 84.6 68.0 11.6 415 71.3 74.8 71.8 76.6 60.7 17.0 3,667 83.5 87.3 81.9 86.2 75.5 9.7 2,610 86.9 92.7 87.0 92.9 79.5 4.0 478 68.1 71.4 69.8 74.8 56.4 18.4 2,181 81.5 84.8 80.3 83.9 73.1 11.2 2,387 83.2 87.6 81.4 87.8 75.1 9.5 1,296 78.8 83.7 77.9 82.2 70.3 11.8 891 89.2 90.5 87.7 90.6 82.6 6.7 2,786 68.6 74.1 69.1 75.0 57.3 17.9 3,969 60.5 66.9 62.0 67.9 47.1 22.4 2,792 86.0 93.2 84.2 95.0 77.6 4.3 842 85.4 86.7 84.0 85.8 78.6 10.7 1,231 92.3 92.2 90.6 92.7 86.7 5.4 1,890 87.0 92.1 79.5 95.4 72.5 4.0 322 91.8 94.9 93.1 92.6 87.2 4.1 399 93.1 94.8 94.1 97.0 85.8 1.4 292 92.2 92.2 94.1 93.7 88.6 4.4 261 85.4 93.9 87.1 94.7 80.7 4.6 520 92.4 91.7 89.5 91.7 87.7 6.9 1,152 91.3 93.4 88.9 91.7 82.5 3.5 205 62.4 67.3 65.9 69.4 54.0 22.4 684 90.4 90.8 86.6 90.9 79.9 3.7 185 56.4 62.8 56.4 65.6 43.8 27.4 714 67.3 77.2 74.8 80.2 50.2 8.5 789 54.5 58.0 47.6 52.9 39.1 34.8 604 79.3 79.2 76.5 79.6 72.0 17.4 627 79.8 82.9 77.8 83.2 71.2 13.3 641 70.1 76.6 72.1 78.2 60.2 15.9 1,409 72.8 76.9 74.0 78.4 63.8 16.0 827 78.6 81.6 77.6 82.0 68.0 12.2 2,907 84.6 86.8 82.8 86.0 79.1 10.4 971 73.0 77.4 72.8 77.9 62.2 15.7 4,542 84.5 86.9 84.4 87.7 78.5 9.4 1,839 91.6 93.2 88.4 94.3 82.4 2.2 365 77.1 80.9 76.8 81.5 67.7 13.3 6,755 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Total includes 10 women with missing information on current employment. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 43 Table 2.21.1 Reasons for refusing to have sexual relations with husband: men Percentage of men who agree with specific reasons justifying a wife refusing to have sexual relations with her husband and percentages who agree with all and with none of the reasons, according to background characteristics, Namibia 2000 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage who agree with specific reasons: ________________________________________ Knows husband Knows Percentage has sexual husband Percentage who agree Tired, Gave relations has who agree with none Number Background not in birth with other an STD with all of the of characteristic mood recently women or AIDS reasons reasons men _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Marital status Never married Married or in union Divorced, separated, widowed Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Current employment Not employed Employed for cash Employed, not for cash Total 72.4 79.3 75.5 82.0 59.3 11.1 694 71.6 78.6 72.3 77.1 61.2 15.8 610 69.0 74.4 64.8 73.2 56.8 20.2 448 68.0 70.5 66.3 71.3 56.7 21.5 378 72.0 81.6 74.6 78.2 65.7 15.5 247 72.2 72.8 69.9 75.5 64.3 21.5 216 75.8 82.8 74.1 78.4 69.6 15.4 174 78.1 81.9 77.6 82.2 70.3 13.7 188 68.2 73.8 69.3 74.2 57.0 18.4 1,764 76.5 81.5 74.5 81.1 67.5 14.5 1,047 79.4 91.3 79.3 88.1 67.0 4.1 143 72.9 78.2 73.1 78.3 61.4 14.5 1,510 70.8 76.3 68.0 76.6 59.3 18.2 689 71.3 78.9 73.7 78.0 62.8 16.3 336 68.8 74.9 70.5 74.3 62.2 19.7 419 67.3 70.4 67.9 72.3 58.7 23.2 1,312 75.1 82.9 74.6 81.3 63.2 10.8 1,642 72.1 78.4 71.9 79.4 58.8 13.0 1,047 83.4 94.0 79.9 91.8 71.0 2.8 313 73.9 79.8 71.3 75.5 62.0 14.7 615 66.0 69.5 68.9 71.6 60.1 25.2 980 94.8 96.0 91.8 96.5 88.8 2.3 114 81.4 80.3 78.6 81.7 65.9 7.6 195 85.1 90.5 90.6 93.6 72.9 2.1 128 89.5 91.2 88.2 91.7 86.4 6.6 123 76.9 92.8 73.1 89.1 60.7 3.0 198 55.4 59.0 58.5 60.2 51.3 36.7 624 86.7 95.3 88.7 92.6 78.0 2.9 103 54.5 55.4 52.8 55.2 40.6 33.7 275 78.2 80.6 81.2 89.4 65.8 6.6 104 81.0 82.3 80.3 88.6 69.7 5.9 271 70.0 89.3 79.8 97.6 57.2 0.6 251 84.2 88.5 76.1 77.5 68.8 10.4 249 65.1 74.4 61.1 66.1 54.4 22.9 317 61.3 66.0 57.7 64.4 48.1 27.4 379 65.2 74.7 67.3 73.6 54.4 18.0 744 70.4 76.2 70.8 79.3 59.5 15.2 283 76.1 80.7 76.6 81.6 66.0 13.1 1,115 81.2 84.2 78.9 82.6 73.1 12.8 434 70.4 78.0 72.3 78.7 59.8 14.7 1,709 73.5 76.3 71.0 75.1 63.6 18.9 1,174 68.6 77.2 70.9 77.4 57.4 13.8 60 71.7 77.4 71.6 77.3 61.2 16.3 2,954 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Total includes 12 men with missing information on current employment. 44 | Characeristics of Households and Respondents Finally, men were asked if they felt a man was justified in taking any of four specified actions if his wife refused to have sex with him when he wanted her to: get angry and yell at her, refuse to give her money or other means of financial support, force her to have sex with him even if she doesn’t want to, and have sex with another woman. The results are tabulated in Table 2.22. The data show that almost one-quarter of men feel it is justifiable for a man to get angry and yell at his wife if she refuses to have sex with him. One-fifth say a man would be justified in having sex with another woman under such circumstances. Only 12 percent of men think that withholding financial support is a justifiable reaction, while even fewer—7 percent—feel that forced sex would be justified. Differentials by background characteristics are not large except by residence. Rural men, men in Northwest Directorate, and those in Ohangwena and Oshana Regions are more likely than other men to feel that husbands are justified in taking such actions. Particularly disturbing is the fact that more than one-quarter of men in Ohangwena and Kavango Regions believe a man is justified in forcing his wife to have sex against her will. The more educated a man is, the less likely he is to believe that a man is justified in taking these actions when his wife refuses sex. Men who work for cash are also less likely than other men to say that a man is justified in taking any of the four actions. Characteristics of Households and Respondents | 45 Table 2.22 Men's agreement with certain actions husbands are justified in taking if a wife refuses sexual relations Percentage of men who say that a husband has the right to take specific actions if the wife refuses to have sex with him when he wants her to, according to selected background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Actions jusfied from men if wife refuses sex ______________________________________ Get Refuse Use force Have sex Agrees angry money/ and with with any Background and yell financial have sex someone selected Number characteristic at her support anyway else reason of men ______________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 Marital status Never married Married or in union Divorced/separated/ widowed Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incomplete secondary Completed secondary + Current employment Not employed For cash Not for cash Total 26.6 14.5 8.8 27.7 47.3 694 23.7 15.6 9.4 21.4 40.5 610 23.8 13.1 7.5 19.1 38.5 448 15.9 5.9 3.7 13.3 29.7 378 17.1 5.0 3.6 13.1 27.6 247 14.7 8.3 5.8 11.5 23.6 216 26.6 13.8 8.6 22.8 35.3 174 25.7 10.1 6.8 18.1 34.9 188 24.3 13.7 7.9 23.4 42.3 1,764 18.9 7.4 6.1 13.3 28.5 1,047 26.5 21.9 8.9 25.5 43.2 143 24.9 14.5 8.7 23.4 42.9 1,510 19.8 10.3 5.6 14.3 31.7 689 14.8 4.3 3.9 14.4 27.7 336 24.2 10.7 7.9 21.4 35.1 419 15.9 7.7 4.6 15.1 29.5 1,312 27.8 15.2 9.5 23.8 43.8 1,642 37.9 19.5 9.9 30.1 55.0 1,047 15.5 9.5 17.4 16.7 31.7 313 13.7 6.2 3.0 18.9 29.9 615 13.7 7.9 4.0 10.8 25.2 980 8.7 7.9 3.7 7.9 14.8 114 7.7 3.5 0.7 21.7 28.6 195 8.5 12.0 8.5 18.7 35.7 128 5.8 3.6 1.8 5.5 12.6 123 19.4 10.4 25.3 21.8 41.4 198 15.1 7.1 3.5 10.8 24.5 624 19.4 8.1 3.0 15.3 36.3 103 52.9 31.6 27.1 40.5 59.6 275 21.5 12.9 4.3 6.9 31.8 104 37.7 20.7 5.5 14.6 48.4 271 46.7 19.1 4.8 25.0 59.7 251 12.7 5.4 0.8 40.8 52.5 249 15.5 7.3 4.3 18.4 28.7 317 32.4 17.7 10.1 23.6 42.9 379 26.1 10.9 9.8 25.3 44.5 744 23.4 15.4 3.9 16.2 42.7 283 19.8 12.2 8.1 19.3 34.8 1,115 13.8 5.2 0.9 11.7 24.1 434 26.8 14.8 9.5 23.0 43.8 1,709 16.6 7.5 4.1 15.1 28.2 1,174 19.6 12.6 7.8 29.8 42.7 60 22.5 11.8 7.3 19.9 37.5 2,954 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Total includes 12 men for whom data on current employment are missing. Fertility | 47 FERTILITY 3 The fertility measures presented in this chapter are based on the reported birth histories of women age 15 to 49 who were interviewed in the 2000 Namibia Demographic Health Survey (NDHS). Each woman was first asked about the number of sons and daughters who were living with her, those who were living elsewhere, and those who had died. She was then asked for a history of her births, including the month and year each child was born; the name and sex; if deceased, the age at death; and if alive, the current age and whether the child was living with the mother. The information obtained from these questions was used to calculate measures of current and completed fertility, i.e., age-specific and total fertility rates and the number of children ever born. 3.1 CURRENT FERTILITY Table 3.1 presents several measures of the current level of fertility, calculated from the birth history data. The age-specific fertility rate is defined as the number of live births during a specified period to women in a particular age group divided by the number of woman-years lived in that age group during the specified period. It is a valuable measure of the current age pattern of childbearing. The total fertility rate (TFR) is obtained by summing the age- specific fertility rates and multiplying by five. It represents the number of children a woman would give birth to if she were to bear children at the prevailing age-specific rates throughout her lifetime. The general fertility rate is the number of live births occurring during a specified period per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Finally, the crude birth rate is the number of births in a specified period per 1,000 population. Measures of current fertility are estimated for the three-year period preceding the survey, which corresponds roughly to 1998-2000. The choice of the reference period is a compromise between providing the most recent informa- tion, avoiding problems of omission or displacement of births due to recall lapse for older women, and obtaining enough cases to reduce the sampling errors. The TFR in Namibia is 4.2 births per woman. The TFR in rural areas is 5.1, compared with 3.1 in urban areas. In other words, rural women will have on average two more children than their urban counterparts. The crude birth rate in Namibia is 31 births per 1,000 population. The general fertility rate in Namibia is 137 per 1,000 women, with the rate being much higher in rural areas (158) than in urban areas (109). The age-specific fertility rates indicate that Namibian women have a broad-peaked fertility pattern, with fertility rates in age groups 20-24, 25-29, and 30-34 differing only slightly, as shown in Figure 3.1. Fertility declines sharply after the mid-30s. Table 3.1 Current fertility Age-specific and cumulative fertility rates and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey, by residence, Namibia 2000 _________________________________________ Residence ________________ Age group Urban Rural Total _________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 TFR 15-49 TFR 15-44 GFR CBR 82 92 88 139 189 166 135 209 176 113 201 160 102 164 137 36 95 71 5 62 38 3.1 5.1 4.2 3.0 4.8 4.0 109 158 137 29.9 30.8 30.5 _________________________________________ Note: Rates are for the period 1-36 months preceding the survey. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due to truncation. Age- specific fertility rates are expressed per 1,000 women. TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate (births ) no. of women 15-44) expressed per 1,000 women CBR: Crude birth rate expressed per 1,000 population 48 | Fertility 3.2 FERTILITY DIFFERENTIALS Table 3.2 presents fertility differentials according to urban-rural residence, directorate, and level of education. The urban-rural differ- entials in fertility measures have already been noted. Differences by directorate (see Figure 3.2) show that the Northeast has the highest TFR of 4.8 and the South has the lowest (3.6). The data indicate a steady decline in fertility with increasing education. Six percent of interviewed women reported that they were pregnant at the time of interview. Variations in this proportion by back- ground characteristics of women are minimal; however, the percent pregnant generally de- clines with increasing education of women. Table 3.2 also shows the mean number of children ever born for women age 40-49. This is an indicator of completed fertility or cumulative fertility for women who are ap- proaching the end of their childbearing years. A comparison of the total fertility rate and the cumulative fertility rate gives an indication of fertility trends over time. Overall, the mean number of children ever born to women 40-49 is 5.1, far higher than the current total fertility rate of 4.2, which indicates that fertility has been falling in Namibia; this is true for all groups except women with no education. Table 3.2 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey and percentage currently pregnant for women 15-49, and mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 years, by background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ___________________________________________________ Mean number of children Total Percentage ever born Background fertility currently to women characteristic rate pregnant age 40-49 ___________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Total 3.1 5.5 4.0 5.1 6.0 5.8 4.7 6.1 5.6 4.8 4.7 5.4 3.9 6.6 4.9 3.6 5.3 4.4 6.3 8.0 5.7 5.6 6.0 5.7 3.9 7.3 5.7 3.5 5.2 4.4 2.6 4.5 2.9 4.2 5.8 5.1 Fertility | 49 3.1 5.1 4.7 4.8 3.9 3.6 RESIDENCE Urban Rural DIRECTORATE Northwest Northeast Central South 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Total Fertility Rate NDHS 2000 Figure 3.2 Total Fertility Rates by Residence 3.3 FERTILITY TRENDS Fertility trends can be analysed in two ways. One is to compare data from the 2000 NDHS with previous data, namely the 1991 population census and the 1992 NDHS. Data from the 1991 census showed a total fertility rate of 6.1 for the nation. In contrast, the 1992 NDHS produced a rate of 5.4 for the three years prior to the survey or roughly 1990-92. The rather sizeable difference between these two estimates may be attributed to the fact that the census rate was derived using indirect estimation procedures, which might overestimate fertility. Alternatively, the difference could be due to sampling errors in the 1992 NDHS rate. In any case, it appears that fertility has declined considerably over the past eight years, dropping to 4.2 for the period 1998-2000. A comparison of the 1992 and 2000 NDHSs shows that fertility has declined by roughly the same magnitude in urban and rural areas. It appears to have declined most rapidly in the Northwest Directorate, from 6.7 births per woman in 1990-92 to 4.7 for the period 1998-2000. A second way of analysing fertility trends is by using data from the 2000 NDHS alone, by reconstructing fertility rates back into time from data in women’s birth histories. Because women age 50 and above were not interviewed in the survey, the rates are successively truncated as the number of years before the survey increases (see Table 3.3). The data also indicate a decline in fertility in Namibia during the last 20 years. 50 | Fertility Table 3.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for four-year periods preceding the survey by mother's age at the time of the birth, Namibia 2000 ___________________________________________________________ Mother’s age Number of years preceding survey at the time ————————————————————— of the birth 0-3 4-7 8-11 12-15 16-19 —————————————————————————————— 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 88 90 88 89 103 171 179 207 196 209 176 199 226 237 248 156 196 202 212 [254] 125 152 164 [159] 69 99 [114] 39 [11] Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. 3.4 CHILDREN EVER BORN Table 3.4 shows the distribution of all women and currently married women by age and number of children ever born. The table also shows the mean number of children ever born to women in each age group, an indicator of the momentum of childbearing. Data on the number of children ever born reflect the accumulation of births over the past 30 years or so and therefore have limited relevance to current fertility levels, especially if the country has experienced a decline in fertility. Table 3.4 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and currently married women by number of children ever born (CEB), mean number of children ever born, and mean number of living children, according to age group, Namibia 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mean Mean number Number of children ever born number of ————————————————————————————— of living Age 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ Total Number CEB children __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ALL WOMEN __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 85.3 13.3 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,499 0.16 0.15 40.2 37.6 15.9 5.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,339 0.90 0.85 15.1 30.0 28.6 16.7 6.9 2.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,104 1.79 1.72 7.1 15.7 21.6 22.0 17.2 8.4 5.3 2.4 0.3 0.1 0.0 100.0 1,013 2.87 2.69 4.7 7.6 15.4 19.7 18.2 12.6 9.0 7.5 3.2 0.9 1.2 100.0 751 3.86 3.59 2.5 5.7 11.7 15.9 16.1 10.8 11.2 12.1 6.6 3.5 3.8 100.0 633 4.73 4.34 2.1 3.1 11.5 11.9 12.1 10.4 12.0 9.3 9.0 7.9 10.5 100.0 415 5.53 4.97 31.3 19.2 14.9 11.5 8.2 4.7 3.6 2.9 1.6 0.9 1.1 100.0 6,755 2.15 2.00 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 32.6 53.1 13.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 74 0.83 0.81 24.2 40.2 24.8 8.0 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 326 1.25 1.20 7.9 21.3 32.1 24.1 9.9 4.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 458 2.21 2.12 5.5 12.5 20.8 20.6 16.9 12.5 7.0 3.6 0.5 0.0 0.1 100.0 575 3.18 2.98 2.5 4.8 15.4 19.7 20.5 11.9 10.1 9.2 3.5 1.3 1.1 100.0 470 4.12 3.86 1.3 4.3 10.3 18.1 14.2 10.8 12.4 12.8 7.6 3.4 4.9 100.0 406 4.98 4.58 2.6 2.4 8.8 11.1 10.5 11.3 13.3 8.9 8.6 9.4 13.0 100.0 301 5.83 5.26 7.5 14.8 19.1 17.4 12.9 8.6 6.9 5.5 2.9 1.8 2.5 100.0 2,610 3.46 3.22 Fertility | 51 The data indicate that 15 percent of all women age 15-19 years have given birth. On average, women have given birth to almost two children by their late 20s, four children by their late 30s and 5.5 children by the end of their childbearing years. As expected, currently married women have had more births than all women at all age groups. The reason is undoubtedly the fact that currently married women are more consistently exposed to the risk of pregnancy. The percentage of women in their 40s who have never had children provides an indicator of the level of primary infertility—the proportion of women who are unable to bear children at all. Since voluntary childlessness is rare in Namibia, it is likely that married women with no births are unable to bear children. The 2000 NDHS results suggest that primary infertility is low, around 1-3 percent. It should be noted that this estimate of primary infertility does not include women who may have had one or more births but who are unable to have more (secondary infertility). 3.5 BIRTHS INTERVALS A birth interval is defined as the length of time between two successive live births. Research has shown that short birth intervals adversely affect the health of mothers and their children's chances of survival. Table 3.5 shows the percent distribution of non-first births that occurred in the five years before the NDHS by the number of months since the previous birth. The data show that birth intervals are quite long in Namibia. Thirty-seven percent of children are born after an interval of four years or more and 86 percent after an interval of two or more years. Only one in seven births (14 percent) occurs after an interval of less than 24 months. The median birth interval is 40 months, compared with 34 months in 1992. As expected, younger women have shorter birth intervals than older women, presumably because they are more fecund and want to build their families. The median birth interval for women age 20-29 is 36 months, compared to 47 months for women over age 40. A shorter median interval also prevails for children whose preceding sibling has died (33 months), compared to those whose prior sibling is alive (40 months). This pattern presumably reflects a shortened breastfeeding period (or no breastfeeding at all) due to the death of the prior sibling, as well as minimal use of contraceptives. The median birth interval is 7 months longer in urban areas than in rural areas. Looking at the directorates, the results show that the median birth interval is longest in the South Directorate and shortest in the Northwest Directorate. The median birth interval generally increases with increasing education of the mother. 52 | Fertility Table 3.5 Birth intervals Percent distribution of non-first births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since preceding birth, according to demographic and background characteristics, Namibia 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Median number of months Months since preceding birth since ————————————————————— preceding Characteristic 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48+ Total birth Number ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 Birth order 2-3 4-6 7 + Sex of preceding birth Male Female Survival of preceding birth Living Dead Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Total (3.9) (28.4) (45.2) (6.7) (15.9) 100.0 (27.8) 20 7.7 10.5 31.5 20.5 29.8 100.0 36.1 1,065 4.6 8.3 27.9 19.1 40.2 100.0 42.0 1,323 1.1 4.1 25.5 21.6 47.7 100.0 47.4 407 5.7 9.5 26.2 19.5 39.2 100.0 40.7 1,513 5.3 7.6 30.3 19.7 37.1 100.0 40.2 966 3.3 8.2 38.3 21.9 28.3 100.0 36.1 336 5.3 9.5 28.8 17.5 38.8 100.0 39.9 1,363 5.2 7.9 29.2 22.1 35.6 100.0 40.0 1,452 4.7 7.8 29.6 20.2 37.7 100.0 40.4 2,644 13.8 21.9 21.0 14.0 29.3 100.0 32.7 171 7.1 8.8 19.8 17.3 47.0 100.0 44.8 927 4.3 8.6 33.6 21.1 32.3 100.0 38.1 1,888 4.2 8.4 35.9 21.2 30.4 100.0 37.0 1,144 2.4 6.5 30.0 24.8 36.3 100.0 41.9 389 6.7 10.3 24.3 16.9 41.8 100.0 41.7 515 7.4 9.1 21.5 17.4 44.6 100.0 43.1 766 2.2 4.6 28.6 27.0 37.6 100.0 43.2 149 3.7 7.9 18.4 19.0 51.1 100.0 50.7 108 9.6 6.6 18.9 24.7 40.2 100.0 40.5 101 7.1 6.1 19.2 12.4 55.2 100.0 52.0 91 2.4 7.7 30.9 23.5 35.4 100.0 41.5 240 6.3 8.9 22.3 16.9 45.6 100.0 43.6 466 8.9 8.7 31.4 18.1 33.0 100.0 36.5 120 3.5 8.7 41.7 24.8 21.2 100.0 34.5 414 9.8 15.1 22.4 17.0 35.6 100.0 37.8 108 4.4 5.7 37.8 22.0 30.1 100.0 37.3 248 4.1 9.3 30.2 13.4 42.9 100.0 40.4 240 5.1 9.5 29.6 21.9 33.9 100.0 39.0 242 7.0 11.9 23.5 15.6 42.0 100.0 42.0 287 9.2 10.2 31.6 19.7 29.3 100.0 35.7 474 3.3 6.6 34.8 22.4 32.9 100.0 38.1 855 4.7 6.8 34.6 18.7 35.3 100.0 37.7 320 4.9 10.4 22.2 18.9 43.6 100.0 43.9 913 6.6 9.2 22.3 16.4 45.4 100.0 45.6 254 5.3 8.7 29.0 19.9 37.2 100.0 39.9 2,815 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: The interval for multiple births is the number of months since the preceding pregnancy that ended in a live birth. First-order births are excluded. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. Fertility | 53 3.6 AGE AT FIRST BIRTH The age at which childbearing begins influences the number of children a woman bears throughout her reproductive period in the absence of any fertility control. Table 3.6 shows the percent distribution of women by age at first birth, according to age at the time of the survey. For women age 25 and over, the median age at first birth is presented in the last column of the table. The data show that the median age at first birth is 21 years in Namibia and that it has not changed much between older and younger women. Moreover, although childbearing begins early in Namibia, with around 20 percent of women having their first child before age 18, it is also evident that a sizeable percentage of women do not give birth until later. Roughly one-fifth of women have their first birth at age 18-19, one-fifth have their first birth at age 20-21, one-fifth wait until age 22-24, and about one-fifth postpone childbearing until age 25 or over. Currently 85 percent of teenagers (15 to 19 years) have not given birth, compared with 82 percent in 1992. The median age at first birth has not changed since 1992. Table 3.6 Age at first birth Percent distribution of women by age at first birth, according to current age, Namibia 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Median Age at first birth age at No ——————————————————————— first Current age birth <15 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25+ Total Number birth ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 85.3 0.9 8.7 5.1 NA NA NA 100.0 1,499 a 40.2 2.6 17.8 19.1 14.1 6.1 NA 100.0 1,339 a 15.1 1.9 15.2 21.6 20.0 18.2 8.1 100.0 1,104 21.1 7.1 2.4 16.1 19.4 19.3 18.9 16.8 100.0 1,013 21.1 4.7 2.7 16.8 19.1 15.3 18.2 23.3 100.0 751 21.3 2.5 4.7 18.1 17.7 18.8 17.8 20.4 100.0 633 20.9 2.1 2.8 17.8 18.6 19.2 16.2 23.3 100.0 415 21.1 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NA = Not applicable a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of women had a birth before reaching the beginning of the age group. Table 3.7 shows the median age at first birth among women age 25-49 years by current age and selected background characteristics. There is no marked variation in age at first birth by urban-rural residence. Although fertility rates in Northwest Directorate are only slightly higher than those in Northeast Directorate (see Table 3.2), women in Northwest consistently have the highest age at first birth. This implies that they start childbearing later than women in other directorates, but then bear children at a faster rate. This is confirmed by the shorter birth intervals in Northwest Directorate (see Table 3.5). The median age at first birth shows a positive relationship with education attainment, being as low as 20 years for women with no education or only a primary education and increasing to 25 years for women who have completed secondary education. 54 | Fertility Table 3.7 Median age at first birth by background characteristics Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 years, by current age and background characteristics, Namibia 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________ Current age Women Background ____________________________________________ age characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 _________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ All women 21.2 21.2 21.1 20.7 20.6 21.0 21.0 20.9 21.7 21.0 21.4 21.1 22.4 22.3 25.0 22.1 22.8 22.7 19.7 19.5 19.9 21.3 (20.3) 19.9 20.1 20.6 20.2 19.5 19.4 20.1 20.8 21.2 20.6 20.4 20.6 20.8 19.7 (19.6) (20.3) (20.5) * 19.9 20.4 20.8 22.0 22.0 20.4 21.0 20.4 21.0 21.1 21.4 (20.4) 20.8 19.7 21.1 20.7 21.3 (21.3) 20.8 19.7 19.4 19.4 (21.5) * 19.9 21.2 21.5 20.5 20.0 (21.1) 20.9 19.6 19.6 19.5 19.0 19.2 19.4 20.8 22.6 (22.9) 21.5 (20.7) 21.5 19.5 20.3 20.9 18.6 (18.3) 19.7 23.2 (22.3) (27.3) (21.8) (25.4) 23.9 23.7 23.7 24.2 (24.0) (21.9) 23.7 21.8 19.9 24.2 (21.2) * 21.5 20.1 20.7 19.5 18.8 (18.5) 19.6 19.9 20.0 19.1 20.4 20.9 20.1 19.3 19.9 20.3 19.8 20.5 19.9 19.9 20.2 21.0 20.1 20.0 20.3 21.2 21.4 21.3 21.6 20.9 21.3 24.0 24.7 25.2 23.6 (26.3) 24.5 21.1 21.1 21.3 20.9 21.1 21.1 _________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 3.7 TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD Early childbearing, particularly among teenagers (those under 20 years of age) has detrimental demographic, socioeconomic and sociocultural consequences. Teenage mothers are more likely to suffer from severe complications during delivery, which result in higher morbidity and mortality for both themselves and their children. In addition, the socioeconomic advancement of teenage mothers in the areas of educational attainment and accessibility to job opportunities may be curtailed. Table 3.8 shows the percentage of women age 15-19 years who are already mothers or pregnant with their first child, by background characteristics. About one in seven teenage women (15 percent) in Namibia is already a mother and another 3 percent are pregnant with their first child. Thus, 18 percent of teenage women have begun the childbearing process. There has been a decline in this proportion since the 1992 NDHS, which indicated that 22 percent of women age 15-19 had begun childbearing (18 percent had delivered a child and 4 percent were pregnant with their first child). Fertility | 55 Table 3.8 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood Percentage of women age 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child, by background characteristics, Namibia 2000 _________________________________________________________________ Percentage who are: Percentage ————————— who have Pregnant begun Number Background with first child- of characteristic Mothers child bearing women1 _________________________________________________________________ Age 15 16 17 18 19 Residence Urban Rural Directorate Northwest Northeast Central South Region Caprivi Erongo Hardap Karas Kavango Khomas Kunene Ohangwena Omaheke Omusati Oshana Oshikoto Otjozondjupa Education No education Incomplete primary Completed primary Incompl. secondary Compl. secondary+ Total 0.8 1.4 2.2 289 4.8 1.0 5.8 310 10.7 5.2 16.0 332 23.2 4.4 27.6 311 36.9 2.4 39.3 257 14.6 2.7 17.3 475 14.7 3.1 17.8 1,024 10.7 2.5 13.2 779 22.8 3.9 26.7 203 21.0 4.5 25.5 198 15.2 2.4 17.6 319 21.4 6.0 27.4 85 11.9 1.6 13.5 52 17.6 1.6 19.2 71 6.0 1.8 7.8 54 23.9 2.4 26.3 118 17.1 1.7 18.8 163 31.1 3.9 35.0 36 13.1 2.8 15.8 219 15.6 9.0 24.6 31 11.1 2.1 13.3 216 4.9 2.5 7.4 200 14.6 2.7 17.3 145 22.0 6.1 28.1 110 32.4 4.8 37.1 54 17.4 3.8 21.3 318 13.1 2.7 15.8 281 13.4 2.7 16.1 788 7.1 0.9 7.9 58 14.7 2.9 17.6 1,499 _________________________________________________________________ 1 Regional differences should be interpreted with caution. Although there are more than 50 unweighted cases in each region, the figures are sensitive to even slight regional variations in the distribution by single year of age. As expected, the proportion of women who have begun childbearing rises rapidly with age, from 2 percent of those age 15 to 39 percent of those age 19 (see Figure 3.3). Those residing in the Northeast Directorate and especially those with no education are also more likely than others to have begun childbearing. 56 | Fertility Figure 3.3 Pregnancy and Childbearing among Women Age 15-19 2 6 16 28 39 15 16 17 18 19 Age 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percent Mothers Pregnant (1st child) NDHS 2000 3.8 ATTEMPTS TO INVESTIGATE INDUCED ABORTION In the NDHS, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of induced abortions in Namibia. The technique used was to ask women if they had ever fallen pregnant when they didn’t want to and if so, how long ago this happened, whether she felt like doing something about it and if she in fact did something to end the pregnancy. Although 23 percent of women said they had fallen pregnant when they didn’t want to, only 5 percent of women said they wanted to do something about it and only one percent said they had done something to end the pregnancy. This is almost surely an underestimate of the level of induced abortion in Namibia. A similar line of questioning has been used in some DHS surveys in other countries with similarly questionable results. Fertility Regulation | 57 FERTILITY REGULATION 4 This chapter presents information collected in the 2000 NDHS on knowledge, use, and attitudes related to family planning methods. Information on knowledge of family planning methods provides a measure of the level of awareness of contraception in the population and indicates the success of information and education programmes. In addition, knowledge of at least one method and a positive attitude towards contraception is a prerequisite for its use. 4.1 KNOWLEDGE OF FAMILY PLANNING Information on the level of knowledge of contraception was measured in two ways. Women and men were first asked to name the ways or methods couples can use to delay or avoid pregnancy. If a respondent failed to mention a particular method spontaneously, the interviewer described the method and asked if the respondent recognised it. Thus, those who have ever heard of a contraceptive method include those who spontaneously report having heard of it and those who acknowledge having heard of it after probing. In the 2000 NDHS, information was sought about seven modern methods: female and male sterilisation, the pill, IUD, injections, male condom, female condom, diaphragm/foam/jelly and emergency contraception, as well as two traditional methods: rhythm (periodic abstinence) and withdrawal. Provision was also made in the questionnaire for recording knowledge of any other method mentioned spontaneously by the respondent. The specific methods asked were the same as in the 1992 NDHS, except that information on female condom and emergency contraception was not sought in 1992. Table 4.1 shows the level of knowledge of specific contraceptive methods among all women and men, married women and men, and sexually active women and men. The level of knowledge among women is very high. Almost all women (97 percent) have heard of at least one contraceptive method and all women who know a method know a modern method. Less than half of all women have heard of a traditional method. The level of knowledge is slightly higher among married and sexually active women—98 percent and 99 percent respectively—than among all women. The most commonly recognised method among all women is the male condom (93 percent), followed by injectables (92 percent), and the pill (89 percent). Knowledge of the female condom among women is quite high (66 percent), while 60 percent of women have heard of female sterilisation and 52 percent have heard of the IUD. The least widely known methods are vaginal contraceptives (20 percent), emergency contraception (21 percent), and male sterilisation (31 percent). Only one-third of all women have heard of periodic abstinence and the same proportion have heard of withdrawal. The level of contraceptive knowledge is slightly higher among men than women, with 99 percent of all men having heard of at least one method. The most commonly known contraceptive method among all men is the male condom (99 percent), followed by injectables (86 percent), and the pill (83 percent). Predictably, men are more likely than women to know about methods that they use, such as male condoms, male sterilisation and withdrawal, while they are less likely than women to know about female- oriented methods. Thus it is surprising that more men than women have heard of the female condom (74 percent vs. 66 percent). 58 | Fertility Regulation Table 4.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods Percentage of all women and men, of currently married women and men, and of sexually active women and men who know any contraceptive method, by specific method, Namibia 2000 _________________________________________________________________________ Women Men –––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––– Currently Sexually Currently Sexually Contraceptive All married active All married active method women women women1 men men men1 _________________________________________________________________________ Any method Any modern method Pill IUD Injectables Diaphragm/foam/jelly Female condom Male condom Female sterilisation Male sterilisation Emergency contraception Any traditional method Rhythm/Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other methods Mean no. of methods known Number of persons 97.3 97.8 99.0 99.2 99.4 99.7 97.2 97.8 99.0 99.1 99.4 99.7 89.2 91.9 93.4 82.9 85.9 87.8 51.5 56.0 59.8 34.8 38.1 38.5 92.0 95.6 97.1 85.6 91.4 91.9 19.5 20.6 25.0 19.2 22.3 21.5 65.7 64.9 69.2 73.6 72.9 76.9 93.4 92.0 94.6 98.8 98.6 99.2 59.6 66.5 68.5 58.3 68.5 67.1 30.6 35.1 37.8 37.8 44.1 42.2 20.6 20.4 24.7 26.1 27.1 28.0 47.2 49.5 54.7 56.7 62.4 63.3 34.0 35.3 40.2 36.1 40.2 41.4 33.8 35.3 42.1 49.1 53.6 55.9 6.1 7.8 8.7 3.5 4.2 4.0 6.0 6.2 6.6 6.1 6.5 6.5 6,755 2,610 2,480 2,954 1,047 1,364 _________________________________________________________________________ 1 Women/men who have had sexual intercourse in the one month preceding the survey Table 4.2 and Figure 4.1 show that there has been a significant increase in the level of knowledge of contraceptives among women 15-49 years over the past eight years. The proportion of all women who know at least one contraceptive method has increased from 89 percent in 1992 to 97 percent in 2000. Knowledge of specific contraceptive methods has also increased considerably. The proportion of women who know the male condom has increased from 72 percent in 1992 to 93 percent in 2000, while knowledge of injectables has increased from 80 percent to 92 percent and knowledge of the pill from 79 percent to 89 percent. There has also been a dramatic increase in awareness of the IUD among women during this period, from 36 percent to 52 percent. Table 4.2 Trends in knowledge of contraceptive methods Percentage of all women and of currently married women who know any contraceptive method, by specific method, Namibia 1992 and 2000 _________________________________________________________________ Currently All women married women Contraceptive –––––––––– –––––––––– method 1992 2000 1992 2000 _________________________________________________________________ Any method Any modern method Pill IUD Injectables Diaphragm/foam/jelly Male condom Female condom Female sterilisation Male sterilisation Emergency contraception Any traditional method Rhythm/periodic abstinence Withdrawal Number of women 88.6 97.3 90.4 97.8 88.5 97.2 90.4 97.8 79.3 89.2 82.4 91.9 35.6 51.5 40.5 56.0 80.1 92.0 84.8 95.6 10.8 19.5 15.3 20.6 71.6 93.4 70.6 92.0 NA 65.7 NA 64.9 50.1 59.6 60.1 66.5 20.8 30.6 27.3 35.1 NA 20.6 NA 20.4 33.0 47.2 40.7 49.5 25.1 34.0 32.3 35.3 22.8 33.8 29.5 35.3 5,421 6,755 2,259 2,610 _________________________________________________________________ NA = Not applicable Fertility Regulation | 59 89 89 79 36 80 72 97 97 89 52 92 93 Any Method Any Modern Method Pill IUD Injectables Condom 0 20 40 60 80 100 1992 NDHS 2000 NDHS NDHS 2000 Figure 4.1 Trends in Contraceptive Knowledge among All Women Age 15-49, 1992-2000 4.2 EVER USE OF FAMILY PLANNING All women and men interviewed in the 2000 NDHS who said they had heard of a contraceptive method were asked if they had ever used that method. Tables 4.3.1 and 4.3.2 show the percentage of women and men who have ever used contraceptive methods, according to the method, marital status and age. The results show that 63 percent of all women age 15-49 have used a contraceptive method at some time in their lives, while 61 percent of them have used a modern method. The most commonly ever used method is injectables (39 percent), followed by the male condom (28 percent), and the pill (24 percent). Very few women have ever used other modern contraceptives like female sterilisation (4 percent), IUD (3 percent), and female condom, emergency contraception and vaginal methods (less than 1 percent each). Twelve percent of all women have used a traditional contraceptive method, such as periodic abstinence or withdrawal, at some time in their lives. Ever use is highest among women in their late 20s and declines with increasing age. Ever use is highest among women who are currently sexually active (78 percent), intermediate among currently married women (73 percent), and lowest among all women (63 percent). Male respondents in the NDHS were only asked about use of four male-oriented methods, male sterilisation, male condom, periodic abstinence, and withdrawal. As expected, the condom is the method most commonly ever used by men (58 percent), followed by withdrawal (20 percent), periodic abstinence (11 percent), and male sterilisation (2 percent). Men in their 20s are the most likely to have ever used condoms, while ever use of male sterilisation and periodic abstinence is highest among men in their early 40s, and ever use of withdrawal is rather uniform across age groups, but is lower for the youngest and oldest men. Ever use of condoms is highest among sexually active men, while ever use of the other three methods is highest among currently married men. 60 | Fertility Regulation Table 4.3.1 Ever use of contraception: women Percentage of all women, of currently married women, and of sexually active women who have ever used any contraceptive method, by specific method and age, Namibia 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Modern method Traditional method __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________ Emer- Any Any Female gency tradi- Peri- modern Female Male steri- Male con- tional odic Other Number Any meth- Inject- Vagi- con- con- lisa- sterili- tra- meth- absti- With- meth- of Age method od Pill IUD ables nals dom dom tion sation ception od nence drawal ods women _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ALL WOMEN _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 35.3 33.9 5.4 0.5 15.7 0.0 0.7 22.3 0.1 0.0 0.4 5.5 3.1 1.9 1.6 1,499 69.7 67.3 18.9 0.7 42.4 0.7 1.9 37.4 0.3 0.0 1.5 14.8 8.2 7.8 2.3 1,339 77.1 75.4 29.3 2.4 53.7 0.2 1.2 40.1 1.0 0.2 1.0 13.2 7.6 7.1 2.5 1,104 75.0 72.7 36.8 4.5 49.6 0.5 0.8 30.1 4.3 0.7 1.0 14.9 7.4 7.0 4.4 1,013 72.4 69.2 36.9 7.0 49.0 0.2 0.3 20.8 8.5 1.5 0.5 14.9 8.1 6.5 3.6 751 64.7 61.5 29.3 7.6 37.7 0.1 0.2 17.8 13.3 0.7 1.0 12.5 6.3 5.6 3.5 633 57.7 55.5 25.0 7.5 33.6 1.1 0.0 13.1 20.3 0.7 0.2 11.0 6.2 3.8 2.8 415 63.2 61.0 23.6 3.3 39.2 0.3 0.9 28.2 4.3 0.4 0.9 12.1 6.5 5.7 2.8 6,755 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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