Jordan - Demographic and Health Survey - 1992

Publication date: 1992

Jordan Jordan Population and Family Health Survey 1990 Department of Statistics Ministry of Health ®DHS Demographic and Health Surveys IRD/Macro International Inc. THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN Jordan Population and Family Health Survey 1990 Abdallah Abdel Aziz Zou'bi Sri Poedjastoeti Mohamed Ayad Department of Statistics Amman, Jordan Ministry of Health Amman, Jordan IRD/Macro International Inc. Columbia, Maryland USA August 1992 Principal Editor: Dr. Abdnllmdi Alawin Editors: J. Ties Boerma Anne R. Cross Sidney H. Moore Jeremiah M. Sullivan This report summarizes the f'mdings of the 1990 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) conducted by the Jordan Department of Statistics. IRD/Macro International Inc. provided technical assistance. Funding was provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The JPFHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. Additional information on the Jordan survey may be obtained from the Department of Staff sties, P.O. Box 2015, Jubhaiha Street, Amman, Jordan (Telephone 962-6-842171; Fax 962-6-833518). Additional information about the DHS program may be obtained by writing to: DHS, IRD/Macro International Inc., 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia MD 21045, US A (Telephone 410-290-2800; Telex 198116; Fax 410-290-2999). CONTENTS Page Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Summary and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Map of Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 History, geography and economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Health policy and programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Objectives of the survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Organization of the survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 CHAPTER 2. CHARACTERIST ICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS 2.1 Population by age and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Population by age from other sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3 Household composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.4 Level of educaton of the household population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.5 School enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.6 Housing characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.7 Presence of durable goods in the household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.8 Age structure of respondents to the individual questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.9 Respondent's level of education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.10 Exposure to mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 CHAPTER 3. FERT IL ITY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Levels and differentials in fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Fertility trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Children ever born and l iving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 BirLh intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Teenage fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 CHAPTER 4. FAMILY PLANNING 4.1 Knowledge of family planning methods and sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.2 Ever use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.3 Current use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.4 Number of children at first use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.5 Problems with current use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.6 Knowledge of fertile period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 iii Page 4.7 Timing of sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4.8 Source of supply of modem methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4.9 Time to source of modem family planning methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4.10 Contraceptive discontinuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4.11 Future use of family planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 4.12 Acceptability of media messages on family planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 CHAPTER 5. NUPTIALITY AND EXPOSURE TO THE RISK OF PREGNANCY 5.1 Current marital status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.2 Marital exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5.3 Age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5.4 Postpartum amenorrbea, postpartum abstinence, and insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 5.5 Termination of exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CHAPTER 6. FERTILITY PREFERENCES 6.1 Desire for children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 6.2 Need for family planning services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 6.3 Ideal number of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 6.4 Planning status of births . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 CHAPTER 7. INFANT AND CHILDHOOD MORTALITY 7.1 Assessment of data quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 7.2 Levels, trends and differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 7.3 High-risk fertility behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 CHAPTER 8. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH 8.1 Antenatal care and delivery assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 8.2 Immunization of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 8.3 Child morbidity and treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 CHAPTER 9. INFANT FEEDING AND CHILDHOOD NUTRITION 9.1 Breasffeeding and supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 9.2 Nutritional status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 APPENDICES Appendix A. Sample design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Appendix B. Estimates of sampling errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Appendix C. Data quality tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . 133 Appendix D. Questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 iv Table 1.1 Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 2.6 Table 2.7 Table 2.8 Table 2.9 Table 2.10 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Table 3.9 Table 3.10 Table 3.11 Table 3.12 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 TABLES Page Results of the household and individual interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Household population by age, residence and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Population by age from selected sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Household composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Educational level of the household population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 School enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Housing characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Household durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Background characteristics of respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Level of education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Access to mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Current fertility according to selected surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Current fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Fertility by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Age specific fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Fertility by marital duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Children ever bern according to selected surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Children ever born and living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Birth intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Median age at first birth by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Teenage fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Children born to teenagers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Knowledge of modem contraceptive methods and sources for methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Ever use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Current use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Trends in contraceptive use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Number of children at first use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Problems with current method of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Knowledge of fertile period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 V Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Table 4.15 Table 4.16 Table 4.17 Table 4.18 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5A Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Table 5.8 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 6.8 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4 Page Timing of sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Source of supply for modem contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Time to source of supply for modem contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 First-year discontinuation rates for contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Reasons for discontinuation of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Future use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Reasons for not using contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Preferred method of contraception for future use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Acceptability of the use of mass media for disseminating family planning messages . . . . 54 Ever-married women according to selected surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Current marital status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Marital exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Median age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence and insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Median duration of postpartum insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Termination of exposure to the risk of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Fertility preferences by number of living children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Fertility preferences by age . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Desire to stop having children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Need for family planning services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Ideal number of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Planning status of biahs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Wanted fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Infant and child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Infant and child mortality by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Infant and child mortality by demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 High-risk fertility behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Tetanus toxoid vaccination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Place of delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 vi Table 8.5 Table 8.6 Table 8.7 Table 8.8 Table 8.9 Table 8.10 Table 8.11 Table 8.12 Table 8.13 Table 9.1 Table 9.2 Table 9.3 Table 9.4 Table 9.5 Table 9.6 Table A. 1 Table A.2 Table B.1 Table B.2 Table B.3 Table B.4 Table B.5 Table C. 1 Table C.2 Table C.3 Table C.4 Table C.5 Page Assistance during delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Delivery characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Vaccination by source of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Vaccinations by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Vaccinations in the first year of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Prevalence of diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Knowledge and use of ORS packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Treatment of diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Breasffeeding practices during diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Initial breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Breasffeeding status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Breastfeeding and supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Median duration and frequency of breastfceding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Nutritional status by demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Nutritional status by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Distribution of sample points by govemorate and stratum, Jordan 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Results of the household and individual interviews by residence and region . . . . . . . . . . 120 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Jordan 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Sampling errors - Entire sample, Jordan 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Sampling errors - Large city, Jordan 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Sampling errors - Other urban, Jordan 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Sampling errors - Rural, Jordan 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Household age distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Completeness of reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Births by calendar year since birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Reporting of age at death in days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Reporting of age at death in months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 vii FIGURES Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4 Figure 7.5 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 9.1 Male and female population by single years of age, Jordan, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Population pyramid of Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Population by broad age groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Age-specific fertility rates, JFS 1976, Jl-,Pl-lS 1983, and JPFHS 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Mean number of children ever born, Jordan, 1976, 1983, and 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Current use of contraceptive methods, currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Current use of specific contraceptive methods, currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . . 40 Contraceptive use by residence and education, currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . . 41 Contraceptive use by number of living children, currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . 43 Sources of family planning methods, current users of modem methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Never-married women 15-39 by age, Jordan, 1976, 1983, and 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Median duration of postpartum amennrrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . 62 Fertility preferences, currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Fertility preferences by number of living children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Deaths under age two by age at death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Trends in infant and child mortality by five-year periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Infant mortality by five-year periods, JFS 1976, JFFHS 1983, and JPFHS 1990 . . . . . . . . 78 Infant and under-five mortality by residence and education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Infant mortality by selected demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Maternal care indicators by residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Vaccination coverage among children 12-23 months by source of information . . . . . . . . . 94 Prevalence of diarrhea among children under five years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Percentage of children under five years who are chronically undernourished (stunted) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 ix PREFACE The Department of Statistics takes pleasure in presenting the principal report for the Jordan Population and Family Health Survey, 1990. This survey was undertaken by the Department of Statistics in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and IRD/Macro International Inc. under the international Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program. IRD/Macro International provided funding as well as technical assistance. Additional funds were provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Amman. The survey covered a national sample of about 16,300 households. This sample was used to collect information on households, including basic demographic characteristics, education, health insurance, and basic information to measure unemployment. Half of the sample (also nationally representative and covering all sample clusters) was used to identify ever-married women of childbearing age for the individual interview. Information collected from these women covered the areas of fertility and fertility preference, family planning, breastfeeding and nutrition, child health, immunization, morbidity and mortality. The Department of Statistics would like to thank all the agencies that participated in this survey, whose support brought this work to success, especially IRD/Macro International, USAID, the Ministry of Health, and all the households that cooperated with the DOS survey staff by providing the required information. I hope that the information in this report will be useful to those interested in policy formulation and decision making in the health and population areas. Dr. Abdulhadi Alawin Director General of Statistics xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) was successfully conducted with fieldwork taking place September through December 1990. The success of the survey was made possible by the keen and dedicated participation of a large number of persons, and it is not possible to thank each and every one of them individually. The National Committee for the JPFHS under the directorship of Dr. Abdulhadi Alawin, Director General of the Department of Statistics, has given valuable suggestions to the survey design, particularly in the areas of maternal and child health. I would like to acknowledge the participation of Drs. AbdaUah Hamdan, Fuad EI-Ayed, Akef E1-Azab and Mr. Abdulrahim Ma'itah in the preparation of this report. The survey would not have materialized without the participation throughout the survey activities of the project team at the Department of Statistics, particularly Mr. Kamal Saleh, Mr. Abdelhadi Kharabsheh and Ms. Ekhlas Aranki. I would also like to thank the USAID/Amman for providing funds for the survey, and in particular Mr. P.E. Balakrishnan, Chief of the Office of Population, Health and Nutrition, for his keen interest and continued assistance. Thanks are also extended to the UNFPA for assisting the Department of Statistics in establishing the mapping unit, which bad an important role in the sampling work for the survey. The survey benefited from the assistance extended by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, especially for providing funds for the survey and through a number of DHS staff who made visits to Jordan during the project. I would like to thank Mr. Martin Vaessen for his assistance and encouragement; Dr. Mohamed Ayad for his assistance at all stages of the survey, including the preparation of the survey reports; Dr. Ann Way for her involvement during the preparation of the project documents; and Dr. Alfredo Aliaga for designing the survey sample and supervising the sample selection. I would also like to thank Mr. GuiUermo Rojas, for providing assistance in data processing and the tabulation of survey results. Ms. Anne Cross, Dis. Ties Boerma, Jerry Sullivan and Sidney Moore made significant contributions in improving this report. Ms. Kaye Mitchell and Mr. Robert Wolf are acknowledged for their contribution to the production of the survey report. Special thanks go to Ms. Sri Poedjastoeti, DHS Country Monitor, for her invaluable contributions and helpful advice throughout the various stages of the survey. Last but not least, the field workers, field editors, supervisors and coordinators who were employed by this project should be commended for their tireless efforts to obtain data of notable quality. Dr. Abdallah Alxlel Aziz Zou'bi Survey Director xiii SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS The Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) was carried out by the Department of Statistics between September and December 1990. Financial and technical assistance were provided by IRD/Ivlaero International Inc. under a contract with the United States Agency for International Development (USA1D)/Washington. The USAID/Amman provided partial financial support for the survey. The JPFI-IS was designed to provide information on levels and trends of fertility, infant and child mortality, and family planning. The survey also gathered information on breastfeeding, matemal and child health cam, the nutritional status of children under five, as well as the characteristics of households and household members. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 8,333 households and a total of 6,461 ever-married women between the ages of 15 and 49. A. CURRENT STATUS AND PROGRESS Fertility The JPFHS documents that significant progress has been made in relation to the fertility of women in Jordan. The total fertility rate for the five-year period prior to the survey indicates that on average, women have 5.6 children by the end of their reproductive years. This figure represents a reduction of 15 percent over the preceding seven-year period (from 1983 to 1990). The total fertility rate was 7.7 in the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey (JFS) and 6.6 in the 1983 Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS). There are large differences in fertility by educational attainment of the women. Women who have attended more than secondary schooling can expect to have 4 children in their lifetime, while women with no education have close to 7 children. Further decline in fertility can be expected in the future. Approximately 50 percent of currently married women in Jordan do not want any more children. If the desired family size were achieved, the fertility rate would be only 3.9 children per woman, or 30 percent less than the current rate. Family Planning A major portion of the decline in fertility can be attributed to the increasing use of family planning, especially modem methods. Results from the survey indicate that 40 percent of currently married women are using a method of family planning (including 5 percent of women who use prolonged breastfeeding as a method of contraception). This is an increase of 35 percent since 1983, when the contraceptive prevalence rate was 26 percent (which does not include users of prolonged breastfeeding). Two-thirds of women use modem methods, particularly the IUD (15 percent), female sterilization (6 percent), and pill (5 percent). Widespread knowledge of family planning is also supportive of further fertility decline. Virtually all currently married women know a method of contraception. Women generally feel it is acceptable to have family planning messages broadcast on radio and television. • Married women living in large cities are twice as likely to use modem contraception as women in rural areas. XV • Contraceptive use increases with parity; currently married women who have no living children have the lowest level of use; women with four or more children have the highest level of use. Other Fertility Determinants The JPFHS data show that women in Jordan are marrying at increasingly older ages. The differentials in age at first marriage by region and type of residence are small. However, women who have attended more than secondary education marry on average almost 6 years later than women with no education. In addition to marriage patterns, the risk of pregnancy is affected by postpartum amenorrhea, the period al~er childbirth when menstruation has not yet returned; postpartum abstinence, the period when sexual activity has not yet been resumed; and breasO~eeding. On average, women start menstruating again 7 months after childbirth; sexual relations are resumed a little over 2 months after childbirth; and women breastfeed their children for 13 months. • Taking into account the effects of postpartum amenorrhea and abstinence, a women is not at risk of pregnancy for an average of 7 months aher delivering a baby. The protection from pregnancy conferred by postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and breastfeeding is one month shorter for women living in large cities than for rural women. It is two months shorter for women who have attended more than secondary education than for women who have no education. Future Use of Family Planning • Four in ten married women who are not currently using contraception say that they intend to adopt a family planning method some time in the future. • Close to half of the women who expressed an intention to use contraception in the future said they would prefer to use the IUD. The next most popular method is the pill. Fertility Preferences On average, the ideal number of children for women is 4.4. There is little variation by residence, however, women 15-19 years want an average of more than one child less than women 45-49; women who have attended more than secondary school want one child less than women who have no education. • The JPFHS documents that seven in ten women who are using contraception do so to stop childbearing. Maternal and Child Health As indicated by the survey results, Jordan has made considerable progress in providing health care to pregnant women and their children. For 80 percent of births in the past five years, the mothers received at least one pregnancy checkup from medically trained personnel. • Four of five births in the past five years were delivered in a hospital. In the seven years between 1983 and 1990, hospitals have become popular as a place of delivery. xvi Forty percent of the binJas in the five years preceding the survey were to women who had a tetanus toxoid injection during pregnancy. This is a substantial improvement over coverage in 1983, when the injection was received for only 9 percent of births. The JPFHS found that 88 percent of children 12-23 months of age in Jordan have been vaccinated against DPT, polio and measles. However, less than one in five received a BCG vaccination. Nine percent of children under five had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these children, four in ten were given oral rehydration therapy in the form of a solution prepared from ORS packets. In the JPFHS, all children born since January 1985 were weighed and measured. Nineteen percent of children under five are short for their age (stunted)--a measure of chronic undemutrition; 6 percent are underweight for their age. Infant and Child Mortality The infant and child mortality rates for the five-year period preceding the survey are 34 and 39 deaths per 1,000 births respectively. While there is no significant difference in infant mortality by urban-rural residence, children of mothers who have attended more than secondary education have a greater probability of surviving in the first year of life than children of mothers who have no education. CONTINUING CHALLENGES Despite the increase in the use of family planning methods and the apparent decline in fertility, the Jordan Population and Family Health Survey reveals a number of continuing challenges. The major concern is that, although fertility levels are declining, over 20 percent of births in the five years preceding the survey were not wanted when they occurred. If these unwanted births had been prevented, women would have had an average of 3.9 births, instead of 5.6 births. Almost one-quarter of currently married women reported that they wanted to delay the next birth or wanted to stop childbearing, but were not using a contraceptive method. This situation is defined as unmet need offamily planning. Eight percent of married women are in need of family planning to delay the next birth, while 15 percent are in need to limit further childbearing. To delay, and in many cases to prevent a birth is an important decision, which influences the health of children. Four of five births occurring in the five years preceding the survey were at high risk either because the mother was too young (under age 18), too old (age 35 and over), had many prior births (3 or more), or the interval since the previous birth was too short (less than two years). The JPFHS provides information on the reasons women give for discontinuing use of various family planning methods. Having become pregnant, wanting to become pregnant, and side effects of methods were the most frequently cited reasons for discontinuing the use of contraception. Pill and IUD users were most concemed about the side effects, while method failure was the major problem reported by users of traditional methods. xvii • The major (potential) barrier to use of family planning by married women who am not using contraception is the desire to have children and the difficulty in becoming pregnant. C. RECOMMENDATIONS The results of the 1990 JPFHS demonstrate that the maternal and child health (MCH) programs in Jordan have good coverage in providing antenatal and delivery care to women of reproductive age. The survey indicates that the utilization of MCH services has increased, along with knowledge and use of family planning. However, the survey data also suggest that there is room for improvement in a number of areas. Additional effort is needed in information and education on the benefits of adopting family planning for the purpose of delaying or limiting childbearing. These efforts should cover topics such as: sources of family planning services, the monthly reproductive cycle, and side effects associated with certain methods. • Potential users should be counseled on the most appropriate method for their age, fertility intentions, and personal situation. • Emphasis should be placed on the health benefits for mothers and children of practicing traditional methods such as prolonged breastfeeding. xviii JORDAN IRAQ SYRIA AMMAN ZARQA AND MAFRAQ DEAD SEA SOUTH SAUDI ARABIA 20 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, AND ECONOMY Jordan, one of the most modem countries in the Middle East, is almost entirely land-locked. The port of Aqaba in the far south is Jordan's only outlet to the sea. Palestine separates it from the Mediterranean, while Sandi Arabia lies to the south and east, Iraq to the northeast, and Syria to the north. The total area of the country is about 89,000 square kilometers. The country was part of the Ottoman Empire until 1921 when it gained its independence. It was declared a political entity known as "Transjordan" in 1923. In 1950, Transjordan and the West Bank were united, and assumed the current name of the Hasbemite Kingdom of Jordan. In 1967, the West Bank and Gaza Strip were occupied by Israeli forces, causing a massive influx of migrants to the East Bank. The West Bank was excluded from the Kingdom in 1988 upon the desires of the Arab states to facilitate the estab- lishment of the Palestinian state. The country is divided into 8 govemorates, which are organized into three regions: Irbid and Mafraq in the Northern region; Amman, Zarqa, and Balqa in the Central region; and Karak, Tafielah, and Ma'an in the Southern region. The major cities are Amman, Zarqa, and Irbid. There are three agricultural development regions that divide the country longitudinally from north to south. These are the Jordan Valley, the highlands, and the semidesert badia. The geographical distribution of the population is determined mainly by rainfall patXerns and methods of cultivation, in addition to business and manufacturing. More than 80 percent of the population are concentrated in one-eighth of the total land area, mainly in the uplands of the northwest. Ninety-six percent of Jordanians are Muslims; about 4 percent are Christians (Department of Statistics, 1984a). The most serious problem facing the government after the 1991 Gulf War was the return of large numbers of Jordanian nationals who had been working in the Gulf countries. By the end of 1990, their number was estimated to reach 300,000, most of whom came from Kuwait. In addition, some 90,000 refugees (primarily from Bangladesh, Egypt, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines) crossed into Jordan from neighboring countries. These people came mostly from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The sudden increase in the population has created problems regarding food, housing, employment, and education. 1.2 POPULATION Size, Growth, and Structure Prior to 1952, there was no organized attempt to study the population of the East Bank of Jordan, except for rough estimates based on registers compiled by the United Nations Relief and Welfare Agency (UNRWA). The 1952 Housing Census produced information about the population (then estimated at 586,000 persons), as well as about the housing situation. The first population census, which was carded out in 1961, found 900,000 persons living in the East Bank. As a result of the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 and the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, which caused the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, alarge number of Palestinians moved to the East Bank. The population increased from 2.13 million in 1979 (Department of Statistics, 1982) to 3.45 million in 1990 (National Population Commission, 1991), an average increase of 4.3 percent annually. At this rate, the population can be expected to double in 16 years. The Jordanian population is highly urbanized. More than 70 percent of the population live in localities of more than 5,000 inhabitants. These localities are concentrated in the three largest, most urban govemorates, Amman, Zarqa and Irbid, which are named after the three largest cities. Twenty-five percent of the population live in the capital, Amman; while Zarqa and Irbid cities are inhabited by more than 10 and 5 percent of the country's population, respectively. Results of the Health, Nutrition, Manpower, and Poverty Survey conducted in 1987 (Department of Statistics, 1989a) indicate that the age structure of the population has changed considerably since 1979, primarily as a result of changes in fertility, mortality, and migration. The proportion of population under 15 years of age declined from 57 percent in 1979 to 46 percent in 1987, while the proportion age 65 or over increased from 2.8 percent in 1979 to 3 percent in 1987. Fertility Fertility has been declining in Jordan since the mid-1970s. Studies have found that the total fertility rate declined from 7.7 children per woman in 1976, to 7.1 in 1981, to 6.6 in 1983. The estimated crude birth rate, based on births registered with the DeparUnent of Civil Status and Passports, was 50 births per thousand population in the early 1970s, and 34 births per thousand population in 1990 (Department of Statistics, 1991). Mortality Mortality has been declining even faster than fertility. The crude death rate, estimated at 19 deaths per thousand population in the 1950s, had declined to 12 per thousand two decades later. In 1990, the crude death rate was estimated to be 7 deaths per thousand population (Department of Statistics, 1991). Another measure of mortality, the infant mortality rate, was estimated at 125 deaths per thousand live births for the period 1951-1955. After twenty years, it had declined by half to 67 per thousand (Abdel Aziz, 1983) and in 1980-1987 it was estimated to be 49 deaths per thousand live births (Zou'bi, 1989). Internal Migration and Urbanization The most recent information on internal migration is obtained from the 1986 Intemal Migration Survey (Department of Statistics, 1989b). According to this survey 6 percent of the population are lifetime migrants and 9 percent are current migrants. Lifetime migrants are calculated based on place of birth, while current migrants are calculated based on last place of residence. The study was limited to the East Bank, with the governorates as geographic units. Forced migration from the West Bank and Gaza Strip was not included. Intemal migration has generally taken place over short distances and occurs mainly in the Central region. The movement of people from rural to urban areas is an important factor in the rapidly increasing population density in urban areas. A typical migration pattem is for people to move from a village to an urban center in the same govemorate, then move to another urban center in another govemorate. International Migration International migration in Jordan flows in two directions. There has always been considerable population movement from Jordan to the Gulf States; at the same time, people are coming into Jordan from Egypt, Syria and Asia, mainly from Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The Gulf crisis brought back an estimated 300,000 Jordanians from the Gulf States, particularly from Kuwait. The large influx of people created problems of unemployment and poverty, and a general worsening of the standard of living. 1.3 HEALTH POLICY AND PROGRAMS Health Policy and Strategy The national health policy is based on the principle that all citizens have the right to health services. The Ministry of Health is committed to making health services available, accessible, and acceptable in all communities, and seeks to ensure equitable distribution of these services. The objective of the government is to achieve "Health for all by the year 2000," in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the World Health Organization. To meet this objective, the government has given priority to the health sector and developed a national health strategy. This strategy is aimed at creating a comprehensive health care system, utilizing both public and private service providers, and covering all levels of care from preventive care to tertiary and rehabilitative care. The health sector's goal in improving the health status and the quality of life is twofold: to reduce the probability of becoming ill, and to increase the probability of recovery. Health Plans and Programs Recognizing that investment in socioeconomic development is vital to improving the quality of life and the standard of living, the government of Jordan has, in its health.programs, focused on the following areas: . Coordination of primary, secondary, and tertiary health service delivery, in order to improve the efficiency of the health system and to avoid duplication among health providers and the waste of resources; . Health manpower development to raise standards in all health manpower categories and to maintain quality standards throughout the system; . Facility development by upgrading the existing health centers and hospitals, and building new facilities as needed; 4. Improve efficiency in expenditures without affecting the quality of services. Short-term and long-term plans have been developed to improve the health care system and the delivery of services to the population. 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE SURVEY The 1990 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) was carried out as part of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program. The Demographic and Health Surveys is assisting governments and private agencies in the implementation of household surveys in developing countries. The main objectives of the project include: a) providing decision makers with a data base and analyses useful for informed policy choices, b) expanding the international population and health data base, c) advancing survey methodology, and d) developing skills and resources necessary to conduct high quality demographic and health surveys in the participating countries. The JPFHS was specifically aimed at providing information on fertility, family planning, and infant and child mortality. The questionnaires also gathered information on breastfeeding, maternal and child health cam and nutritional status, as well as the characteristics of households and household members. The Jordan Population and Family Health Survey will provide policy makers and planners with important information for use in formulating programs and policies related to reproductive behavior and health. 1.5 ORGANIZAT ION OFTHESURVEY The JPFHS is a national sample survey designed to collect data on ever-married women of reproductive age. The areas covered include: demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, marriage and reproduction, antenatal care, breastfeeding and child care, fertility preferences, and nutritional status of children under five years of age. The survey was funded primarily by the United States Agency for Inter- national Development (USAID) as part of the worldwide DHS program. The Jordan DHS survey was conducted by the Department of Statistics (DOS) in collaboration with the Ministry of Health. The national director for the JPFHS was the Director General of Statistics; the survey director was the Chief of the National Household Survey Division (Department of Statistics). A national advisory committee was established to provide guidelines for the planning and implementation of the survey. The committee carried out its tasks by holding periodic meetings, particularly during the design stages of the survey. The committee consisted of representatives from various agencies associated with population and health issues. In addition to the Department of Statistics and the Ministry of Health, there were repre- sentatives from the Ministry of Planning, the University of Jordan, the Jordan University of Science and Technology, the National Population Committee, and the Jordan Family Planning and Protection Association. A representative from the USAID mission in Amman maintained close contact with the national advisory committee and the survey director. The survey was executed in three stages; the first was the preparatory stage, which involved mapping, the listing of housing units, and the design and implementation of sampling procedures. At the same time, the survey questionnaires were developed, pretested, and finalized. All of these activities were completed in September 1990. The second stage was the interviewing and collection of data. This was carried out by 11 teams, each consisting of one supervisor, one field editor, three interviewers, and one person to do the anthropometric measurements. Each team was provided with a vehicle and driver. Data collection took place from October through December 1990. The last stage involved data processing, evaluation, and analysis. Data entry started soon after the beginning of the fieldwork, and continued until May 1991. The Gulf crisis had an impact on the second phase of the data processing, delaying the publication of the preliminary report. Sample Design and Implementation The sample for the JPFHS survey was selected to be representative of the major geographical regions, as well as the nation as a whole. The survey adopted a stratified, multi-stage sampling design. In each govemorate, localities were classified into 9 strata according to the estimated population size in 1989. The sampling design also allowed for the survey results to be presented according to major cities (Amman, Irbid and Zarqa), other urban localities, and the rural areas. Localities with fewer than 5,000 people were con- sidered rural. For this survey, 349 sample units were drawn, containing 10,708 housing units for the individual interview. Since the survey used a separate household questionnaire, the Department of Statistics doubled the household sample size and added a few questions on labor force, while keeping the original individual sample intact. This yielded 21,172 housing units. During fieldwork for the household interview, it was found that 4,359 household units were ineligible either because the dwelling was vacant or destroyed, the household was absent during the team visit, or some other reason. There were 16,296 completed household interviews out of 16,813 eligible households, producing a response rate of 96.9 percent. The completed household interviews yielded 7,246 women eligible for the individual interview, of which 6,461 were successfully interviewed, producing a response rate of 89.2 percent. The sample design 4 is described in Appendix A, and a discussion of the sampling errors for selected variables is presented in Appendix B. Questionnaires The 1990 JPFI-IS utilized two questionnaires, one for the household interview and the other for individual women (see Appendix D). Both questionnaires were developed first in English and then translated into Arabic. The household questionnaire was used to list all members of the sample households, including usual residents as well as visitors. For each member of the household, basic demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were recorded and women eligible for the individual interview were identified. To be eligible for individual interview, a woman had to be a usual member of the household (part of the de jure population), ever-married, and between 15 and 49 years of age. The household questionnaire was expanded from the standard DHS-II model questionnaire to facilitate the estimation of adult mortality using the orphanhood and widowhood techniques. In addition, the questionnaire obtained information on polygamy, economic activity of persons 15 years of age and over, family type, type of insurance covering the household members, country of work in the summer of 1990 which coincided with the Gulf crisis, and basic data for the calculation of the crude birth rate and the crude death rate. Additional questions were asked about deceased women if they were ever-married and age 15-49, in order to obtain information for the calculation of materoal mortality indices. The individual questionnaire is a modified version of the standard DHS-II model "A" questionnaire. Experience gained from previous surveys, in particular the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey, and the questionnaire developed by the Pan Arab Project for Child Development (PAPCHILD), were useful in the discussions on the content of the JPFHS questionnaire. A major change from the DHS-II model questionnaire was the rearrangement of the sections so that the marriage section came before reproduction; this allowed the interview to flow more smoothly. Questions on children's cause of death based on verbal autopsy were added to the section on health, which, due to its size, was split into two parts. The first part focused on antenatal care and breastfeeding; the second part examined measures for prevention of childhood diseases and information on the morbidity and mortality of children loom since January 1985. As questions on sexual relations were considered too sensitive, they were replaced by questions about the husband's presence in the household during the specified time period; this served as a proxy for recent sexual activity. The JPFHS individual questionnaire consists of nine sections: Respondent's background and household characteristics Marriage Reproduction Contraception Breastfeeding and health Immunization, morbidity, and child mortality Fertility preferences Husband's background, residence, and woman's work Height and weight of children The questionnaires used in the JPFHS survey are reproduced in Appendix D. Pretest The household and individual questionnaires were pretested in July 1990 in a number of urban and rural clusters. All senior staff members of the survey organization participated in this activity. The field staff 5 for the pretest was made up of female university graduates hired through the government recruitment office. To assist in the survey activities, particularly in regard to obtaining health information, the Ministry of Health provided a number of staff nurses. Pretest training, which lasted three weeks, involved class discussion and field practice. Staff from the Ministry of Health and the Jordan Family Planning and Protection Agency were invited to give talks on their respective area of expertise. The pretest teams were also trained to carry out supervisory tasks, since they were expected to act as supervisors or field editors during the main fieldwork. Anthropometric measurements were not included in the pretest because the scales and boards were not available. The pretest revealed some minor problems in the questionnaire skip patterns, which were corrected. Fieldwork Activities Prior to the main survey fieldwork, mapping was carried out and the enumeration areas/blocks were selected. During this process, buildings and dwelling units in the areas were listed and numbered. The selected clusters were identified and marked with large signs on the buildings forming the comers of the clusters. In the same activity, housing units were documented, along with the name of the owner/tenant of the unit, or household and the name of the household head. A large proportion (almost 17 pereen0 of the housing units were vacant. These activities were completed in between September 26 and October 10, 1990. Fieldworkers for the main survey were hired through the government recruitment office. At the time of hiring, they were informed about the type of work they would be expected to do. All the interviewers had college degrees. Supervisors and field editors were selected from those who participated in the pretest. They were retained by the Department of Statistics after the pretest to assist in sampling activities. Training of field workers was done in two stages; the first was training for the household interview. More than one hundred people participated in this activity. The household survey was carried out in September (ahead of the individualinterview) to provide the government with much-needed data for planning purposes, particularly regarding employment and persons who returned from the Gulf countries. It should be noted that the fieldwork started after the crisis in the Gulf region began. The training of interviewers and supervisors for the individual questionnaire lasted three weeks and was carded out concurrently at two training centers. One site was the Statistical Training Center in Amman, part of the Department nf Statistics; the other was the regional statistical office in Irbid. The training was conducted by Dr. AbdaUah Zou'bi, the Survey Director, Mr. Kamal Saleh, a senior demographer, and Dr. Mohamed Ayad of IRD/Macro International. Much of the training consisted of lectures on how to conduct the interviews and how to fill out the questionnaires. Practice interviewing was done in the third week of training. Staff from the Ministry of Health and the Jordan Family Planning and Protection Agency were invited to speak on issues related to their activities. The main survey fleldwork was carried out from October to December 1990. Each of the 11 field teams was made up of one supervisor, one field editor, three interviewers, and one anthropometrist. The teams were equipped with scales and measuring boards to collect information on the height and weight of children. A vehicle was assigned to each team. All teams started working in Amman, Zarqa, Irbid, and Balqa and were stationed in the respective govemorates. In other govemorates teams were formed from the field staff who had worked in Amman, Irbid and Zarqa. Data collection in these governorates was carried out in the first week of November through the end of December 1990. 6 Data Processing Activities Data processing started almost immediately aRer the field work began. Field editors checked the questionnaires for completeness and consistency. Supervisors also checked completed questionnaires on a sample basis with more emphasis in the first few days of the fieldwork. Questionnaires were then sent to the central office in Amman, where they were again hand edited and the open-ended questions were ceded. Data entry started one week after the beginning of fieldwork, using eight microcomputers. The process of data entry, editing and cleaning was done with ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis) programs specially designed for DHS surveys. These activities took place through the first week of March 1991. Under normal circumstances, the DHS data processing specialist would have made a trip to Jordan toward the end of the fieldwork, to identify problems associated with data entry and editing, and to work on tabulations for the preliminary report. However, due to the Gulf crisis in early 1991, this trip was delayed. Instead, the survey data were sent to the DHS office in Columbia, Maryland, and it was not until May 1991 that preparations for the preliminary report were begun. Results of the Household and Individual Interviews Table 1.1 is a summary of the results from the household and individual interviews by type of residence. In the JPFI-IS, there are three residential categories: large cities, other urban areas, and rural areas. The table shows the number of households sampled, the number that were found, and the number that were successfully interviewed. For the individual interview, the number of eligible women found in the selected households and the number of women successfully interviewed are presented. The data indicate a high response rate for the household interview (96.9 percent), and a lower rate for the individual interview (89.2 percent). Women in large cities have a slightly lower response rate (88.6 percent) than those in other areas. Most of the nonresponse for the individual interview was due to the absence of respondents and the postponement of interviews which were incomplete. Table 1,1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of individual Interviews and response rates, by urban-rural residence, Jordan 1990 Residence Large Other Result city urban Rural Total Household Interviews Number of housing anits sampled 8034 Number of households found 6580 Number of households interviewed 6391 Household response rate 97.1 Individual Interviews Number of eligible women 2756 Number of eligible women interviewed Individual response rate 7043 6095 21172 5505 4728 16813 5318 4587 16296 96.6 97.0 96.9 2407 2083 7246 2441 2143 1877 6461 88.6 89.0 90.1 89.2 7 CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS This chapter describes the general characteristics of the sample population, including age and sex composition, residence, education, housing facilities, and exposure to mass media. The data are presented for various subgroups of the population. When combined with data from other sources, the information can be used to monitor changes over time. Another purpose of the chapter is to describe the environment in which the respondents and their children live. The characteristics which are highlighted are those that particularly influence nuptiality, fertility, contraceptive behavior, maternal care and child morbidity and mortality. The questionnaire for the Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) included two questions distinguishing between the de jure population (persons who usually live in the selected household) and the de facto population (persons who spent the night before the interview in the household). It was found, however, that the difference between them was small, and since sample selection for the JPFHS was based on the de jure population, and past demographic surveys were based on de jure populations, tabulations for the JPFHS household data were carried out based on the de jure population only. 2.1 POPULAT ION BY AGE AND SEX In many developing countries, data on age are affected by errors such as misstatement and preference for or avoidance of certain digits. In order to improve age reporting in cases where age is not given, the interviewers were instructed to ask for legal documents, such as an identity card, birth certificate, or health card for pre-school children. The survey results indicated that not only age, but month and year of birth are widely recognized. Of the total population covered in the survey (more than 111,000), only 7 cases did not have age recorded. Also, the distribution of the population by single years of age (see Figure 2.1) indicates that although there is some preference for ages ending in 0 or 5, the problem is limited in extent. Table 2.1 shows the percent distribution of the population by age and sex, according to urban-rural residence. The table serves two purposes. The first is to show the effects of past demographic trends on the population and to give an indication of their future trends. The second is to describe the context in which a variety of demographic processes are operating. Experience indicates that age reporting in some populations suffers from problems of age heaping or age preference, which means that respondents tend to report ages with a particular terminal digit. The extent of age heaping or digit preference is usually investigated using the Myers' Index (Shryock and Siegel, 1973) which provides a summary measure and identifies the digits which are preferred or avoided by the respondents. Results from the 1990 JPFI-IS survey indicate that the quality of age reporting in Jordan is very good. On a scale of 0 to 180, males scored 5 and females 7. These figures show that age reporting in the 1990 survey is better than that in previous surveys. In the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS), the indices were 12 for males and 15 for females, and in the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey (JFS) the indices were 42 for males and 49 for females (Abdel Aziz et al., 1983). Analysis of the JPFHS data indicated a preference for reporting ages ending with "0" and "5", at the expense of ages with terminal digits of "1" and "9" (see Figure 2.1). 9 Figure 2.1 Male and Female Population by Single Years of Age Jordan, 1990 Number of persons 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Age . . . . Male I Female / J PFHS 1990 Table 2.1 Household population by age) residence and sex Percent distribution of the de jure household population by five-year age group, according to sex and urban-rural residence, Jordea 1990 Large dry Other urban Rural Total Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 0-4 13.4 13,8 13.6 14.8 15.4 15.1 16,5 16.7 16.6 14.7 15.1 14,9 5-9 13,3 13,4 13.3 14.8 15.3 15.1 16.1 15.8 15.9 14.5 14.7 14.6 10-14 13.7 13,8 13.7 15.1 14.3 14.7 15.8 15.1 15.5 14.7 14.3 14.5 15-19 13.3 13.1 13.2 13.0 13,4 13.2 12.9 12.9 12.9 13.1 13.2 13.1 20-24 12.1 11.2 11.6 11.2 10.6 10.9 9.9 9.4 9.7 11.2 10.5 10.9 25-29 8.7 7.8 8.3 7.7 7.2 7.4 6.6 6.5 6,6 7.8 7.3 7.5 30-34 4.9 5.5 5.2 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.4 4.8 4.6 4.8 5.2 5.0 35-39 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.4 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.9 3.7 40-44 3.4 3.9 3.7 3.1 3,6 3.3 2.8 3.4 3,1 3.1 3.7 3.4 4549 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.3 3,0 3.2 2.8 3.0 2.9 3,3 3.3 3.3 50-54 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.8 2.6 2,8 2.8 2.8 55-59 2.3 7,3 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.6 2.0 1.9 1.9 60454 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.6 65-69 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 70-74 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 75-79 0.3 0,4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 80 + 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 23022 21359 44381 19333 17901 37234 15709 14135 29844 58065 53394 111459 10 Figure 2.2 Population Pyramid of Jordan 80* 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5 -9 0 -4 10 5 0 5 10 Percent JPF H-q 1990 In Jordan, there are more males than females. The overall ratio of males to females is 109, or 109 males for every 100 females. This is a slightly higher ratio than that reported for the 1983 JFI-'HS survey (108). The large percentage of children under 15 years of age is an indicator of high fertility. The proportion under age 15 is consistently higher for rural populations and for males. The population pyramid for Jordan (see Figure 2.2) shows the wide-base pattern typical of countries in which fertility is high. 2.2 POPULAT ION BY AGE FROM OTHER SOURCES Table 2.2 and Figure 2.3 present a comparison of broad age groups for three surveys: the 1976 JFS, the 1983 JFFHS, and the 1990 JPFHS. The percentage of the population under 15 years of age declined sub- stantially between 1983 and 1990. As a result, the per- centage in the 15-59 shows an increase. This pattern is typical of populations that are experiencing a fertility decline. The change in the age structure is favorable in economic terms, assuming that those who are in the pro- duaive ages are economically active. The dependency ratio, calculated as the ratio of persons in the "depend- ent" ages (under 15 and 60 and over) to those in the "economic, ally active" ages (15-59) based on these figures, decreases from 130 in 1976, to 123 in 1983, and 94in 1990. Table 2.2 Population by ago from selected sources Percent distzibution of the de jure population by broad age groups, selected sources, Jordan 1976-1990 JFS JFFHS JPFHS Age group 1976 1983 1990 Less than 15 52.0 51.2 44.0 15-60 43.4 44.8 51.6 60+ 4.5 4.0 4.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 11 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percent Figure 2.3 Population by Broad Age Groups JFS 1976 JFFHS 1983 JPFHS 1990 BIB 0-14 ~ 15-59 ~ 60+ "~ I 2.3 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSIT ION Table 2.3 provides information on the size and composition of the sampled households. Household characteristics affect the social and economic well-being of the members of the household. Large household size may be associated with crowding, which can lead to unfavorable health conditions. Single-parent families, especially if they are headed by females, usually have limited financial resources. Information on household composition can also be examined in terms of the number of generations present, since multi- generation households are distinct from single-generation households in a number of ways. In the JPFHS, instead of asking the relationship of each household member to the head-of-household, relationship among members was recorded. This information is used to construct family classifications which am comparable to other data sources. Large households are common in Jordan. The average number of members (usual residents) in a household is nearly 7. Households in major cities are smaller than those in other urban areas, which are in turn, smaller than rural households. The difference in household size between the large cities and rural areas is almost one person. Thirty-two percent of households are comprised of 9 or more persons. The figure is higher (39 percent) in rural areas, and lower in large cities (25 percent). The majority of households in Jordan (71 percent) are nuclear families (parents and children) (see Table 2.3). With slight variation, households in large cities are more likely to be nuclear, or nuclear with unmarried relatives, while in the mral areas the households tend to be either nuclear or consist of ever-married relatives. One in eight families in large cities is a nuclear family with unmarried relatives, which may indicate difficulty in finding separate housing for relatives. 12 Table 2.3 Household composition Pereem distribution of households by size of household and family type, according to urben.rural residence, Jordan 1990 Residence Large Other Characteristic city urban Rural Total Number of usual members 0 0.0 0.0 0.l 0.0 l 2.9 2.7 3.0 2.9 2 8.4 7.9 8.1 8.2 3 8.4 8.1 6.2 7.7 4 10,3 9.1 7.5 9.2 5 11.9 9.3 9.0 10.4 6 13,1 9.5 8.9 10.9 7 10.9 9.8 10.5 10.5 8 9.2 9.2 8.1 8.9 9+ 24.9 34.3 38.7 31.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size of household 6.4 7.1 7.3 6.9 Family type Single person 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.8 Single parent with child(ten) 6.3 4.8 4.8 5.4 Parents with children 69,6 71.0 73.3 71.0 Parents with children end unmarried relatives 12.0 5.9 5.9 8.5 Two ever-married siblings with or without children 1.7 1.5 1.1 1.5 Two ever-married relatives with or without children 3.3 6.4 7.3 5,3 Three or more ever-married relatives with or without childre~ 3.0 5.7 3.2 3.9 Unrelated 1.3 2.1 1.3 1.5 Not classifiable 0.0 0.0 0.l 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.4 LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION Education is an important variable affecting demographic behavior. Higher education is usually associated with greater knowledge and use of health practices and family planning methods. The education system in Jordan has been in place for a long time. Basic education is free and compulsory, starting at age six and lasting for 10 years. A further two-year period, known as the secondary cycle, is virtually free (Battelle Human Affairs Research Canters, 1980). In the JPFHS, questions on education were asked for persons five years of age and older. They included literacy, highest level of education attended and highest grade completed at that level, and whether the person was still in school at the time of the survey. These data can be used to generate school enrollment rates. Table 2.4 presents data on the educational composition of the population reported in the household questionnaire. Animportant observationisthatwomenhavelesseducationthanmen. More than 90 percent 13 Table 2.4 Educationallevel of the household populalion l~w, ent di~ailmtion of the de jam male and female hou~hold populations ago five and over by highest level of education a:tmdr~ e.~otff~n 8 to se~ backsround characteristics, Jordan 1990 I~vel of education Numb~ Median Backgmund No Morethan of numbm" c~___~_'lti¢ education Primary Secondary secondary Missing Total persons ofyears MALE Age 5-9 1.6 56.7 0.0 0.0 41.7 100.0 8436 2,8 10-14 0.9 72.2 26.4 0.0 0.5 100.0 8553 5.9 15-19 1.5 7.8 87.4 3.3 0.1 100.0 7616 9,6 20-24 2,7 7.4 60.2 29.6 0,I I00,0 6486 12,1 25-29 4.2 9.2 50.5 36.1 0.1 190.0 4533 12,4 30-34 5.6 13.7 49.1 31.6 0.0 190.0 2778 11,5 35-39 9.1 17,9 49.0 23.8 0.1 190.0 2067 9.6 40-44 11.0 24.6 44.4 19.8 0.1 190.0 1822 9.1 45-49 16.3 29.2 38.1 16.4 0.0 100.0 1901 7.7 50-54 31.6 33.3 25.4 9.7 0.0 190.0 1633 5,7 55-59 41.2 36.9 16.2 5.7 0.0 190.0 1153 4.3 60-64 50.9 35.4 10.6 3.1 0,0 190.0 971 1.0 65+ 71,8 20.7 5.7 1,8 0.0 190.0 1571 0.7 Miuing/Don't know 65.5 34.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1~.0 3 0.8 Residence Large city 6.3 30,3 40.8 16.2 6.5 190.0 19931 8.4 Othe~ urban 8.0 32.7 40.0 12.1 7.1 190.0 16477 7.6 Rural 12.0 33.7 38.9 6.9 8,5 190.0 13115 6.7 Region Amman 7.5 30.9 39.8 15.0 6.8 190.0 19394 8.1 Zaxqa + Mefiaq 8.2 32.5 41,4 10.8 7.2 100.0 9926 7.6 Irbid 8,6 31,9 40.4 11,7 7.4 190.0 12237 7.6 Balqa 10.1 33.0 38.8 10.6 7.6 190.0 3312 7.2 South 10.6 35.2 37.7 7.7 8.7 190.0 4654 6.7 Total 8.4 32.0 40.0 12.4 7.2 190.0 49523 7.7 FEMALE Age 5-9 1.7 56.7 0.0 0.0 41.6 190.0 7852 2.8 10-14 1.6 70.9 27.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 7647 5.9 15-19 3,0 9.3 82.4 5.3 0.0 190.0 7030 9.8 20-24 5.3 9.3 54.6 30.7 0.1 190.0 5607 12.2 25-29 9.6 13.7 50.3 26.4 0.1 190.0 3877 11,2 30-34 18.1 22,6 41.5 17,8 0.0 190.0 2766 8.4 35-39 33.4 25.1 31.8 9.7 0.0 190.0 2106 6.2 40-44 48.6 25.4 19.9 6.0 0.1 100.0 1966 2.5 45-49 65.0 19.5 12.9 2.5 0.0 100.0 1747 0.8 50-54 81.5 11.2 5.9 1.4 0.0 100.0 1504 0.6 55-59 85.2 9.6 4.0 1.2 0.0 1~.0 994 0.6 60-64 88.7 6.7 3.9 0.7 0.0 190.0 832 0.6 65+ 93.4 4.2 1.8 0.5 0.I 190.0 1385 0.5 Miuing/Do~'t Imow I00.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 190.0 8 0.5 Res/denee Larse city 15.2 29.6 37.7 11.3 6.2 100.0 18416 7.1 Oth= ud~n 17.9 30.9 34.0 9.3 7.9 100.0 15137 6.4 Rural 25.7 32.4 28.9 4.6 8.5 190.0 11770 4.9 Region Amnum 16.2 29.8 36.7 10.6 6.8 I00.0 18157 6.9 Zm-qa + Mafreq 18.6 33.0 33.4 7.5 7.5 190.0 8832 6.1 kbld 20.3 30.6 33.8 7.8 7.5 190.0 11143 6.1 Balqa 22.6 31.4 30.0 8.2 7.9 I00.0 3064 5.6 South 24.6 30.5 29.0 7,8 8.2 190.0 4127 5.3 Total 18.8 30.8 34.2 8.9 7.3 190.0 45322 6,3 14 of the males in Jordan have had some schooling, while just over 80 percent of the females have attended school. Furthermore, men are likely to stay in school longer than women. The figures for median number of years of schooling (see Table 2.4) indicate that public education has a long history in Jordan. Men age 50-54 have a median of 6 years of education (equivalent to completing primary school), while women in the same age cohort have less than one year. Among persons age 35-39 years, the median duration of schooling for men is close to 10 years, whereas women have a little more than 6 years. For persons 25-34 the gap has narrowed, and finally disappears for those under 25 years of age. The level of education is closely associated with residence. In the large cities, a greater proportion of the population have attended higher education than in the restofthe country. The govemorates of Amman, Zarqa and Mafraq, and Irbid lead in terms of overall educational attainment. 2.5 SCHOOLENROLLMENT Table 2.5 shows the proportion of the household population age 6-24 years enrolled in school, by age, sex and residence. Although the differentials are small, the data support the association of educational enrollment with residence. Large cities have the highest level of educationai enrollment, followed by other urban areas, and rural areas. School enrollment differentials by gender vary according to age. For boys and gifts age 6-10 years there is virtually no difference in enrollment. However, as age increases, the gap between males and females widens, and by age 21-24 the enrollment rate for femaies is only half that for males. Table 2.5 School enroUmeaat Percentage of the de jt~e household population age 6-24 yews er~olled in school by age group, sex, and urban-rural residence, Jordan 1990 Male Female Total Large Other Large Other Large Other Age group city urban Rural Total city urban Rural Total city urbcm Rural. Total 6-10 97.2 97.5 96.6 97.1 97.7 97.5 95.6 97.0 97.5 97.5 96.1 97.1 11-15 93.2 93.7 93.5 93.4 93.5 92.1 87.1 91.2 93.3 92.9 90.5 92.4 6-15 95.2 95.6 95.1 95.3 95.6 94.9 91.5 94.2 95.4 95.3 93.4 94.8 16-20 54.2 51.7 44.8 50.9 54.3 50.3 41.9 49.8 54.2 51.0 43,4 50.4 21-24 15.5 11.5 8.3 12.5 8.0 6.2 3.6 6.4 12.1 9.1 6.2 9.7 2.6 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS In the JPFHS, information on housing characteristics was collected in the individual questionnaire rather than in the household questionnaire. Thus, a sampled household is represented by the number of eligible women interviewed in the household. Households for which no individual interview was completed are, therefore, not included in the analysis. 15 Table 2.6 presents the distribution of households by housing characteristics. Elec- tricity is widely available; only 3 percent of households do not have electricity. The per- centage varies from 10 percent in rural areas to less than 1 percentin the large cities. Virtually all households in Jordan have piped water; this is particularly true in large cities and urban areas where water is piped into the houses. In rural areas, although 80 percent of the house- holds have water piped into the house, 8 per- cent have water piped into the yard only. Almost all houses in Jordan are built of permanent materials such as stone, brick, and concrete. Brick is used in more than 50 percent of the houses; another third of the houses are built with concrete. This pattern is the same in cities and rural areas, although, cut stone is more popular in urban areas. In large cities, one in five dwellings is made of cut stone alone or cut stone combined with con- crete. The large size of households in Jordan can be seen in Table 2.6. The mean number of persons per sleeping room is 4 for the country as a whole; this number varies from 3.7 in large cities to 4.5 in rural areas. Almost half of the households have 3 to 4 persons per sleep- ing room, 29 percent have 1 or 2 persons, and one in six households has 5 to 6 persons per sleeping room. These figures indicate the ex- tent of crowdedness in the household. 2.7 PRESENCE OF DURABLE GOODS IN THE HOUSEHOLD Jordan is a modemized society, and most of the population enjoy the convenience of electrical appliances (see Table 2.7). About Table 2.6 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by housing eharaeteristles, according to urban-rural residence, Jordma 1990 Residence Housing Large Other characteristics city urban Rural Total Electricity Yes 99.5 98.9 90.0 96.8 No 0.5 1.1 10.0 3.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source of drinking water Piped into residence 97.6 92.9 80.1 91.5 Piped into yard, plot 0.7 2.3 8.0 3.1 Public tap 1.1 2.2 3.1 2.0 River, spring, dam 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.3 Tanker truck, vendor 0,4 1.5 2.9 1.4 Well 0.l 1.0 4.1 1.5 Other 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Building type Cut stone 6.5 3.7 1.0 4.1 Cut stone+concrete 14.0 8.2 2.0 9.0 Concrete 33.6 29.9 36.2 33.1 Brick 44.7 55.9 55.9 51.3 Mud brick 1.0 1.4 3.8 1.9 Zinc/metal 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.3 Other 0.1 0.7 0.5 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Persons per sleeping room 1-2 34.1 29.8 21.6 29.4 34 47.2 45.8 44.0 45.9 5-6 12.6 14.8 21.7 15.7 7 + 6.2 9.6 12.7 9.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean 3.7 4.0 4.5 4.0 Number 2465 1953 1573 5990 82 percent of the households have a refrigerator, 88 percent have a radio, and television sets are present in 91 percent of households. There are some differences between the large cities and rural areas, particularly regarding the presence of a refrigerator. Ninety-one percent of households in the large cities had a refrig- erator, whereas, only 66 percent of rural households had a refrigerator. A telephone is available in 34 percent of the households; this figure ranges from 43 in the large cities to 21 percent in rural areas. 16 Table 2.7 Household durable goods Percentage of households possessing various durable consumer goods, by urban-rural residence, Jordan 1990 Residence Large Other Item city urban Rural Total Radio 92.2 88.2 81.4 88.1 Television 94.4 92.7 84.3 91.2 Refrigerator 90.9 82.3 66.2 81.6 Video player 27.2 15.6 6.9 18.1 Telephone 42.7 33.3 20.8 33.9 Air conditioner 2.3 4.2 1.7 2.7 Bicycle 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.7 Motorcycle 0.3 0.2 0.9 0.4 Private car 29.2 24.0 13.9 23.5 Commercial e~ 3.7 2.8 1.5 2.8 Pick-up truck 4.3 7.0 11.0 6.9 Other transport 1.5 2.2 2.4 2.0 Number of households 2465 1953 1573 5990 2.8 AGE STRUCTURE OF RESPONDENTS TO THE INDIVIDUAL QUESTIONNAIRE Table 2.8 presents the distribution of respondents to the individual questionnaire by selected background characteristics, including age, marital status, and residence. Knowledge of date of birth among respondents is widespread. Among women who completed the individual interview, 73 percent gave the month and year of birth, and another 26 percent were able to report their age. Age information was missing for less than one percent of the respondents. The distribution of ever-married women by age group is shown in Table 2.8. Less than 6 percent of women are under 20 years of age, about 37 percent are age 20 to 29, 32 percent are age 30 to 39, and the rest (25 percent) are 40 or over. Except for the youngest age group, the age structure for ever-married women in 1990 is similar to that in 1976. Compared with data from the 1983 JFFHS, however, the age structure in 1990 is younger. The proportion of women under 35 years of age is larger in the 1990 survey than in the 1983 survey. Likewise, the proportion in the older age cohorts is smaller in the 1990 survey than in the 1983 survey. Among ever-married women, the percent distribution by marital status has remained constant since 1976 (Depamnent of Statistics, 1979); more than 95 percent are currently married, while the rest are either separated, divorced or widowed. However, comparison of the data from the 1990 JPFHS with data from previous surveys (not shown) regarding the proportion of ever-married women, indicates that the percentage of women in the population who are married is decreasing gradually in almost all age groups. Among women in the 15-19 age group, for example, more than 30 percent were married according to the 1972 National Fertility Survey (Department of Statistics, 1976). This percentage declined to 20 percent in 1976, 13 percent in 1983, and 11 percent in 1990. By age 30, when almost all women would have been married, the percentage was 96 in 1972, 90 in 1983, and 89 in 1990. 17 The population of Jordan is highly urbanized (see Table 2.8). Forty-one percent of the sample popu- lation reside in the major cities of Amman, Zarqa and Irbid, and another 33 percent live in other urban areas; only one in four Jordanians resides in the rural areas. The distribution of the population by governorate emphasizes the degree of urbanization. The three south- ern governorates (Karak, Ma'an and Tafielah), have small populations and are largely rural. Due to their small size, the three govemoratcs were grouped together under the category "South" to obtain reliable estimates. Mafraq, another small largely rural govemorate, was combined with Zarqa for the same reason. Overall, 84 percent of the population live in the governorates with the largest populations~Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa and Mafraq. The weighted and unweighted numbers of women in the sample are presented in Table 2.8. The unweighted numbers of women in the major govemor- ates (Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa and Mafraq) are smaller than the weighted numbers; the opposite is true in rural areas (Balqa and the South). This is because of over- sampling in the five smaller govemorates (Balqa, Karak, Ma'an, Mafraq, and Tafielah). The difference between the weighted and unweighted numbers can be seen in the distribution by govemorate. For example, in Balqa, although the weighted number of women is 433, in reality the data were collected from 762 women. Oversampling was done in order to provide a sufficient number of women upon which to base estimates. 2.9 RESPONDENT'S LEVEL OF EDUCATION Table 2.8 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of ev~-man'ied women by selected background characteristics, Jorden 1990 Number of women Background Wdghted Un- characteristic percent Weighted weighted Age 15-19 5.6 359 353 20-24 16.6 1073 1082 25-29 20.3 1313 1329 30-34 17.6 1138 1128 35-39 14.8 959 946 40~4 13.4 866 878 4549 11.7 755 745 Marital status Married 95.5 6168 6181 Divorced 1.6 102 101 Widowed 2.8 180 172 Separated 0.2 11 7 Education No education 23.5 1516 1645 Primary 22.5 1456 1400 Secondary 43.5 2811 2741 More than secondary 10.5 677 675 Residence Large city 40.8 2635 2441 Other urban 33.0 2133 2143 Rural 26.2 1693 1877 Region Amman 39.2 2530 2166 Zarqa + Mafraq 20.6 1334 1277 Irbid 24.0 1549 1307 Balqa 6.7 433 762 South 9.5 615 949 Total 100.0 6461 6461 Table 2.9 presents an overview of the rela- tionship between level of education and selected background characteristics of the respondents. About 24 percent of women have never been enrolled in formal education, 23 percent have some primary education, 44 percent have some preparatory or secondary education, and 11 percent have more than secondary education. The distribution of women by level of education and age shows the expected pattern: the percentage of women who have no education and those who have only primary education increases with age, while the percentage who have secondary education decreases with age. More than half of women under age 30 have completed secondary school, and up to 17 percent have higher education. Women in large cities and other urban areas are more likely to have higher education than their rural counterparts. There is a pronounced difference in women's educational attainment by govemorate. In the govemorate of Amman, 18 percent of women have no education, whereas, in the South, the proportion is 37 percent. The gap is narrower for primary and secondary education. The larger percentage of women with higher education in certain govemorates may be due in part to the greater availability of higher education facilities there. 18 Table 2.9 Level of education pro'cent distribution of area-married women by highest level of education attended, according to sdected back~ound characteristics, Jordan 1990 Level of education Number Background No More them of ch~acterlstlc education Primary Secondezy secondary Total women Age 15-19 3.7 15.2 78.2 2.9 Ico.O 359 20-24 6.1 11.7 67.9 14.2 1{30.0 1073 25-29 9.2 18.0 55.4 17.4 100.0 1313 30-34 15.4 26.0 44.8 13.7 100.0 1138 35-39 28.5 32.3 31.1 8.1 100.0 959 40-44 45.2 29.9 21.0 3.9 I00.0 866 45-49 63.2 23.2 11.3 2.4 100.0 755 ResMence Large city 14.2 21.7 51.4 12.7 100.0 2635 Other urben 22.3 23.9 42.7 II.I I00.0 2133 Rural 39.4 22.2 32.2 6.3 100.0 1693 ReOou Ammem 17.7 23.6 47.9 10.8 I00.0 2530 Zarqa + Me.~aq 24.1 23.6 43.3 9.0 I00.0 1334 Irbid 24.2 22.3 42.5 11.0 I00.0 1549 Balqa 33.9 22.1 34.9 9.0 100.0 433 South 36.6 16.9 34.8 11.8 100.0 615 Total 23.5 22.5 43.5 10.5 100.0 6461 In the JPFI-IS, women who had never gone to school and women whose highest level of education was primary school were asked if they could read. About 7 percent of women who had never been to school and 83 percent of women who had some primary school education declared that they could read written materials (data not shown). 19 2.10 EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA The exposure of women to television, radio, and newspapers is shown in Table 2.10. Half of the women in the sample watch television frequently, and 39 percent listen to the radio; only 11 percent read newspapers frequently. Although exposure to mass media varies little across age groups, younger women are slightly more likely to be exposed to mass media than older women. As expected, there is a positive association between newspaper reading and education; a greater proportion of the women with secondary or higher education read newspapers than those with less education. The same pattern is present for television viewing and listening to the radio, although women with higher schooling seem to do these activities to a lesser extent than women in other education groups. The relationship between residence and exposure to mass media varies depending on the type of media. Women in the large cities are more likely to read the newspaper (15 percent) than women in rural areas (5 percent); however, rural women are more likely to watch television (52 percent) than women in large cities (46 percent). The extent to which women listen to the radio does not vary substantially by residence. The same is true for differentials by govemorate. Table 2.10 Access to mass media Percentage of women who frequently read a newspaper, watch television, or listen to the radio, by selected background cbhractevistics, Jordan 1990 Read Watch Listen to Number Background newspaper television radio of characteristic f~quenfly frequently frequently women Age 15-19 13.4 55.8 45.6 359 20-24 10.3 56.2 45.8 1073 25-29 13.2 50.8 41.9 1313 30-34 11.6 50.6 38.6 1138 35-39 10.6 45.8 36.9 959 40-44 10.0 42.6 31.4 866 45-49 7.4 41.3 30.7 755 Education No education 0.3 37.8 25.0 1516 Primary 7.0 49.4 36.8 1456 Secondary 16.1 55.0 46.8 2811 More than secondary 21.9 48.2 40.3 677 Residence Large city 14.7 46,4 38.1 2635 Other Urban 11,1 50.0 40,3 2133 Rural 4.9 51.7 37.7 1693 Region Amman 13.6 44.2 38.2 2530 Zurqa + Mafraq 11.3 45,6 36.9 1334 Irbid 8.2 61.4 41.5 1549 Balqa 6.9 43.3 40.5 433 South 9.3 48.8 36.6 615 Total 10.9 49.0 38.7 6461 20 CHAPTER 3 FERTILITY The Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) collected information on past, current and cumulative fertility. In this survey, a series of questions about live births was asked to obtain data pertaining to fertility. Based on the experience gained from past surveys, the wording and sequence of the questions were designed so as to reduce errors commonly found in such surveys. Basically, data were collected in two sections. First, each woman was asked a series of questions on the number of her sons and daughters living with her, the number living elsewhere, and the number who may have died. Next, for each live birth, the sex, age, whether the birth was single or multiple, whether the child was living in the household or away, and survival status were asked. For dead children, the age at death was recorded. As an indicator of future fertility, information was collected on whether currently married women were pregnant at the time of the interview. Experience in using birth histories to estimate fertility levels and trends has found that underreporting of children ever born and displacement of children's dates of birth are common in many countries. Underreporting of children affects estimates of fertility levels, while misreporting of children's date of birth distorts fertility trends over time. With regard to the latter, one of the characteristics of the 1990 JPFHS is the high quality of age and date reporting. As noted earlier, virtually all women knew their age. The same is true for age at marriage and date of marriage. With regard to the children's age and date of birth reporting, both month and year of birth are documented for 98 percent of all births recorded in the birth history; for the rest, either age or year of birth is given. This information lends confidence in the quality of the basic data used in the estimation of fertility measures. Because the fertility rates presented in this chapter are all based on direct measures derived from the binah history section of the JPFHS, two potential drawbacks require some attention. First, only surviving women were interviewed in the survey. This would only bias the rates if mortality of women of childbearing age were high and if fertility of surviving and nonsurviving women differed significantly, neither of which is the case in Jordan. The limitation of the survey respondents to ever-married women presents another potential bias. However, since births in Jordan occur within marriage, the number of births to single women is negligible. Although information on fertility was obtained only from ever-married women, estimates can be made for all women (regardless of marital status) using information in the household questionnaire; these estimates assume that women who have never been married have had no children. 3.1 LEVELS AND DIFFERENTIALS IN FERT IL ITY Fertility Levels Table 3.1 presents the age-specific fertility rates and total fertility rates (TFR) for three Jordanian surveys---the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey (JFS), the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS), and the Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS). The tt~l< is the sum of the age- specific fertility rates and represents the average number of children a Jordanian woman would have at the end of her reproductive years if she were subject to the observed age-specific rates. Comparison of the fmdings from the three survey shows the trends in fertility levels over a fourteen-year period. Data for the 1976 survey are calculated based on the two years preceding the survey (1975-1976), while those for 1983 and 1990 refer to the three years preceding the survey (1981-1983 and 1988-1990 respectively). There is a consistent decline in fertility from the mid-1970s to the late 1980s: thetl~Rs for women age 15-49 declined from 7.4 children in 1976 to 6.6 in 1983, and 5.6 in 1990. The decline in fertility between the mid- 1970s and 21 the early 1980s is 11 percent; the decline between the mid-1970s and late 1980s is 24 percent. A similar pattern is seen for women 15-44 years. The curve for age-specific fertility rates has re- mained about the same for each survey since 1976 (see Figure 3.1). It starts low in the youngest age group, in- creases rapidly in the next group, and peaks in ages 20- 34, after which it declines sharply in the 40-44 age group. Very few births occur to women over 45 years of age. The findings from the three surveys indicate that fertility has declined in all age groups. In the 14 years between the JFS and the JPFHS, the largest declines appear to have taken place among women 15-24 years of age. This sug- gests that much of the decline between 1976 and 1983 can be attributed to an increase in the age at marriage, while decline between 1983 and 1990 is due to greater use of contraception. Table 3.1 Curreaat ferlili~ according to selected SUl~e~$ Age-specific fertility rates and total fertility rates from selected stnveys, Jordan, 1976, 1983 md 1990 .ITS jt+t~HS JPFHS Age group 19761 19832 19902 15-19 71 49 49 20-24 300 228 219 25-29 367 335 296 30-34 332 305 264 35-39 240 233 188 40-44 112 127 79 45-49 47 40 19 TFR 15-49 7.4 6.6 5.6 TFR 15-44 7.1 6.4 5.5 TITR: Total fertility rates, expressed per woman ]Based on two years preceding survey 2Based on three years preceding survey Table 3.2 presents the age-specific fertility rates and cumulative fertility for the three-year period pre- ceding the survey by urban-rural residence. The general fertility rate (GFR) is the annual number of live births per 1,000 women age 15-44 years in the three years preceding the survey. The crude birth rate (CBR) is the annual number of live births per 1,000 population for the same period. All of these measures show a similar Figure 3.1 Age-specific Fertility Rates JFS 1976, JFFHS 1983, and JPFHS 1990 Births per 1,000 women 40O 300 200 100 0 15-19 I i i i + 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-59 40-44 Age I . . . . JFS 1976 ~JFFHS 1983 ~ JPFHS 1990 45-49 22 pattern: women living in urban areas have a much lower fertifity rate than those living in rural areas. Women in large cities bear an average of 4.7 children, compared to 5.6 for women in other urban areas and 6.8 for rural women. The data show that regardless of residence, about half of all births are to women age 25-34, and another 20 percent are to women age 20-24. Table 3.2 Current fertility Age-specific fertility rates (per thousand women), cumulative fertility rates and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey, by urban-rural residence, Jordan 1990 Large Other Age group city urban Rural Total 15-19 55 40 51 49 20-24 194 228 251 219 25-29 265 293 346 296 30-34 214 267 339 264 35-39 159 188 232 188 40-44 58 82 111 79 45-49 [5] [23i a [39] a [19] TFR 15-49 4.75 5.60 6.85 5.57 TFR 15-44 4.72 5.49 6.65 5.48 GFR 148.8 165.4 203.1 168.3 CBR 33.9 35.8 39.0 36.1 Note: Figures in brackets are partially truncated rates. TFR: Total fertility rate, expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate (bhlks divided by number of women 15-44), expressed per 1,000 women CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population aBased on fewer than 500 person-months of exposure Fertility Differentials Table 3.3 presents the total fertility rate (TFR) and the mean number of children ever born (CEB) per woman according to background characteristics of the women. Column one shows the total fertility rates for the three years preceding the survey (1988-1990); column two presents the mean number of children ever born to women 4049 years. The average number of children ever born is an indicator of cumulative fertility and reflects the fertility of older women who are nearing the end of their reproductive period; it is a measure that represents completed fertility. When fertility remains constant over time, the two measures, TPR and CEB will be the same or almost the same. In the JPFHS, however, completed fertility (8.1 children per woman) is much higher than the total fertility rate (5.6 children per woman), indicating a considerable decline in fertility. Fertility is much lower in urban areas than in rural areas (see Table 3.3). The total fertifity rate for women in large cities (4.8) is almost one child lower than for women in other urban areas (5.6) and more than two children lower than for rural women (6.9). The differentials in the number of children ever bom to women 4049 are not as large, however, suggesting that the large differences in fertility by residence are a recent phenomenon. 23 Women in Amman Govemorate have the lowest fertility rate when comparing fertility levels across gov- ernorates. They have, on average, 0.7 child less than women in Zarqa and Mafraq, and Balqa, 1.8 children less than women in the South, and 1.3 children less than women in Irbid. The largest fertility differentials are by educa- tional attainment. Education is negatively associated with fertility as measured by the total fertility rate and children ever born. Women who have attended higher education (more than secondary) have the lowest level of fertility (4.1), while those with no education have the highest (6.9). The difference between the two groups of women is close to 3 children in terms of the TPR, and almost 5 children according to the mean number of chil- dren ever born. These figures suggest that as educa- tional opportunities for women improve, and fertility declines, the differentials in fertility among women ac- cording to education will narrow. 3.2 FERT IL ITY TRENDS In addition to comparing data from previous surveys (see Section 3.1), fertility trends can also be in- vestigated using retrospective data from a single survey. The birth history information collected in the JPFHS is used for this purpose. Table 3.4 presents age-specific fertility rates over time, while Table 3.5 presents marital Table 3.3 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the stawey and mean number of children evex born to women age 40-49. by selected background ebarac- teristies. Jordan 1990 Mean number of children Total ever born Background fertility to women characteristic rate I age 40-49 Residence Large city 4.75 7.50 Other urban 5.60 8.38 Rural 6.85 8.83 Region Amman 4.88 7.65 Zarqa + Mafraq 5.58 8.32 Irbid 6.20 8.85 Balqa 5.55 7.29 South 6.64 8.59 Education level attended No edueatlon 6.92 8.84 Primary 6.00 8.38 Secondary 5.39 6.31 More than secondary 4.10 4.03 Total 5.57 8.12 IRate for women age 15-49 years duration fertility rates over time. Data in the tables are not comprehensive; they are progressively truncated as time before the survey increases. The bottom diagonal of estimates (enclosed in brackets) is also tmnca~l. Due to the mmcation, changes taking place over the 20 years preceding the survey are observed only for women up to age 29, and for women who have been married for up to 19 years. Information in these tables should be treated with caution due to the possible omission of or incorrect dating of events, especially by older women, and for distant time periods. The data in Table 3.4 indicate that the fertility decline at ages 15-29 in the 20 years preceding the survey is quite substantial (37 percent). The data also indicate that while the decline was slow at first (6 percent from 15-19 to 10-14 years preceding the survey), it accelerated to 15 percent from 10-14 to 5-9 years preceding the survey, reaching 22 percent in the most recent period (from 5-9 to 0-4 years preceding the survey). Table 3.5 presents a similar pattern: for the same marriage duration, fertility rates are lowest for the five-years immediately preceding the survey, indicating a decline in fertility over time. 24 Table 3.4 Age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for five-yeer periods preceding the su~ey, by mother's age at the time of birth, Jordan 1990 Number of years preceding the survey Mother's age 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 15-19 52 85 131 146 20-24 230 307 345 377 25-29 307 363 410 417 30-34 277 326 349 [374] 35-39 198 243 [300] U 40-44 86 [149] U U 45-49 [23] U U U Note: Age-specific feilility rates are per 1,000 ever-marrled women. Figures in brackets are partially truncated rates. U = Unknown; no information Table 3.5 Fertility by marital duration Fertility rates for five-year periods preceding the survey, by number of years since first marriage, Jordan 1990 Number of years preceding the survey Years since flrst merriage 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-4 460 476 492 474 5-9 371 422 448 454 10-14 310 364 385 412 15-19 229 278 334 [349] 20-24 137 203 [310] 25-29 46 [123] Note: Duration-specific fertility rates ere per 1,000 women. Figures in brackets are partially mmcated rates. 3.3 CHILDREN EVER BORN AND LIVING In the survey questionnaire, the total number of children ever born to women age 15-49 was ascertained by a series of questions designed to maximize recall. Past experience indicates that, even among illiterate, high fertility populations, omission of births can be kept to a low level, except perhaps for the oldest women in the sample. 25 Table 3.6 and Figure 3.2 show the mean num- ber of children ever born to all women age 15-49 for the years 1976, 1983 and 1990. The data support the previ- ous fmding that there has been a substantial decline in fertility during the 14 years preceding the survey. In 1976, a woman had on average 3.6 children; seven years later tiffs had declined to 3.1, and in 1990 the average number of children ever born was 2.9, reflecting a de- cline of almost one (0.7) child from 1976. The decline appears to have occurred at all ages, although it is great- er for younger women, probably due to later age at first marriage and later age at first birth (see Section 3.5). Women age 20-24 in 1990 have had on average 0.8 child less than women in the same age group 14 years preceding the survey. The decline is greatest among women age 25-29, an average of more than one (1.2) child. The Inconsistency of figures for women 40 years of age and older, which is also present in Table 3.1 for 1983, indicates errors either in the reporting of ages of older women or in the reporting of date of birth of their children, or both. Table 3.6 Children ever born according to selected surveys Mean number of children ever born for all woman by age group, Jordan, 1976, 1983 and 1990 JFS JFFHS JPFHS Age group 1976 1983 1990 15-19 0.2 0.1 0.1 20-24 1.6 0.9 0.8 25-29 3.7 3.0 2.5 30-34 5.6 5.0 4.8 35-39 7.1 6.6 6.6 40-44 8.4 7.5 7.9 45-49 8.6 7.8 8.3 Total 3.6 3.1 2.9 Figure 3.2 Mean Number of Children Ever Born Jordan, 1976, 1983, and 1990 Mean number of children 1o 8 9 4 2 0: 13-19 I I I I I 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 Age I . . . . JFS 1976 I JFFHS 1933 ~JPFH8 1990 / I 45-49 26 Table 3.7 presents the distribution of all women and currently married women by the number of children they have had. In the JPFHS, since the respondents are ever-married women, information on the reproductive history of never-married women is not available. However, since virtually all births in Jordan take place within marriage, it can be assumed that never-married women have had no births. The data represent the accumulation of births over time. The difference in fertility between all women and currently married women is due to the proportion of women who were not married at the time of the survey (i.e., single, divorced, or widowed); the difference is most pronounced in the younger age groups. The average number of children increases with age, reflecting the natural family building process. Table 3.7 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and of currently married women by number of children ever born (CEB) and mean number of children ever born and living, according to age groups, Jordan 1990 Number of children ever born (CEB) Age SrOt~ 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ALL WOMEN Number Mean no. Mean no, of of of living I0+ Total women CEB c.hild nm 15-19 94.7 3.8 1.4 0.1 . . . . . . . . . . 100.0 3394 0.1 0.1 20-24 64.8 11 .4 10.7 8.0 3.4 1.3 0.3 - 0.1 -- 100.0 2374 0.8 0.8 25-29 32.1 7,3 11 .8 13 .5 13.1 10.5 6.3 3.7 1.1 0.6 -- 100.0 1781 2.5 2.4 30-34 13,6 2.8 5.5 7,8 12.0 15.8 13 .5 12.3 8.7 4.1 3.7 100.0 1277 4.8 4.6 35-39 8.3 2.3 2.2 5.2 6.9 8.2 11.4 12.3 12,8 12.6 17.7 100.0 1014 6.6 6.2 40-44 3.9 1.9 2.1 3.4 5.7 7.5 6.5 10.1 12 .4 10.4 36.2 100.0 890 7,9 7.4 45-49 4.0 1.0 1.8 2.4 4.6 7,3 7.4 8.7 9.3 14.7 38.8 100.0 770 8.3 7.7 Total 49.1 5,3 5.5 5.5 5,4 5.4 4.5 4.4 3.9 3.5 7.4 100.0 11499 2.9 2.7 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 50.2 35.8 12.5 1.1 0.1 0,3 . . . . . . . 100.0 353 0.7 0,6 20-24 22.0 24.9 23.7 17.9 7.7 2.9 0.7 -- 0.1 -- 100.0 1057 1.8 1.7 25-29 6.9 9.4 16.3 18.3 18.2 14.4 8.8 5.2 1.6 0.9 --- I00.0 1268 3.5 3.4 30-34 2.6 2.6 5.7 8.5 13.6 18.0 15.6 14.1 10.2 4.8 4.3 I00.0 1098 5.5 5.2 35-39 2.5 1,8 1.8 5.1 7.6 8.9 11 .4 13.6 13.6 13.6 19.9 100.0 905 7.1 6.7 40-44 I.I I.I 1.8 3.1 5.5 7.1 6.6 10.5 13.0 II.0 39.1 I00.0 807 8.4 7.8 45-49 2.3 0.7 1.8 1.5 3.8 6.8 7.3 9.1 9.1 15.3 42,4 100.0 680 8.7 8.1 Total 9.3 9.2 9.9 9.7 9.7 9.7 8.1 8.0 6.9 6,1 13.5 100.0 6168 5.1 4.8 -- Leu than 0.1]6 percent Thelevelof fertility among teenagers islow. Only5 percentofwomenage 15-19 havehad achild. The past high fertility of Jordanlan women can be seen from the large proportion of women age 45-49 who have had 10 or more children (39 percent). Since voluntary childlessness is virtually nonexistent, child- lessness at age 40 or above can be taken as evidence of primary infertility. Data from the JPFHS indicate that 4 pereent of women over age 40 have never given birth. The last two columns in Table 3.7 show the average number of children ever bom and the average number of children still living according to mother's age. Differences in the mean number of children born and living are notable only after age 30. Caution should be used in interpreting the data for women in the oldest age groups due to the problem of memory lapse; older women are more likely to omit some of their children, particularly if the children died at a young age or are living away from their mother. 27 3.4 BIRTH INTERVALS A birth interval is the period of time between two successive live births. Information on the length of bixl_h intervals in Jordan is presented in Table 3.8. The data are based on births in the five years preceding to the survey. Table 3.8 Birth intervals Percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since previous birth, according to selected background characteristics. Jordan 1990 Median no. Number of months since previous birth of months Number Background since previous of chm'act~ris~ie 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48+ Total birth births Age 15-19 61.7 18.5 18.2 1.7 0.0 100.0 16.5 57 20-29 37.0 26.8 26.7 6.4 3.1 100.0 20.9 3020 30-39 20.5 21.0 34.8 11.0 12.7 100.0 26.0 3025 40+ 10.3 17.1 36.7 14.1 21.7 100.0 30.5 830 Birth order 2-3 39.3 25.0 23.6 7.3 4.8 100.0 20.5 2192 4-6 23.6 23.3 32.2 9.5 11.5 100.0 24.7 2420 7+ 18.4 20.9 37.7 11.1 11.9 1(30.0 26.2 2320 Sex of prior birth Male 25.4 22.1 31.8 9.5 11.3 I(30.0 24.7 3555 Female 28.4 24.0 30.8 9.1 7.6 100.0 23.5 3377 Survival of prior birth Living 26.0 23.2 31.6 9.5 9.7 100.0 24.2 6655 Dead 46.0 19.6 24.2 5.9 4.3 100.0 18.8 278 Residence Large city 27.0 20.9 28.3 11.1 12.7 100.0 24.6 2465 Other urban 27.4 23.3 31.4 9.3 8.7 100.0 23.8 2264 Rural 26.1 25.1 34.6 7.4 6.8 100.0 23.8 2202 Region Amman 26.6 22.3 28.8 10.2 12.1 100.0 24.3 2402 Zarqa + Mafraq 2,*.8 22.5 31.7 10.6 10.4 1(30.0 24.6 1403 Irbid 30.7 24.3 31.1 7.0 6.9 100.0 23.0 1874 Balqa 23.8 21.4 36.6 10.1 8.1 100.0 24.7 512 South 23.7 24.5 35.7 9.4 6.7 100.0 24.4 741 Education level attended No education 17.7 21.6 40.9 10.6 9.3 100.0 26.1 1550 Primary 23.5 23.9 31.7 8.9 11.9 100.0 24.6 1606 Secondly 30.8 23.4 28.2 8.8 8.8 100.0 23.1 3111 More then secondary 37.6 22.3 22.8 9.8 7.5 1(30.0 21.5 664 Total 26.8 23.0 31.3 9.3 9.5 100.0 24.0 6932 Note: First-ordea births are excluded. The interval for multiple births is the number of months since the preceding pregnancy that ended in a live birth. 28 Women in Jordan favor relatively long birth intervals: half of all children are born at least 2 years after their siblings, and one in five is born after an interval of 3 years or longer. As expected, children born to younger and lower parity women have shorter birth intervals than those born to older, higher parity women. Birth intervals following a child who died are also shorter than those following surviving children (19 months versus 24 months). This is consistent with results of an earlier survey (Abdel Aziz, 1988). The length of birth intervals does not vary by urban-rural residence or govemorate. However, intervals are shorter between births to more highly educated women, presumably in part because they marry later. Since these women are starting their families later, they are more likely to have shorter birth intervals in order to "catch up" with women who started childbearing earlier. Another reason may be the length ofbreastfeeding; educated women breastfeed their children for shorter duration than uneducated women. 3.5 AGE AT FIRST BIRTH The onset of childbearing is an important indicator of fertility. In Jordan, the postponement of first births, reflecting later age at first marriage, has made a large contribution to tile overall fertility decline. Table 3.9 shows the distribution of women by age at first birth. Women under age 25 were not included in the calculation of median age at first birth because most had not given birth. The trend in the median age at first birth across age cohorts suggests an increase in the youngest cohorts: 23 years for women age 25-29, and 21.2 years for women age 30-34. Change has been negligible for women 35 years and over (median age at first birth 20.4 to 20.6 years). Table 3.9 Age at first birth Percent distribution of women by age at first birth, according to current age, Jordan 1990 Ctmem age Women Median with Age at first birth Number age at no of first births <15 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25+ Total women birth 15-19 94.7 -- 3.4 1.9 - -- 100.0 3394 a 20-24 64.8 0.3 7.6 12.9 9.3 5.1 -- 100.0 2374 a 25-29 32.1 0.6 13.8 15.5 14.0 16.7 7.3 100.0 1781 23.0 30-34 13.6 1.8 19.3 19.2 15.8 17.3 13.0 100.0 1277 21.2 35-39 8.3 1.3 21.5 22.7 16.7 16.1 13.3 100.0 1014 20.4 40-44 3.9 2.7 19.3 22.1 19.3 20.7 12.0 100.0 890 20.5 45-49 4.0 3.7 16.6 21.7 23.6 18.4 11.9 100.0 770 20.6 -- Less than 0.05 percent aLess than 50 pea~ent of the women have had a biRh by the beginlfing of the age group. Table 3.10 presents the differentials in age at first birth among women 25-49 years by background characteristics. The median age at first birth for women residing in large cities (21.6 years) is slightly higher than that for women living in other urban or rural areas (21.0 years). There are no significant differences in the age at first birth by region. Differentials by education are more marked and show an unusual pattem. Women with secondary education have the highest median age at first birth (21.2 years), followed by women with no education. The lowest median age at first birth is for women who have attended primary school (19.6 years). 29 Table 3.10 Median age at first birth by background eharecteristies Median age at first birth among women 25-49, by current age mad selected background characteristics, Io~an 1990 Current age Woman Beck~ound age che~aetea'istic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 Residence Large city 24.1 21.7 20.5 20.6 20.2 2L6 Other urban 23.2 20.6 20.1 20.4 20.7 2L0 Rmal 21.5 21.1 20.8 20.7 21.0 2t.0 Region Amman 23.4 21.6 20.1 20.1 20.2 21-:2 Zarqa + Mafraq 22.7 20.6 20.7 20.4 20.7 21.1 Irbid 22.9 21.4 20.3 21.1 21.1 2L4 Balqa 23.0 21.5 21.9 21.7 21.3 21.8 South 22.7 20.9 20.3 20.3 20.0 2L0 Education level attended No education 20.7 20.6 20,3 20.3 20.6 20.5 Prhnezy 20.6 19.0 19.3 19.8 19.9 19.6 Secondmy 21.7 20.7 20.5 22.2 21.4 21.2 More than secondary a 25.9 25.6 24.2 26.2 a Total 23.0 21.2 20.4 20,5 20.6 21.2 Note: The medians for cohorts 15-19 and 20-24 could not be determined because some women may still have a birth before reaching age 20 or 25, respectively. aLess than 50 percent of the women in these age groups have had a birth. 3.6 TEENAGE FERT IL ITY Table 3.11 examines the extent of fertility among women age 15-19. This issue is of major social and health concern because teenage mothers and their children usually have higher risk of morbidity and mortality. At the same time, women who become mothers in their teens are more likely to curtail their education. The level of teenage childbearing in Jordan is low; only 7 percent of 3,394 women age 15-19 in the sample have given birth (5 percent) or are pregnant with their first child (2 percent). This is consistent with information on the age at marriage (see Chapter 5). Since half of Jordanian women marry when they are nearing age 20, very few have given birth before age 18. Among women 18 years of age, only one in seven (14 percent) is pregnant with her first child or has become a mother, this increases to 18 percent for women 19 years of age. 30 Table 3.11 Teenage fertility Percentage of women 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child, by selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Percentage who are: Percentage who have Pregnant begtm Number Background with first child- of characteristic Mothers child bearing women Age 15 0.2 0.3 0.6 738 16 1.2 1.6 2.8 863 17 4.3 2.1 6.3 616 18 9.2 4.2 13.5 639 19 15.3 2.7 18.0 537 r r , Residence Large city 5.6 1.8 7.5 1351 Other urban 5.1 1.9 7.1 1252 Rural 5.0 2.7 7.7 788 Region Amman 5.3 1.6 6.9 1522 Zarqa + Mafraq 4.7 1.9 6.6 683 Irbid 5.3 2.4 7.7 860 Balqa 3.6 4.2 7.8 145 South 9.9 3.3 13.2 169 Education level aRended No education 8.3 2.3 10.6 74 Primary 8.g 4.2 13.0 310 Secondary 4.8 1.7 6.5 3000 More than secondary 0.8 2.1 3.0 239 Total 5.3 2.1 7.4 3394 Urhan-mral residence is not strongly associated with teenage motherhood. With respect to education, the proportion of teenagers who are mothers or pregnant declines as education level increases. The data indicate that the impact of education in reducing teenage pregnancy appears to begin with secondary schooling. There is also a reverse relationship between education and childbearing in that young women who are pregnant often drop out of school. The regional distribution shows that the South has the highest level of teenage childbearing, followed by Balqa and Irhid, while Amman, Zarqa and Mafraq have the lowest levels. 31 Tab le 3 .12 presents the distr ibut ion o f women age 15-19 by number o f ch i ldren ever 10om. The average number o f ch i ldren ever born for this age group is less than 0.1 chi ld, ind icat ing that the leve l o f teenage fert i l i ty in Jordan is very low. Table 3.12 Children bern to teenagers Percent distribution of women 15-19 by number of children ever bern (CEB), according to single year of age, Jordan 1990 Age 0 1 2+ Number of Mean children ever room number Number of of Total CEB women 15 99.8 0.2 -- 100.0 -- 738 ' " 16 98.8 1.1 0.1 100.0 -- 863 17 95.7 3.6 0.6 100.0 -- 616 18 90.8 6.4 2.8 100.0 0.1 639 19 84.7 10.1 5.3 100.0 0.2 537 Total 94.7 3.8 1.5 100.0 0,1 3394 -- Less than 0.05 percent, or mean less than 0.05 children 32 CHAPTER 4 FAMILY PLANNING The Government of Jordan has no explicit population policy intended to influence fertility levels, but it acknowledges the right of parents to decide the number and spacing of their children. In recent years, family planning activities have increased substantially. Through the Ministry of Health, the Jordan Family Planning and Protection Association and rural development projects, women are receiving information about family health, breasffeeding, and childspacing. The 1990 JPFHS was designed to collect information on topics related to the spacing and limiting of births. This chapter presents the major findings on current, past, and intended future use of contraception. Whenever possible, comparison is made with the results of three DHS surveys carried out in North Africa (Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia); time trends are examined by comparing the JPFHS findings with those of two earlier surveys: the 1976 Jordan Feilility Survey (JFS) (Department of Statistics, 1979) and the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS) (Department of Statistics, 1984b). 4.1 KNOWLEDGE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND SOURCES One of the major objectives of the JPFHS is to determine the level of knowledge of contraceptive methods. In the survey, the level of awareness of family planning methods was measured in two ways: . Respondents were first asked an open-ended question about which contraceptive methods they had heard of. All methods named in response to this question were recorded as unprompted (sponta- neous) knowledge. . When a respondent failed to mention any of the listed methods, the interviewer would describe the method and ask if the respondent had heard about it. All methods recognized by the respondent after description were recorded as prompted (probed) knowledge. Information on knowledge was collected for seven modem methods (the pill, IUD, injection, vaginal methods (foam, jelly, sponge or diaphragm), the condom, female sterilization and male sterilization), and three traditional methods (periodic abstinence, withdrawal and prolonged breastfeeding~). In addition, provision was made in the questionnaire to record any other methods named spontaneously by respondents. In this analysis, only the overall levels of knowledge are presented, i.e., respondents are classified as knowing a method regardless of whether they recognized it spontaneously or after hearing it described. It should be noted that knowledge of a family planning method in the JPFHS and all DHS surveys is defined simply as having heard of a method. No questions were asked to elicit depth of knowledge, such as how a specific method is used. t Jordan and Egypt were the only two DHS countries that included prolonged breastfeeding in the list of family planning methods on which respondents were prompted. 33 Virtually all currently married women in Jordan know at least one method of family planning (see Table 4.1). Among modem methods, the pill and IUD are the best known (98 percent), followed by female sterilization (95 percent). Knowledge of the condom, vaginal methods and injection varies from 51 to 58 percent. The least recognized method, male sterilization, is known by only 26 percent of married women. Among traditional methods, as expected, prolonged breasffeeding is known by nearly all currently married women. Periodic abstinence and withdrawal am also well known (78 and 70 percent, respectively). Most currently married women (95 percent) know a source for family planning methods (see Table 4.1). Knowledge of a source is highest for the pill (89 percent) and the IUD (88 percent), and lowest for injec- tion (40 percent) and male sterilization (21 percent). Generally, eight or nine of every ten women who know a specific method are familiar with a source for that method. Table 4.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods Percentage of currently married women who know specific contraceptive methods and who know a source (for information or services), by specific methods, Jordan 1990 Contraceptive Know Know a method method source Any method 99.8 94.8 Any modern method 99.0 94.2 Pill 98.3 88.6 IUD 97.9 87.7 Injection 50.7 39.8 Vaginal methods 58.1 49.7 Condom 55.2 46.8 Female sterilization 94.5 85.3 Male sterilization 26.3 20.9 Any traditional method 99.7 64.7 Periodic abstinence 78.0 64.7 Withdrawal 70.2 NA Prolonged breasffceding 99.7 NA Otimr 6.8 NA Number of women 6168 6168 NA = Not applicable Table 4.2 presents the percentage of currently married women who know any method of contraception, who know any modem method, and the percentage who know a source for a modem method by selected background characteristics. Since knowledge of any family planning method or any modem method is almost universal, there is little variation among subgroups. With respect to knowledge of a source for modem methods, at least 90 percent of women in all subgroups know a source for a modem method except women living in rural areas (89 percent), those with no education (87 percent), and those residing in Balqa Govemorate (69 percent). 34 Table 4.2 Knowledge of urodem contraceptive methods and source for methods Percentage of cm'renfly married women who know at le.~st one modem contraceptive method and who lmow a source (for information or services) for a modem method, by selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Know a Know Know source for Number Background any a modern modern of characteristic method method I method women Age 15-19 99.3 97.8 91.0 353 20.24 99.9 99.1 94.2 1057 25-29 100.0 99.8 96.2 1268 30-34 99.9 99.4 95.2 1098 35-39 99.8 98.9 95.1 905 40-44 99.8 98.5 92.7 807 45-49 99.8 97.8 91.5 680 Residence Large city 99,9 99.5 97.2 2513 Other urban 100.0 99.3 94.6 2034 Rural 99.7 97.8 89.2 1622 Region Amman 99.9 99.5 96.5 2420 Zerqa + Mafraq 100.0 99.3 94.8 1265 Irbid 100.0 99.5 98.1 1470 Bakla 98.7 93.6 69.3 416 South 100.0 98.6 92.0 597 Education level attended No education 99.7 97.1 87.3 1422 lXthnary 99.8 99.1 95.1 1365 Secondscy 99.9 99.7 96.6 2723 More than secondary 100.0 99.8 97.8 658 Total 99.8 99.0 94.2 6168 1Includes pill, IUD, injection• vaginal methods (diaphr agm/foam/j ally), condom, female sterilization, male sterilization and Norplant 4.2 EVER USE OF CONTRACEPTION Table 4.3 shows the percentage of women who have ever used a contraceptive method. Two-thirds (64 percent) of ever-married women report that they have used a contraceptive method at sonte time, including 18 percent who have used prolonged breasffeeding. Ever-use among currently married women (65 percent) is almost the same as for ever-married women. Modem methods are used by the majority of c~t ly married ever-users (52 percent). The pill is the most popular method (33 percent), followed by the IUD (31 percent). The percentage reporting ever-use of any other modem method is less than 8 percent. 35 Table 4.3 Eve~ use of contraception Perecmage of aver-married women and of cu~ently married women who have ever used a contraceptive method, by specific method end age, Jordan 1990 Contraceptive method Age of woman 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total EVER-MARRIED WOMEN Any method 21.2 45.8 65.5 76.0 73.9 73.0 64.0 63.7 Any modern method 9.0 30.3 49.4 62.8 63.7 63.2 53.5 50.8 Pill 6.1 16.0 29.4 39.4 41.9 45.4 39.5 32.8 IUD 2.7 19.8 32.2 42.5 38.8 30.6 20.7 29.7 Injection . . . . 0.4 1.1 1.8 3.3 4.5 1.5 Vaginal metheds 2.2 2.3 5.5 8.3 10.1 10.6 8.8 7.0 Condom 1,3 3.1 6.2 12.4 6.8 7.8 5.7 6.7 Fumale stexillzation . . . . 0.3 1.9 I0.I 15.4 13.2 5.5 Male stezilization . . . . . . . . 0.I . . . . . . Any traditional method 16.0 28.2 41.4 47.5 42.2 40.3 34.8 38.1 Periedic abstlnenc¢ 4.8 11.2 16.6 23.1 18.6 18.0 14.6 16.5 Withdrawal 6.3 9,4 17,3 23.1 18.9 20.9 15.7 16.9 Prolonged bre~tfending 8.3 13.0 20.1 22.5 21.3 19.6 16.7 18.4 Other -- 0.I 0.8 0.8 1.4 2.3 2.1 1.1 Number of women 359 1073 1313 1138 959 866 755 6461 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN Any method 20.9 46.0 66.9 77.3 75.9 74.7 67.1 64.9 Any modern method 8.9 30,3 50.4 63.7 65,5 64,7 55.9 51,7 Pill 6.2 16.2 30.0 40.0 42.6 45.9 41.2 33.2 IUD 2.4 20.1 33.2 43.6 40.7 32.1 22.3 30.8 Injection . . . . 0.2 1.0 i .8 3, I 4.8 1,4 Vaginal metho& 2.2 2.3 5.5 8.6 10.4 10.7 9.2 7. I Condom 1,4 2,9 6.2 12.6 6.9 7.7 6.0 6,8 Female smrillzation . . . . 0.3 1.8 10.7 16,2 14.0 5.6 Male steail'tzation . . . . . . . . 0.I . . . . . . Any traditional method 15.6 28.3 42.2 48,6 43.7 41.9 36,8 39.0 PeTindic abstinence 4.9 11.3 17.1 23.8 19.6 18.6 15.8 17.0 Withdrawal 6.1 9.4 17.8 23.5 19.6 21.8 17.1 17.4 Prolonged breastfceding 8.1 13,1 20,3 23.2 21.9 20.5 17.3 18.8 Other -- 0.1 0.8 0.8 1.5 2.4 2.4 1.1 Number of women 353 1057 1268 1098 905 807 680 6168 -- Less than 0.05 pcrcem 36 The level of ever-use of traditional contraceptive methods is fairiy high in Jordan. Prolonged brcastfeeding, the most frequently adopted traditional method, has been used by 19 percent of currently married women, followed by withdrawal (17 percent) and periodic abstinence (17 percent). Ever use of contraceptive methods increases with age, from 21 percent among currently married women age 15-19 to 77 percent among women age 30-34, and declines thereafter. This pattern is particularly true for the IUD. While the IUD has been used by less than 3 percent of currently married women age 15-19, ever use of the IUD increases rapidly to 44 percent among women age 30-34. Ever use of the pill peaks at age 40-44. Among traditional methods, prolonged breastfeeding is used most frequently by women age 25- 44, while withdrawal and periodic abstinence arc most popular among women age 30-34. Compared with the findings of the 1976 JFS, the level of ever-use among ever-married women has increased by 36 percent, from 47 percent in 1976 to 64 percent in 1990. The overall increase in ever use of modem methods between the two surveys is slightly lower (31 percent) than the increase for all methods. 4.3 CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPT ION The level of current use of contraception is one of the indicators most frequently used to assess the success of family planning activities. It is also widely used as a measure in the analysis of the determinants of fertility. The JPFHS findings indicate that 40 percent of currently married women are using a contraceptive method, including 5 percent of women who are using prolonged breastfeeding (see Table 4.4 and Figure 4.1 ). Two-thirds of current users rely on modem methods, while the remaining women use traditional methods. The IUD is the most widely adopted modem method ( 15 percent), followed by female sterilization (6 percent) and the pill (5 percent). Less than 2 percent rely on other modem methods, such as the condom and vaginal methods. Thirteen percent of currently married women are using a traditional method, principally prolonged breastfeeding (5 percent); withdrawal and periodic abstinence arc each practiced by 4 percent of currently married women. Overall, the level of contraceptive use has increased substantially in recent years, from 23 percent in the 1976 JFS survey to 26 percent in the 1983 JFFI-IS survey, and to 35 percent in the 1990 JPFHS survey 2 (see Table 4.5). The relative increase in the seven years preceding the JPFHS is more than 29 percent for modem methods, and 35 percent for all methods. Comparing specific methods, there has been considerable change in the use of specific contraceptive methods in the period between 1976 and 1990 (see Table 4.5 and Figure 4.2). Most noticeable is the shift from the pill to the IUD and female sterilization. While 12 and 8 percent of married women were using the pill in 1976 and 1983 respectively, only 5 percent were using it in 1990. On the other hand, IUD use increased from 2 percent in 1976 to 8 percent in 1983, and to 15 percent in 1990. Use of female sterilization also increased substantially. The JPFHS findings on use of contraception arc similar to those for other Arab countries in which DHS surveys have been conducted (Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia), and which have long-established family planning programs. The Jordan findings are most similar to those from Egypt and Momceo (see below). 2 To maintain comparability with data from previous surveys, prolonged breasffeeding is not included as a family planning method. 37 Table 4.4 Current use of conffacepfion Percent dislribufion of evca-mm'ried women end of currently married women by current use of contraceptive methods, acen'tding to nge, J ~ 1990 method Age of woman 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total EVER-MARRIED WOMEN Any methad 12.1 27.7 36.0 47.0 49.3 48.5 31.0 38.3 Any modern method 3.8 16.1 22.7 32.3 35.6 34.9 22.5 25.8 Pill 1.1 3.7 4.2 5.2 6.1 5.6 2,5 4.4 IUD 1.9 11.6 16.7 23.3 18.1 12.6 5.9 14.6 Injection 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0,0 0.0 Vaginal methods 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 Condom 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.4 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.7 Female slc~izafion 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.9 I0. I 15.4 13.2 5.5 Male sterilization 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.I 0.0 0.0 0.0 Any traditional method 8.3 I 1.6 13.3 14.6 13.7 13.6 8.5 12.5 Periodic abstinence 1.4 2,9 3.2 3.6 5.0 5.5 3.3 3.7 Withdrawal 2.3 2,9 3.2 4.5 3.9 5.4 4,1 3.8 Prolonged brcesffceding 4,5 5.7 6.9 6.3 4.7 2.2 0,8 4.8 Oth~ 0.0 0,I 0,0 0.3 0.I 0.4 0.3 0.2 Not using 87.9 72.3 64.0 53.0 50.7 51.5 69.0 61.7 Total I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 Number 359 1073 1313 1138 959 866 755 6461 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN Any method 12.3 28.1 37.2 48.5 52.3 51.6 33.7 40.0 Any madern malhod 3.9 16.4 23.5 33.3 37.8 37.1 24.2 26.9 Pill 1.1 3.7 4.4 5.4 6,5 6.0 2.8 4.6 IUD 2.0 11.8 17.3 24.1 19.2 13.5 6.5 15.3 Injoctlon 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. I 0.0 0. I 0.0 0.0 Vaginal methods 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 Condom 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.4 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.8 Feanal¢ sUn'ffizalion 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.8 10.7 16.2 14.0 5.6 Male sterilization 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 Any tradlflonal method 8.4 11.7 13.7 15.1 14.5 14.5 9.5 13.1 Periodic abstinence 1.5 2.9 3,3 3.7 5.3 5.9 3.7 3.9 Withdrawal 2,4 2.9 3.3 4.7 4.1 5.8 4.5 4.0 Prolonged b~ffeeding 4.6 5.8 7.2 6.5 5.0 2.3 0.9 5.0 Other 0.0 0.l 0,0 0.3 0.I 0.5 0.4 0.2 Not using 87.7 71,9 62.8 51.5 47.7 48.4 66,3 60.0 Total I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 Number 353 1057 1268 1098 905 807 680 6168 38 Figure 4.1 Current Use of Contraceptive Methods Currently Married Women 15-49 Other Modern Methods 1% Female Sterilization 6% 15% Pill 5% Not Using 60% Traditional ~ethod9 13% JPFH8 1990 Table 4.5 Trends in contraceptive usa Percentage of currently married women who are using specific contraceptive methods, Iordan, 1976 IFS, 1983 JFFHS, and 1990 JPFHS Contraceptive 1976 1983 1990 method JFS JFFHS .IPFHS Any method 22.8 26.0 35.0 Any modern method 17.3 20,8 26.9 Pill 11.9 7.8 4,6 IUD 2.0 8.3 15.3 Injection NA 0.2 0.0 Vaginal methods 0.1 0.1 0.6 Condom 1.4 0.6 0.8 Female sterilization 1.9 3.8 5.6 Any traditional method a 5.4 5.3 8.1 b Periodic abstinence 2.1 2,9 3.9 Withdrawal 3,3 2,4 4.0 Number of women 3455 3735 6184 aother methods are excluded because of ~rn-curaparability among the three surveys. olonged breasffeeding is exchded as a con~aceptive method because no question was asked about this method in the two e~liar surveys, Source: Deparunent of Statistics (1979; 19847o) 39 Figure 4.2 Current Use of Specific Contraceptive Methods, Currently Married Women 15-49 Any method Pill IUD Female ator. Other ~ 8 ~!i!i~ii~!!i!i~i~!~!i~i~!~i!i~!~i~i!i~i~!i~i~i~i!i~i~!i~i~ii~i~i~i~i~i~!i:i~i~!~i~i~i~!~ii~i~i~i!~i~i!i~i~ii:~ ta 36 10 20 30 40 Percent using contraception k L I Use of contraception among currently married women, selected DHS surveys, 1987-1990 ~ Any Modern Traditional method method method Egypt, 19884 36.7 35.4 1.3 Jordan, 19904 35.0 26.9 g.1 Morocco, 1987 35.9 28.9 6.9 Tunisia, 1988 49.8 40.4 9.4 Use of contraceptive methods differs by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. With regard to age patterns, the proportion of women using contraception increases with age and then declines (see Table 4.4); current use among currently married women is lowest among women age 15-19 (12 percent), increases to the highest level among women 35-39 (52 percent), then declines sharply among those 45-49 years of age (34 percent). Most women in the younger cohorts use contraception for spacing births, relying on the pill, IUD, and traditional methods. Women age 40-49 are more likely to use female sterilization in order to limit (stop) childbearing. 3 Source: Sayed, et al., 1989 (Egypt); Azelmat, Ayad and Belhachmi, 1989 (Morocco); Aloui, Ayad and Fourati, 1989 (Tunisia). 4 Prolonged breasffeeding is excluded from the data for Egypt and Jordan. 40 Contraceptive use is highest among women living in large cities (48 percent), followed by women in other urban areas (39 percent) and rural areas (29 percent) (see Table 4.6) The percentage using modem methods among women in large cities is twice that of rural women (34 percent and 17 percent respectively) (see Figure 4.3). There is considerable regional variation in current use of family planning (see Table 4.6). The govemorate of Amman has the highest level of contraceptive use (48 percent) followed by the govemorates of Zarqa and Mafraq (40 percent). The lowest levels are in the South (32 percent) and Balqa (26 percent). Differentials in use of modem methods are similar to those for use of any method. With regard to education, current use of contraception varies primarily between women who have received formal education and those with no education (see Table 4.6). Differences between the three edncation levels are small This pattern is also true for current use of modem methods. It should be noted, however, that use of the IUD increases with level of education, while use of female sterilization is negatively correlated with level of educational attainment. This could be due in part to the fact that women with no education tend to be older and have more children than women who have received formal education, and thus are more likely to want to stop childbearing altogether. Use of traditional methods also increases with level of education; this is particularly true for periodic abstinence. 60 50 40 SO 20 10 0 Figure 4.3 Contraceptive Use by Residence and Education, Currently Married Women 15-49 Percent 48 Large clty Other Rural urban RESIDENCE I mModern Methods No Prl. Sec. eduo. EDUCATION m Traditional Methods Higher JPFHS 1990 41 Current use of contraception increases with the number of living children, ranging from less than 1 percent among currently married women with no children to 48 percent among those with four or more children (see Table 4.6 and Figure 4.4). Table 4.6 C"un'e~t use of contraception by background characteristics Percent distributiun of currently married women by contracop~ve method currently used, according to selected background chm'acteristics, Jcyrdan 1990 Any Any Backsrotmd meth- modem characteris~ od method I Pill Modem methods Traditional methods Not Vaginal Female Periodic prolong, usin 8 Number meth- Con- slefili- Any absri- With-breast- any of IUD ods dora zation method nence drawal feeding Other method Total women Realden~ Large city 48.3 33.5 6.2 19.4 0.8 1.1 5.9 14.8 5.4 4.7 4.6 0.1 51.7 100.0 2513 Other url~m 38.7 26.5 3.9 14.8 0.5 0.6 6.6 12.2 3.1 4.3 4.6 0.2 61.3 I00.0 2034 Rural 28.5 16.9 3.0 9.5 0.2 0.3 3.8 11.6 2.5 2.6 6.2 0.3 71.5 I00.0 1622 Reslon Amman 48.3 33.8 5.7 19.3 1.0 1.1 6.7 14.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 0.1 51.7 I00.0 2420 Zarqa + Mafraq 39.9 25.6 5.2 15.8 0.5 4.0 14.3 3.6 5.3 5.2 0.2 60.1 I00.0 1265 Irbid 33.7 20.9 2.8 11.2 0.5 0.7 5.9 12.7 3.8 3.1 5.6 0.3 66.3 100.0 1470 Balqa 25.5 20.1 4.7 10.4 0.1 0.1 4.8 5.5 2.6 0.9 1.7 0.2 74.5 I00.0 416 South 31.8 20.7 3.2 11.4 0.3 0.8 4.8 II.I 2.4 2.6 5.9 0.2 68.2 I00.0 597 Educatlon levd attended No educaficnl 31.6 20.7 3.0 8.1 0.2 0.I 9.3 10.9 2.1 3.0 5.6 0.2 68.4 I00.0 1422 Primary 42.6 30.5 4.9 15.2 0.5 0.7 9.2 12.0 3.1 4.4 4.3 0.2 57.4 I00.0 1365 Secondmy 42.2 27.8 5.3 17.9 0.6 1.0 2.9 14.4 4.4 4.6 5.3 0.I 57.8 100.0 2723 More than secc~dmy 43.2 28.6 4.9 19.9 1.4 1.0 1.6 14.6 7.1 3.1 4.2 0.2 56.8 I00.0 658 Number of llvlns dllldlrea 0 0.9 0.3 0.2 0.2 -* -- 0.5 0.I 0.4 99.1 I00.0 583 I 22.9 7.6 3.4 2.8 0.6 0.6 0.2 15.3 5.2 3.3 6.8 -- 77.1 I00.0 582 2 37.5 24.3 4.4 17.6 0.3 1.6 0.5 13.2 4.3 4.2 4.6 -- 62.5 I00.0 652 3 45.9 30.6 5.3 21.5 0.5 0.9 2.4 15.3 4.2 3.0 8.0 0.I 54.1 I00.0 628 4+ 48.2 33.8 5.4 18.1 0.7 0.7 8.8 14.3 4.1 4.8 5.1 0.3 51.8 I00.0 3724 Total 40.0 26.9 4.6 15.3 0.6 0.8 5.6 13.1 3.9 4.0 5.0 0.2 60.0 I(30.0 6168 -- Less then 0.{~ percent *Includes usen of injection and mile sterilizarion. 42 60 60 40 80 20 10 o _/ Figure 4.4 Contraceptive Use by Number of Living Children, Currently Married Women 15-49 Percent /• ~A 48 1 2 6 4* m Modern Methods m Traditional Methods / I JPFH6 1990 4.4 NUMBER OF CHILDREN AT FIRST USE OF CONTRACEPTION Table 4.7 shows the number of children women had when they first used contraception. With increasing adoption of family planning, particularly among younger women, the average parity of women at first use of contraception has been declining. Less than one-third of women age 40-49 used any family planning method before having 4 or more children, compared to over hail of women age 25-29. Women are adopting family planning fairly early in the family building process. The proportion who started using contraception after marriage to delay the first birth has increased from less than 1 percent among women age 45-49 to almost 4 percem among those age 15-19. Overall, 19 percent of ever-married women (30 percent of ever-users), began using a contraceptive method when they had one child, and an additional 12 percent when they had two children. When the Jordan findings were compared with those from the three North African countries in which DHS survey has been conducted (Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia), it was found that parity at first use of contraception in Jordan was about the same as in Egypt, but higher than in Tunisia and Morocco. 43 Table 4.7 Number of children at first use of contraception Percent distribution of ever-married women by number of living children at the time of first use of eonu'aeeption, according to eurreaat age, Jordan 1990 Never Number of children at time used of first use of conUraception Number Current contra- of age ceptinn 0 1 2 3 4+ Total women 15-19 78.8 3.6 14.9 2.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 359 20-24 54.2 2.7 24.0 13.0 4.2 2.0 100.0 1073 25-29 34.5 2.1 27.6 16.3 8.8 10.7 100.0 1313 30-34 24.0 2.0 21.0 17.2 11.4 24.4 100.0 1138 35-39 26.1 0.8 14.4 11.3 9.8 37.5 100.0 959 40-44 27.0 0.6 13.5 7.9 10.1 40.8 100.0 866 45-49 36.0 0.2 11.1 6.1 6.7 39.8 100.0 755 Total 36.3 1.7 19.4 12.1 8.1 22.5 I00.0 6461 4.5 PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPT ION Table 4.8 presents the problems identified by women as associated with the use of specific contraceptive methods. Overall, the majority of current users (71 to 98 percent) have had no problems with their methods. However, a minority of users report that they have had problems, mainly with the pill and IUD. Side effects and health concerns are the main problems reported by pill and IUD users (27 percent and 20 perecm, respectively). Table 4.8 Problems with current method o f contraception Percent distribution of contraceptive users by the main problem with current method, according to specLfic methods, Jordma 1990 Female Periodic Prolonged Vaginal Con- sterili- absti- With breast- Main problem Pill IUD methods dom zat lon nenee drawal feeding No proble~n 70.5 76.9 88.5 90.6 81.1 95.0 89.3 97.5 Husband disapproves 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 1.2 2.6 0.0 Side effects 17.0 13.6 5.0 0.0 7.5 0.7 1.3 0.0 Health concerns 9,7 6.7 3.7 5.1 9.6 0.0 3.3 0.7 Inconvenient to use 0,5 0.2 2.9 3.7 0.0 I.I 2.1 0.4 Sterilized, want childrcrt 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 Other 2.4 2.4 0.0 0.0 1.8 2.1 1.0 0.7 Missing 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.3 Total I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 Numbe~ 285 942 34 47 356 238 248 310 Note: Users of injection, male sterilization and other traditionel methods are excluded because of their small numb=s. 44 4.6 KNOWLEDGE OF THE FERTILE PERIOD Periodic abstinence is regarded as an important family planning method for health reasons as well as psychological, religious, and social reasons. A basic knowledge of the ovulatory cycle and an awareness of the fertile period is important for practicing periodic abstinence or the safe period method. As noted earlier, this method has been used by 17 percent of currently married women at some time, and it is currently being used by 4 percent of women. Since the failure rate for using the safe period method is high, it is important to find out if women who are practicing the method know when in the ovulatory cycle they should avoid having sexual intercourse. Table 4.9 presents the distribution of all ever- married women and of women who have ever used peri- odic abstinence by the time in the ovulatory cycle when they think a woman is most likely to get pregnant (per- ceived fertile period). To obtain these data, the respond- ent was asked when in the monthly cycle a woman has the greatest chance of becoming pregnant. The response was recorded in one of the preceded categories. The results indicate that the ovulatory cycle is well known to ever-married women, as well as to women who have used the safe period method. Half of ever-married wom- en can identify the correct safe period. This proportion is more than twice that for ever-married women in Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco and Sudan (DHS surveys). Among women who have used periodic abstinence, 69 percent answered correctly, while 21 percent gave the response "after the period ended." Again, these rates are higher than in all the above-mentioned countries except Sudan (72 percent). Table 4.9 Knowledge of fer tile period Percent distribution of ever-married women and of women who have ever used periodic abstinence by knowledge of the fertile period during the ovulatory cycle, Jorden 1990 Ever- Evor users Perceived married of periodic fertile period women abstinence During her period 1.1 0.6 After period ended 24.1 21.4 Middle of her cycle 50.3 68.6 Before period begins 1.7 1.6 Any time 0.7 0.3 Other 0.3 0.4 Don't know 21.8 7.1 Total 100.0 100.0 Number 6461 1064 Despite the relatively large proportion of wom- en who can correctly identify the fertile period, it should be noted that more than one in five ever-married women say they do not know when the fertile period occurs. As periodic abstinence is being used by a substantial number of women, family planning workers need to provide more information on the physiology of reproduction, with emphasis on the ovulatory cycle. 4.7 T IMING OF STERIL IZAT ION With the increasing use of sterilization among women, the age at which the operation takes place is of particular interest to family planning officials (see Table 4.10). Overall, age at sterilization has remained about the same in Jordan; the median age for women under 40 years of age is 35 years, s Women who were sterilized when they were less than 30 years of age are more likely to have had the operation performed in the distant past; older women (40 years and over) tend to have had the operation more recently. The median is calculated for women under 40 years of age in order to minimize problems of censoring. 45 Table 4.10 Timing of sterilization Percent distribution of sterilized woman by age at the time of sterilization, according to the number of years since the operation, Jordan 1990 Age at time of operation Number Years since of Median ~eratinn <25 25-29 30-34 35-39 40.44 .45.49 Total women age: <2 1.4 6.8 10.6 46.2 27.7 7.3 100.0 74 36,4 2-3 0.7 6.2 26.6 41.8 21.6 3.1 100.0 76 35.5 4-5 0.0 4.7 21.3 44.6 29.4 1(30.0 56 36.0 6-7 1.8 12.3 15.5 53.0 17.4 100.0 53 36.1 8-9 5.5 10.0 36.9 43.4 4.2 100.0 40 34.8 10+ 2.2 20.9 59.4 17.5 100.0 57 32.0 Total 1.7 9.8 27.3 41.1 18.0 2,2 100.0 356 35,1 -- Less than 0.05 percent tMedian age was calculated only for women less than 40 ye&s of age to avoid problems of censoring. 4.8 SOURCE OF SUPPLY FOR MODERN METHODS In addition to information about the level of contraceptive use, program officials need to know where users obtain their methods. The JPFI-IS included a question for current users of modem methods about the source of their method. Family planning clinics and private doctors predominate as the sources of supply for modem contraceptive methods (see Table 4.11 and Figure 4.5). Together, they serve half of current users. This contrasts with 1983, when private doctors served 35 percent of current users (Department of Statistics, 1984b). Over the same period, family planning clinics gained in popularity, increasing fivefold from 6 percent in 1983 to 30 percent in 1990. Pharmacies are the primary source for users of methods which require resupply, including the pill (64 percent), vaginal methods (71 percent), and condoms (61 percent). Family planning clinics provide services for half of IUD users (49 percent). Government hospitals are the source for most female sterilizations (73 percent). 46 Table 4.11 Source o f supply for modem contraceptive methods Percent distribution of current users of modern contraceptive methods by most recent source of supply or information, according to specific methods, Jordan 1990 Female Atl Somr.e of supply Vaginal Con- sterili- modern or information Pill IUD methods dom zation methods t Government hospital 4.8 2.6 8.4 -- 73,0 18.2 MCH/Heal~h canter 3.7 8.9 -- 13.0 0.5 6.1 Fandly planning clinic 9.4 48,9 3.4 24.3 30.1 Private doctor 13.8 30.6 17.5 2.3 1,6 20.4 Private hospital 2.2 5.9 . . . . 24.9 9.0 Pharmacy 64.0 L1 70,6 60.5 14.7 Friends/~lafives 0.4 . . . . . . 0.I Other 0.8 2.0 . . . . 1,2 Don't know 1.0 . . . . . . 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 285 942 (34) (47) 356 1666 Note: Figtw~s in pazcntheses ~ based on fewer than 50 cases. -- Less than 0.0510¢rcent tlncindea users of injection and male stecilizatlo~ Figure 4.5 Sources of Family Planning Methods Current Users of Modern Methods FP Clinic 3( MCH/Health Canter 6% 3overnment Iospital 18% 3harmacy 15% Pri~ Docto . . . . r ' rwaze Hospital 10% JPFH8 1990 47 4.9 TIME TO SOURCE FOR MODERN FAMILY PLANNING METHODS Current users of modem contraceptive methods were asked how much time (minutes) was required to get from their home to the place where they obtained their method. The same question was asked of women who were not using a modem method, and of all women who knew a contraceptive method (with reference to the place they would go if they wanted to obtain a modem method). The median time to a source for modem methods was 16 minutes; this was the same for all three subgroups (see Table 4.12). Rural women live 15 minutes fatxher from a source than women in large cities. Among users of modem methods, 56 percent live less than 30 minutes from their source of supply, and another 25 percent are 30 to 59 minutes from a source. For women who are not using a modem method and women who know a method, the proportion in each time category is slightly smaller. Table 4.12 Time to source of supply for modem contraceptive methods Percent distribution of women who are currently using a modem contraceptive method, of women who are not using a modem contraceptive method, and of women who know a method, by time to reach a source of supply, according to urban- rural residence, Jordan 1990 Women who ale cun~ntly using a modern method Women who ate not using a modern method Women who know a contraceptive method Minutes Large Other Large Other Large Other to source city urban Rural Total city urban Rural Total city urban Rural Total 0-14 31.2 22.7 13.9 25.6 10.1 10.2 9.1 9.8 16.9 13.4 9.9 13.9 15-29 36.4 27.5 16.2 30.2 15.7 11.5 10.0 12.6 22.4 15.6 11.1 17.2 30-59 21.0 27.2 32.0 24.9 8.5 10.7 9.8 9.6 12.6 14.9 13.4 13.6 60+ 7.5 16.6 28.9 14.0 2.9 4.2 7.4 4.7 4.4 7.3 11.0 7.1 Don't know time 3.9 5.9 9.0 5.4 1.4 2.0 3.2 2.2 2.2 3.0 4.2 3.0 Don't know source . . . . . . . . 13.8 19.1 23.8 18.5 9.2 14.2 19.6 13.6 Not stated . . . . . . . . 2.4 2.8 1.8 2.4 1.6 2.1 1.5 1.8 Users of ~aditional methods NA NA NA NA 45.2 39.5 34.7 40.2 30.7 29.4 29.2 29.9 Total percentage 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 847 544 275 1666 1788 1589 1418 4795 2631 2132 1687 6451 Median 15.6 20.7 30.8 16.0 15.6 15.9 30.3 15.9 15.6 20.1 30.4 15.9 -- Less than 0.05 percent NA = Not applicable 4.10 CONTRACEPTIVE DISCONTINUATION A key concern of family planning officials is the extent to which women discontinue use of contraceptive methods, and their reasons for doing so. Life table discontinuation rates based on information collected in the calendar are presented in Table 4.13. Discontinuation rates were calculated for each method based on use during the first twelve months after beginning the method. The reasons for discontinuation were examined, and classified into three main categories: method failure, desire to become pregnant, and other reasons including problems related to the use of a particular method, husband's disapproval, and absence of need to use a family planning method. 48 Table 4.13 First-yeer discontinuation rates for contraception Proportion of contraceptive users who discontinued use of a method by 12 months after beginning the method, due to method failure, desire to become pregnant, or other reason, by specific methods, Jordan 1990 Reason for discontinuing use of contraceptive method Side Desire effects and Contraceptive Method to become health Other method failure pregnant concerns reason Total Pill 8.1 10.5 30.0 14.6 63.2 IUD 2.4 4.3 11.0 3.1 20.7 Vaginal methods 31.6 5.4 16.5 21.8 75.3 Condom 12.2 8.9 12.0 30.5 63.6 Periodic abstinence 29.9 11.3 1.9 12.4 55.6 Withdrawal 19.4 9.4 2.5 23.0 54.3 Prolonged breasffee~mg 19.4 4.3 0.7 18.0 42.4 Total 13.3 7.0 10.7 13.0 44.0 Note: Figures are based on llfe-table calculations. Thirteen percent of users stopped using before the end of the first year because the method failed to protect them from pregnancy; 7 percent said they stopped because they wanted to become pregnant; and 11 percent stopped because of side effects and health concerns. 6 First-year discontinuation rates due to method failure are highest for vaginal methods and traditional methods. Three in ten women who used a diaphragm, foam or jeUy and 30 percent of women who used periodic abstinence got pregnant while using the method. Table 4.14 provides information about women's reasons for discontinuing contraceptive use. The table includes all discontinuatons in the five years before the survey regardless of whether they occurred during the first twelve months of use or later. Method failure is the reason given most frequently for discontinuation (27 percent), followed by desire to get pregnant (22 percent), and side effects (17 percent). It should be noted that 16 percent of women did not give a definite answer to this question. Discontinuation due to method failure is particularly high for traditional methods: periodic abstinence (52 percent), prolonged breastfeeding (40 percent) and withdrawal (37 percent). For modem methods, method failure was the main reason given for discontinuation of vaginal methods (38 percent) and condoms (28 percent), both coitus- dependent methods. 6 Discontinuation rates presented in Table 4.13 refer to all episodes of contraceptive use in the period of time covered by the calendar, not just those episodes that began during this period. These are cumulative one-year discontinuation rates and represent the proportion of users discontinuing a method by 12 months after the start of use. The rates are calculated by dividing the number of discontinuations for each reason at each duration of use in single months by the number of months of exposure at that duration. The single-month rates are then cumulated to produce a one-year rate. The reasons for discontinuation are treated as competing risks (net rates). 49 Table 4.14 Reasons for discontinuation of contraception Poreont distribution of discontinuations of contraceptive methods in the five years preceding the survey by main reason for discontinuation, soeording to specific methods, Jordan 1990 Modem method discontinued Traditional method discontinued Periodic Prolonged Reason for Vaginal absti- With- breast- All discontinuation Pill iUD methods Condom nanee drawal feeding methods I Becmae Ixegnant 13.1 11.3 37.5 27.5 51.5 36.7 40.1 27.0 To become i~egnant 22.0 29.0 11.3 15.7 23.2 20.1 15.8 21.6 Husband diset,t,ioved 0.9 0.7 2.5 11.4 4.4 8.3 0.5 2.3 Side effects 35.5 30.3 17.3 7.7 1.1 2.5 0.7 17.2 Health concerns 7.1 6.8 4.1 5.8 3.1 2.8 1.0 4.6 Access/availability 0.5 -- 0.9 . . . . . . 0.3 0.7 More effective method 1.6 1.3 3.2 6.9 5.6 9.0 11.4 5.2 lnconvanient to use 1.9 2.0 4.0 8.2 1.4 3.5 0.6 2.0 Irffrequant sex 4.8 1.5 2.7 1.6 1.4 2.5 0.1 2.1 Fatalistic 0.I . . . . . . . . . . 0.4 0.I Manopauso 0.7 0.5 1.7 -- 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.7 Mmital dissolution 0.7 0.5 -- 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3 Other 10.7 16.1 14.0 14.3 7.3 12.0 28.1 15.6 Don't know -- 0.1 0.8 -- 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 Missing 0.4 0.2 . . . . 0.2 1.0 0.2 0.3 Total 1(30.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1(30.0 100.0 Number 1211 1160 162 124 615 522 1067 4923 -- Less than 0.05 percent tTotal includes I0 dlscontlnuatlons of injection and other traditional methods. 4.11 FUTURE USE OF FAMILY PLANNING To obtain information about potential demand for family planning services, all currently married women who were not using contraception at the time of the survey were asked about their interest in adopting family planning in the future. Those who responded in the affirmative were also asked which method they would prefer to use, and whether they intended to use this method in the next 12 months. Table 4.15 presents the distribution of currently married women who were not using contraception, by intention to use in the future, according to number of living children. Forty-one percent of nonusers say that they intend to use family planning in the future, most of them within the next 12 months. About the same proportion of nonusers say they do not intend to use in the future (43 percent). Those who intend to use a method in the future are more likely to have used in the past than to have never used a method. Those who had never used contraception are more likely to be unsure about their intentions. Among women who had no experience in using family planning, one in five was unsure about using a family planning method in the fumre. 50 Table 4.15 Futureuseofcontraception Percent distribution of eurrontiy married women who are not using a contraceptive method by past experience with contraception and intention to use in the future, according to number of living childron, Jordan 1990 Past experience with contraception and future inteations Number of living children I 0 1 2 3 4+ Total Never used contraception Intend to use in next 12 months 1.7 19.2 16.3 12.5 6.3 9.4 Intend to use later 24.4 20.7 10.9 4.7 3.0 8,5 Uust~e as to intontion 24.5 21.2 9.1 10.5 6.3 10.9 Does not intend use 47.1 28.2 28,9 21,8 28,5 29.6 Missing/Not in union 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 Previously used contraception Intend to use in next 12 months 0.3 2.2 14.1 23.5 22.2 16.6 Intend to use later 0.3 4.6 11.5 9.9 6.2 6.4 Unst~e as to intention 0.3 1.9 4.1 8.7 6.4 5.2 Does not intond use 0.9 1.9 5.1 8.3 20.8 13.2 Missing/Not in union 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 Total I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 Currently married nonusers Intend to use in next 12 months 2.0 21.4 30.3 36.0 28.6 26,0 Intend to use later 24.7 25.3 22.4 14.6 9.2 14,9 Uustre as to intention 24,8 23.1 13.2 19.3 12.7 16.1 Does not intend use 48.0 30.1 34.1 30.2 49.3 42.8 Missing/Not in union 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 1(30.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 363 503 407 396 2035 3704 1includes current pregnancy Intention to use contraception in the future has a strong positive association with the number of living children the woman has (see Table 4.15); women with more children are more likely to want to use contraception in the future than those with fewer children. More than half of women with two or three children say they intend to use a method of family planning, compared to 27 percent of childless women. The masons women do not use family planning are of particular interest to family planning program officials. Table 4.16 gives the distribution of women who are not using contraception by their reason for not using. The primary reason given has to do with infecundity: 28 percent of women say it is difficult to get pregnant. The next most common reason for not using is the desire to get pregnant: 21 percent of nonusers say they are not using because they want to have children. Other reasons mentioned are husband's disapproval (7 percent), health concern (7 percent), religion (7 percent), and a fatalistic view (6 percent). An additional 8 percent mention menopause, hysterectomy and infrequent sex. 51 Table 4.16 Reasons for not using contraception Percent distribution of women who are not using a contracopdve method and who do not intend to use in the future by main reason for not using, according to age, Jordan 1990 Age Reason for not using contraeeptlon 15-29 30-49 Total Wmats children 39.2 12.2 20.8 Lack of knowledge 0.8 1.7 1.4 Husband opposed 12.1 4.4 6.9 Cost too much 0,0 0.1 0.1 Side effects 4.5 4.3 4.3 Health concerns 7.7 6.3 6.7 Religion 8.0 5.7 6.5 Opposed to family planning 0.4 0.8 0.7 Fatalistic 6.3 6.4 6.4 Other people opposed 0.2 0.0 0.1 InfTequont sex 0.7 2.3 1.8 Difficult to be pregnant 12.4 35.5 28.2 Menopausal, had hysterectomy 0.2 9.4 6.5 Inoonveniont 0.3 0.9 0.7 Other 2.4 6.5 5.2 Don't know 4.9 3.5 3.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 508 1087 1595 Women under 30 are more likely than older women to mention the desire to have children, while difficulty in becoming pregnant is more often reported by older women. Husband's disapproval is mentioned more often by younger women than women 30 and over. As expected, hysterectomy and menopause are cited exclusively by older women+ Method preferences among women not using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey but who intend to use a family planning method in the future are shown in Table 4.17. The majority of women (74 percent) say they want to use a modem method of contraception; only 14 percent want to use a traditional method. Haifofthe women who intend to use contraception say they want to use the IUD. (Among currently married women, use of the IUD has increased from 8 percent in 1983 to 15 percent in 1990). After the IUD, the most popular methods are the pill (17 percent) and female sterilization (7 percent). Method preferences are almost identical for women who intend to use contraception in the next 12 months and for those who intend to use after 12 months. Some programmatic implications can be drawn from the data in Table 4.17. Because of the popularity of the IUD, pill, and female sterilization, a number of issues need to be considered in anticipation of women carrying out their intentions to use these methods. First, the pill supply must be adequate to meet the needs of women who want to use this method; second, for women who want to use the IUD or femaie sterilization, trained personnel must be available to provide these services. 52 Table 4.17 Preferred method of contraception for future use Percent distribution of currently married women who are not using a contraceptive method but who intend to use in the future by preferred method, according to whether they intend to use in the next 12 months or later, Jordan 1990 Intend to use • In next After Prefen'ed method 12 12 of contraception months months Total Pill 17.4 16.4 17.0 IUD 47.9 46.7 47.4 Injection 0.7 1.0 0.8 Vaginal methods 1.3 1.0 1.2 Condom 1.1 0.3 0,8 Female sterilization 7.9 4.0 6.5 Periodic absdrtonce 6.0 5.7 5.9 Withdrawal 2.7 3.6 3.0 Other 0.4 0.7 0.5 Prolonged breasffeeding 4.2 4.7 4.4 Missing 10•4 16.0 12.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 963 553 1516 4.12 ACCEPTABILITY OF MEDIA MESSAGES ON FAMILY PLANNING All ever-married women were asked if it was acceptable t O them to have family planning messages on radio or television. The objective of the question was to examine the level of popular support for family planning education and advertising on mass media. The results indicate that overall, 84 percent of ever- married women consider it acceptable for mass media to carry programs on family planning issues (see Table 4.18). Although acceptance is generally greater among younger than older women, when urban-rural differentials are considered, age differences are minimal. Younger women in urban areas are only slightly more likely than younger women in rural areas to favor family planning messages on mass media. The popularity of family planning information on radio and television varies across regions. It is highest in Balqa and Amman, and lowest in the South. Education is closely associated with acceptance of family planning messages. The popularity of family planning messages is uniformly high among women who have attended secondary or higher education (more than 88 percent). 7 Among women who have no schooling and those who have attended only primary school, older women are more likely to consider family planning messages acceptable than younger women• 7 The small proportion of women in the oldest age group who have attended higher education and are favorable toward family planning messages (76 percent) is probably due to the small number of women in that category. 53 Table 4,18 Acceptability of the use of mass media for dissem'mating fmnily planning messages Percentage of women who believe that it is acceptable to have messages about family planning on radio or television, by age e~l selected background characteristics, Jordaft 1990 Age of woman BackSronnd cheaeete~tic 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total Resldonce Large cities 84.3 86.4 88.5 85.4 87.4 84.6 86.3 86.4 Other Urban 92.9 86.7 86.5 85.9 83.5 80.7 78.3 84.7 Rural 82.8 84.1 85.4 83.2 78.5 74.8 72.3 80.7 Region Ammlm 92.2 90.8 90.7 88.8 87.4 87.8 86.4 89.0 Zarqa + Ma/raq 75.8 83.1 83.8 83.2 75.1 74.9 78.3 80.1 Irbid 87.9 83.4 86.0 80.8 83.3 74.3 70.7 81.1 Balqe 93.5 89.3 92.7 92.9 93,8 92.8 92.9 92.6 South 83.8 78.1 78.9 79.3 76.1 71.7 69.2 76.9 Education level attended No education 58.0 74.5 68.6 76.2 73,7 74.4 77.1 74.7 Primary 77.0 77.9 90.0 85.5 83.2 81.5 84.1 83.9 Secondm'y 90.1 87.7 88.6 86.5 91.4 92.8 91.3 88.8 More than seenndexy 89.1 88.9 88.3 89.0 90.3 86.1 75.9 88.4 Total 86.9 85.9 87.0 85.0 83.6 80.8 80.3 84.4 54 CHAPTER 5 NUPTIALITY AND EXPOSURE TO THE RISK OF PREGNANCY This chapter addresses the principal factors, other than contraception, which affect a woman's risk of becoming pregnant, namely nuptiality, postpartum amenordaea, and secondary infertility. The Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) questionnaire differs from the standard DHS questionnaire in that direct questions on recent sexual activity were not included due to the difficulty in addressing these questions to women. Information on sexual activity was replaced with proxy questions involving information on whether the respondent's husband lives in the same household and the amount of time he spent in the household during the month preceding the survey. The subject of nuptiality is of particular interest because marriage is a primary indicator of the exposure of women to the risk of pregnancy. Information about marriage patterns is important for an understanding of fertility. Early age at first marriage is associated with early childbearing and high fertility. In this survey and in all data collection in Jordan, the term marriage refers to a legal or formal union. 5.1 CURRENT MARITAL STATUS Table 5.1 compares the data for ever-married women from the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey (JFS), 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS), and the 1990 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFI-IS). In the 14 years between 1976 and 1990, the percentage of women ever married decreased from 66 to 56 percent, a drop of 15 percent. However, the decline appears to have occurred in the first 7 years, since the percentages are the same for 1983 and 1990. In Jordan, marriage is almost universal. By the end of the reproductive years, only 2 percent of women have never entered into marriage (see Figure 5.1). In 1976, less than 5 percent of women age 30-34 had never been married, while in 1990 11 percent of women in that age group were still single. Likewise, for women in younger age groups, the percentage who have never been married is lower in 1976 than in 1990. These figures indicate that women are marrying at older ages than in the past. The dam indicate that the decline is not smooth, suggesting that most of the increase in age at marriage took place between 1976 and 1983. Table 5.1 Eve~-marrled women according to selected surveys Percentage of women 15-49 who have ever married by age, Jordan, 1976, 1983 and 1990 JFS JFFHS JPFHS Age group 1976 1983 1990 15-19 19.5 9.4 10.6 20-24 64.1 42.0 45.2 25-29 87.4 76.3 73.7 30-34 95.3 90.1 89.1 35-39 92.4 94.9 94.6 40-44 98.0 96.8 97.3 45-49 98.3 97.1 98.0 Total 65.7 56.0 56.2 55 Figure 5.1 Never-Married Women 15-39 by Age Jordan, 1976, 1983, and 1990 Percent 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 r " J F8 1970 ~JFFH8 1988 ~JPFHS 1990 i 05-$9 Table 5.2 presents the distribution of women by current marital status. Of the 11,499 women age 15- 49 listed in the household schedule, 44 percent had never married, 54 percent were currently married, and the remaining 3 percent were either divorced, widowed or separated. The percentage of women 15-49 who were married in 1976 and 1983 was 63 percent and 53 percent respectively. Table 5.2 Cunent marital status Percent distribution of women by current marital status, according to age, Jord~at 1990 Age Marital status Number Never Not living of married Married Divorced Widowed together Total women 15-19 89.4 10,4 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 3394 20-24 54.8 44.5 0.4 0.2 0,I I00.0 2374 25-29 26.3 71.2 1.9 0.4 0.2 100.0 1781 30-34 10.9 86.0 1,5 1.4 0.2 I00.0 1277 35-39 5.4 89.3 1.6 3.5 0.2 100,0 I014 40-44 2.7 90.8 1.3 5.2 0.0 100.0 890 45-49 2.0 88.3 0.8 8.7 0.2 I00.0 770 Total 43.8 53.6 0.9 1.6 0.1 I00.0 11499 56 The proportion currently married increases steadily from 10 percent among women 15-19 to 91 percent among those 40-44, then declines slightly to 88 percent for women in the oldest age group. As expecw.xl, the proportion widowed increases with age, reaching 9 percent for women age 45-49. The percentage of divorced women is extremely low, less than 2 percent of women in all age groups. 5.2 MARITAL EXPOSURE Table 5.3 presents marital exposure to the risk of pregnancy, as measured by the pereemage of time the woman has been in marital union. Since the table is based on information colieeted in the calendar, exposure time is limited to the five years preceding the survey. Table 5.3 Marital exposure Percentage of time spent in marital union in the five years preceding the surTey, by age and selected background ¢harecteristics, Jordan 1990 Age at time of survey Background ¢harec~risae 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total Residence Large cities 3.7 29.3 60.1 81.5 88.2 91,9 89.8 47.0 Other Urban 3.3 27.2 63.7 86.6 91.5 88.6 89.8 45.3 Rural 3.6 30.9 74.7 87.7 88.9 95.5 88.9 51.4 Region Amman 3.2 28.9 61.4 81.4 89.5 92.3 91.5 45.3 Zavqa + Mafraq 3.8 29.9 67.1 88.5 89.5 90.8 87.6 47.9 Irbld 3.4 28.0 66.4 81.0 88.2 91.8 87.9 46.1 Balqa 3.9 26.1 65.1 86.8 85.5 89.8 88.3 53.8 South 6.7 32.7 69.8 93.5 96.1 92.4 91,4 57,7 Education levd attended No Education 6.2 50.3 76.0 85.5 89.3 94.0 90.1 82.9 Ptimar/ 6.2 42.8 74.1 87.6 91.0 91.8 87.4 68.4 Secondary 3.1 35.0 70.8 88.9 90.9 92.1 91.9 35.1 Morn thaa secondary 1.0 8.5 43.4 71.1 82.1 69.8 88.6 30.2 Total 3.5 29.1 65.2 84.9 89.6 91.7 89.5 47.6 Overall, women in Jordan spent 48 percent of the five years prec, eding the survey in marital union. This figure varies by age; younger women spent less time in marriage than older women, because a large proportion have not yet married. Women age 30-49 spent almost the entire live-year period in marital union, indicating that divorce is uncommon in Jordan. The lower percentage of exposure for women age 45-49 is due to widowhood. Data in the same table show that there is little variation between women living in urban and rural areas, and by govemorato. However, wide variationis found by educational attainment. Until age 30, women who have higher education spend much less time in marital union than women with less schooling or no schooling. The difference is sharpest for women 20-24, the age at which many women are recently married. 57 While women who had no formal schooling spent 50 percent of the five years preceding the survey in marital union, the proportion is 9 percent for women with higher education. The difference due to the fact that women with higher education marry later than women with no education. As a result, educated women are exposed to the risk of pregnancy for a shorter length of time than women with no education. 5.3 AGE AT F IRST MARRIAGE In Jordan, almost all births occur within marriage; thus, age at first marriage is an important indicator of exposure to the risk of pregnancy and childbirth. The Jordan Family Rights Law of 1976 sets the minimum age at marriage for males at 18 years, and for females 16 years. Table 5.4 shows the percentage of women who have ever married by specified ages and the median age at first marriage according to their age at the time of the survey. Comparing percentages across age groups, the data indicate increasing age at first marriage. For example, among women 20-24 years, 2 percent were married by age 15, 16 percent by age 18, and 30 percent by their twentieth birthday. For women 25-29, the percentages at each specific age are all higher than those for the younger women. Older women married at even younger ages, as demonstrated by the higher proportion of women married by each specific age. Table 5.4 Age at first marriage Percentage of women who were first married by exact age 15, t8, 20, 22, and 25, and median age at In-st marriage. according to current age, Jordan 1990 Current age 15 Percentage of women who were Percentage Median first married by exact age: who were Number age at never of first 18 20 22 25 married women marriage 15-19 1.1 NA NA NA NA 89.4 3394.0 a 20-24 2.1 16.4 29.7 NA NA 54.8 2374.0 a 25-29 4.9 26.3 42.2 54.8 69.0 26.3 1781.0 21.2 30-34 8.4 36.8 52.0 67.8 80.2 10.9 1277.0 19.7 35-39 9.3 42.8 61.1 72.6 85.1 5.4 1014.0 18,8 40-44 10.4 39.8 62.1 77.4 89.5 2.7 890.0 18.9 45-49 11.4 36.9 62.6 76.4 89.4 2.0 770.0 18.9 20-49 6.4 29.6 46.6 59.4 70.0 24.7 8105.0 a 25-49 8.2 35.1 53.6 67.3 80.3 12.2 5731.0 19.6 NA = Not applicable ~niued because less than 50 percent of women in the age group have been married. The last column in Table 5.4 provides further indication of later marriage among younger women. While the median age at first marriage---i.e., the age by which half of the women have married--is similar for women age 35 and over, younger women are marrying at older ages. Half of women age 25-29 marry after age 21, and overall, the median age at first marriage has increased from about 19 to 21 years. 58 There is little variation in age at first marriage by residence and region (see Table 5.5). Women marry at about the same age in all groups, although urban women and women in Balqa marry at slightly older ages than rural women and women in other govemorates. While there are only minor differentials in median age at first marriage by residence and region, education plays an important role in determining women's entry into marriage. The improvement of educational opportunities, particularly for girls, has resulted in their staying in school longer, and sub- sequentiy pushed the age at first marriage upward. Women who have attended more than secondary education tend to marry almost 6 years later than those with no education or primary education. Women who have attended primary education marry younger than women who have no formal schooling because they are more favored by potential husbands than illiterate women. Table 5.5 Median age at first marriage Median age at first marriage among woman age 25-49 years, by current age and selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Current age Woman Background age characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 Residence Large cities 21.5 20.0 18.8 19.2 18.6 19.8 Otber Urban 21.4 19.5 18.5 18.6 19.1 19.5 Rural 20.7 19.3 19.0 18.9 19.3 19.5 Reglon Amman 21.4 19.9 18,5 18.8 18.6 19.5 Zarqa + Mafraq 21.1 19.1 19.0 18.8 19.3 19.6 Irbid 21,2 19.6 18.7 19.2 19.5 19.6 Balqa 20.4 20.3 20.1 19.4 19.5 19.9 South 21.7 19,8 17,9 18.6 18,0 19.5 Education level attended No education 19.1 18.6 18.0 18.4 18.8 18.6 Primary 19.4 17,5 17.9 18.3 18.4 18.2 Secondary 20.6 19.5 19.2 20.8 20.3 20,0 More than secondary 24.1 24.0 24.4 22.0 24.1 24.1 Total 21.2 19.7 18.8 18,9 18.9 19.6 Note: The medians for cohorts 15-19 and 20-24 could not be determined because less than 50 percent of the woman in each cohort have been married. 59 5.4 POSTPARTUM AMENORRHEA, POSTPARTUM ABSTINENCE, AND INSUSCEPT IB IL ITY The risk of pregnancy is affected by several factors other than marriage patterns. Women have little risk of becoming preg- nant during the period after childbirth when menstruation has not yet returned (post- partum amenorrhea) and in the period when sexual activity has not been resumed (post- partum abstinence). The duration of amen- orrhea is directly related to breastfeeding; the longer the woman breastfeeds her child the longer she is likely to be amenorrheic. Since breastfeeding is an important issue in childhood nutrition (see Chapter 9), only postpartum amenorrhea and postpartum ab- stinence are considered in this section. Women are insusceptible when they are ei- ther amenorrheic or still abstaining fol- lowing birth, or both, and thus not exposed to the risk of pregnancy. The estimates for postpartum amenorrhea, postpartum absti- nence, and insusceptibility are based on cur- rent status measures, that is, the proportion of births occurring x months before the sur- vey for which the mothers are still amenor- rheic, abstaining, or insusceptible at the time of the survey. The medians are calculated on the basis of current status proportions at each time period, and the data are grouped by two-month intervals for greater stability. Table 5.6 presents the distribution of births in the 36 months preceding the survey by the postpartum status of the mothers. Seventeen percent of the mothers have not Table 5.6 Postpartum amenorrhea~ abstinence end insusceptibility Percentage of births for which the mothers are postpartum amenorrheic, abstaining, mad insusceptible, by ntanber of months since birth, and median and mean durations thereof, Jordan 1990 Number Months Amenor- Abstain- lmuscep- of since birth rheic ing tibia births < 2 94.7 84.7 97.2 225 2-3 62.9 11.9 64.2 254 4-5 44.3 1.2 45.1 265 6-7 28.3 1.7 29.5 270 8-9 32.7 3.9 34.5 283 10-11 17.3 0.0 17.3 282 12-13 17.4 0.0 17.4 296 14-15 4.9 0.5 5.4 224 16-17 3.3 1.1 4.0 300 18-19 3.2 0.0 3.2 267 20-21 2.4 0.4 2.7 264 22-23 1.6 0.0 1.6 301 24-25 1.3 0.0 1.3 294 26-27 0.6 0.8 1.4 284 28-29 0.7 0.0 0.7 256 30-31 0.0 0.9 0.9 267 32-33 0.4 0.0 0.4 278 34-35 0.0 0.0 0.0 295 Total 16.5 5.1 17.1 4905 Median 4.1 1.9 4.2 NA Mean 6.6 2.5 6.8 NA Prev./lncidenee rneen 5.8 1.8 6.1 NA Note: Medians and means are based on the current status proportions at each two-month duration since birth. NA = Not applicable resumed menstruating, and 5 percent have not resumed sexual relations. Combining the two conditions, 17 percent of births were to women who are still insusceptible to the risk of pregnancy. The average duration of amenorrhea is about 7 months; the average duration of abstinence is about 3 months. While 95 percent of births are to women who are still amenorrheic 2 months after childbirth, between 2 and 3 months after birth the percentage drops to 63, and in the following 2 months it is reduced to less than half (44 percent). In Jordan, as in other Islamic societies, women observe a period of sexual abstinence after childbirLh. Traditionally, the period of postpartum abstinence lasts 40 days. This practice appears to emerge in the JPFHS data. The mothers of 85 percent of the births occurring in the 2 months before the survey were still abstaining from sexual relations at the time of the survey. By the end of this period, 2-3 months following the birth, only 12 percent of mothers were still abstaining; the decline continues over the next 2- month period with only 1 percent of mothers abstaining. 60 Table 5.7 presents the median duration of postpartum amenorrhea (4 months), postpartum abstinence (2 months), and postpartum insusceptibility (4 months) by background characteristics. In regard to post- partum amenorrhea, younger women, women who live in urban areas, and those with the highest education levels have shorter durations than other women (see Figure 5.2). There is little variation in the median duration of postpartum abstinence by background characteristics. Insusceptibility, the combined effect of amenorrhea and abstinence, shows a pattern similar to that of amenorthea. Comparing regions, women in Irbid have the longest durations of amenorrhea and insusceptibility. The level of education attended has both a positive and a negative effect on fertility. Age at first marriage increases with education, which tends to reduce fertility. At the same time, however, the duration of insusceptibility, which protects women from pregnancy decreases with education. The duration of insusceptibility among Jordanian women who have attended more than secondary education is about half that of women with no education (3 months compared to 5.4 months). The relationship between education and fertility warrants further investigation. Table 5.7 Median duration of postp~tum insusceptibility Median numbcx of months of postpartum amanonhe.a, postpartum abstlnence~ aad postpertnm insusceptibility, by selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Postpartum Number Background Postpartum Postpartum insuscep- of chaxactexisr;c amenorrhea abstinence tibility births Age ~0 3.8 1.9 4.0 ~50 3~ 4.6 1.9 4.8 ~56 Residence Large cities 3.7 2.1 3.8 1824 Other Urban 4.0 1.8 4.2 1608 Rural 4.7 1.8 4.7 1474 Region Amman 4.1 2.0 4.2 1768 Zerqa + Mafi'aq 3.7 2.0 3.9 979 Irbid 4.9 1.7 4.9 1297 Balqa 3.2 2,1 3,4 329 South 4.2 1.6 4.3 533 Education level attended No education 5.3 1.9 5.4 S50 Primary 4.3 1.7 4.3 992 Secondary 4.1 1.9 4.3 2441 More than secondary 3.0 2.0 3.0 622 Total 4.1 1.9 4.2 4905 Note: Medians ~ae based on cm-rent status. 61 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Figure 5.2 Median Duration of Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence, and insusceptibility Median duration (months) <30 30* Large Other Rur&l No Prl. So©. Higher city urban educ. AGE RESIDENCE EDUCATION I m Amenorrhe. m Ab.,Inence m Insusceptibility J PFH8 1990 5.$ TERMINAT ION OF EXPOSURE The termination of women's exposure to the risk of childbearing is an important aspect of fertility. Two indicators of termination of exposure are menopause and terminal infertility (see Table 5.8). Menopause is defined as the absence of a menstrual period in the six months preceding the survey. A woman is considered to have terminal infertility if she did not give birth during the five years preceding the survey in the absence of contraceptive use. The percentage of women who am menopausal increases gradually from age 30. At age 40-41, only 3 percent of women have reached menopause; by age 44-45 the percentage increases to 7, and at the end of the reproductive years (age 48-49) 14 percent of women are menopausal and no longer exposed to the risk of pregnancy. Terminal infertility shows a similar pattern; infertility increases with age, starting at 17 percent for age 30-34, and reaching 84 percent for women at age 48-49. 62 Table 5.8 Termination of exposure to the risk of pregnancy Indicators of menopause,, terminal infertility and long-term abstinence among currently married women age 30-49, by age, Jordan 1990 Terminal Age Menopause I infertility 2 30-34 1.2 17.3 35-39 1.3 27.7 40-41 3.3 33.2 42-43 3.7 55.7 44-45 6.9 75.1 46-47 9.6 78.7 48-49 13.9 83.8 Total 4.1 46.7 Ipercentage of non-pregnant, non- amenorrhelc currently married women whose last menstrual period occurred six or more months preceding the survey or who report thal they are menopausal. 2Percentage of women continuously married and not using con~aceplion during the five years preceding the survey who did not have a birth during the period and who are not pregnant. 63 CHAPTER 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES This chapter addresses questions which allow an assessment of the need for contraception, and the extent nf unwanted fertility. The information collected from the respondents includes whether they want more children; and if so, how long they would prefer to wait before the next child; and if they could start afresh, how many children in all they would want. Two other issues are also examined---the extent to which unwanted and mistimed births occur and the effect that the prevention of such births would have on fertility rates. Survey questions on fertility preferences have often been the subject of criticism. First, it is suggested that the answers respondents give are misleading because they reflect unformed, ephemeral views, which are held with little conviction. Critics also argue that the questions do not take into account the effects of sncial pressure or the attitudes of other family members, particularly the husband, who may exert considerable influence on the wife's reproductive decisions. The first objection is probably not relevant in Jordan, since family planning is widely used, presumably to realize fertility preferences. The second objection is correct in principle, although evidence from surveys in which both the husbands and wives are interviewed suggests that there are no significant differences between husbands and wives regarding fertility preferences. Women who were pregnant at the time of the survey were asked if they wanted to have another child al~r the one they were expecting. Taking into account the way in which the preference variable is defined for pregnant women, a currant pregnancy is treated as equivalent to a living child. Women who have been sterilized am classified as wanting no more children. 6.1 DESIRE FOR CHILDREN Women's preferences concerning future childbearing serve as indicators of future fertility. However, for sterilized women and women who state that they are infecund (declared infecund), the desire for children remains only desire. Because their potential contribution to fertility has been curtailed, sterilized and infecund women have no impact on future fertility. The data on fertility preferences serve another purpose by providing information on the potential need for contraceptive services for spacing and limiting births. About half (47 percent) of currently married women in Jordan do not want any more children, while two in five want to continue childbearing (see Table 6.1 and Figure 6.1). Large families are favored; more than half of women who have 3 children and a substantial proportion of those who have 4 or 5 children want to have more children (see Figure 6.2). About 11 percent of childless women declared themselves infecund, probably because they are nearing the end of their reproductive years. 65 Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children Perccm distribution of cutreatly married women by desire for moxe children, according t~ number of living children, Jordan 1990 Number of living children I Desire for more children 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Total Have anedmr soon 2 68.7 33.1 17.8 Have another late~ 14.0 55.9 52.8 Have another, undecided Mum 2.1 2.5 2.1 Undecided 2.1 0.8 1.5 Want no more 2.3 5.6 23.7 35.5 Sterilized -- 0.2 0.5 2.2 Declar~ infectmd 10.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 Missing -- 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 368 636 652 685 -- Less than 0.05 percent ZIncludes current pregnancy 2Want next birth within two years ~Vant to delay next birth two er more years 16.0 11.8 8.3 4.6 15.2 41.2 27.8 17.8 8.1 24.8 0.9 1.2 0.5 0.6 1.1 2.3 1.9 2.9 2,2 2.0 50.6 59.3 69.0 47.1 3.4 8.1 10.0 5.6 3.1 3.0 5.4 4.1 0.1 0.2 -- 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 I00.0 649 626 2553 6168 Figure 6.1 Fertility Preferences Currently Married Women 15-49 Want Later .)2 yre 25% rant Soon ! yre 15% Undecided 3% Infecund* 10% Want No More 4r'~ • Includes sterilized and missing JPFHS 1990 66 Percent 100 80 6O 40 20 0 0 Figure 6.2 Fertility Preferences by Number of Living Children 1 2 3 4 5 6+ m Want no more m Infecund. ~ Want later | I m Want soon ~ Undecided • includes sterilized and missing JPFHS 1990 Table 6.2 shows the distribution of women by desire for more children. The desire for more children decreases and the desire to stop childbearing increases as women increase in age. In the youngest age group, almost all women want to have more children, but by age 25-29 only 59 percent want more children. This proportion declines to 5 percent among women in the oldest age group. On the other hand, one in five women age 20-24 say that they do not want to have another child. The proportion increases to 60 percent among women 30-34, and is 61 percent among women in the oldest age group. In this age group (women 45-49), one in three women are potentially unable to bear children because they are sterilized or say that they are infecund. Differentials in the desire to stop having children are presented in Table 6.3. In general, women living in large cities and urban areas are slightly more likely to want to stop childbearing than rural women. This phenomenon is reflected by a high percentage of women in Amman who do not want another child (55 percent). An exception to this pattern is Balqa, which has the highest proportion of women in the country who do not want to continue childbearing (64 percent). The same pattern is seen when the data are analyzed by the number of living children a woman has; women in urban areas and Balqa are more likely to want to stop childbearing than women in other areas. Education is negatively associated with the desire to stop childbearing. The proportion of women who want no more children decreases as the level of education increases, from 66 percent of among uneducated women to 36 percent among women who have attended more than secondary education. However, when these women am analyzed by the number of living children, the effect of education diminishes, suggesting that the reason uneducated women are more likely to want to stop childbearing is that they already have more children than educated women. 67 Table 6.2 Fertility preferences by age Percent distribution of eurrantly married women by desire for more children, according to age, Jordan 1990 Age of woman Desire for more ehild~n 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Tom] Have another soon I 38.1 24.4 18.0 12,4 9.7 7.3 4.5 15.2 Have another later= 52.0 50.9 40.2 20.0 6.2 2.6 0.3 24.8 Have another° undecided when 3.6 1.5 1.0 1.4 1.1 0.1 0.3 1.1 Undecided 1.4 1.7 1.8 2.5 2.9 2.2 1.4 2.0 Want no more 3 4.4 20.9 37.9 59.9 66.2 63.6 61.2 47.1 Starilized -- 0.3 1.8 10.8 16.2 14.0 5.6 Declared infeeund 0~5 0.6 0.7 1.9 3,0 7.7 18.3 4.1 Missing -- 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Tom] 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 353 1057 1268 1098 905 807 680 6168 -- Lass than 0.05 percent tWant next birth within two years 2Want to delay next birth two or more years ~omea who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children. Table 6.3 Desire to stop having children Percentage of currently married women who want no mote children, by number of living children and selected be~kgroand characteristics, Jordan 1990 Number of living children I Backgrotmd characteadstic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Total Residence Large city 2,3 8.9 29.9 46.8 59.7 73.0 82.6 55.5 Other urban 2.9 2.9 21,0 32.5 50.4 71.9 80,7 52.3 Rural 1.2 4.1 16.9 27,6 46.7 54.2 72,8 49.0 Region Amman 1.7 6.4 28.3 43.0 60.4 75.3 81.5 54.8 Zarqa + Mal~aq 3.1 8.6 26.8 42.3 51.1 65.5 82.5 53.9 Irbid 1.8 1.1 13.0 25.6 43.5 58.8 73.2 47.7 Balqe 7.5 7.4 38.9 57.8 67.8 72.0 85.1 64,4 South 0.0 5.4 17.2 23.8 48.3 50.3 74.6 45.8 Education level attended No education 1.0 8.8 29.0 32.9 45.5 55.5 77.6 65.9 Primary 4,6 2.5 21.0 44.8 52,9 66.4 79.3 62,5 Secondary 1.8 5.2 22.5 36.1 57.7 72.1 80,9 45.0 More than secondary 3.2 8.4 29.5 39.5 50.1 68.2 79.1 36.0 Total 2.3 5.7 24.2 37.7 54.0 67.4 79.1 52.7 tlncludes current pregnancy 68 6.2 NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Information on fertility desires alone is not sufficient to estimate the need for family planning services. Many women who do not want to have another child soon are using contraception or are not exposed to the risk of pregnancy for other reasons. Therefore, a more detailed analysis of unmet need for family planning is called for. In this analysis, unmet need for family planning is de f'med as including women who are pregnant or amenorrheic and whose last birth was mistimed, and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic and who are not using any method of family planning and say that they either want to delay having their next birth for at least two years or say that they want no more children. Women who are menopausal or infertile are not included in the analysis because while they may want to have another child and want to use contraception in the future, they are actually no longer exposed to the risk of pregnancy. Table 6.4 presents information on the need for family planning services by background characteristics. The distribution of women who have an unmet need for family planning is shown in columns 1-3. Columns 4-6 show the distribution of women with met need for family planning, i.e., women who are currently using a family planning method for spacing (want to walt 2 years or more for their next child) or for l'maiting births (want no more children). Pregnant and amenorrheic women who became pregnant while using a family planning method (method failure) are not classified as having unmet need but are included because they are in need of a more effective method. The total demand for family planning is shown in columns 7-9. Total demand includes women who are not using a contraceptive method, women who are using a method, and women who used a method that failed. The last column of the table shows the percentage of the total demand for family planning that is satisfied, i.e., the proportion of women using a method to total demand. The data in Table 6.4 indicate that about 23 percent of currently married women in Jordan are in need of a family planning method, either for spacing (8 percent) or for limiting (15 percent). Of the 40 percent of women using contraception (including 5 percent who are using prolonged breasffeeding), 12 percent use it to delay their next birth, while 28 percent want to stop childbearing. An additional 4 percent of women have need of a better method, since the one they were using failed to protect them from pregnancy. Thus, the total demand for family planning among currently married women in Jordan is 66 percent, and 66 percent of this demand has been satisfied by women who are currently using contraception and women who had used it but failed. Unmet need for family planning for purposes of spacing births declines with age, while the need for limiting births increases with age. The two complement each other, such that total unmet need varies little by age of the woman. Unmet need is related to place of residence and region. Women living in rural areas tend to have greater unmet need than their urban counterparts. This is reflected by the lower level of unmet need for Amman (17 percent). Urban women are more likely to use contraception, and hence, have a greater per- centage of total demand for family planning satisfied. Unmet need is also associated with education. Women with no education have a higher level of unmet need (28 percent) than women who have attended secondary or more than secondary education (20 and 19 percent respectively). Since educated women are more likely to use a contraceptive method than uneducated women, a higher proportion of the total demand for family planning is satisfied for these women. 69 Table 6.4 Need for family planning services Percentage of currently matrled women with unmet need for farnily planning, met need for family planning, and the total demand for fanfily planning services, by selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Met need for Unmet need for family planning Total demand for Percentage fat~ly planning I (ictn-rently using) 2 family planning 3 of demand Background For For For For For For satin- characteristic spacing litniting Total spacing limiting Total spacing fimi6ng Total fled Age 15-19 19.3 3.1 22.4 11.5 0.8 12.3 31.6 6.4 38.0 41.0 20-24 13.9 6.5 20.5 18.7 9.4 28.1 34.9 17.7 52.5 61.0 25-29 12.0 12.0 24.0 19.7 17.5 37.2 36.1 31.3 67.4 64.4 30-34 6.9 16.1 23.0 15.0 33.5 48.5 26.0 51.4 77.5 70.3 35-39 2.5 20.2 22.6 4.7 47.5 52.3 10.7 67.8 78.4 71.1 40-44 1.8 20.2 22.0 2.7 48.9 51.6 5.5 69.2 74.7 70.6 45-49 0.2 21.7 21.9 0.4 33.3 33.7 0.6 55.0 55.6 60.6 Residence Large city 6.5 12.6 19.1 14.2 34.1 48.3 23.1 47.5 70.6 72.9 Other orban 7.9 14.4 22.3 10.7 28.0 38.7 21.7 43.3 65.0 65.7 Rural 9.7 18.1 27.8 8.8 19.7 28.5 21.5 39.6 61.1 54.5 Region level attended Amman 5.2 11.7 16.9 13.8 34.5 48.3 21.7 46.7 68.4 75.3 Zaxqa + Mafraq 8.9 15.3 24.1 11.5 28.4 39.9 22.7 45.0 67.7 64.4 Irbid 10.2 16.3 26.5 10.8 22.9 33.7 24.2 41.5 65.7 59.7 Balqa 7.9 24.4 32.3 4.2 21.4 25.5 13.5 45.9 59.3 45.6 South 10.1 14.3 24.4 10.9 20.9 31.8 24.3 36.5 60.8 59.9 Education No Education 4.4 23.1 27.5 3.8 27.8 31.6 9.9 51.3 61.3 55.1 Primary 6.1 17.1 23.2 7.8 34.8 42.6 16.1 52.3 68.4 66.1 Secondary 9.6 10.6 20.2 15.8 26.5 42.2 28.7 38.6 67.3 70.0 More than secondary 11.3 8.0 19.3 19.7 23.5 43.2 34.4 33.9 68.2 71.8 Total 7.8 14.6 22.4 11.7 28.3 40.0 22.2 44.0 66.2 66.1 1Unreel need for spacing refers to pregnant women whose !m'egnaney was nfistimed, amenorrhnie women whose last birth was mistimed, and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic and who are not using any method of fanfily planning and say they want to wait two or mcae years for their next birth. Unreel need for limiting refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted, amenorrhei¢ women whose last child was unwanted, and to women who axe neither pregnant n~ araenorrhnic and who are not using any method of family planning and who want no more children. Excluded from the unmet need category are inegnant and amenorrheic women who became pregnant while wing a method (these women are in need of better contraception). Also excluded me menopausal and infertile women, defined in footnotes 1 and 2 in table 5.8; 2Using for spacing refers to women who are using some method of fanfily planning and who say they want to wait two or more years for their next child. Using for limiting refers to women who are using and who want no more ehil&en. Note that the specific methods used m'¢ not taken into accounL 3Total demand includes pregnant or amenorrheic women who became pregnant while using a method (method failme). 6.3 IDEAL NUMBER OF CHILDREN The focus of this chapter has been on the future reproductive intentions of women, implicitly taking into account the number of living children they have. To ascertain the ideal number of children, the respondent is required to perform the more difficult task of considering abstractly and independently of her actual family size, the number of children she would choose if she could start again. 70 There is usually a correlation between actual and ideal number of children. The reason is twofold. First, to the extent that women implement their preferences, those who want larger families tend to achieve larger families. Second, women may adjust upwards their ideal family size, as the actual number of children increases. It is also possible that women with large families, being on average older than women with small families, have larger ideal sizes, because of attitudes that they acquired 20 to 30 years ago. Despite the likelihood that some rationalization occurs in the determination of ideal family size, it is often found that respondents state ideal family sizes that are lower than their actual number of surviving children (see Table 6.5). The data in Table 6.5 can be grouped into three categories, women who have reached their ideal size, i.e., women whose ideal number of children is exactly the same as their number of living children; this is shown by diagonal figures from 0 to 6+ children. The second group consisls of women whose surviving children have exceeded the ideal size (shown by the figures above the diagonal); the last group consists of women who have not reached their ideal size (shown by the figures below the diagonal). The second category is of particular interest, because it permits the calculation of surplus or unwanted fertility (discussed in Chapter 7). The data in Table 6.5 indicate that a majority of women consider the ideal family size to be at least 4 children (52 percent). Only 10 percent of ever-married women state an ideal family size of two children, the number that is required for replacement level fertility. The mean ideal number of children is 4.4 among ever-married women as well as currently married women. Of concern to family planning program administrators is the fact that 40 percent of women with five or more children have exceeded their ideal family sizes, many by two or more children. Table 6.5 Ideal number of children Percent distribution of ever-married woman by ideal number of children and mean ideal number of children for ever -married women and for cun'enfly manied women, according to number of living children, Jordan 1990 Number of living children I Ideal number of children 0 I 2 3 4 5 6+ Total 0 -- 0.4 0.I 0.2 . . . . 0.2 0.2 I 1.7 1.9 0.4 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.7 2 8.3 13.0 15.7 7.6 10.2 11.0 7.2 9.5 3 7.5 10.6 8.8 11.4 3.8 6.2 4.9 6.8 4 31,9 31.3 34.5 37.9 41.2 24.3 23.6 29.6 5 4.4 6.1 6.4 6.3 5.3 13.1 4.1 5.9 6+ 11.8 11.7 11.9 12.8 17.0 14.7 19.9 16.1 Non-numeric response 34.4 24.9 22.1 23.0 22.1 30.0 39.7 31,3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 Numbe~" 405 686 682 720 676 658 2634 6461 Ever-man-led women 2 Mean 4.2 3.9 4 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.9 4.4 Number of woman 265 515 531 554 527 460 1587 4440 Currently married women ~ Mean 4.3 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.9 4.4 Nurnber of women 247 492 514 535 509 443 1551 4291 -- Less than 0.05 percent tIncludcs current pregnancy 2Exchides women who gave non-numeric responses 71 One-third of the women did not give a numeric response to the hypothetical question on ideal family size. The failure to give a definite answer suggests either an absence of conscious consideration about family size, or a strong belief that family size is determined by God. Women who have 1 to 4 children ave most likely to state a numeric ideal family size; childless women are less likely to do so, perhaps indicating that they want to have as many as possible, or having reached the end of their reproductive years, have given up hope of having a child. Women who already have 5 or more children may avoid specifying a number because they have exceeded their ideal size. Table 6.6 presents the mean ideal number of children by age and background characteristics. The mean ideal number of children in Jordan increases with age, from 4.1 children for ever-married women in the youngest age group to 5.2 children among the oldest women. In general, women living in rural areas and those with less education have a slightly higher ideal family size. Table 6.6 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics Mean ideal number of children for ever-married women, by age and selected b~kground characteristics, Jordan 1990 Age of woman Background charactar'istic 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total Residence Large city 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.9 4.3 Other urban 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.3 4.5 Rural 4.2 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.4 5.2 6.0 4.6 Region Amman 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.5 5.2 4.3 Zarqa + Mafraq 3.6 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.4 4.7 5.0 4,3 Irbid 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.4 4.8 Balqa 4.7 4.0 4.3 4.1 3.8 4,6 5.2 4.2 South 3.5 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.7 4.8 5.7 4.4 Education level attended No education 6.9 4.5 4.2 4.9 5.0 5.2 6.0 5.3 Primary 3.9 4.2 4.1 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.3 4.4 Secondary 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.2 More than secondary 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.1 4,7 4.3 Total 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.7 5.2 4.4 6.4 PLANNING STATUS OF B IRTHS Respondents in the JPFHS were asked a series of questions for each child born in the five years preceding the survey and for any current pregnancy to determine whether the particular pregnancy was planned, unplanned but wanted at a later date, or unwanted. These questions yield data that provides a powerful indicator of the degree te which couples are able to successfully control childbearing. In addition, the data can be used to measure the effect of the prevention of unwanted births on period fertility. The questions on the planning status of births are extremely demanding. The respondent is required to recall accurately her wishes at one or more points in the preceding five years, and to report them honestly. The possibility of rationalization is present, since an unwanted conception may well be a cherished child. Despite problems of comprehension, recall, and truthfuiness, the results from previous surveys indicate that 72 the questions are effective in eliciting plausible information about the planning status of births. Respondents am willing tO report unwanted conceptions, although some postpartum rationalization does occur. Overall, the estimates of unwanted ferdlity obtained from the data are probably low. Inthe interview process, the retrospective questions were asked separately from the questions on the desire for more children and ideal family size, and the data have not yet been analyzed together. Consistency of attitudes at the individual level will be investigated in further analysis studies. Table 6.7 shows that two-thirds of births occurring in the five years preceding the survey were wanted at the time they were conceived, 11 percent were wanted but at a later time, and 21 percent were not wanted at all. The percentage of births wanted at the time of conception is negatively associated with birth order, while the percentage of unwanted births increases with birth order. In other words, higher order births are more likely than first or second births to have been either mistimed or unwanted. The low percentage of first births wanted later or not wanted at all indicates that almost all first order births are wanted. Births tO young women tend to be wanted (then or later), while births of older women are more likely to be unwanted (see Table 6.7). While 85 percent of births to women under 20 years of age were wanted at the time they occurred, this percentage declines to 42 percent among women 45-49. Table 6.7 Planning status of births Percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by featility planning status, according to birth ord~ and mother's age at birth, Jordan 1990 Plmming status of birth Birth order Number end mother's WJmted Wanted Not of age then later wanted Total births Birth order 1 I 2 3 4+ Mother's age <20 85.3 lO.l 4.6 IO0.O 843 20-24 76.6 12.4 11.0 I00.0 2666 25-29 68.2 13.7 18,1 I00.0 2555 30-34 60.0 12.2 27.7 I00.0 1757 35-39 54.3 6.1 39.6 I00.0 1046 40-44 45.2 5.1 49.7 I00.0 408 45-49 43.4 0.0 56.6 104).0 42 Total 67.6 11.4 20.6 100.0 9355 tlncludcs current pregnancy 93.4 4.2 2.0 I00.0 1545 72.3 16.4 10.7 IO0.O 1325 72.5 14.7 12.6 I00.0 1208 57.8 11.5 30.3 100.0 5276 73 Another way of measuring the extent of unwanted fertility is to calculate what the fertility rate would be if all unwanted births were avoided. This is known as the wanted fertility rate (see Table 6.8). In this analysis, a birth is considered wanted if the number of living children at the time of the pregnancy was less than the current ideal number of children, as reported by the respondent. In Jordan, if all unwanted births were prevented, the total wanted fertility rate would be 3.9 children per woman, or 1.6 children less than the actual total fertility rate. This implies that the total fertility rate is inflated by more than 40 percent due to unwanted births. Table 6.8 also shows that the gap between actual and wanted fertility rates is largest---qwo or more children---among rural women, women living in Zarqa and Mafraq and Irbid, and women who have attended primary education. Urban women and women who have attended more than secondary education are generally more successful in narrowing the gap between wanted and actual fertility rates. Table 6.8 Wanted fertility rates Total wanted fertility rates and total fertility rates for the three years preceding the survey, by selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Total wanted Total Background fertility fertility characteristic rate rate Residence Large city 3.359 4,749 Other urban 4.013 5,603 Rural 4.761 6,846 Reglon Amman 3.549 4.885 Zarqa + Mafraq 3.604 5.585 Ixbid 4.113 6.199 Balqa 4.526 5.553 South 5.219 6.638 Education level attended No Education 5.301 6.921 Primary 4.087 6.004 Secondary 3.621 5.387 More than secondary 3.444 4.103 Total 3.938 5.573 Note: Rates are based on births to women 15-49 in the period 1-36 months preceding the survey. The total fertility rates are the same as those presented in Table 3.3. 74 CHAPTER 7 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Estimates of levels, trends and differentials in infant and child mortality are important for monitoring and evaluating ongoing health programs, and can be used to formulate future policies. The level of infant and child mortality is viewed as an indicator of the general standard of living in a society, and health conditions in particular. Infant mortality rates are also used to develop population projections. In addition to addressing these issues, this chapter examines the risk factors associated with births in Jordan. Five measures of infant and child mortality used in this chapter are: Neonatal mortality, or the probability of dying in the first month of life; Postneonatal mortality, or the probability of dying after the first month of life but before the first birthday; Infant mortality (lq*), or the probability of dying before the first birthday; Child mortality (4q0, or the probability of dying between the first and fifth birthday; and Under-five mortality (sqo), or the probability of dying before the fifth birthday. Infant and child mortality rates are calculated from information collected in the birth history section of the individual questionnaire. In the J-PFHS, each woman was asked about the number of sons and daughters living with her in the same household, the number living away, and the number who had died. These questions were aimed at obtaining the total number of births the respondent had experienced. Next, the respondent was asked to give information on each of the children she had given birth to, including the name, sex, date of bixth, whether the birth was single or multiple, and survival status. If the child had died, the age at death was recorded. If the child was still living, questions were asked about his/her age at last birthday and whether the child lived with his/her mother. It should be noted that birth histories are often subject to inaccuracies in the reporting of events, errors which can result in biased rates and trends over time. Despite the disadvantages, birth histories provide data for analyses that would be impossible to collect using any other method of data gathering. 7.1 ASSESSMENT OF DATA QUAL ITY The rcliability of mortality estimates depends on the completeness and accuracy of reporting of births and deaths. Omission of births and deaths directly affects mortality estimates, and displacement of dates has an impact on mortality trends. To determine the quality of data collected in the JPFHS, the distribution of all children by calendar year of birth and of dead children by age at death was examined (see Appendix C, Tables C.3 and C.5). Table C.3 indicates the presence of a slight deficit of births in the fifth year preceding the survey, and an excess of births in the sixth year preceding the survey. The period for which detailed data on children's health was collected extended from January 1985 to the survey date. The most common source of error in the reporting of child's age at death is the tendency of mothers to report age at death in multiples of 6 months. Partly to minimize this error, interviewers were instructed to record deaths under one month in days, and under 2 years of age in months. They were specifically reminded to ascertain whether deaths reported at one year of age actually occurred at 12 months. Although misreporting of age at death can result in biased estimates of infant and child mortality, a study using DHS data from a number of countries indicates that heaping on age at death of 12 months would bias the estimates by no more than 5 percent (Sullivan et al, 1990). Thus, the rates presented in this report are unadjusted, i.e., no efforts were made to average out the heaping present in the data. 75 Figure 7.1 presents information on children's age at death (see also Appendix C, Table C.5). Overall, the quality of the data on children's age at death is good. Except for some "heaping" at 12 months and, to a lesser degree, at 3 months, the graph shows a smooth curve, reflecting the absence of serious age misreporting. The deficit of deaths at age 10 and 11 months suggests that some proportion of the deaths reported at 12 months did, in fact, occur before the first birthday. Likewise, some of the deaths reported at 3 months probably occurred at 2 or 4 months. Figure 7.1 Deaths Under Age Two by Age at Death Number of deaths 200 150 100 50 A 0 , ,~"T- ' , ~ ,~T , ; , I I J I I I ] I I I I I (1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 Months JPFH8 1990 7.2 LEVELS, TRENDS AND DIFFERENTIALS It is seldom possible to establish, with confidence, mortality levels for a period more than 15 years before a survey. This is because events that occurred recently are more likely to be remembered than those which occurred in the distant past. Thus, lacking a detailed evaluation of the quality of the birth history data (which could not be included in this report), any conclusions regarding changes in mortality should be considered preliminary. Infant and child mortality rates for five-year periods preceding the survey are presented in Table 7.1 and Figure 7.2. Infant mortality for the most recent five-year period is 34 deaths per 1000 births, while under- five mortality is 40 per thousand (i.e., 40 of every 1000 children born do not live until their fifth birthday). 76 Table 7.1 Infant and child mortality Infant and child mortality rates by five-year periods preceding the stave'/, Jordm 1990 Years Neonatal Posmeonatal Infant Child Undex-five preceding mortality mortality I mortality mortality mortality survey (NN) (PNN) qqo) (4q0 (sqo) 0-4 21.4 12.4 33.8 5.1 38.8 5-9 22.6 17.3 39.9 6.6 46.2 10-14 19.7 22.0 41.7 10.1 51.3 15-19 25.1 33.7 58.8 13.0 71.0 20-24 24.7 35.8 60.5 26.9 85.9 tComputad as the difference between the infant mid the neonatal mortality rates 100 80 60 40 20 0 Figure 7.2 Trends in Infant and Child Mortality by Five-Year Periods Deaths per 1,000 80 61 59 L N7 I n fant Chi ld Under - f i ve cl year 1-4 yeara 0 -4 years 1 1966-70 roll 1971-75 ~ 1976-80 m 1981-85 [llllllll 198e-9o JPFHS 1990 While not precise, the rates presented in Table 7.1 approximate the calendar periods 1986-90, 1981 - 85, 1976-80, 1971-75, and 1966-70 because fieldwork for the survey was carried out in the fourth quarter of 1990. The 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey (IFS) and 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS) were both fielded in the third quarter of the year. For purposes of trend analysis, the results of the three su~eys have been compared (see Figure 7.3). Ideally, the estimates for overlapping periods should be the 77 same; this is not the case in Jordan because of discrepancies due to internal biases in each of the estimates and underestimation in the 1983 survey (Department of Statistics, 1984b). It is apparent, however, that infant mortality has been declining for many years. The pace of decline in infant and child mortality varies. Neonatal mortality shows little, if any, decline, while mortality among children 1-4 years has declined rapidly (see Table 7.1 ) As a result, under-five mortality approaches the level of infant mortality. This suggests that the factors affecting infant mortality are different from those affecting child mortality. In particular, infant health is more likely to be irLflueneed by factors such as antenatal and posmatal care, and the length of the birth interval (issues which are discussed below). Figure 7.3 Infant Mortality by Five-Year Periods JFS 1976, JFFHS 1983, and JPFHS 1990 Deetha per 1,000 b i r ths 140 120 100 80 eo 40 20 0 • 1951- 55 ! I I I t [ 1956- 19e l - 1966- 1971- 1970- 1981- 1996- 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 . . . . J F5 1976 I J FFH5 1983 ~JPFHS 1990 Infant and child mortality rates are lower in Jordan than in other Arab countries where DHS surveys have been carried out. Infant Chi ld Under-five mortality mortality mortality Egypt 1984-88 73 31 102 Jordan 1986-90 34 $ 39 Morocco 1982-86 73 31 102 Sudan 1985-90 70 57 123 Tunisia 1983-87 50 16 65 78 Differentials by Socioeconomic Characteristics Differentials in neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality by socioeconomic characteristics are shown in Table 7.2. A ten-year period is used to calculate the mortality estimates in order to have sufficient number of cases in each category. It is expected that use of the ten-year reference period will improve the reliability of the mortality estimates. Them are no substantial diffcrences in under-five mortality by type of residence (sce Figure 7.4). Children in large cities have almost the same mortality as those in other urban areas (40 and 41 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively), while rural children have a slightly higher probability of dying (47 per 1,000 live births). Child mortality docs show differences by residence; the probability of dying is 3 per 1,000 live births for large cities, 6 per 1,000 for other urban areas, and 8 per 1,000 for rural areas. A similar pattern is found for postneonatal mortality, but not for neonatal and infant mortality. Table 7.2 Infant and child mortali ,ty by background characteristics Infant and child mortality rates for the tan-year period preceding the survey, by selected background ch~acteristics, Jordan 1990 Neonatal Posmconatal Infant Chad Under-five Background mortality mortality t mortality mortality mortality ch~aacteristie (NN) (PNN) (lqo) (4q0 (~o) Residence Large city 24,3 12.8 37.1 3.4 40.3 Other urban 19.5 14.9 34.3 6.3 40.5 Rural 22.1 17.2 39.2 8.4 47.3 Region Amman 22.8 13.2 36.0 4.2 40.0 Zarqa + Mafraq 23.2 15.4 38.5 7.6 45.8 Irbid 25.3 19.2 44.5 6.4 50.6 Balqa 6.5 8.8 15.3 6.9 22.1 South 19.5 12.1 31.6 6.3 37.7 Education level attended No education 23.3 15.3 38.7 6.4 44.8 Primary 22.7 18.4 41.1 8.1 48.8 Secondary 21.4 14.4 35.8 4.6 40.2 Mere than secondary 19.3 4.7 23.9 1.6 25.5 Medical maternity car : No antenatal delivery 14.3 18.2 32.5 16.1 48.0 Eithe~ antenatal/delivery 23.6 18.8 42.4 3.7 46.0 Both antanatal/delivery 22.0 10.4 32.4 6.8 38.9 Total 22.0 14.8 36,8 5,8 42.4 IComputed as the difference between the infant and the neonatal mortality rates 2Rates for the five-ye& period before the su~ey. Medical care is that given by a doctor, nurse, midwife or received in a hospital, clinic, maternal and child health center or public health center. 79 Figure 7.4 Infant and Under-Five Mortality by Residence and Education Deaths per 1,000 births 80 50 40 SO 20 10 j Total 47 40 41 S9~] W Large Other Rural city urban RESIDENCE 49 so'° No Prl. Sec. Higher edue, EDUCATION m Infant Mortality ~] Under-Five Mortality Note: Rates refer to the 1e-year period preceding the survey. JFPHS 1990 Infant and under-five mortality vary across regions. While in the rest of the country under-five mortality ranges from 37 to 45 per 1,000 births, and infant mortality ranges from 32 to 39 per 1,000 births, in Irbid infant and under-five mortality are more than twice as high as in Balqa. It should be noted, however, that the low figures for Balqa are not due to any unique conditions in the govemorate; rather, they are due to the underreporting of deaths. Mother's education is negatively associated with infant and child mortality. Children of mothers who attended more than secondary education are less likely to die in the first five years of life than children of mothers with less education. Mortality is highest for children of women who attended primary school or received no education. Attention from medical personnel during pregnancy and at the time of delivery influences children's chances for survival. The level of mortality for children who had no antenatal care and delivery assistance from a medical professional is generally higher than for children who received such care. Neonatal mortality shows the opposite pattern, probably due to the fact that problem pregnancies are more likely to be referred for medical attention. Differentials by Demographic Characteristics Differentials in mortality rates by selected demographic characteristics are shown in Table 7.3 and Figure 7.5. Children of teenage mothers, high birth order children, and children born following a short birth interval are at greater risk of dying than those in other subgroups. The difference is most pronounced when birth interval is taken into account. Children born after an interval of less than two years are almost twice as likely to die as children born four years or more after their siblings. 80 Table 7.3 Infant and child mortality by demographic characteristics Infant and child mortality rates for the tan-year period preceding the survey, by selected demographic characteristics, Jordan 1990 Neonatal Posmeonatal Infant Child Unde~-five Demographic mortality mortality' mortality mortality mortality characteristic (NN) (P]~ (lqo) t4q0 (rio) Sex of child Male 22.6 13.7 36.4 6.0 42.2 Female 21.3 15.9 37.3 5.6 42.7 Mother's age at birth <20 27.5 24.1 51.5 7.1 58.2 20-29 20.0 16.1 36.2 5.6 41.5 30-39 22.7 10.4 33.1 5.6 38.5 40-49 29.4 7.9 37.3 8.1 45.1 Birth order 1 17.1 13.1 30.2 4.5 34.5 2-3 22.2 16.5 38.6 6.7 45.1 4-6 20.8 14.8 35.5 5.5 40.9 7+ 25.6 14.2 39.8 6.1 45.7 Previous birth Interval < 2 years 24.9 19.1 44.0 7.5 51.2 2-3 years 12.1 9.9 22.0 4.3 26.2 4 years or more 17.5 9.6 27.1 3.8 30.8 Birth size 2 Very small 97.8 39.7 137.5 5.7 142.4 Small 10.2 14.1 24.2 6.9 31.0 Average or larger 16.0 10.5 26.5 6.6 32.9 IComputed as the difference between the infant and the neonatal mortality rates 2Ratas are for the five-year period preceding the survey. Children's weight at birth is closely associated with their chances of survival, particularly during the first month of life. Children reported as "very small" at birth had more than six times greater risk of dying than children whose birth weight was reported as "average." One in 7 "very small" children did not survive to reach their fifth birthday. 81 Figure 7.5 Infant Mortality by Selected Demographic Characteristics Deaths per 1,000 births 60 60 40 30 20 10 0 Total (20 20- 30" 40- 1 2-3 4-6 7 (2 2-3 4* 29 39 49 MOTHER'S AGE BIRTH ORDER BIRTH INTERVAL Note: Rates refer to the lO-year period preceding to the survey. JPFHS 1990 7.3 HIGH-RISK FERTILITY BEHAVIOR Table 7.4 presents the distribution of children bom in the five years preceding the survey who are at increased risk of dying due to the mother's fertility behavior characteristics. Children are at elevated risk if the mother was too young or too old at the time of birth, if they are of high birth order, or if they were bom too soon at~r their older sibling. In this report, a woman is classified as "too young" if she is less than 18 years of age, and "too old" if she is over 34 years of age at the time of birth. A child is considered "high birth order" if the mother has had three or more previous children. A "short birth interval" is defined as a birth oecun'ing less than 24 months after a previous birth. In the analysis of birth intervals, only children whose preceding birth interval was less than 24 months are included, even though a short birth interval also increases the risk of dying for the child at the beginning of the interval. The latter relationship is subject to reverse causality in that the death of the earlier child may cause the subsequent interval to be short. First-order births may be at greater risk of dying than higher order births; however, the distinction is not made in Table 7.4 because it is not considered avoidable fertility behavior. Seveaty-seven percent of children born in the five years preceding the survey are at elevated risk of dying; 40 perecnt have an increased risk due to a single risk category (mother's age, birth order, or birth interval), and 37 percent have an increased risk due to multiple risk categories. The largest group of children at risk are those who are high bir, h order (58 percent) and those whose preceding birth interval was less than 24 months (42 percent). One in five children was born with a preceding birth interval of less than 24 months and with birth order higher than 3. However, it should be noted that the effect of high birth order (>3) outweighs the effects of other factors such as length of preceding birth interval and mother's age. 82 Table 7.4 High-risk fertility behavior Percent distribution of chikken born in the five years preceding the survey who have an elevated risk of mortality, and the percent dis~hation of currently married woman at risk of conceiving a child with an elevated risk of mortality, by category of increased risk, Jordan 1990 Risk category Births in 5 years Percentage precading the survey of cunantly Percentage Risk married of births ratio 1 women 2 Not In an any risk category Single risk category Mother's age <18 years at birth Mother's age >34 years at birth Birth interval <24 months Birth order >3 22.9 1.0 21.03 2.2 I.I 0.8 0.3 0.0 2,1 16.4 1.9 9.7 21.2 1.4 16.7 Subtotal 40.2 1.6 29.3 Multiple risk category Age<18 & BI<244 0.3 6.6 0.2 Age>34 & BI<24 0.2 0.0 0.1 Age>34 & BO>3 11.4 1.5 28.3 Age>34 BI<24 BO>3 4.4 2.2 5.4 BI<24 & BO>3 20.6 1.8 15.7 Subtotal 36.9 1.8 49.7 In any rlsk category 77.1 1.7 79.0 Total 100.0 NA I00.0 Number 8181 NA 6168 NA = Not applicable lRisk ratio is the ratio of the proportion dead of births in a specific risk category to the proportion dead of births not in any risk category. 2Woman were assigned to risk categories according to the status they would have at the birth of a child, if the child were conceived at the time of the survey: age less than 17 years and 3 months or older than 34 years and 2 months, latest birth less than 15 months ago, or latest birth of order 3 or higher. ~.cindes sterilized women (Includes the combined categories age<I8 & BO>3 Column 2 of Table 7.4 presents the risk ratios for births in the five years preceding the survey (i.e., the ratio of the proportion dead in each risk category to the proportion dead among children who were not in any risk category). The single most dea'irnental factor is a short birth interval; children born less than 24 months aRer an older sibling are twice as likely to die as children who are not in any risk category. The 83 combination of giving birth at a young age and having a short preceding birth interval is particularly detrimental to child survival. Children born to mothers under 18 years of age, and born less than 24 months al~er a preceding birth are about seven (6.6) times more likely to die than children who are not in any risk category. This ratio is higher than for any other risk group, including the multiple risk category: children born to women under 18 years, with a birth interval of less than 24 months, and with a birth order higher than 3 (2.2). The last column of Table 7.4 presents the distribution of currently married women according to category of increased risk. Women are placed in the categories according to the status they would have at the birth of a child conceived at the time of the survey: women age less than 17 years and 3 months or older than 34 years and 2 months, latest birth less than 15 months ago, and latest birth of order 3 or higher. Many women are protected from the risk of pregnancy due to use of contraception, postpartum insusceptibility, and prolonged abstinence; however, for the sake of simplicity, only sterilized women are classified as not being in any risk category. Eight of ten married women are at risk of conceiving a child at increased risk of dying. Two-thirds of married women are at risk because they have already had 3 births, while one-third are at risk because they are over age 34. The figures in Table 7.4 demonstrate the strong influence of parity (the number of children the mother has had) on the risk of dying among children under five years of age. 84 CHAPTER 8 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH One of the objectives of the 1990 JPFHS was to collect information in order to evaluate ongoing health programs and to develop policies and programs designed to provide better services. In the survey, information was collected on the health of children born in the preceding five years, and their mothers. Information on maternal health care includes care received during pregnancy (antenatal checkups and tetanus toxoid injections) and at the time of delivery. For each birth in the preceding five years, information was gathered on preventive health measures (vaccinations), recent illnesses, and treatment practices. In addition, for all women in the survey, information on knowledge and use of ORS packets for treatment of childhood diarrhea was collected. 8.1 ANTENATAL CARE AND DEL IVERY ASSISTANCE To determine the extent of utilization of different types of antenatal care services, for each live birth occurring since January 1985, women were asked whether they had seen anyone for antenatal care during the pregnancy. Antenatal care is defined according to type of provider, number of antenatal visits, stage of pregnancy at time of first visit, and number of tetanus toxoid injections received. Although the interviewer was instructed to record all responses if more than one source of antenatal care was mentioned for the same pregnancy, only the most qualified provider is considered in in this report. Antenatal Care Table 8.1 shows the distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by source of antenatal care received by the mother during pregnancy. For the majority of births (80 percent), the mother received at least one pregnancy checkup from trained health personnel: 73 percent from a doctor and 8 percent from a nurse or midwife. In the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS), 55 percent of mothers received antenatai cam, 95 percent of which was given by medical personnel. Thus, antenatal care coverage increased from 55 to 80 percent of births in the space of just 7 years. The data show that there are marked differentials in antenatal cam coverage among subgroups (see Table 8.1 and Figure 8.1). Children of younger mothers, children of low birth order, those living in large cities, particularly Amman, and children whose mothers attended secondary or higher education are more likely to have received antenatal care than other children. The role of traditional birth attendants in providing antenatal care in Jordan is limited. (This is true for all subgroups.) Overall, doctors are more likely than nurses or midwives to provide antenatal care services for births in large cities, births to educated women, and births of lower order. The data on antenatal care from the JPFHS indicate that medical care for pregnant women is more widely available in Jordan than in many Arab countries in which DHS surveys have been carried out, namely Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia. The level of antenatal care coverage in Sudan (70 percent) is closest to that in Jordan; Egypt and Tunisia range from 51 to 58 percent, while Morocco has the lowest level of antenatal cam coverage (25 percent). 85 Table 8.1 Antenatal care Percent distribution of births in the five ye&s preceding the smwey, by source of antenatal care during pregnmcy, according to selected beck~oond characteristics, Jordan 1990 Antenatal care provider x Traditional birth Number Background Nmse/ attondam, of characteristic Doctor midwife other No one Total births Mother's age at birth < 20 73.6 10.9 0,8 14,6 100.0 734 20-34 73.7 7.4 0.5 18.4 100.0 6112 35+ 67.0 6.5 0.8 25.7 100.0 1334 Birth order 1 84.2 6.9 0.6 8.2 100.0 1297 2-3 75.4 7.9 0.5 16.3 100.0 2171 4-5 70.8 7.5 0.6 21.1 100.0 1695 6+ 66.7 7.6 0.6 25.2 100.0 3018 Residence Large city 81.7 6.0 0.7 11.5 100.0 2998 Other ubma 74.6 7.5 0.7 17.3 100.0 2696 Rural 59.6 9.4 0.3 30.7 100.0 2486 Region Amman 77.6 8.3 0.5 13.7 100.0 2923 Zarqa + Mairaq 74.2 4.6 1.5 19.7 1(30.0 1651 lrbid 69.3 6.4 0.0 24.3 100.0 2162 Balqa 65.3 16.7 0.4 17.6 100.0 579 South 65.9 7.6 0.6 25.9 100.0 866 Education level attended No education 56.0 9.2 0.7 34.1 100.0 1620 Primary 66.6 9.0 0.5 24.0 1(30.0 1748 Secondary 77.9 7.5 0.6 14.0 100.0 3880 More than seconda~ 90.8 2.4 0.5 6.4 100.0 934 All births 72.6 7.6 0.6 19.3 100.0 8181 Note: Figures are for births in the period 1-59 months preceding the sm~ey. llf the respondent mentioned more than one provider, only the most qualified provider is considered. 86 Figure 8.1 Maternal Care Indicators by Residence 100 93 88 86 87 80 82 69 76 72 81 60 4O 2O 0 Antenatal Tetanus Place of Delivery care toxold delivery assistance I BllLarge nlty JOther urban ~Rura l ~ JPFHS 1990 The number and timing of antenatal visits is also important. For births in the five years preceding the survey, mothers had a median of 7.5 antenatal visits throughout pregnancy (see Table 8.2). While almost 20 percent of these births did not receive antenatal care, 67 percent had 4 or more checkups. For half of the births, pregnancy checkups started at or before three months of pregnancy, and for 73 percent, antenatal care began in the first 5 months of pregnancy. Tetanus Toxoid Vaccinations As neonatal tetanus is a major cause of neonatal mortality in many countries, the JPFHS collected information on whether the respondents had received tetanus toxoid injections for each pregnancy in the five years preceding the survey, and if so, the number of injections. For morn than half of births in the preceding five years, the mother did not receive a tetanus toxoid vaccination during pregnancy; 22 percent had one dose, and 20 percent had two or more doses (see Table 8.3). This is an increase from 1983 (Department of Statistics, 1984b), when only 9 percent of pregnant women received tetanus toxoid injections. There are small differentials among the various subgroups; for example, births to younger mothers andlow-order births are more likely to have received vaccinations against neonatal tetanus than bil~hs in other subgroups. Differentials by mother's education are minimal for tetanus toxoid vaccinations, although differences by education in antenatal care were notable (see Table 8.1). This may, in part, be because women with more education are more likely to use private health facilities, where tetanus toxoid vaccinations arc less commonly given. Of women who visited a doctor for their antenatal care, more than half did not receive a tetanus toxoid injection (data not shown). 87 Table 8.2 Number of antenatal care visits and sta~e of megnancv Percent distribution of llve births in the five years preceding the sm'vey by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits, and by the stage of pregnancy at the time of the first visit, Jordan 1990 Antenatal visits/ Stage of pregnancy All at first visit births Number of ANC visits 0 19.8 I 3.4 2-3 9.4 4+ 67.1 Don't know, missing 0.3 Total I00.0 Median 1 7.5 Number of months pregnant at time of first ANC visit No antenatal care 19.8 <= 5 73.4 6-7 4.5 8+ 1,8 Don't know, missing 0.4 Total I00.0 Median I 3.0 Number of live births 8181 Note: Figures are for births in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey IFor those with ANC 88 Table 8.3 Tetanus toxoid vaccination Percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by number of tetanm mxoid injectiom givan to the moth~ during pregnancy, according to selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Number of tetanus toxoid injections Two Number Background One doses Don't know/ of characteristic None dose or more Missing Total births Mother's age at birth <20 20-34 35+ Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ 44.9 25.9 29.3 0.0 100.0 734 58.1 22.3 19.2 0.5 100.0 6112 58.4 21.2 20,0 0.3 100.0 1334 40.7 25.4 33.9 0.0 100.0 1297 59.1 24.7 15.6 0.6 100.0 2171 60.1 21.5 17.8 0.7 100.0 1695 60.6 20.0 19.1 0.3 100.0 3018 Residence Large city 57.6 21.8 20.2 0.4 100.0 2998 Otber orban 54.1 24.0 21.5 0.4 100.0 2696 Rural 59.3 21.5 18.9 0.4 100.0 2486 Reglon Amman 57.6 19.6 22.3 0.5 I00.0 2923 Zarqa + Maftaq 59.4 24.3 16.3 0.I I00.0 1651 Ixbid 57.5 23.6 18.2 0.6 I00.0 2162 Balqa 38.4 29.4 31.8 0.3 100.0 579 South 61.2 20.6 17.9 0.3 100.0 866 Education level attended No education 63.7 18.4 17.6 0.3 100.0 1620 Primary 55.5 23.1 20.8 0.6 100.0 1748 Secondary 53.9 24.3 21.4 0.3 100,0 3880 More than secondary 60.5 20.3 18.8 0.4 100.0 934 All births 57.0 22.4 20.2 0.4 100.0 8181 Note: Figures are for births in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. Again, the figures for tetanus toxoid coverage in Jordan are higher than those in other Arab countries in which DHS surveys have been conducted (Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia), reflecting better care for both mothers and children in Jordan. 89 Place of Delivery Table 8.4 provides information on the utilization of health facilities during delivery. The data show that the majority of births (78 percent) were delivered in a hospital (57 percent in government hospitals and 21 percent in private hospitals), while one in five births was delivered at home. Compared to data from the 1983 JFFHS, the proportion of births delivered at home has decreased by half, from 41 to 20 percent, while the proportion of births delivered in hospitals has increased, from 59 percent to 78 percent. Table 8.4 Plac~ of delive~ 7 Percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by place of delivery, according to selected background chaxacterisfics, Jordan 1990 Place of delivery Number Background Government Private At Don't know/ of live chmacterisfic hospital hospital home Other Missing Total births Mother's age at birth < 20 58,5 23.6 16.0 1.7 0.2 I00.0 734 20-34 56.6 21,7 20.1 1.5 0.0 I00.0 6112 35+ 58.8 18.5 21.1 1.7 0,0 I00.0 1334 Birth order 1 58.9 29,8 9.9 1.3 0,1 100.0 1297 2-3 56.0 25.3 17,3 1.3 0.0 100.0 2171 4-5 56.2 19,8 22.6 1.4 0.0 100.0 1695 6+ 57.7 15.7 24,6 2.0 0.0 I00.0 3018 Residence Large city 48.5 37.5 12.9 1.0 0.0 I00.0 2998 Othea urbml 58.1 18.4 21.8 1.7 0.0 I00,0 2696 Rural 66,5 5.0 26,4 2.1 0.0 I00.0 2486 Region Ammm 44.4 39.7 13.7 2.2 0.0 100.0 2923 Zatqa + Maftaq 57.5 15.9 26.3 0.3 0.0 100.0 1651 Irbid 70.7 8.2 19.4 1.6 0.0 100.0 2162 Balqa 54.9 11.1 31.1 2.8 0.0 100.0 579 South 67.0 9.2 22.6 1.1 0.0 I00.0 866 FAucatlon level attended No education 54.5 8.4 35.0 2.1 0.0 100.0 1620 Primary 59.1 15.8 23.1 2.1 0.0 100.0 1748 Secondary 58.2 24.9 15.4 1.4 0.0 I00.0 3880 More than secondary 53.6 39.3 6.5 0.6 0.0 100.0 934 Antenatal care visits None 56,8 5.9 36,2 1.0 0.I I00.0 1622 I-3 visits 57.3 16.4 23.9 2.4 0.0 100.0 1047 4+ visits 57.2 26.8 14.3 1.6 0.0 100.0 5488 Don't know, missing 50.6 25.4 24.0 0,0 0.0 100.0 23 AU births 57.1 21.3 19.9 1.6 0.0 I00.0 8181 Note: Figures ~e for births in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. 90 Use of health facilities varies among subgroups. Private hospitals are more likely to be used by young or new mothers, those l iving in large cities, women with more education, and women who have more antenatal visits (see Figure 8.1 ). Delivery at home is more likely for births to older women and women l iving in rural areas, high-order births, and births to women who had no education and received no antenatal cam. Assistance During Delivery As with antenatal care, when collecting information on type of assistance during delivery, interviewers were instructed to record all responses i f more than one person was assisting during the delivery. However, only the most qualified person in attendance at the time of delivery is considered in this report (see Table 8.5 and Figure 8.1). Table 8.5 Assistance during delivery Percont distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by type of assistance during delivery, according to selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Attendant assisting during delivery I Traditional Number Baclq~oond Nurse/ birth Relative/ of live characteristic Doctor Midwife attandam Other No one Total births Mother's age at birth < 20 60.5 30.8 6.2 2.1 0.4 100.0 734 20-34 49.7 37.5 8.8 2.8 1.2 100.0 6112 35+ 46.8 38.0 9.2 3.6 2.4 100.0 1334 Birth order 1 69.9 25.6 3.5 0.8 0.2 100.0 1297 2-3 52.8 37.4 6.9 2.1 0.7 100.0 2171 4-5 44.9 39.9 10.3 3.6 1.3 100.0 1695 6+ 42.9 40.0 11.1 3.8 2.3 100.0 3018 Residence Large city 63.9 28.9 6.4 0.4 0.3 100.0 2998 Other urban 50.1 36.8 9.0 2.9 1,3 100,0 2696 Rural 33.8 47.0 10.9 5.7 2.6 100.0 2486 Region Amuran 63.0 28.7 6.0 1.3 1.0 I00.0 2923 Zarqa + Maf~aq 49.4 32.2 11.1 5.9 1.4 100.0 1651 Irbid 38.9 50.4 8.9 1.1 0.7 100.0 2162 Balqa 53.4 28.7 11.2 5.2 1.5 I00.0 579 South 34.8 46.1 10.3 4.8 3.9 I00.0 866 Education level attended No education 35.1 36.6 16.1 8,0 4.3 I00.0 1620 Primary 43.1 41.I 11.7 2.9 1.2 I00.0 1748 Secondary 55.1 37.3 5.9 1.3 0.5 100.0 3880 Mc~e than seonoda W 69.5 28.7 1.5 0.2 0.1 100.0 934 Antenatal care ~slts None 28.0 45.0 15.9 7.3 3,8 100.0 1622 1-3 visits 45.5 38.9 10.3 3.7 1.6 100.0 1047 4+ visits 57.7 34.3 6.2 1.3 0.5 100.0 5488 Don't know/missing 50.2 35.8 7.8 6.3 0.0 100.0 23 All births 50,2 37.0 8.6 2.8 1.3 100.0 8181 Note: Figures are for births in the period 1-59 months preceding the su~ey. 1If the respondent mentioned more than one attendant, only the most qualified attendant is considered. 91 Assistance during delivery shows a pattem similar to that for antenatal care. The assistance of medical personnel is widely used: 50 percent of births in the five years preceding the survey were assisted by a doctor, and 37 percent by a trained nurse or midwife. Consistent with data presented earlier, doctors are more likely to deliver births to younger and more educated women, births of lower order, births to women living in large cit- ies and urban areas, and to women who received more antenatal care. Delivery Characteristics Research on infant and childhood mortality has shown that birth weight is a major determinant of infant and child sur- vival. In the 1990 JPFHS, for all births in the five years pre- ceding the survey, respondents were asked how long the preg- nancy laslexl, and whether the delivery was by caesarean section. The survey used the following categories in gathering data on pregnancy duration: less than 7 months, 7 months to less than 9 months, and 9 months or more. A baby is considered premature when the pregnancy duration is less than 7 months. The baby's birth weight was also recorded on the questionnaire. Since birth weight may not be known for all children, the mother's estimate of the baby's size at birth was obtained. The results of the questions on delivery characteristics are presented in Table 8.6. Of 8,180 births in the five years pre- ceding the survey to the survey, only 6 percent were delivered by caesarean section and only 12 percent of births were born before they reached the ninth month of gestation. Birth weight was sue- cessfully obtained for more than 85 percent of these babies. Nine in ten births for which birth weight was obtained weighed 2.5 kilograms or more and according to the mother's estimate, 83 percent were of average size or larger. These data suggest that there is little problem of premature births in Jordan. Comparing the actual birth weight with the mother's estimate of birth size suggests some degree of consistency: 75 percent of births report- ed by the mother to be smaller than average actually weighed less than 2.5 kilograms, whereas 9 in 10 births reported as aver- age or larger than average had normal or heavier than normal birth weights (data not shown). Table 8.6 Delivery characteristics Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by whether the delivery was by caesarean section, whether premature, and by birth weight and the mother's estimate of baby's size at birth, Jordan 1990 Delivery All char aeteristic births C-section delivery Caesarean 5.7 Not C-sectinn 94.3 Total 100.0 Premature birth <7 months 0.5 7 to <9 months 11.6 9 months or more 87.9 Total 100.0 Blrtbwelght <2.5 kg 8.8 2.5 kg or more 76.9 Don't know, missing 14.3 Total 100.0 Size at birth Very large 2.2 Larger than average 11.6 Average 69.0 Smaller than average 10.0 Very small 6.5 Don't know/missing 0.5 Total 100.0 Number of births 8181 Note: Figures are for births in the period 1-59 months preceding the suawey. 8.2 IMMUNIZAT ION OF CHILDREN Since 1980, the Ministry of Health has made the immunization card a requirement for entry into the formal school system. This card is issued by the Ministry through various service providers at the time of the first vaccination. Children who are registered at the Maternal and Child Health Center are given a health card on which, in addition to vaccinations, the child's height and weight are recorded. 92 Source of Information In the JPFHS, information on the immunization status of children was obtained in two ways. First, women who had children under five were asked to produce the health cards for those children. If the card was available, the interviewer copied onto the questionnaire the dates on which the child had received vaccinations for diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT), polio, measles, and tuberculosis (BCG). For DPT and polio, each dose of the vaccination was recorded separately. When a card was not available, the mother was asked if the child had received specific vaccinations, and the number of doses for DPT and polio were recorded. Table 8.7 presents data for children age 12 to 23 months, by which time they should be fully vaccinated. The table also shows the extent to which vaccinations were received in the first year of life. Table 8.7 Vaccinations by source of information Percentage of children 12-23 months of age who had received specific vaccines at any time before the survey and before 12 months of age, according to wLiethar the information was from a vaccination card or from the mother, Jordan 1990 Vaccine Source of information Vacci- Vaccination Mother's Either nated by card report source 12 months I BCG 7.9 8.8 16.8 15.8 PoLio I 64.0 33.8 97.8 96.3 Polio 2 63.5 33.6 97.1 95,2 Polio 3 62.6 32.7 95.3 92.6 Polio booster 23,0 I 1,4 34.4 3.3 Dgr 1 63.8 33.7 97.5 96.0 DPT 2 63.3 33.5 96.7 94.8 DPT 3 62.3 32.5 94.8 92.2 DPT booster 22.7 11.2 34.0 4.4 Measles 58.3 31.1 89.4 76.0 All 2 57.8 30.1 87.9 74.7 None 0.0 2.1 2.1 Number of children 1615 1Information was obtained from a vaccination card or from the mother if there was no wriuen reoord. For children whose information was based on the mother's report, the proportion of vaccinations given during the first year of life was assarned to be the same as for children with a written record of vaccinations. 2Received 3 doses of polio, 3 doses of DPT and measles vaccines; excludes BCG. 93 Among 1,615 children one year of age, information on vaccinations was obtained from the health card for 64 percent of the children, while mothers supplied the rest of the information (for 36 percent of children). Although virtually all children have received vaccinations against DPT and polio, coverage declines slightly with successive doses. In addition to the regular vaccinations, approximately one in three children has had DPT and polio booster immunizations, which were given to the children after their first birthday. About 9 in 10 children had a measles vaccination, but very few (less than 17 percent) had a BCG vaccination (see Figure 8.2). As for timing of the vaccinations, almost all were given before age 12 months (except boosters which are meant to be given later). The vaccination program appears to be stronger in recent years. Corresponding coverage figures for children under five years in the 1983 JFFHS (completed vaccinations) are as follows: polio 78 percent, DPT 77 percent, and measles 68 percent. The absence of information on the number of doses from the 1983 survey does not allow a more detailed comparative analysis with the 1990 JPFHS. Compared with other Arab countries where DHS surveys have been conducted, vaccination coverage for polio and measles among children 12-23 months in Jordan is similar to that in Tunisia and Morocco, but higher than that in Sudan and Egypt. However, since there is no emphasis on the provision of BCG injections in the Jordan health program, the proportion of children receiving BCG vaccinations is much lower In Jordan than in the above-mentioned countries. 100 80 60 40 20 0 Figure 8.2 Vaccination Coverage among Children 12-23 Months by Source of Information Percent 98 91 28 BCG Polio 3 97 OPT 3 Measles m Vaccination card m Mother's report JPFH8 1990 94 Differentials by Background Characteristics Polio, DPT and measles vaccination coverage is high in all parts of the country and among all subgroups (see Table 8.8). This demonstrates the success of the immunization program in reaching all segments of the population. There are some differences in BCG coverage, with children in large cities and particularly in Balqa, more likely to have received this vaccine. Table 8.8 Vaoeinations by background characteristics Petcontage of children 12-23 months who had received specific vaccines by the time of the survey (according to the vaccination card or the mother's report) and the percentage for whom a vaccination card was seen by the interviewer, by selected background charac~'lislles, Jordan 1990 Per~ntage of children who received DPT Polio Percent- age Number Background DPT Polio with of charactedstlc . BCG 1 2 3+ booster 1, 2 3+ booster Measles All I None a card children Sex of child Male 16,8 96.8 96.1 94.4 33.2 97.4 96`6 95.0 33.9 89.4 87.7 2.5 63.7 814 Female 16.8 98.1 97.4 95.3 34.7 98.2 97.6 95.6 34.9 89.5 88.0 1.7 64.4 801 Birth order 1 16`4 97.3 97.2 95.7 37.5 97.7 97.5 96.1 37.1 91.4 89,3 1.6 70.0 270 2-3 16.8 99,1 98.2 95.9 36.1 99.5 98.9 97.1 36.7 91.0 89.2 0.5 65.1 432 4-5 16.7 97.9 97.6 96.2 30.9 98.0 97.8 96,3 30.9 87.8 87.4 2.0 62.5 314 6+ 17.0 96`2 95.0 93.0 32,4 96,5 95.3 93.1 33.4 88.2 86.5 3.5 61.3 Residence Large city 25.7 97.5 97.3 94.9 32.5 98.0 98.0 95.6 32.8 88,1 86.0 2,0 65,9 605 Other urhan 14.2 97.4 95.9 94.4 34.8 97.6 96.3 95.0 35.5 89.0 87.7 2.4 66.2 531 Rural 8.3 97.6 97.0 95.3 34.9 97.7 96.9 95.2 35.3 91.6 90.4 1,9 59.3 480 Region Amman 21.3 97,1 96.8 95,1 29.0 97.5 97.3 95.5 29.0 87.9 86.8 2.5 64.4 568 Zarqa + Mafraq 12.7 97.2 95.7 92.9 38.4 97.6 96.0 93.3 38.7 86.3 84.4 2.4 70.3 331 Irbid 14.0 98.2 97.3 96.1 37,1 98.4 97.5 96.9 38.1 92.6 91.2 1.3 66.8 445 Balqa 35.8 99.0 99.0 97.3 29.0 99.3 99.3 97.4 31.6 96.7 92.7 0.0 35.1 104 South 4.8 96.6 95.9 92.9 36.7 96.9 96.2 93.2 36.1 87.6 86.4 3.1 61.0 167 Education level attended No edecafioa 14.4 94.6 92.4 88.9 32.6 95.1 92.6 88,8 33.3 84.8 82.1 4.9 55.8 300 Primary 18,8 96.7 96.7 95.1 34.3 96.7 96.7 95.2 35.0 89.8 89.1 3.3 65.4 344 Secondary 17.5 98,4 97.7 96.1 33.2 98.9 98.4 96.9 33.5 90.2 88.6 0.9 68,6 765 More than secondary 14.0 99.6 99.6 98.3 38.3 99.6 99.6 98.9 38.3 92.6 91.4 0.4 56,8 207 Total 16.8 97,5 96.7 94.8 34.0 97,8 97.1 95.3 34.4 89.4 87.9 2.1 64.0 1615 I ffaildren who are fully vaccinated, i.e., those who have received measles and three doses of DPT and polio vaccines (does not include BeG or DPT and polio boosten). 95 Vaccination Trends in the First Year of Life Table 8.9 presents inform ation on vaccination coverage in the first year of life for children one to four years of age (i.e., the five years preceding the survey). For children whose information was based on the mother's report, the proportion of vaccinations given during the first year of life was assumed to be the same as that for children for whom a health card was available. Table 8.9 Vaccinations in the first year of life Percentage of children one to four years of age for whom a vaccination card was seert by the interviewer and the percentage vaccinated for BCG, DPT, polio, and measles by 12 months of age, by current age of the child, Jordan 1990 Current age of child in months Vaccine 12-23 24-35 36~-7 48-59 All children 12-59 months Vaccination card seen 64.0 57.6 56.5 50.4 57.2 by the Interviewer Percent vaccinated at 0-It months 1 BCG 15.8 18.1 18.7 17.5 17.5 Polio 1 96.3 95.6 96.2 91.7 94.9 Polio 2 95.2 94.3 94.8 90.3 93.7 Polio 3 92.6 90.9 91.2 85.4 90.1 Polio booster 3.3 4.0 3.1 3.0 3.4 DPT 1 96.0 95.3 96.2 91.4 94.8 DFF 2 94.8 93.9 94.8 90.0 93.4 DPT 3 92.2 90.7 91.2 85.2 89.9 DFI" booster 4.4 4.4 3.3 2.9 3.7 Measles 76.0 77.7 74.1 68.0 74.0 All 2 74.7 75.2 72.6 66.4 72.3 Number of chil&en 1615 1629 1618 1547 6410 lInformalion was obtained fi'om a vaccination card or from the mother ff there was no written record. For children whose information was based on the mother's report, the proportion of vaccinations given during the first year of life was assumed to be the same as for chil&en with a written record of vaceinalions. 2Children who are fully vaccinated, i.e., those who have received measles and three doses of DPT and polio vaccines I does not include BCG or DPT and polio boosters) The table shows some progress in the provision of preventive health measures, especially during the past four years. Overall, coverage of vaccination cards increased from 50 percent around 1986 to 64 percent in 1990, although the lower percentage for older children may be due to the failure of the mother to show the health card to the interviewer. (The card is kept at school once the child enters primary school,) Coverage for polio, DPT and measles vaccinations shows an increase between children age 48-59 months and those age 36-47 months (roughly 1986 and 1987), then remains largely unchanged among younger children. As mentioned earlier, the health program in Jordan does not emphasize BCG vaccinations; this is reflected by the decreasing proportion of children who have received this vaccination in the most recent years. 96 8.3 CHILD MORBIDITY AND TREATMENT Diarrhea is singled out for investigation in this survey for two reasons: it is a leading cause of death among children in many developing coun- tries, and the condition is amenable to treatment by oral rehydration therapy (ORT). The Jordan Minis- try of Health includes ORT--both as a solution prepared from commercially produced oral rehy- dration salts (ORS packets) and as a homemade solution recommended by the World Health Org- anization-in its health programs. In the 1990 JPFHS, mothers who had chil- dren under five were asked if their children had ex- perienced diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. If so, they were asked if the children were given a solution prepared from ORS packets or a homemade solution. Prevalence of Diarrhea Nine percent of children under five had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey (see Table 8.10 and Figure 8.3). There is little variation by sex of the child, residence, or mother's edu- cation. However, children under two years of age, especially those age 6-11 months, are more likely than older children to have had diarrhea. Only a small fraction of children were reported to have. had bloody stools, a symptom of dysentery. Knowledge and Use of ORS Packets Table 8.11 presents data on mothers' knowledge and use of ORS packets. In the survey, all women with children under five, irrespective of whether they had diarrhea in the preceding two weeks were asked if they had ever heard of the ORS packets (AquacellorParalait) and if they had ever used them. The responses indicated that treat- ment of diarrhea using ORS packets is well known. Virtually all women with children under five years (99 percent) said they knew about ORS, and there was no variation among subgroups. Table 8.10 Prevalence of diarrhea Percentage of child~n under five years of age who had diarrhea and bloody diarrhea during the two weeks preceding the survey, by selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Diarrhea in the preceding 2 weeks Number Background All Diarrhea of characteristic diarrhea with blood children Age of child <6 months 14.5 0.4 654 6-11 months 17.9 0.0 819 12-23 months 15.7 0,1 1615 24-35 months 5.3 0.0 1629 36-47 months 3.3 0.1 1618 48-59 months 2.3 0.I 1547 Sex of chlld Male 8.7 0.1 4013 Female 8.3 0.0 3869 Birth order 1 12.3 0.2 1267 2-3 9.1 0.1 2086 4-5 6.6 0.0 1631 6+ 7.5 0.1 2899 Residence Large city 8.7 0.1 2897 Other urban 8.9 0.2 2608 Rural 7.9 0.0 2378 Region Amman 8.5 0.0 2812 Zarqa + Mafraq 8.6 0.1 1596 lrbid 10.0 0.1 2074 Balqa 3.4 0.0 568 South 8.1 0.0 832 Mother's level of education No education 7.7 0.0 1558 Primary 7.5 0.0 1669 Secondary 9.7 0.1 3746 More than secondary 6.9 0.1 910 All children 8.5 0.l 7882 Note: Figures are for childran born in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. Use of ORS to treat diarrhea is widespread in Jordan. More than 64 percent of mothers with children under five have used it; older women, women living in rural areas, and those with less education are more likely to have used the ORS packet (Aquacell) than other women. 97 Figure 8.3 Prevalence of Diarrhea among Children Under Five Years Percent ~e 6- 12- 24- Se- 48- I 2-3 4-5 6. NO Pri. 8ec, 8ec. 11 25 55 47 59 educ. AGE BIRTH ORDER EDUCATION Note: Based on chi ldren age 1-59 months who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. JPFH5 1990 Treatment of Diarrhea The JPFHS collected information on the advice and treatment sought by mothers for their children with diarrhea, and what was given to treat the diarrhea episode. The various diarrhea treatments can be classified into three major categories, namely antibiotics, ORS, and homemade solutions. Homemade solutions include sugar water, tea, rice water, and various herbal teas such as yansoon, meramya and babunij. 98 Table 8.11 Knowledge and use of ORS packets Percentage of mothers with births in the five years preceding the survey who know about and have ever used ORS packets, by selected background charscterlstics, Jordan 1990 Know Have ever Number Background about ORS used ORS of ch&acteristic packets packets mothers Mother's age 15-19 99.2 52.2 180 20-24 99.3 61.5 829 25-29 99.1 66.5 1163 30-34 98.2 65.0 969 35+ 97.6 65,7 1281 Residence Large city 99.3 61.9 1703 Other urban 98.6 63.2 1468 Rural 97.3 69.3 1251 Region Ammm~ 98.3 60.3 1661 Zarqa + Mafraq 98.6 64.3 904 Irbld 99.7 73.7 1093 Balqa 98,6 59,4 303 South 96.4 61.0 461 Education level attended No education 95.8 67.8 880 Primary 98.9 68.2 949 Secondary 99.2 63.3 2083 Higher 99.6 56.3 509 All mothers 98.5 64.4 4421 Note: Includes mothers who have given ORS for diarrhea during the past two weeks, although they we=e not asked about knowledge of ORS packets. 99 Data concerning treatmem of diarrhea are presented in Table 8.12. Among children under five who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey, half were taken to a health facility, such as a hospital, health center, or private doctor. Younger children, children living in rural areas, children of higher birth order, children from the South, and children of mothers with no education are more likely to have received advice and treatment from a health facility than other children. Table 8.12 Treatment of diarrhea Percentage of children under five years who had diarrhea in the two weeks preending the sarvey who were taken for tzeatment to a health facility or provider, the percentage who received oral rehydration therapy (ORT), the percentage who received neither ORT nor increased fluids, mad the percentage who received antibiotics, according to selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Pc'~.~n~ge Percentage Oral azhydration receiving Numlct taken to therapy (OPT) neither Percentage of a health OPT nor receiving children Background facility or ORS Homemade increased anti- with characteristic provider 1 packets solution fluids biotics diarrhea Age of child <6 months 49.2 31.3 64.9 23.7 27.1 95 6-11 months 53.6 48.3 65.6 17.8 28.1 147 12-23 months 56.6 46.5 62.8 22.4 36.6 254 24-35 months 33.2 33.0 68.0 23.6 23.1 86 36-47 months 44.2 33.1 65.3 27.1 30,1 53 48-59 months 39.1 41.0 59.6 28.6 19.3 35 Sex of child Male 50.1 44.1 66.6 20.9 30.1 348 Female 49.9 39.1 62.1 24.0 30.4 323 Bl~h order 1 46.9 38.6 66.9 22.5 29.3 155 2-3 46.5 38.8 65.0 21.3 28.2 189 4-5 47.9 39.9 59.3 23.6 33.0 107 6+ 56.3 47.2 64.7 22.8 31.3 219 Residence Large city 43.6 39.2 60.0 28.4 30.1 252 Other urban 50.9 38.4 66.2 21.9 30.9 232 Rural 57.6 49.1 68.2 15.0 29.6 187 Region Amman 43.8 33.0 61.6 29,5 27,6 238 Zarqa + Mafraq 45.2 35.3 58.0 27.6 25.0 138 L-bid 53.8 51.6 72.7 13.0 31.5 208 Balqa 59.5 49.4 81.5 13.2 48.0 20 South 67.1 52.6 57.0 18.6 40.9 68 Education level attended No education 63.1 50.1 58.4 23.9 35.2 121 Prlmm'y 50.4 44.2 69.2 18.6 28.4 124 Secondary 46.0 39.7 66.2 21.8 28.1 363 More than secondary 4712 32.2 56.2 30.8 37.2 63 All children with diarrhea 50.0 41.7 64.4 22.4 30.2 671 Note: Oral tchydration thc~'apy (ORT) includes solution prepared fi'om ORS packets and homemade solutions such ¢s sugar water, tea, and tic¢ water. Figures ate for children born in the ~_'clOd 1-59 months preceding the survey. nudes hospital, health center, nmternui and child health center and clinic 100 Columns 2, 3, and 4 of Table 8.12 present information on the use of oral rehydratinn therapy to treat diarrhea. It should be noted that the percents may add up to more than 100, since more than one treatment may have been given. Of the different types of treatment administered, home solution is the most popular, used to treat more than 64 percent of children with diarrhea. The next most popular treatment is ORS packets, used to treat 42 percent of children. Twenty-two percent of children who had diarrhea were not given either of these types of oral rehydmtion therapy. Children of higher birth order, children living in rural areas or in the South, and children of women who have no education are slightly more likely to been given a solution prepared from an ORS packet than other children. Antibiotics were administered to 30 percent of children who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. This is a high proportion in comparison with other countries participating in the DHS program. Breastfeeding Practices During Diarrhea The JPFHS included questions on breastfceding practices for children who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. Mothers were asked about any changes in the frequency of breasffeeding for children not yet weaned. For most children with diarrhea there was no change in the number of times they were breasffed (see Table 8.13). As much as 90 percent of the children received the same amount of breast milk or more. However, almost ten percent received less or no milk at all. Table 8.13 Breasffeeding practices during diarrhea Percent distribution of children under five who are still being breasffed and who had diarrhea in the ~eceding two weeks by frequency of breastfeeding, Jordan 1990 Breastfeeding children Frequency of who had breast feeding diarrhea Bretmffeedlng frequency 1 Same as usual 86.0 Increased 4.3 Reduced 8.5 Stopped 1.2 Total I00.0 Number of chil~en breasffed 523 Number of children with diarrhea 6"/I Note: Figures are for children born in the ~AriOd 1-59 months preceding the survey. pplies only to lint child who is still brcasffe, d 101 CHAPTER 9 INFANT FEEDING AND CHILDHOOD NUTRITION In this chapter, two topics are examined: infant feeding practices (including breasffeedlng, supplementary foods and the use of a bottle with a nipple while breastfeeding) and the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Both mother and child are affected by infant feeding. The duration, frequency, and amount of feeding affect the child's nutritional status, which influences the chances of survival. Breastfeeding affects the mother through postpartum infertility, which, in turn, influences the subsequent birth interval and overall fertility. The nutritional status of children is assessed in terms of anthropemetric measurements (height and weight). Combined with information on feeding practices these data indicate to program planners and policymakers the population subgroups and health services that need the greatest attention. 9.1 BREASTFEEDING AND SUPPLEMENTATION Breasffeeding is almost universal in Jordan; 94 percent of infants are breastfed. There is virtually no variation among subgroups. Table 9.1 presents information on the extent of breastfeeding for living children (columns 1 and 2), and the timing of initiation ofbreasffeeding for last-born children (columns 3 and 4). Breastfeeding is initiated early; 41 percent of newborns are breastfed during the first hour after birth, while 66 percent are given breast milk in the first day of life. Differentials by background characteristics are minor except that children born to women in Balqa are likely to be put to the breast sooner than average, while those born to women in Irbid are likely to experience a delay in initiation of breastfeeding. Table 9.2 presents information on breastfeeding practices for living children under three years of age. Three types of breastfeeding are distinguished: exclusive breastfeeding, full breastfeeding (augmented by plain water only), and breastfeeding supplemented with other foods. Nearly all children are breastfed for at least some time. However, by age 4-5 months, only 84 percent of the children are breastfed, and after 9 months this percentage drops to 66 percent. Exclusive breastfeeding is not common; less than 40 percent of infants age 0-1 month are exclusively breasffed. Table 9.3 shows the percentage of breasffeeding children who are receiving food supplements and the percentage who are being bottlefed (using a bottle with a nipple). More than half of all children received a supplement in the first month. It should be noted that the analysis is limited to infants (children 0-11 months). Also, the supplementation categories are not mutually exclusive, i.e., infants given one of the supplements may also have been given one or more of the supplements in the columns to the left of that particular supplement. For example, an infant that was given solid or mushy food may also have been given one or more of the following supplements: infant formula, other milk, and other liquids. The introduction of supplements begins eariy (see Table 9.3); almost half of infants who are breastfed are given liquids other than infant formula or other milk. Among children who are breasffed, infant formula and other milk are given to less than one in five children. As expected, as age increases, more and more infants are given solid or mushy food. The proportion of children given solid or mushy food increases markedly after the first three months. By age 4-5 months, more than half of the children are given solid or mushy food, and by 10-11 months three-quarters of breastfeeding children are given solid or mushy food. 103 Table 9.1 Inltial breasffeeding Percentage of children born in the five years preceding the survey who were ever breasffed and the percentage of last-born ~hlidren who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth, by selected background characteristics, Jordan 1990 Among last-born children Among all child,ran Percentage who started breasifeeding Number Percentage Number of Background ev~ of Within I hour Within I day l~t-born characteristic breasffed childran of blrth of birth childran Time since birth 0-11 months 94,8 1599 41.0 66.9 1598 12-23 months 93.9 1677 41.5 67,7 1346 24-35 months 93.7 1695 41.6 63,6 763 36-47 months 93,0 1682 36.3 61.7 453 48-59 months 93.6 1608 40.6 62.5 323 Sex of child Male 93.6 4207 40.0 64.1 2317 Female 93.9 4054 41.5 67.5 2167 Residence Large city 92,8 3037 40.9 65.5 1725 Other urban 94.4 2712 42.2 66.3 1489 Rural 94.2 2512 38.9 65.3 1269 Region Amman 93.3 2952 41.5 62.8 1682 Zarqa + Mafraq 93.4 1668 47.7 70.3 918 lrbid 94.9 2181 22.7 60.6 1108 Balqa 91.9 582 73.8 81.3 310 South 94.2 879 45.3 69.0 466 Education level attended No education 92.9 1629 40.7 63.9 893 Primary 93.6 1762 39.7 66,6 962 Secondary 94.1 3921 42.2 66.8 2110 More than secondary 94,0 949 37.1 62.7 518 Assistance at delivery Medically trained 93,5 7209 40.1 65.3 3984 Traditional midwife 95.6 709 44.4 70.9 330 Other or none 94.5 343 48.8 66.5 170 Place of delivery Health facility 93.4 6487 40,3 65.5 3645 At home 95.1 1644 42,7 66.0 769 Other 96.9 129 46.3 75.6 68 Missing 69.8 2 0.0 0.0 0 All children 93.8 8261 40,8 65.7 4483 104 Table 9.2 Breast.feeding status Percent distribution of living children by breasffeeding status, according to child's age in months, Jordan 1990 Percentage of living children who are: Exclu- Breastfeeding and: Not sively breast- breast- Plain water Supple- Age in months feeding fed only ments Total 0-1 3.0 38.9 5,2 52.9 I00.0 2-3 9.7 24.8 8.2 57.2 I00.0 4-5 15.6 9.8 7.2 67.5 IO0.O 6-7 27.9 6.4 6.1 59.6 I00.0 8-9 33.7 3.4 3.5 59.4 100.0 10-11 33.8 3.5 6.7 55.9 100.0 12-13 47.5 2.2 2.7 47.6 100.0 14-15 67.0 2.1 0.7 30.1 100.0 16-17 67.9 1.4 1.0 29.7 100.0 18-19 81.3 1.4 0.6 16.7 100.0 20-21 84.9 0.4 0.2 14.6 I00.0 22-23 90.0 0.4 0.7 8.9 I00.0 24-25 93.5 0.0 0.0 6.5 I00.0 26-27 98.0 0.2 0.4 1.5 10{3.0 28-29 97.5 0.0 0.0 2.5 100.0 30-31 96,9 0.0 0.4 2.7 100.0 32-33 97.3 0.0 0,3 2.5 I00.0 34-35 99.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 IO0.O Note: Breasffeeding status refers to preceding 24 hours. Children classified as breas~eedln$ and plain water only receive no supplements. 105 Table 9.3 Breastfeeding and supplementation Percentage of breasffeeding children who are receiving specific types of food supplementation, and the percentage who are using a bottle with a nipple, by age in months, Jordan 1990 Percentage of breasffeeding children who are: Receiving supplement Using a bottle Number Infant Other Other Solid/ with a of Age in months formula milk liquid Mushy nipple children 0-I 12.4 3.1 47.9 0.8 19.8 220 2-3 18.1 15.0 44.5 12.9 32.6 225 4-5 22.8 18.3 42.9 52.6 39.6 218 6-7 20.4 23.1 51.3 64.3 33.7 192 8-9 17.5 22.0 59.7 73.5 31.2 182 10-11 12.8 28.4 59.7 73.7 26.6 184 All ages 17.4 18.8 51.3 48.1 30.8 1221 Note: Figures we for the preceding 24 hours. Percents by type of supplement may sum t~ more than 100, as children may have received more than one type of supplement. The extent to which a bottle with a nipple is used to feed infants who are being breasffed is shown in Table 9.3. On average, 31 percent of these infants are given a bottle with a nipple. A bottle is given to two in ten infants 0-1 month, 4 in 10 infants 4-5 months, after which the proportion declines. Table 9.4 presents the differentials in breastfeeding pattems between subgroups. The median durations are based on children born 0 to 35 months preceding the survey, irrespective of their survival status. The median duration of breastfeeding is 12 months; however, the median for exclusive breasffeeding is just over one-half month. Column 1 indicates a slight variation in breastfeeding duration across subgroups. Children in large cities, children of women with secondary or higher education, and those who were assisted by medically trained personnel at delivery tend to have somewhat shorter breastfeeding durations. Mother's education and type of assistance at delivery have the strongest associations with breasffeeding patterns. Children of rural women and women who have no education tend to be breastfed longer and more frequently than other children. Regarding frequency of breastfeeding (see Table 9.4), 77 percent of breastfed children were given breast milk six times or more in the preceding 24 hours; the figures ranges from 74 percent for children in large eities to 81 percent for rural children, and from 85 percent for children of mothers who have no education to 67 percent for children whose mothers attended more than secondary education. 106 Table 9.4 Median duration and frequency of breesffeeding dedian duration of any breesffeeding, exclusive breesffeeding, and full breasffeedin~ and the ~etc4mtege of children under six months of age who were breasffed six or more frees in the 24 hours preceding the survey, by selected to background checacteristics, Jordan 1990 Median duration io months Children under 6 rn~ths Percentage breasffed Any Exclusive Full Number 6+ times Number Background breast- breast- breast- of in preceding of characteristic feeding feeding feeding I children 24 hours children Sex of child Male 12.6 0.6 0.6 2520 78.8 368 Female 12.1 0.6 0.7 2451 74.7 367 Realdence Large city 11.3 0.6 0.6 1846 74.5 265 Other urban 12.5 0.7 1.0 1633 75.8 261 Rural 13.2 0.6 0.7 1493 80.9 208 Region Amman 12.1 0.6 0.6 1789 79.9 250 Zanla + Mafraq 12.7 0.7 0.7 996 77.5 141 Irbid 12.1 0.6 0.6 1313 74.6 206 Balqa 13.7 0.4 0.6 335 69.1 51 South 12.0 0.7 0.7 539 76.1 86 Education level attended No education 16.2 0.7 1.3 861 84.8 88 Prima~ 13.2 0.6 0.6 1006 74.9 137 Secondary 11.6 0.6 0.6 2471 78.7 389 Mure than secondary 10.2 0.5 0.7 634 66.6 121 Assistance at delivery Medically trained 12.1 0.6 0.7 4424 76.9 685 Tredifional midwife 15.1 0.6 0.6 364 67.7 33 Other or None 14.2 2.3 2.3 184 87.8 15 All children 12.3 0.6 0.7 4971 76.7 734 Mean for all children 13,0 2.5 3.3 94.1 94.1 NA Prevalen~-JIncidance 2 12.2 1.7 2.5 NA NA NA Note: Medims and means are based on current status. Proportion of children ever breesffed is 94.1 percent. NA = Not applicable IEith~ exclusively breasffed or received plain water only in addition to breastfeeding 21W~val~ me.m 107 9.2 NUTRIT IONAL STATUS An important component of the JPFHS was the collection of anthrepometric data for the assessment of children's nutritional status. All children born since January 1985 whose mothers were interviewed in the survey were measured. The measurements included height (i.e., recumbent length), weight, head and ann circumference, and arm fat. Height and weight were measured using a portable measuring board and a hanging spring scale calibrated in 0.1 kilogram increments. Head and arm circumference were measured using a tape, while fat tissue was determined by pinching the arm. Only the height and weight data are presented in this report. The results of surveys of this type are strongly influenced by the accuracy of the height and weight measurements, as well as age reporting. An investigation of the dating of events in Jordan found that age reporting for children was excellent. Month and year of birth were obtained for 98 percent of children of respondents, and no apparent heaping is observed from the age distribution. To ensure accurate measurement, the Ministry of Health provided each field team with a nurse to weigh and measure the children. The nurse was assisted by a supervisor or field editor, who was trained in the collection of anthropometric measure- meats. The procedures used to measure the children were those recommended by the United Nations (1986). During fieldwork, the factory-made pants which came with the scales were often found to be too small. This was particularly true in the case of older children. To resolve the problem, larger pants were made which could be used in measuring older/larger children. For comparative purposes, the data on nutritional status are evaluated using the National Center for Health Statistics/Centers for Disease Control (NCHS/CDC) International Reference Population, as recom- mended by the World Health Organization. Of 9,559 children under five whose mothers were interviewed, 82 percent were successfully measured. The major reasons for not measuring the children were because the children were absent from the household (11 percent), or they refused (3 percent). Interviewers were instructed to measure children under two years of age lying down on the measuring board (recumbent length), while children two years or more were measured standing. It was found, however, that 47 percent of children under two years were measured standing, and 5 percent of children two years or more were measured lying down. Part of the error may have occurred in coding the method of measurement. Three standard indices have been developed to assess nutritional status: • Height-for-age • Weight-for-height • Weight-for-age Each of these indices provides a somewhat different measure of nutritional status. Height-for-age is used as a measure of linear growth. Children who are short for their age are generally chronically undernourished. A child whose height-for-age is below -2 standard deviations from the median of the NCHS/CDCJWHO reference population is suffering from moderate to severe linear growth retardation, and is classified as stunted. In the reference population, the percentage of children who fall in this category is 2.3 percent. A percentage exceeding this number is a reflection of the prevalence of stunting in the population, which may be caused by a long period of malnutrition or recurrent and chronic illness. The weight-for-height index examines body mass in relation to body length, and is used as an indicator of current and acute undernutrition (wasting). Weight-for-age is a useful summary index, particularly in monitoring growth of children in a clinical situation. Although taking into account both chronic and acute undernutrition, it has 108 the disadvantage that it does not distinguish the two. The data are presented here to allow for comparison with clinical data. Information from the JPFHS on the nutritional status of children is summarized in Tables 9.5 and 9.6. (Table 9.5 gives the distribution of children by selceted demographic characteristics; Table 9.6 gives the distribution ofchildrcn by selected background charac~ristics.) Overall, children in Jordan do well in terms of weight-for-height (wasting); only 2.8 percent are acutely undernourished (below -2 standard deviations). However, 19 percent of children arc chronically undernourished (stunted) for weight-for-height (below -2 standard deviations); and 6 percent arc underweight (below -2 standard deviations) for weight-for-age. Table 9.5 Nutritional status by demographic characteristics Percentage of children unde~ five years who are classified as undernourished according to three anthropometric indices of nutritional status: height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age, by selected demographic charactea'istics, Iord~m 1990 Demographic characteristic Height-for-age Weight-for-height Weight-for-age Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Number below below below below below below of -3SD -2SD 1 -3SD -2SD 1 -3SD -2SD l childree Child's age <6 months 0.5 3.6 0.4 4.0 0.6 1.7 594 6-11 months 4.5 14.6 0.9 4.6 1.9 6.0 704 12-23 months 6.3 22.9 0.8 3.4 1.1 7.4 1409 24-35 months 5.6 20.8 0.2 1.9 0.7 6.8 1373 36--47 months 6.5 22.4 0.3 2.0 0.6 7.5 1340 48-59 months 5.0 20.3 0.4 2.5 0.7 6.3 1182 Sex of child Male 5.7 19.6 0.7 3.5 1.0 6.7 3307 Female 4.8 18.9 0.3 2.2 0.7 6.2 3294 Bl~hor~r 1 3.6 15.3 0.3 3.3 0.7 6.0 I~ I 2~ 4.4 17.2 0.4 2.2 0.8 5.8 17~ 4~ 6.0 ~. I 0.4 2.5 0.7 6.0 1401 6+ 6.1 21.8 0.7 3,3 1.1 7.3 ~75 Blrth Interval First birth 3.6 15.4 0.3 3.2 0.6 6.0 1032 <24 months 6.1 21.7 0.3 2.6 1.0 6.8 2744 24-47 months 5.3 19.8 0.8 3.0 0.9 6.7 2293 48+ months 3.8 11.5 0.7 3.1 0.4 4.1 531 All children 5.3 19.3 0.5 2.8 0.9 6.4 6601 Note: Figmes are for childre~ bern in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. Each index is expressed in terms of the number of standard deviation (SD) units from the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO international reference population. Children are classified as undemonrished if their z-seeres are below minus two or minus three standard deviations (-2SD or -3SD) from the median of the reference population. 1Includes children who are below -3SD 109 The demographic differentials in nutritional status are generally small (see Table 9.5). Stunting is low during infancy, especially at age 0-6 months, increases in the second year of life, then remains about the same through age five. Wasting is more common in infancy than at older ages. In terms of nutritional status, girls are better off than boys, especially for wasting. High birth order children show a greater degree of stunting than low birth order children (15 percent for first-order children and 22 percent for children of birth order 6 and higher). Children who are born after a long birth interval (4 years or more) are less likely to be stunted than children born after a short birth interval. Stunting and wasting are strongly associated with residence and level of education (see Table 9.6 and Figure 9.1). Rural children and children of mothers who did not attend school are twice as likely to be stunted as children who live in large cities and children of mothers who have attended secondary or higher education. Table 9.6 Nutritional stares by background characteristics Percentage of children undar five years who are classified as undernourished according to three enthropometric indices of nutritional status: height-for-age, weight-for-height, acd weight-for-age, by selected background characterisdcs, Jordan 1990 Demographic chm'actoristic Height-for-age Weight-for-height ~ Weight-for-age Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Number below below below below below below of -3SD -2SD l -3SD -2SD l -3SD -2SD l children Residence Large city 3.4 14.1 0.3 2.5 0.5 4.9 2447 Other urben 4.1 17,8 0.7 2.7 0.9 5.0 2184 Rural 8.9 27.3 0.6 3.5 1.3 9.9 1970 Region Ammac 4.9 16.4 0.7 4.0 0.9 6.4 2305 Zarqa + Mafraq 4.8 20.9 0.2 1,6 0.6 6.4 1397 Irhid 4.4 19.3 0.4 1.7 0.9 5.6 1825 Balqa 9,1 26.6 0.9 4.5 1.3 8.8 421 South 7.5 21.2 0.6 3.6 1.0 7.5 652 Education level attended No education 8.6 28.8 0.7 3.5 I,I 10.7 1283 Primary 6.3 23.3 0.6 2.6 1,4 6.3 1423 Secondary 4.1 15.3 0.4 2.7 0.6 5.4 3161 More than secondary 2.5 11.9 0.7 2.7 0,7 3.8 733 All children 5.3 19.3 0.5 2.8 0.9 6.4 6601 Note: Figures are for children horn in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. Each index is expressed in teams of the number of standard deviation (SD) units from the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO inte~'nutional refe~v~'tce population. Children are classified as undernourished if their z-scores are below minus two or minus three st~derd deviations (-2SD or -3SD) from the mediac of the reference population. tlncludes children who are below -3SD 110 Figure 9.1 Percentage of Children Under Five Years Who are Chronically Undernourished (Stunted) Percent 30 27 Large Uther Hure! city Urban RESIDENCE Note: Percentage of children below:-2 8D from the median of the International , Reference Population for height-for-age. No edu¢. 20 PrL Seo. EDUCATION 7 12 Higher JPFHS 1990 111 REFERENCES Abdel Aziz, Abdallah. 1983. Evaluation of the Jordan Fertility Survey 1976. World Fertility Survey Scientific Reports No. 42. Voorburg, Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Abdel Aziz, Abdallah. 1988. The Effect of Reproductive Behavior on Infant and Early Childhood Mortality. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Abdel Aziz, A., A. Adlakha, and M. Nizamuddin. 1983. Jordan Demographic Survey 1981. Amman, Jordan: Department of Statistics. Abdel Aziz, A., J.E. Anderson, L. Morris, P. Wingo, and B. Shrydeh. 1986. Family Planning in Jordan: 1983 Survey Data. Studies in Family Planning 17(4):199-206. Aloui, Touhami, Mohamed Ayad, and Habib Fourati. 1989. Enqudte Ddmographique et de Santd en Tunisie 1988. Columbia, Maryland: Office National de la Famille et de la Population [Tunisia] and Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Inc. Azelmat, Mustapha, Mohamed Ayad, and Houcine Belhachmi. 1989. Enqu~te Nationalsur la Planification Familiale, la Fdconditd et la Santd de la Population au Maroc (ENPS) 1987. Columbia, Maryland: Minist~re de la Sant~ Publique, Service des Etudes et de l'Information Sanitalre [Morocco] and Institute for Resource Development/Westinghouse. Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers. 1980. Jordan: Country Briefing Book. Washington, D.C.: B atteUe Population and Development Policy Program. Department of Statistics [ Jordan]. 1976. National Fertility Survey 1972. Amman, Jordan. Department of Statistics [Jordan]. 1979. Jordan Fertility Survey 1976. 2 vols. Amman, Jordan. Department of Statistics [Jordan]. 1982. Housing and Population Census 1979: Summary Results for Localities in the East Bank. Amman, Jordan. Department of Statistics [Jordan]. 1984a. Housing and Population Census 1979. Vol. 2, Part 1. Amman, Jordan. Department of Statistics [Jordan]. 1984b. Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey 1983. Amman, Jordan. Department of Statistics [Jordan]. 1989a. Health, Nutrition, Manpower, and Poverty Survey 1987: Principal Report. Amman, Jordan. Department of Statistics [Jordan]. 1989b. InternalMigration, ReturnMigration, andManpowerSurvey 1986. Amman, Jordan. Department of Statistics [Jordan]. 1991. 1990 Statisn'cal Yearbook. Amman, Jordan. Department of Statistics [Sudan] and Institute for Resource Development/Macro International Inc. 1991. Sudan Demographic and Health Survey 1989/1990. Columbia, Maryland: Deparanent of Statistics and Institute for Resource Development/Macro International Inc. 113 National Population Commission [Jordan]. 1991. Population Projections for Jordan: 1990-2005. Amman, Jordan. Sayed, Hussein Abdel-Aziz, Magued I. Osman, Fatma E1-Zanaty, and Ann A. Way. 1989. Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 1988. Columbia, Maryland: Egypt National Population Council and Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Inc. Shryock, Henry S. and Jacob S. Siegel. 1973. The Methods and Materials of Demography. Washington, D.C.: GPO. Sullivan, Jeremiah M., George T. B icego, and Shea Oscar Rutstein. 1990. Assessment of the Quality of Data Used for the Direct Estimation of Infant and Child Mortality in the Demographic and Health Surveys. In An Assessment of DHS-I Data Quality, 113-140. Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems. DHS Methodological Reports No. 1. Columbia, Maryland. United Nations. Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Statistical Office. 1986. How To Weigh and Measure Children: Assessing the Nutritional Status of Young Children in Household Surveys. New York: United Nations (National Household Survey Capability Programme). Warren, C.W., F. Hiyari, P.A. Wingo, A.M. Abdel-Aziz, and L. Morris. 1990. Fertility and Family Planning in Jordan: Results from the 1985 Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey. Studies in Family Planning 21 (1):33-39. Warren, C., L. Morris, and F. Hiyari. 1987. Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey 1985. Amman, Jordan: Department of Statistics. World Bank. 1989. Jordan in Trends in Developing Economies 1989. Washington, D.C. World Health Organization. 1983. Measuring Change in Nutritional Status: Guidelines for Assessing the Nutritional Impact of Supplementary Feeding Programmes for Vulnerable Groups. Geneva, Switzerland. Zou'bi, Abdallah A.A. 1989. Population Parameters and Consequences of Population Growth in Jordan. Paper presented at the Seminar on Communication, Population, and Development, Yarmuk University, lrbid, Jordan. Zou'bi, AbdaUah A.A. and Kamal Sidki Saleh. 1991. Completeness of Adult Mortality and Construction of Life Table for Jordan: 1987 (Summary). Amman, Jordan: Department of Statistics. 114 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN The primary objective of the Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) sample design was to provide reliable estimates of fertility and mortality rates, and nfthe use of contraceptive methods at the national level and for major subpopulations, namely large cities, other urban areas, and rural areas. Depending on the sample size, reliable estimates can also be provided for each of the largest governorates, and a group of smaller governorates. To achieve this objective, a stratified two-stage design was adopted. The data were collected from all households in the sample areas, using the household questionnaire, and individual questionnaires were administered to all ever-married women aged 15 to 49 who were usual residents in the selected households. Data on height and weight of respondents' children bom since January 1985 were also obtained in order to gain insight of the nutritional status of children in Jordan. The following is a detailed description of the JPFHS sampling design. A description of the field activities involved in the implementation of the sample design is included in Chapter 1 of this report. A.1 Sample Coverage Administratively, Jordan is divided into 8 goveruorates. Most of Jordan's estimated 3.5 million population live in the central and northern highlands along the Jordan River. The three largest governorates, Amman, Irbid and Zarqa, are clustered in the central and northern parts of the country, constituting approximately 80 percent of the country's population. The remaining 20 percent are shared by 5 govemorates, namely Mafraq in the east, Balqa in the west, and Karak, Ma'an and Tafielah in the south. The JPFHS sample is nationally representative; however, nomads living in remote areas and persons living in institutional quarters such as hotels, dormitories and prisons were excluded from the sample frame. A.2 Sample Design The JPFHS was designed to be self-weighting, but due to the need to provide separate estimates for the smaller govemorates, a weighted design was applied. The sampling frame for the JPFHS was obtained from an updated listing of housing units, pertaining to 1989 and 1990 for major cities, and from population projections for localities in the rest of the country. As mentioned above, the country is classified into three major divisions, large cities, other urban areas, and rural areas. In each category, all localities were stratified according to their size. In localities with a population of less than 5,000, the first stage sampling unit was the locality itself. In localities with more than 5,000 population, segments of approximately 100 households defined as Ultimate Area Blocks, (UAB) were formed, and used as the primary sampling unit. A criterion determining the JPFHS sample size was the necessity to have a sufficiently large number of ever-married women in the survey to allow for meaningful analysis. Using information from the 1987 Health, Nutrition, Manpower and Poverty Survey it was estimated that the average number of ever-married women age 15-49 per household was 0.84 with almost no variation across urban-rural areas, and very slight variation among govemorates. From the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS), it was found that the level of coverage and response was 92 percent. On the basis of these figures, to yield approximately 6,500 interviews with ever-married women age 15-49, roughly 8,500 households would have to be visited. 117 A.3 Sample Allocation A total of 292 sampling units (clusters) were selected at the beginning of the survey for a self- weighted design. However, it was found that the number of selected clusters in each of the five smaller govemorates (Mafraq, Balqa, Karak, Tafielah and Ma'an) was insufficient for obtaining reliable demographic and health estimates at the govemorate level. In order to achieve a minimum sample size for providing these estimates, the number of sampling units in the five smaller govemorates was doubled to 20, 40, 26, 8, and 20 respectively. Hence, the total number of sampling units increased to 349. Table A.1 presents the distribution of the units by govemorate and stratum. A total of 134 units are located in major cities, 100 in other urban areas, and 115 in rural areas. Table A.1 Distribution of sample points by govemorate and straturn~ Jordan 1990 Slxa/ama Arranan Irbid Zarqa Balqa Karak Mafraq Ma'an Tafielah Total Urban 5,000 - 9,999 4 10 1 4 3 1 1 24 10,000- 19,999 2 8 1 8 3 - 2 3 27 20,000 - 49,999 14 2 6 12 8 7 49 50,000+ 88 16 30 134 Rural 4.500 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 15 500 - 999 3 3 1 2 3 2 4 lS 1,000- 1,999 3 S 1 5 5 3 2 1 28 2,000 - 4,999 5 22 1 S 10 4 2 2 54 Total 122 71 42 40 26 20 20 8 349 The Department of Statistics in Jordan, in collaboration with DHS staff decided to introduce questions on employment in the household questionnaire. This was done in order to obtain indicators of unemployment at the govemorate level according to specific characteristics (information which was much needed by the Government of Jordan, especially after the Gulf Crisis). The sample size for the household interview was also doubled to obtain these employment indicators, aiming at 17,000 expected interviews without increasing the number of sample clusters (349). The original sampling plan for the individual interview, which aimed at interviewing 6,500 eligible women in 8,500 households, remained unchanged. The sample clusters for each govemorate were then allocated among strata according to their population size in the govemorate. Table A. 1 presents the distribution of these clusters among strata by governorate. In this report, data for Mafraq govemorate are combined with that for Zarqa, while Karak, Tafielah and Ma'an govemorates are grouped as the "South" region. The last stage of sample design was household selection. Since every household is attached to a housing unit, the ultimate selection should be for housing units rather than households. However, some housing units may not be occupied by households or may not be identified, or the household itself may not be at home at the time of the interview. These issues were considered when selecting the number of housing units to be visited. Based on earlier information, it was estimated that 21,000 housing units should be visited in order to interview 17,0013 households (the total household sample size). Regarding the number of housing units per cluster, a total of 60 were selected. Thirty of the 60 predefined housing units were visited for the household interview only; the other 30 were visited for both the household and individual interviews (as applicable). This resulted in a selection of a total of 21,172 housing units. 118 The fieldwork for the household interview was carried out from September 26 through October 10, 1990, yielding 16,813 households. A total of 16,296 households were interviewed successfully, indicating a response rate of 96.9 percent. The sample for the individual interview was 10,708 housing units, aiming at locating and interviewing 8,500 households and 6,500 eligible women. A total of 8,590 households were identified; 2,118 other housing units were vacant or destroyed or could not be identified. Of the households identified, 8,333 were successfully interviewed, indicating a response rate of 97.0 percent. In these households, 7,246 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview (i.e., ever-married, age 15-49, and usual member of the household). Of these, 6,461 individual interviews were successfully completed. Thus, the response rate for the individual interview was 89.2 percent and the overall response rate for the JPFHS (the product of the household and the individual response rates) was 86.5 percent. While there does not appear to be a clear pattern among the household and individual response rates by urban-rural residence, household response rates range from 96.2 percent in the Amman to 98.4 percent in Irbid (see Table A.2). For the individual interview, Irbid again has the highest rate (93.0 percent), while Amman shows the lowest response rate (86.4 percent). Combining the household and individual response rates, Amman shows the lowest rate (83.1 percent), while Irbid has the highest (91.6 percent). 119 Table A.2 Results of the household and individual interviews by ree-ldence and re#on Percent distribution of households and eligible women in the sample by results of the household and individual interviews, and household, eligible women and ovemli response rates, according to residence and region, Jordan 1990 Residence Region za~qa Result of interview Large Other and and response rate city urban Rural Anumn Mafraq Irbid Balqa South Total Selected households Completed (C) 80.8 76.4 75.7 80.1 77.6 79.6 76.2 72.1 77.8 Household present but no competent respondent at home (HP) 0,1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Postponed (P) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Refused (17,) 0.I 0.I 0.0 0.2 0.I 0.0 0.0 0.I 0.I Dwelling not found (DNF) 2.0 2.4 2.0 2.9 2.3 1.1 2.5 1.5 2.2 Household absent (HA) 3.7 2.5 1.8 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.5 1.3 2.8 Dwelling vacant/address not a dwelling (DV) 12.6 18.1 19.9 13.1 16.3 15.7 18.5 23.7 16.5 Dwelling destroyed (DD) 0.I 0.1 0.3 0.I 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.2 Other (O) 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.8 0,3 Total percent 100.0 100.0 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1{30,0 100.0 100.0 Number 4049 3528 3131 3689 1961 2126 1220 1712 10708 Household response rate (HRR) t 97.2 96.6 97.2 96.2 96.8 98.4 96.8 97.6 97.0 Eligible women Completed (EWC) 88.6 89.0 90.1 86.4 91,5 93.0 89.2 87.5 89.2 Not at home (EWNH) 2,1 2.7 0.9 1.9 2.9 0.4 3.0 2,2 2.0 Postponed (EWP) 8.0 7.3 7.1 10,2 4.4 5.4 6.1 8,9 7.5 Refused (EWR) 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 Partly completed (EWPC) 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 Other (EWO) 0.9 0.8 1.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.2 Total percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0 100.0 Number 2756 2407 2083 2507 1396 1405 854 1084 7246 Eligible woman response rate (EWRR) 2 88.6 89.0 90.1 86.4 91.5 93.0 89.2 87.5 89.2 Overall response rate (ORR) 3 86.1 86.0 87.6 83.1 88.5 91.6 86.3 85.5 86.5 iUsing the number of households falling into specific response categories, the household response rate (HRR) is calculated as: C C+HP+P+R+DNF+HA 2Using the number of eligible women falling into specific response categories, the eligible woman response rate (EWRR) is calculated ez: EWC Ewe + EWNH + EWP + EWR + EWPC + EWO 3Tbe overall response rate (ORR) is calculated as: ORR = HRR * EWRR 120 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS The results from sample surveys are affected by two types of errors, nonsampling error and sampling error. Nonsampling error is due to mistakes made in carrying out field activities, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, errors in the way the questions are asked, misunderstanding on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, data entry errors, etc. Although efforts were made during the design and implementation of the JPFHS to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be measured statistically. The sample of women selected in the JPFHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each one would have yielded results that differed somewhat from the actual sample selected. The sampling error is a measure of the variability between all possible samples; although it is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. Sampling error is usually measured in terms of standard error of a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which one can reasonably assured that, apart from nonsampling errors, the true value of the variable for the whole population falls. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that same statistic as measured in 95 percent of all possible samples with the same design (and expected size) will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic. If the sample of women had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the JPFI-IS sample design depended on stratification, stages and clusters. Consequently, it was necessary to utilize more complex formulas. The computer package CLUSTERS, developed by the International Statistical Institute for the World Fertility Survey, was used to assist in computing the sampling errors with the proper statistical methodology. The CLUSTERS program treats any percentage or average as a ratio estimate, r = y/x, where y represents the total sample value for variable y, and x represents the total number of cases in the group or subgroup under consideration. The variance of r is computed using the formula given below, with the standard error being the square root of the variance: vat(r) 1 - / mh .--, 2 zh -_ _ _ 2 . . , Z~ - - : - X 2 k- I m h-1 | - I u ' h in which -- and zh -- yh - r .xk 123 where h rah Y~ xh~ f represents the stratum which varies from 1 to H, is the total number of EAs selected in the b th stratum, is the sum of the values of variable y in EA i in the h ~ stratum, is the sum of the number of cases (women) in EA i in the h th stratum, and is the overall sampling fraction, which is so small that CLUSTERS ignores it. In addition to the standard errors, CLUSTERS computes the design effect (DEFT) for eacla estimate, which is defined as the ratio between the standard error using the given sample design and the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used. A DEFT value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a value greater than 1.0 indicates the increase in the sampling error due to the use of a more complex and less statistically efficient design. CLUSTERS also computes the relative error and confidence limits for the estimates. In addition to the standard errors, CLUSTERS program also computes the design effect (DEBT) for each estimate, which is defined as the ratio between the standard error using the given sample design and the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used. A DEBT value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample; a value greater than 1.0 indicates the increase in the sampling error due to the use of a more complex and less statistically efficient design. Sampling errors are presented in Tables B.2-B.5 for variables considered to be of major interest. Results are presented for the whole country, for large cities, other urban areas, and rural areas. For each variable, the type of statistic (mean or proportion) and the base population are given in Table B.1. For each variable, Tables B.2-B.5 present the value of the statistic (R), its standard error (SE), the number of unweighteM (N) and weighted cases (WN), the design effect (DEBT), the relative standard error (SE/R), and the 95 percent confidence limits (R_-t_2SE). The confidence limits have the following interpretation. For the mean number of children ever bern (EVBORN), the overall average from the sample is 5.09 and its standard error is 0.054. Therefore, to obtain the 95 percent confidence limits, one adds and subtracts twice the standard error to the sample estimate, i.e., 5.09 + (2 x 0.054), which means that there is a high probability (95 pereen0 that the true average number of children ever born is between 4.98 and 5.20. The relative standard error for most estimates for the country as a whole is small, except for estimates of very small proportions. The magnitude of the error increases as estimates for subpopulations such as geographical areas are considered. For the variable children ever born, for instance, the relative standard error (as a percentage of the estimated mean) for the whole country and its regional division is 1.1 percent, 1.8 percent, 1.3 percent and 1.9 percent, respectively. 124 Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors) Jordan 1990 VARIABLE URBAN ILLIT SECOND CURMAR MAR20 SEX18 PREGNANT EVBORN EVB4049 SURVIV KMETHOD KSOURCE EVUSE CUSINO CUMODERN CUPILL CUIUD CUSTERIL CUPABST PSOURCE NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANUS MDCARE DIARRH ORS'IRE EST IMATE Urban Proportion Illiterate Proportion With secondary education or higher Proportion Currently married Proportion Mmied before age 20 Proportion Had Fast sexual intercourse before 18 Proportion Currently pregnant Proportion Children ever born Mean Children ever born to women over 40 Mean Children surviving Mean Knowing any comraceptive method Proportion Knowing source for any method Proportion Ever t~ed any conlzaceptive method Proportion Ct~antly using any method Proportion Cun-emly using a modem method Proportion Currently using pill Proportion Cun'ently using IUD Proportion Cerranlly using female sterilization Proportion Currently using periodic abstinence Propoi'tion Using public sector source Proportion Want no more childran Proportion Want to delay at least 2 ye~s Proportion Ideal ratmber of children Mean Mothers received tetanus injection Proportion Received medical care at birth Proportion Had diarrhea in last 2 weeks Proportion Treated with ORS packets Proportion MEDTRE HCARD BCO DPT3 PO1203 MEASLES FULLIM Consulted a medical facility Proportion Having health card Proporti0fi Received BCG vaccination Proportion Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Propoilton Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Propoa.ion Received mea~les vaccination Prd~3orfi6n Fully immunized Prdpdrtion BASE POPULATION Ever-married woman Ever-mm'ri~d womm Ever-married woman Ever-manied woman Ever-marrled woman age 20+ Ever-marrled woman age 20+ Currently married woman age 20-49 Ever-married woman Ever-married woman age 40-49 Ever-married woman Currently merded woman Currently mm'ried woman Currently married woman Cun'ently married woman Currently married women Currently married woman Currently married woman Currently mm'ied woman Currently mmled women Current users of modem methods Olrrenfly married woman Currently married women Ever-married woman Births in last 5 years Births in last 5 years Children under 5 Children under 5 with diarrhea in last 2 weeks Children under 5 with diarrhea in last 2 weeks Children 12-23 months Children 12-23 months Children 12.23 months Children 12-23 months Children 12.23 months Children 12-23 months 125 Table B.2 Sampling ea'rors - Entire sample I Jordan 1990 Variable Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unwalghted Weighted effect . error (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN ILL1T SECOND CURMAR AGEM20 SEX18 PREGNT EVBORN EVB40 SURVIV KMETHO KSOURC EVUSE CUSE CUMODE CUPILL CUIUD CUSTER CUPABS PSOURC NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANU MEDELI DIARR2 ORSTRE MEDTRE HCARD BCG DPT3 POL3 MEASLE FULLIM .738 .009 .253 .008 .540 .010 .955 .003 .618 .007 .393 .008 ,171 ,005 5.090 .054 8.314 .099 4,799 .05O .998 ,000 .948 .004 .649 .009 .400 .008 .269 .007 .046 .003 .153 .006 .056 .003 .039 .003 .543 .014 .471 .007 .248 .006 4.430 .040 .430 .008 .872 .008 .085 .004 .417 .020 .509 .019 .641 .015 .169 .012 .951 .006 .956 .006 .895 .009 .880 .009 6461 6461.0 1.694 .013 .719 .756 6461 6461.0 1.565 .034 .236 .269 6461 6461.0 1.553 .018 .521 .559 6461 6461.0 1.256 .003 .948 .961 6108 610"2.3 1,200 .012 .604 .633 6108 6102.3 1.214 .019 .378 .408 6181 6168.4 1.018 .028 .161 .181 6461 6461.0 1.216 .011 4.981 5.199 1623 1620.5 1.194 .012 8.117 8.512 6461 6461.0 1.203 .010 4.699 4.899 6181 6168.4 .000 .000 .998 .998 6181 6168.4 1.463 .004 .940 .956 6181 6168.4 1,455 .014 .631 .667 6181 6168.4 1.338 .021 .383 .416 6181 6168.4 1.284 .027 .254 .283 6181 6168.4 1.298 .075 .039 .053 6181 6168.4 1.262 .038 .141 .164 6181 6168.4 1.163 .061 .049 .063 6181 6168.4 1.143 .072 .033 .044 1575 1657.0 1.146 .027 .514 .571 6181 6168.4 1.128 .015 .456 .485 6181 6168.4 1.046 .023 .237 .260 4323 4440.4 1.245 .009 4.350 4.510 8282 8180.5 1.263 .019 .414 ,447 8282 8180.5 1.509 .009 .857 .887 7986 7882.1 1,034 .041 .078 .092 672 670.7 .969 .048 .376 .457 672 670,7 .934 .038 .470 .548 1642 1615.4 1.203 .023 .612 .670 1642 1615.4 1.254 .071 .145 .193 1642 1615,4 1.036 .006 .939 .963 1642 1615.4 1.013 .006 .945 ,967 1642 1615.4 1.117 .010 .878 .913 1642 1615.4 1.106 .010 .862 .898 126 Table B.3 Sampling e:rrors - Large city I Jordan 1990 Number of cases Variable Standard Value error (R) (SE) Design Relative Confidence limits Unweighted Weighted effect error (N) (WN) (DEZI') (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN ILL1T SECOND CURMAR AGEM20 SEX18 PREGNT EVBORN EVB40 SURVIV KMETHO KSOURC EVUSE CUSE CUMODE CUPILL CUIUD CUSTER CUPABS PSOURC NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANU MEDELI DIARR2 ORSTRE MEDTRE HCARD BCG DPT3 POL3 MEASLE FULLIM 1.000 .157 .642 .954 .607 .371 .142 4.752 ,7.663 '4.495 C .999 ,.' .977 ; .742 .483 .335 .062 .194 .059 .054 .520 .495 .223 4.261 .424 .928 .087 .392 .448 .661 .261 .949 .956 .881 .860 .000 2441 2634.6 .000 .OO0 1.000 1.000 .010 2441 2634.6 1.310 .062 .137 .176 .014 2441 2634.6 1.445 .022 .614 .670 .005 2441 2634.6 1.153 .005 .944 .964 .011 2311 2493.8 1.042 .017 .586 .628 .010 2311 2493.8 1.022 .028 .351 .392 .008 2328 2512.7 1.039 .053 .127 .157 .085 2441 2634.6 1.232 .018 4.583 4.921 .147 647 699.8 1.154 .019 7.368 7.958 .076 2441 2634.6 1.198 .017 4.342 4.647 .000 2328 2512.7 .000 .000 .999 .999 .004 2328 2512.7 1.190 .004 .970 .985 .011 2328 2512.7 1.171 .014 .721 .763 .012 2328 2512.7 1.166 .025 .459 .508 .011 2328 2512.7 1.156 .034 .313 .358 .005 2328 2512.7 .957 .077 .053 .072 .009 2328 2512.7 1.049 .044 .177 .211 .006 2328 2512.7 1.183 .098 .048 .071 .005 2328 2512.7 1.044 .091 .044 .063 .019 780 842.8 1.079 .037 .482 .559 .011 2328 2512.7 1.061 .022 .473 .517 .009 2328 2512.7 .997 .039 .205 .240 .053 1810 1952.6 1.122 .013 4.154 4.367 .011 2774 2997.9 .979 .025 .402 .445 .006 2774 2997.9 .888 .006 .917 .939 .006 2681 2896.9 1.070 .073 .074 .100 .031 234 252.0 .887 .078 .330 .453 .037 234 252.0 1.036 .082 .374 .521 .023 559 604,9 1.110 .034 .616 .706 .026 559 604.9 .373 .I00 .209 .313 .011 559 604.9 .137 .011 .927 .970 • 010 559 604.9 .098 .010 .937 .976 .016 559 604.9 1.117 .018 .850 .912 .017 559 604.9 1.113 .020 .826 .893 127 Table B.4 Sampling errors - Other urban t Jordan 1990 Variablo Stmad~d Value error (R) (SE) Number of cases Design Relative Confidence limits Unweighted Weighted effect error (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN ILLIT SECOND CURMAR AGEM20 SEX18 PREGNT EVBORN EVB40 SURVIV KMETHO KSOURC EVUSE CUSE CUMDDE CUPILL CUIUD CUSTER CUPABS PSOURC NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANU MEDELI DIARR2 ORSTRE MEDTP.E HCARD BCG DPT3 POL3 MEASLE FULLIM 1.000 .000 .244 .018 .537 .017 .953 .007 .618 .014 .396 .015 .171 .008 5.201 .094 8.647 .215 4.914 .088 .000 .000 .952 .006 .635 .019 .387 .015 .265 .013 .039 .006 .148 .011 .066 .006 .031 .OO5 .535 .025 .457 .013 .251 .010 4.523 .079 ,459 .016 .869 .016 .089 .005 .384 .036 .517 .031 .662 .025 .142 .013 .946 .009 .952 .009 .892 .015 .879 .016 2143 2133.3 .000 .000 1.000 1.000 2143 2133.3 1.935 .074 .208 .279 2143 2133.3 1.623 .033 .502 .572 2143 2133.3 1.454 .007 .940 .967 2029 2009.2 1.283 .022 .590 .645 2029 2009.2 1.361 .037 .366 .425 2051 2033.6 .995 .048 ,155 .188 2143 2133.3 1.158 .018 5.013 5.389 505 494.5 1.371 .025 8.217 9.076 2143 2133.3 1.155 .018 4.738 5.089 2051 2033.6 .000 .000 .000 .000 2051 2033.6 1.315 .006 .940 .965 2051 2033.6 1.743 .029 .598 .672 2051 2033.6 1.426 ,040 .356 .418 2051 2033.6 1.295 .048 .240 .291 2051 2033.6 1.429 .156 .027 .051 2051 2033.6 1,385 .074 .126 .169 2051 2033.6 1.150 .095 .054 .079 2051 2033.6 1.339 .164 .021 .042 514 539.5 1.139 .047 .485 .585 2051 2033.6 1.177 .028 .431 .482 2051 2033.6 1.035 .039 .231 .271 1449 1474.1 1.361 .017 4.365 4.680 2740 2696.3 1.391 .034 .428 .491 2740 2696.3 1.853 .019 .836 .902 2648 2607.6 .790 .053 .080 .098 231 231.8 1.045 .095 .311 .457 231 231.8 .877 .060 .455 .579 539 530.9 1.197 .038 .612 .712 539 530.9 .844 .093 .116 .169 539 530.9 .915 .010 .928 .965 539 530.9 .912 .009 .935 .970 539 530.9 1.101 .017 .861 .922 539 530.9 1.090 .018 .848 .910 128 Table B.5 Sampling errors T Rural t Jordan 1990 Number of cases Variable Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+28E URBAN ILL1T SECOND CURMAR AGEM20 SEX18 PREGNT EVBORN EVB40 SURVIV KMETHO KSOURC EVUSE CUSE CUMODE CUPILL CUIUD CUSTER CUPABS PSOURC NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANU MEDELI DIARR2 ORSTRE MEDTRE HCARD BCG DFr3 POL3 MEASLE FULLIM .000 .000 .413 .018 .385 .016 .958 .005 .637 .015 .422 .016 .216 .010 5.477 .103 8.999 .122 5.127 .096 .997 .002 .897 .013 .523 .019 .285 .018 .169 .016 .030 .008 .095 .012 .038 .005 .025 .003 .626 .043 .451 .014 .284 .012 4.620 .087 ,407 .017 .808 .016 .079 .007 .491 ,039 .581 .028 .593 .029 .083 .016 .960 .010 .959 .010 .918 .013 .907 .014 1877 1693.1 .000 .000 .000 .000 1877 1693.1 1.541 .042 ,378 ,448 1877 1693.1 1.460 .043 .352 .417 1877 1693.1 1.096 .005 .948 ,968 1768 1599.2 1.355 .024 .606 .668 1768 1599.2 1.340 .037 .391 .454 1802 1622.1 1.066 .048 ,195 .237 1877 1693.1 1.224 ,019 5.271 5.684 471 426.1 .867 ,014 8.754 9.243 1877 1693.1 1.230 .019 4.935 5.319 1802 1622.1 1.500 .002 .993 l.O01 1802 1622.1 1.745 .014 .872 .922 1802 1622.1 1.648 .037 .484 .562 1802 1622.1 1.696 .063 .249 .321 1802 1622.1 1.803 .094 .137 .201 1802 1622.1 2.006 .269 .014 .046 1802 1622.1 1.687 .123 .072 ,118 1802 1622.1 1.081 .128 .029 ,048 1802 1622.1 .895 .133 .018 .031 281 274.7 1.483 .068 ,540 .712 1802 1622.1 1.192 .031 .423 .479 1802 1622.1 1.132 .042 .260 .308 1064 1013.7 1.344 .019 4.447 4.793 2768 2486.3 1.440 .041 .374 .440 2768 2486.3 1.536 .020 .776 .840 2657 2377.6 1.219 .089 .065 .093 207 187.0 1.009 .079 .414 .569 207 187.0 .759 .048 .525 .638 544 479.6 1.329 .048 .536 .650 544 479.6 1.353 .195 .050 .115 544 479.6 1.020 .010 .940 .980 544 479.6 1.019 .011 .939 .979 544 479.6 1.083 .014 .892 .945 544 479.6 1.040 .015 .880 .934 129 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES Table C.1 Household age distribution Single-year age dis~'ibufion of the de jure household population by sex (weighted), Jordan 1990 Male Female Male Female Age Number Percentage Number Percentage Age Number Percentage Number Percentage <I 1704. 2.9 1579 3,0 38 389 0.7 439 0.8 1 1539 17 1464 2.7 39 302 0.5 332 0.6 2 1761 3.0 1680 3.1 40 501 0.9 634 1.2 3 1734 3.0 1678 3.1 41 265 0.5 248 0.5 4 1798 3.1 1667 3.1 42 416 0.7 447 0.8 5 1771 3.0 1664 3.1 43 359 0.6 340 0.6 6 1713 2.9 1552 2.9 44 281 0.5 297 0.6 7 1528 2.6 1449 2.7 45 581 1.0 633 1.2 8 1752 3 0 1621 3.0 46 340 0.6 287 0.5 9 1673 7.9 1566 2.9 47 365 0.6 300 0.6 10 1814 3.1 1634 3.1 48 384 0.7 343 0.6 11 1709 2.9 1476 2.8 49 231 0.4 184 0.3 12 1795 3.1 1592 3.0 50 536 0.9 568 1.1 13 1605 2.8 1504 2.8 51 233 0.4 200 0.4 14 1631 2.8 1442 2.7 52 305 0.5 273 0.5 15 1566 2,7 1357 2.5 53 250 0.4 239 0,4 16 1489 2.6 1435 2.7 54 309 0.5 225 0.4 17 1565 2.7 1388 2.6 55 424 0.7 457 0.9 18 1634 2.8 1534 2.9 56 200 0.3 168 0.3 19 1363 2.3 1316 2.5 57 208 0.4 152 0.3 20 1482 2.6 1426 2.7 58 201 0.3 150 0.3 21 1302 2.2 1060 2.0 59 119 0.2 68 0.1 22 1301 2.2 I I00 2.1 60 473 0.8 488 0.9 23 1279 2.2 1100 2.1 61 134 0.2 72 0.1 24 1122 1.9 921 1.7 62 135 0.2 112 0.2 25 1151 2.0 1084 2.0 63 128 0.2 102 0.2 26 954 1.6 836 1.6 64 101 0.2 58 0.1 27 961 1.7 749 1.4 65 306 0.5 333 0.6 28 90'L 1.6 673 1.3 66 79 0. I 48 0.1 29 565 1.0 535 1.0 67 86 0.1 37 0.1 30 823 1.4 891 1.7 68 68 0.1 48 0.1 31 474 0.8 484 0.9 69 41 0.1 27 0.1 32 595 1.0 572 1.1 70+ 992 1.7 891 1.7 33 495 0.9 410 0.8 Don't know/ 8 0,0 11 0.0 34 400 0.7 408 0.8 n~alng 35 654 1.1 625 1.2 36 344 0.6 342 0.6 Total 58065 100.0 53394 100.0 37 379 0.7 368 0.7 133 Table C.2 Completeness of reporting Percentage of obse~rvations missing information for selected demographic and health questions, Jordan 1990 Subject Refereace group Percentage Number missing of information Cases Bit& date Momh only Mc~th end year Age at d,,.th ~e/Dam at first union 1 Respondem's education Child's size at birth Diarrhea in last 2 weeks Last 15 years 0.84 23221 0.02 23221 Lest 15 years 0.19 1018 Ever-mJu'ried womea 0.10 764 Ever-tam'tied wom~n 0.03 6461 Birth in preceding 0-59 months 14.26 8261 Living children age 1-59 months 14.85 7962 Living children age 1-59 months 0.35 283 IBoth ye~ and age missing ~-~ild not meas~ed 134 Table C.3 Births by calendar year since birth Distribution of births by calendar years s'mce birth for living (L), dead (D), and all (T) children, according to reporting completeness, sex ratio at birth, and ratio of births by calendar year (weighted), Jordan 1990 Calendar Number Percentage with Sex ratio Calendar years of births oo~Ifle~.e birth date 1 at birth 2 year ratio s $in~ Number of births Male Female birth L D T L D T L D T L D T L D T L D T 0 1389 39 1429 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.8 2~.5 98.8 NA NA NA 683 26 710 706 13 719 1 1615 ~6 1681 1130.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 94.4 99*5 NA NA NA 806 32 838 809 34 843 2 1641 62 1703 100.0 100.0 100.0 103.4 97.7 108.0 101.6 96.5 101.4 854 31 884 787 32 819 3 1614 63 1677 100.0 100.0 100.0 103.8 90.9 103.2 100.5 104.1 100.7 830 30 860 784 33 817 4 1570 58 1629 100.0 100.0 100.0 106.5 95*5 106.1 97.7 106.3 98.0 810 28 838 760 30 790 5 1600 47 1647 99.8 100.0 99.8 108.6 113.8 106.7 100.3 66.7 98.9 833 25 858 767 22 789 6 1620 82 1762 99.0 94.9 98.8 972 108.7 97.8 105.4 120.2 106.0 798 43 841 821 39 861 7 1474 90 1564 99.2 86.9 98.5 109.7 116.2 104.3 93.5 103.0 94.1 750 48 799 '724 42 765 8 1532 89 1622 99,3 92.8 98.9 109.6 96.1 109.1 104.1 122.4 109.0 787 44 831 745 46 791 9 1470 56 1526 99.2 81.5 98.5 112.8 120,2 113.0 NA NA NA 779 31 810 691 25 716 0-4 7830 289 8119 108,0 108.0 100,0 109,6 104,6 109.6 NA NA NA3983 148 4131 3847 141 3988 5-9 7696 364 8060 99.3 91,0 98.9 1033 109.5 103.5 NA NA NA3948 191 4138 3748 174 3922 10-14 65820 350 694 98,9 89,1 98.4 112,7 93.7 111.6 NA NA NA3487 173 3661 3094 185 3279 15-19 47040 370 507 98.3 87.0 97.5 114.6 162A 113.6 NA NA NA2511 189 2700 2192 184 2377 20+ 41940 4980 4690 96.7 79,6 94.9 110.6 99.8 109.4 NA NA NA2203 249 2452 1991 249 2240 AU 31005 1883 3288 98.9 88.2 98.3 108.5 101.6 108.1 NA NA NAI6133 949 17082 14873 934 15806 NA = Not applicable IBoth year ~md month c~ I:drth given 2(B=/B~)*I00. where B= and B~ are the numbers of male and female births, respectively 3[2BJ(B~.I+B~.t)]*I00, where B~ is the number births in calendar year x 135 Table C.4 Reporting of age at death in days Distribution of reported deaths ander 1 month of age by age at death in days and the pereantage of'neonatal deaths reported to oocur at ages 0-6 days, for five-year periods of birth preceding the survey, Jordan 1990 Years preceding survey Age at Total death (days) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 <1 24 22 10 13 70 1 50 49 29 29 158 2 15 16 15 12 57 3 9 22 11 10 53 4 10 3 5 3 22 5 19 8 4 4 34 6 0 4 0 5 9 7 15 18 20 21 74 8 2 0 3 2 7 9 3 0 0 4 7 10 6 4 5 5 19 11 1 2 5 1 8 12 3 1 0 0 4 13 3 3 0 0 6 14 5 1 10 3 19 15 6 4 9 2 22 16 0 3 1 2 7 17 5 0 2 0 6 18 0 4 0 1 5 19 0 0 1 0 2 20 2 6 4 1 13 21 0 2 1 1 4 22 0 2 0 3 4 24 1 0 0 1 3 25 1 0 0 0 1 26 0 2 0 0 2 27 0 0 1 0 1 30 0 0 1 1 2 Percent neonatal ~ 71.1 69.8 54.4 61.6 65.1 Total 0-30 178 177 138 124 618 10-6 days/0-30 days 136 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in months Distribution of reported deaths under 2 years of age by age at death in months and the perc~tage of infant deaths reported to occur at ages under one month, fc~ five-ye~¢ periods of birth preceding the su~ey, Jordan 1990 Years preceding survey Age atdeath Total (months) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 <I a 178 177 138 124 618 1 22 28 29 18 97 2 16 20 17 23 76 3 17 16 26 28 86 4 7 15 19 31 71 5 6 9 14 19 48 6 8 17 5 22 52 7 7 4 9 8 28 8 6 6 9 14 35 9 5 6 8 9 29 10 2 3 6 2 13 11 0 2 5 0 7 12 10 23 20 26 80 13 1 2 1 1 4 14 1 0 1 1 3 16 1 0 0 0 2 18 0 6 8 3 17 19 1 2 0 0 3 22 0 0 1 1 2 Percant neonatal b 73.1 67.2 58.7 47.9 61.6 Total 0-23 275 305 285 297 1161 aIacludes deaths under 1 month reported in days bunder I month/under I ye~ 137 APPENDIX D QUESTIONNAIRES DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEX$ HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE CONFIDENTIAL JORDAN DEPARTMENT OF STAT IST ICS IDENTIF ICAT ION i. GOVERNORATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. D ISTR ICT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. LOCAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. STRATUM NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. ULT IMATE AREA BLOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 6 . CLUSTER NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L1 INTERVIEWER V IS ITS INTERVIEWER'S NAME DATE RESULT*** SUPERVISOR 1 : 2 3 !!!!!!!!iiiii!i!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ***RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED 2 HOUSEHOLD PRESENT BUT NO COMPETENT RESP. AT HOME 3 HOUSEHOLD ABSENT 4 POSTPONED 5 REFUSED 6 DWELL ING VACANT OR ADDRESS NOT A DWELL ING 7 DWELL ING DESTROYED 8 DWELL ING NOT FOUND 9 OTHER (~ i~) F INAL V IS IT DAY MONTH YEAR INT. CODE RESULT TOTAL NUMBER OF V IS ITS TOTAL IN HOUSEHOLD TOTAL EL IG IBLE WOMEN F IELD EDITED BY OFF ICE EDITED BY KEYED BY NAME DATE KE T T ICK HERE IF CONTINUATION SHEET USED i I 1 141 HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE USUAL RESIDENTS AND RELATIONSHIP VISITORS BETWEEN HH MEMBERS RESIDENCE 01 - - ) 02 03 ) O4 O6 Please give me the names of the house- hold mentors (3 names) (2) What is the poes Did Is re la t ionsh ip ;(N~E) (NAME) INANE) of INAHE) to usuatt sleep mle the head of l i ve here or the household? here? last female night? ? (3) (4) I 15) 1(6) YES NO YES NO M F I 2 I 2 , I 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 ,1 2 07 ZI 09 I1 2 1 2 .1 2 1 2 .1 2 ;1 2 I 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 11 i 1] 141 i,2i,21,2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Just to make sure that 1 have a complete l i s t ing : 1) Are there any other persons such as small ch i ldren or infants that we have not l i s ted? 2) In addi t ion, are there any other people who may not be members of your fami ly, such as domestic servants, lodgers or f r iends who usual ly l i ve here? ] ) Do you have any guests or temporary v i s i to rs staying here, or anyone else who s lept here last night? ORPHANHO00 How old Is h i s / Is h i s / is her her he/she? father mother [ in com- s t i l l s t i l l pteted a l ive? a l ive? years) (7) (8) (9) I m IN YEARS YES NO DK YES NO DE 1 2 8 2 8 -~ 1 2 8 2 8 1 2 8 2 8 1 2 8 2 8 i,28 28 1 2 8 2 8 -~ 1 2 8 2 8 - -~ 1 2 8 2 8 - ~ 1 2 8 2 8 ~-~ 1 2 8 1 2 8 ]~ 1 2 8 1 2 8 [ -n1128 128 1 2 8 1 2 8 28 ,28 YES [~ ~ ENTER EACH NO [--~ IN TABLE YES [~ ~ ENTER EACH NO [~ IN TABLE YES [~ ~ ENTER EACH NO [ -~ IN TABLE 142 NO Has (MANE) ever been to school? 1) (10) EDUCATION FaN PERSONS 5 YEARS ÷ I s (NANE) stiLL in schooL? Q~nat is the highest Level of school he/she attended? I~hat is the highest grade he/she completed at that LeveL? Curr~nttY~l in I Currentiy not school in school (11) I (12) (13) (14) fES NO 'NO GRADE LIT ILT 01 2 3 02 2 3 _ ~ 03 2 3 [--7 - - | i OS 2 3 A - - | ] 06 2 3 __~ - -u i 07 2 3 - - | i 08 2 3 ~-~ - -u 09 2 3 J~ - -u i 10 2 3 ~-~ - - | i 11 2 3 A - - | i 12 2 3 - - | i 13 2 3' [~ - - | i A.RLR N.A .~ I-I. I-I ,i-1 I-1. I-I ,N I-I. I-I .f] I-I. I-1 .I-1 I-I. I-I ,~ A .A ,~ f ] .A ,A A.I-1 .I-1 I-i. I-I ,A MARITAL MIDOIJHOCO STATUS :OR PERSONS :OR PERSONS YEARS + [VER" IARRIED lhat is h is / mr marital I s his / ;tatus? her f i r s t ;Lngte . . . . . . I spouse ta r r ied . . . . . 2 alive? ) ivorced. . .3 lidowed . . . . . 4 (15) (16) YES NO OK A 2 8 i 281 [~ 28 ~ 28 ~ 28 [~ ~8 ~ 28 ~ 28 [-] 28 A 1 2 8 1 2 8 ~1 _ I 2 8 POLYGANY FOR ALL KARRIED HEN HO~ many wives does (NANE) have? (17) ECONON]C INSURANCE ELIGI" ACTIVITY COVERAGE BILITY FOR PERSONS RECORD SUM CIRCLE 13 YEARS OF CODE(S) LINE AND OVER NUMBER Of i~ILEN ~hat did he/ None . 0 ELIGIBLE she do MOH . . . . . . 1 FOR during the RMS . . . . . . 2 INDiVl- previous Pr ivate. .4 DUAL ~k? UHRMA. . .8 INTER- VIEW (18) (19) (20) n I--VI ,rV] o~ f] .I-~ .I-V] os A .A-] .I-[-I o4 I o~ ~.~VI .V~ A . V-V] . V-~ j ~ N .[-N .V-VI o, f-1 . I-~ : m. I--I.1-~ VT] og A . r -A V-VI 1o n . f -A . I-T-I. , A . V-]--I .V -~ nlm f-'l _ I-T-] _ f - -V1_ 1~ NL~SER OF BIRTHS IN THE HOUSEHOLD OURING THE PAST 12 NONTHS [] 21 FAN[LT TYPE (Coded in DOS) [] 22 I gur in S the Last 12 months, have any of the usuaL members of th ls household died? IF N0-~29 NO. SEX LGE AT tEATH 23 24 25 14 E 1. 1 2 2. 1 2 3. 1 2 4. 1 2 MARITAL DATE OF DEAT~ STATUS PERSONS 13+ 26 27 MONTH YEAR I f the deceased was an ever-n~rried woman aged 15-49, Nhat is the cause of death? 28 143 SPEC[AL ]NFORNATION: PERSONS 13+ NO. UNEHPLOYED PERSONS Did you Why d id you turn down refuse? a job of fered to Low sa la ry . .1 you when Far away . . . .2 you were Work unemploy- unsu i tab le . .4 ed? Other . . . . . . . 8 (29) (30) (31) EMPLOYEO PERSONS HOW are you paid? MonthLy sa la ry . .1 Da~ty . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Sel f employed. ,4 Other . . . . . . . . . . . 8 (32) COUNTRY OF WORK Was (NAHE) employed outs ide Jordan unt i l th i s summer? I f "yes" , where? (NAME OF COUNTRY) (33) YES NO 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 FI- I-[- I-[- IT iT YES NO 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 @ 144 145 146 CONFIDENTIAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS INDIV IDUAL OUEST IONNAIRE JORDAN DEPARTMENT OF STAT IST ICS IDENTIF ICAT ION i. GOVERNORATE . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. D ISTR ICT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. LOCAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. STRATUM NUMBER . . . . . . . . . 5. ULT IMATE AREA BLOCK . 6. CLUSTER NUMBER . . . . . . . . . 7. HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . • o . . • • , • • o o o . . • • o . . • • . ~ 0 0 0 O t ~ O O B O g g I I O O I ~ 0 0 ~ B B O O O O I m m B D O O g D m B W O O m I O g g O • "i I L E INTERVIEWER V IS ITS 1 2 3 F INAL V IS IT INTERVIEWER'S NAME DATE RESULT*** SUPERVISOR DAY MONTH YEAR INT 'R CODE RESULT ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: {{~H{~{~ TOTAL NUMBER i~iiii~iiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ii OF V IS ITS U " !!ii!i~!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii" * **RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED 2 NOT AT HOME 3 POSTPONED 4 REFUSED 5 PARTLY COMPLETED 6 OTHER (SPECIFY) L INE NUMBER OF EL IG IBLE WOMAN ~ SERIAL NUMBER OF EL. WMN. D F IELD EDITED BY OFF ICE EDITED BY KEYED BY NAME DATE T ICK HERE IF CONTINUATION SHEET USED D 147 148 NO. 102 SECTION 1. RESPONDENTi5 BACKGROUND AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS QUESTIONS AND FILTERS RECORD THE TIHE. I F i r s t I would l i ke to ask some quest ions about you and I I your household . For most of the t ime unt i l you uere 12 I years o ld , where d id you l l ve? COOING CATEGORIES HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 VILLAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SKIP I TO 103 In uhat month and year were you born? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ DK YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 1041 .re you.t your ,., , rthd.y, I AOE,NC. LETEOYEA S . COMPARE AND CORRECT 103 AND/OR 1D4 IF INCONSISTENT. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~109 I I - . 106 What is the h ighest leve l of schoo l ing you PREPARATORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 attended? SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 INSTITUTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 UNIVERSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 HIGHER STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PREPARATORY I OR HIGHER r -~ ~110 , I 1o, I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'l eas i ly , w i th d i f f i cu l ty , or not at a l l ? WITH DIFFICULTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] ~111 110 I Do you read a newspaper or magazine? I RARELY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I SOtqETIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 FREQUENTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 149 NO. J QUESTIONS AND FILTERS I COOING CATEGORIES i B 111 J Do you usua l ly L i s ten to the radio? J RARELY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I SOeIETINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 FREQUENTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 I °°+u+°++'+°°' I+ . SI~IETINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 FREQUENTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 113 What is the main source of water your household uses? SKIP TO PIPED INTO RESIDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PIPED INTO YARD OR PLOT . . . . . . . . . 2 PUBLIC TAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 RIVER, SPRING, DAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 TANKER TRUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 OTHER .7 (SPECIFY) 114 I What kind of to i le t fac i l i ty does your household have? I PRIVATE SEPTIC LATRINE . . . . . . . . . . 1 SHARED SEPTIC LATRINE . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER 3 (SPECIFY) NO FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 115 What type of sewage system do you have in your house? I PUELIC NETt~ORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DUG HOLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER 3 (SPECIFY) NO SEWAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -61 +'°++'°+'+"+~+°°'°'+n" I -~ . DI 3 150 . o . I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 117 I BUILDING TYPE (RECORD OBSERVATION.) 118 Does your house have: ELect r i c i ty? A rad io? A te lev i s ion? A re f r igerator? A video? A te lephone? An a i r cond i t ioner? CODING CATEGORIES CUTSTONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CUTSTONE+CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 BRICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 MUDBRICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ZINC/METAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 OTHER 7 (SPECIFY) YES NO ELECTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 REFRIGERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 VIDEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 TELEPHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 AIR CONDITIONER . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Z SKIP TO 119 Does any member of your household own: CIRCLE ALL APPLICABLE RESPONSES YES NO BICYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 MOTORCYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 PRIVATE CAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 CO~4MERCIAL CAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 PICKUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 OTHER MODE OF TRANSPORT . . . . 1 2 '2° I Wh "s Y°ur I'-- . '1 CHRISTIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER 3 (SPECIFY) 151 NO. 201 SECTION 2. MARRIAGE QUESTIONS AND FILTERS ] B Are you now married, divorced separated or widowed? l I CODING CATEGORIES MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DIVORCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WIDOWED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SEPARATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SKIP TO 202 ] Have you been married only once or more than once? I ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I MORE THAN ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 203 In what month and year d id you arid your ( f i r s t ) husber~d beg in l i v ing together (consummate your marr iage)? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~-~ DK YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 I 204 At what age d id you and your f i r s t husband beg in to AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I | l i ve together (consummate your marr iage)? t ] i I 205 What i s (was) the type of re la t ionsh ip between you and your ( f i r s t ) husband? 206 FIRST COUSIN FROM FATHER=S SIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FIRST COUSIN FROM MOTHER'S SIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SECOND COUSIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER RELATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 NO RELATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DETERMINE MONTHS MARRIED SINCE JANUARY 1985. ENTER "X" IN COLUMN 6 OF CALENDAR FOR EACH MONTH MARRIED AND ENTER "O" FOR EACH MONTH NOT MARRIED SINCE JANUARY 1985. FOR DIVORCED/WIDOWED/SEPARATED WOWEN OR WOMEN MARRIED MORE THAN ONCE: PROSE FOR DATE COUPLE STOPPED LIVING TOGETHER OR DATE WIDOWED, AND FOR STARTING DATE OF ANY SUBSEQUENT UNION. 207 CHECK 201: 208 CURRENTLY ~ DIVORCED/ MARRIED/ WIDOWED SEPARATED Does your husba~ usua l ly l i ve w i th you in th i s househotd? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 =-301 I I ~211 209 | In the las t month were you and your husba~ L iv ing | TOGETHER ALL THE TIME . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~301 I together a t ( of the t ime , or were you apar t some of I APART SOME OF THE TIME . . . . . . . . . . 2 the t ime, or apar t a I [ of the t ime? APART ALL OF THE TIRE . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~211 210 ] How many days was he away in the [as ( month? DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F - -~ [ ~301 I 21110 d'eeverc°met°v's'tY°u °'he"st°nth? I YEsNo . . 211 5 152 SECTION 3. REPROOUCTION NO. t QUESTIONS AND FILTERS m 301 I Now I would Like to ask about a l l the b i r ths you have I had dur ing your l i fe . Have you ever g iven b i r th? SKIP l CODI RG CATEGOR I ES lTO I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . 2 ~304 302 0o you have any sons or daughters to whom you have given b i r th who are now l i v ing w i th you? Now many sons l i ve w i th you? And how many daughters l i ve wi th you? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SONS AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i ~ I DAUGHTERS AT HOHE . . . . . . . . . IF NONE ENTER '00 ~, ~303 303 Do you have any sons or daughters to whom you have given b i r th who are a t lve but do not l i ve w i th you? How many sons are a l i ve but do not l i ve w i th you? And how many daughters are a l i ve but do not l i ve wi th you? YES, , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SOBS ELSEWHERE . IIIF DAUGHTERS ELSEWHERE . . . . . IF NONE ENTER 'OO'. I ,-304 304 305 306 Have you ever g iven b i r th to a boy or a g i r l who was born a l i ve but la ter died? IF "NO", PROBE: Any (o ther ) baby who c r ied or showed any s ign of l i fe but on ly surv ived a few hours or days? In a l l , how many boys have died? And how many g i r l s have died? SUM ANSWERS TO 302, 303, AND 304, AND ENTER TOTAL. IF NONE ENTER IO0'. CHECK 305: I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ¢305 F ~ BOYB OEAO . iiiiiii GIRLS DEAD . . . . . . . . IF NONE ENTER 'OO'. TOTAL . IF NONE ENTER '00'. Just to make sure that I have this right: you have had in TOTAL _ _ during your life. Is that correct? YES v l i ve b i r ths 307 CHECK 305: ONE OR MORE [~ / BIRTHS v PROBE AND CORRECT r---'l NO I I ~ 301-306 NO BIRTHS [--1 I ~322 I 153 308 NC~ I ~ JLd Like to ta lk to you adam; at [ of y~Jr b i r ths from a l l marriages, ~ether st iLL a l i ve or not , s ta r t ing u i th the f i r s t ofle you had. (RECORD NARES OF ALL THE BIRTHS ZN 309. RECORD TWINS ON SEPARATE LINES). 309 310 311 ~118t ~ bias g iven to your ( f i r s t ,next ) RECORD SINGLE OR MULTIPLE BIRTH STATUS [s (HARE) a boy or a g i rL? 312 In ~hat m~th and year was (MANE) born? PROBE: What i s h i s / her b i r thday? OR: In what 8easG41 wag he/she born? 313 Is (NAME) s t iLL a l i ve? 314 IF ALIVE: How o ld was (MARE) at h i s /her Last birthday? RECORD AGE iS COMPLETED YEARS 315 IF ALIVE: i s (NAME) L iv ing wi th you? 316 IF LESS THAN 15 YRS. OF AGE: U i th wh~ll does he/she Live? ]F 1S+: GO TO NEXT BIRTH 317 IF DEAD: HOW o ld was he/she k~nen he/she d ig i t IF "1 YR.", PRO6E: Hou many months oLd ~aa (IINCE)? RECORD DAYS IF LESS THAN I 14(~TH,R(~TRB IF LESS TKAN TWO YEARS. OR YEARS. 1] SING.1 HULT.2 (MARE) O~ SING.1 HULT.,.2 (NAME) OSJ SING.1 MULT.2 (BANE) I~ SING.1 MULT.2 (NAXE) OSJ SING.1 14ULT.2 (RNCE) 6J SING.1 NULT.2 (BANE) BOY.1 HONTH. GIRL.2 YEAR. BOY.1 MONTH. GIRL.2 YEAR*.* 60Y. .1 MI~TH.~ GIRL.2 YEAR. BOY.1 ~ [ ROtITR. GIRL.2 TEAR. BOY.1 MONTH,,~ GIRL.2 IYEAR. BOY.1 MONTH. .~ G]RL.2 YEAR. YES.1 NO. . . .2 v 317 YES.1 NO. . . ,2 v 317 YES.1 NO. . . .2 I v 317 YES.1 NO. . . .2 I v 317 YES.1 NO. . . .2 I v 317 YES.1 RO. . . .2 I v 317 AGE IN YEARS M AGE ] N YEARS M AGE ]N YEARS AGE IN YEARS M AGE IN YEARS M AGE IN YEARS M YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)~ #0 . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)4 NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT 8]RTH)~ NO . . . . . . . . Z YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)q NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH), NO . . . . . . . . Z YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH), NO . . . . . . . . 2 FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOl'lEONE ELSE.3 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOMEONE ELSE.3 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOMEONE ELSE.3 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOIEONE ELSE.3 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 S(IqEOBE ELSE.3 (GO TO HEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOI4EONE ELSE. . . ] (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) OATS.1 KONTHS.2 YEARS.] DAYS.1 HO~THS.2 YEARS.3 DAYS.1 MONTHS.2 YEARS.,.3 DAYS.1 RO41THS.2 YEARS.) DAYS.1 HONTRS.2 YEARS,.3 DAYS.1 MONTHS.2 YEARS.3 ]54 ,309 t~18t ~ WeB given to your next baby? 310 RECORD SINGLE OR MULTIPLE BIRTH STATUS 311 is (MANE) s boy or • g i r l ? 312 313 in what month Is (NAME) end year was s t i l l (HARE) born? al ive? PROBE: What Ls His/ her bLrthday? OR: In what seBso/l? 314 IF ALIVE: How old was (NAME) at h is/her Last birthday? RECORD AGE iN COMPLETED YEARS. 315 IF ALIVE: is (NAME) Living with you? 316 IF LESS THAN 15 YRS. OF AGE: With ~hom does he/she Live? iF 15÷: GO TO NEXT BIRTH 317 IF DEAD: How o ld Ms he/she When he/she died?" iF "1 YR.", PROBE: How many months old WaS (MANE)? RECCRD DAYS IF LESS THAN 1 14~4TR,NQ~TNR iF LESS THAN TWO YEARS, Ca YEARS. 0_~ SING.1 MULT.2 (NAk~) 08~ SING. 1 MULT., ,2 (NARE) SING., ,1 HULL. .2 (NN4E) 10~ SING.1 I~JLT.2 (NAHE) 1 m SING. . I NULT.E (NAME) 2 m SING, . .1 14ULT.2 (NANE) SOY.,. 1 G]RL. ,2 BOY.1 GIRL.2 SOY. I GIRL.2 BOY.,1 GIRL.2 SOY. 1 GIRL.2 BOy. 1 GIRL.2 NONTH. .~ YEAR. NONTH. .~ YEAR. MONTH. .~ YEAR,. , NONTH, .~ YEAR. NO. . .2 I v 317 HONTH. .~ YES.1 i YEAR.,. NO. . .2 v 317 YES.1 AGE iN YEARS NO. . . .2 M 317 YES.1 AGE iN YEARS SO. .2 ' M v 317 YES.1 AGE IN YEARS NO. .2 , M v 317 YES.1 AGE IN YEARS NO. . .2 .! 317 YES. I AGE IN YEARS AGE IN YEARS M YES . . . . . . . 1- (GO TO NEXT B[RTN)~ NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)~ NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . I, (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)~ NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT 61RTH)~ NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . I (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)~ NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)q NO . . . . . . . . 2 FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOMEONE ELSE.] (GO TO NEXT BLRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOMEONE ELSE.] (GO TO NEXT FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOMEONE ELSE.3 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOMEONE ELSE.] (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOHEGHE ELSE.] (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SCI4EONE ELSE.] (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) DAYS.1 NOIiYHS.2 YEARS.] DAYS.1 k~THS. .2 YEARS.] DAYS.1 I~THS. .2 YEARS.3 DAYS.1 NONTHS.2 YEARS.3 DAYS.1 I4ONTHS.2 YEARS.] gAYS. • .1 HONTHS.2 YEARS.3 7A 155 309 ~l~t ~ was g iven to your next baby? 310 RECORD SINGLE OR VAJLTIPLE BIRTH STATUS 311 Is (BANE) a boy or a g i r l ? 312 In what month and year was (NAME) born? PROBE: Whet i s h i s / her b i r thday? OR: In ~hat SeaSOfi? 313 Is (HARE) s t iLL a f i re? 314 IF ALIVE: HOW o ld was (NAME) at h i s /her Last b i r th~y? RECORD AGE IN COMPLETED TEARS. 315 IF AL%VE: IS (MARE) l i v ing wLth you? 316 iF LESS THAN 15 YRS. OF AGE: With whom does he/she Live? IF 15+: GO TO NEXT BIRTH 317 IF DEAD: Ho~ o(d uas helsho ~hen he/she died? IF "1 YR.". PROBE: HON many months o ld was (N.U4E)? RECORD DAYS IF LESS THAN I MO~TH,MOMTNS IF LESS THAN TWO YEARS, OR YEARS. 13~ SING. ,1 MULT.2 (NAME) SING.1 NJLT. . .2 (NAME) 5] SING.1 NULL, .2 (HARE) BOY.1 GIRL.2 80Y,. . 1 GIRL.2 BOy. 1 GIRL.2 MONTH. .~ YEAR. MONTH. J J J YEAR,. 318 YES.1 AGE IN TEARS NO.21 v 317 YES.I AGE IN YEARS NO. . .2 v 317 YES.1 AGE IN YEARS NO. . .2 317 COMPARE 305 WITH NUMBER OF BIRTHS %N HISTORY ABOVE AND MARX: NUMBERS E~ NUMBEI A~E SAME DIFFE] v CHECK: FOR EACH LiVE BIRTH: YEAR OF BIRTH IS RECORDED FOR EACH LIVING CHILD: CURRENT AGE IS RECORDED FOR EACH DEAD CH%LD: AGE AT DEATH IS RECORDED FOR AGE AT DEATH LESS THAN 2 YEARS: PROBE TO DETERMINE EXACT NUMBER OF MONTHS YES . . . . . . . 1 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)~ NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . 1- (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)~ NO . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . 1- (GO TO NEXT BIRTH)* NO . . . . . . . . 2 NUMBERS ARE DIFFERENT FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVEd SOMEONE ELSE.,3 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE.2 SOMEONE ELSE,.3 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) FATHER . . . . . . . . . OTHER RELATIVE,2 SOMEONE ELSE.3 (GO TO NEXT BIRTH) DAYS.1 MO~THS.2 YEARS.3 DAYS.1 MONTHS.2 TEARS.] DAYS.1 MONTHS.2 YEARS.3 (PROBE AND RECONCILE) 156 SKIP NO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS I COOING CATEGORIES I TO CHECK 312 AND ENTER THE NUHBER OF BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 1985. IF NONE, ENTER O AND GO TO 321. I-I FOR EACH BIRTH SINCE JANUARY 1985 ENTER "B" IN MONTH OF BIRTH IN COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR AND "P" IN EACH OF THE 8 PRECEDING MONTHS, I 321 I AT THE BOTTOM OF THE CALENDAR, ENTER THE MANE AND BIRTH OATE OF THE LAST CHILD BORN PRIOR TO I JANUARY 1985, IF APPLICABLE. NO . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . *2 UBSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 =-325 I I 323 I How many months pregnant are you? I MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l I ENTER "P" IN COLUMN I OF CALENDAR IN MONTH OF INTERVIEU AND IN EACH PRECEDING MONTH PREGNANT 324 I At the time you became pregnant, did you want to become I THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I pregnant then, did you want to ~ait unti l tater, I NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 or did you not want to become pregnant at all? LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 i i . i l ive birth; either miscarried, was aborted, or ended in a s t i l lb i r th? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~331 326 Nhen did the last such pregnancy occurred? I 327 328 CHECK 326: DATE LAST PREGNANCY ENDED r---1 SINCE JANUARY 1985 I How many months pregnant ~ere you when the pregnancy I ended? I BEFORE JANUARY 1985 [~ HONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ~ ~331 I ENTER "T" IN COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR IN MONTH PREGNANCY TERHINATED, AND "P" IN EACH PRECEDING MONTH PREGNANT• 329 I Did you ever have any other such pregnancies? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;! ~331 I 157 SKIP 331 When d id your las t n~nst rua I per iod s tar t? DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 BEFORE LAST BIRTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 NEVER MENSTRUATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 IN MENOPAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 332 Between the f i r s t day o f a woman,s per iod and the f i r s t day o f her next per iod , when do you th ink she has the greates t chance o f becoming pregnant? DURING HER PERIO0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RIGHT AFTER HER PERIOD HAS ENDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IN THE MIDDEE OF THE CYCLE . . . . . . 3 JUST BEFORE HER PERIO0 BEGINS. . .4 AT ANY TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER . 6 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . .8 10 158 SECTZOH 4: COBTRAC~pTION 401 How I tdoutd L ike to ta lk about fami ly p lann ing - the var ious ways or methods that • coupte can use to de lay o r avo id a pregnancy . ; /h i ch o f these ways or methods have you heard about? CIRCLE COOE I IN 402 FOR EACH METHOD MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. THEN PROCEED DOBN THE COLUMN, READING THE NAME AND DESDRIPTIOId OF EACH NETHOO MOT MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. CIRCLE CODE 2 IF METHOD IS RECOGNIZED, AND CODE 3 IF NOT RECOGNIZED. THEN. FOR EACH METHOD WITH CODE 1 OR 2 CIRCLED IN 402. ASK 40]5-404 BEFORE PROCEEDING TO THE NEXT METHOD. 1] P ILL gor~n can take a p i t t every day . 2J IUD Women c lu l have a toop or co i l pLaced ins ide them by a doctor o r a nurse . O• INJECTIONS Women can have an in jec t ion by a doctor o r nurse id l i ch s tops thm f rom becoming pregnant fo r severa l months . FO.tJ4/JELLY/SPONGE/OIAPHRAG H Women can pLace a sponge. suppos i to ry , d iaphragm, je t ty o r cream ins ide them before in tercourse . O•J COBDON Men can use a r .~oer sheath dur ing sexua l in ter - course° 402 Have you ever heard o f (NETH~O)? READ DESCRIPTION OF EACH METHCO. YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YESIPROBED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . °3~ V YER/SPONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/pROBED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO.° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ° . . . . . . 31 v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 v YES/SPOMT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 3~ y 403 Have you ever used (METHOD)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 NO . . . . . . . . ° ° , ° . . , .2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO°° . . , . . . . . * . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 404 DO you know mere a person cou ld 9o to get (METHO0)? YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 NOo* .o . . . . . . . . . , . , * *o . . . , ° .2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . , *o . . . . . . , ° °2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . * . . . . . , , , . ° °°°° ,2 YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 11 159 06• FENALE STERILIZATION/TUBAL LIGATION ~o~ft can have ~n operat ion to avo id hav ing any more ch i ld ren . RALE STERILIZAT|O$1 Hen can have an operat ion to avo id hav ing any .tore ch i ld ren . 81 PERIODIC ABST%NENCE/RHYTHN Couples Can avo id hav ing sexual in tercourse on cer ta in days o f the month ~hen the ~c~an i s =ore L ikeLy to become pregnant . 091MITHDRA•AL Men can be care fu l sod put t out before c l imax . 10• PROLONGED BREASTFEEDING AS A METHOD OF CONTRACEPTION can breast feod fo r Longer per iod to avo id get t ing pregnant . ~lJ AgY OTHER HETHOOS? (SPECIFY) 2 (SPECIFY) 3 (SPECIFY) &02 Have you ever heard of (METHOD)? READ DESCRIPTION Of EACH METHOD. YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PRO6ED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .31 / v YES/EPOBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PRODED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 He, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o -~ v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ,~] V YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HO. .oo* . . . . . . . . . . .o,o . . . . . o*~ / V YES/SPODT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PRO~ED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 / v YES/SPOHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I HOo . . . . . . . . . , o . . . . . . . . . . . . . .~ 603 Have you ever used (NETHO0)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Has your h~sbend ever had an opera- t fon to avo id hav ing I any more ch i ld ren? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 404 Oo you know ~here a person could go to get (HETHOD)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO.o . . . . . . . . . ooo . . . . . . , . oo .~ YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Do you k~ uhere a person can obta in adv ice on hOW to usa per iod ic abst inence? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. , . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , .2 Iti!!l][,]i !!!t!! l!i!t!! t!ilUlUlU imP! [i~ ~Ji~l"l q ~N it ~i i i l : , , . : . : . :T~TEI : .~ . . . . . . . I,z!zml. ~h,z,I[ild,iEI;II,h ~Pt~Lili~lIN | ililiitltllt ~lllltlt ill [itllllt 111 llliil ~ [i] lil;~li~ I N BBilIIL~ N ItN~ I ; Imt l lT Iml l~ iiiiiiii I . : ,~i i i . .~. i~.=. .~. = , , . [Jl J!l[~ ; = ~ lil'J]ii ~ i qlg]HitlltJ[HUtgi[l~=H~illil=m,uuammust~m'awmm~= i Et I .H . . . . l!~mnwm.~=~ m t~.~i~.lt ~ I [RmLR~LEL md R mllq r3gliZ~ =:~ii::*:;iiiiili~ti~iliil~lt u t~] ~ H N ~ ~ i i i q m ~1111 Ill till] H =.hh.::.*~::.hH. ~= N ta~ : Mii,htl!mhtm!m!ti!!p h!!!Ii ~ N N~] ~mmmHI i~h~] t ~ U H RP, ti~PII;H~i]TQHtlitIi3H 12 ]60 405 I .o . I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CHECK 403: NOT A SINGLE "YES" (NEVER USED) J Have you ever used anyth ing or t r ied in any way to 406 I de lay or avo id get t ing pregnant? ENTER "O II IN COLUHN 1 OF CALENDAR IN EACH BLANK HONTH SKIP I COOING CATEGORIES I TO AT LEAST ONE "YES" r - - -1 (EVER USED) I I ~ SKIP TO 408P YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [~ 1,4o8 No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F - I I I ~441 408 408P What have you used or done? CORRECT 403-405. What is the f i r s t th ing you ever d id or method you ever used to de lay or avoid get t ing pregnant? PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 DIAPHRAGH/FOAH/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . 04 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 FENALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . 06 HALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 PERIOOIC ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 glTHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 PROLONGED BREASTFEEDING . . . . . . . . 10 OTHER 11 (SPECIFY) .410 409 Where d id you go to get th i s method the f i r s t t ime? GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 HCH/HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 FP ASSOCIATION CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . 03 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 PHARHACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 08 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 410 Now many L iv ing ch i ld ren d id you have at that t ime, i f any? IF NONE ENTER '00 ' . I NUHgER OF CH,LDREN . --ll 13 161 SKIP NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CHECK 322: NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE 412 I CHECK 403: WOMAN/HUSBAND 9 NOT STERILIZED v ~ I FOR MARRIED/SEPARATED WOMEN CHECK 201: 413 Are you current[y doing something or using any method to delay or avoid getting pregnant? CODING CATEGORIES TO PREGNANT F~ I ~433 ~)HAN/HUSBAND STERILIZED [~ I ES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO, , . , , . . . . . . . . . . , . , ° . . , . ° . , . ° . .2 I NOT CURRENTLY MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . 3 j~433 414 414P Which method are you using? CIRCLE "06' FOR FEMALE STERILIZATION OR "07 = FOR MALE STERILIZATION. I PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 | IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 ~421 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 / DIAPHRAOR/FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . 04 ~425 CONDOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 / FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . 06 I MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 1~423 PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 / WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 ~428 PROLONGED BREASTFEEDING . . . . . . . . 10 I OTHER 11 I (SPECIFY) "~1 '~" ~'~°u'"~ ~°t °' ' ' ' ° ' ° ~ ° u ° ° ° ' u ' ~ , °°°'°r or ' nu~'" I '~,o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~'1 417 May I see the package of p i l t s you are using now? (RECORD NAME OF BRAND.) I PACKAGE SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 BRANDNAME [~ ~419 PACKAGE NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 | 14 162 .o . I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 1 1 4181 0o you know the brand name of the p i l l s I you are now using? (RECORD NAME OF BRAND.) SKIP CODING CATEGORIES I TO .ANO N,~E M I DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 419 I How much does one packet (cycle) of p i t t s cost you? COST . JO A .~ l FREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 420 I I f you miss taking s p i t t one day, how many p i l l s do you take the next day? ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I T~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~425 OTHER ] (SPECIFY) I 421 I Did you get the IUD at the place where you had i t YES, SAME PLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I inserted or d id you get i t soraewhere else? I NO, SOMEWHERE ELSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I 422 How much did i t cost to have the IUD inserted? COST IUD . . . . . . . . . . . JD Insert ion . . . . . . JD Total . . . . . . . . . . JD FREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9996 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 -~425 4231'n" * ntha *ear'as'hes*eri' za* °n I DA*E operation performed to you or your husband? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 I ENTER STERILIZATION METNO0 CODE IN MONTH OF INTERVIEW IN COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR AND IN EACH I I MONTH BACK TO DATE OF OPERATION OR TO JANUARY 1985 IF OPERATION OCCURRED BEFORE 1985 t.425P 15 163 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 425 Where d id you obta in (METHOD) the las t t ime? 425P (NAME OF PLACE) Where d id the s ter i l i za t ion take p lace? (NAME OF PLACE) CODING CATEGORIES GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 MCH/HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 FP ASSOCIATION CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . 03 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OS PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 08 (SPECIFY DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 SKIP TO ~428 How tong does i t take to t rave l f rom your home to th i s p lace? I MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 427 Is i t easy or d i f f i cu l t to get there? EASY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DIFFICULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 428 What i s the main reason you dec ided to use (CURRENT METHOD FROM 414) ra ther than some other method o f fami ly p lann ing? RECOMMENDATION OF FAMILY PLANNING WORKER . . . . . . . . 01 RECOMMENDATION OF DOCTOR/NURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 RECOMMENDATION OF FRIEND/RELATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 SIDE EFFECTS OF OTHER METHODS.,04 CONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 ACCESS/AVAILABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 COST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 WANTED PERMANENT METHOD . . . . . . . . 08 HUSBAND PREFERRED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 WANTED MORE EFFECTIVE METHOD.IO OTHER 11 (SPECIFY) OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 16 ]64 NO, I 429 I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS Are you having any problems in using (CURRENT METHOD)? SKIP I CODING CATEGORIES I TO I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~431 430 What is the main problem? HUSBAND DISAPPROVES . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ACCESS/AVAILABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 COST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 STERILIZED, WANTS CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 08 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 431 432 CHECK 414 AND 423: NEITHER STERILIZED 9 v STERILIZED BEFORE JANUARY 1985 [~ STERILIZED SINCE JANUARY 1985 [~ ENTER METHOD CODE FR(~M 414 IN CURRENT MONTH IN COL.1 OF CALENDAR. THEN DETERMINE WHEN SHE STARTED USING THIS METHOD THIS TIME. ENTER METHOD CODE IN EACH MONTH OF USE. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: - When did you s tar t us ing th i s method cont inuously? - How long have you been using th i s method cont inuousty? =449 ~433 433 I would l i ke to ask some quest ions about a l l of the (o ther ) per iods in the las t few years dur ing which you or your husband used a method to avoid get t ing pregnant. USE CALENDAR TO PROBE FOR EARLIER PERIODS OF USE AND NONUSE, STARTING WITH MOST RECENT USE, BACK TO JANUARY 1985. USE NAMES OF CHILDREN, DATES OF BIRTH, AND PERIODS OF PREGNANCY AS REFERENCE POINTS. IN EACH MONTH, ENTER CODE FOR METHOD OR "0" FOR NONUSE IN COLUMN 1o IN COLUMN 2, ENTER CODES FOR DISCONTINUATION NEXT TO LAST MONTH OF USE. NUMBER OF CODES ENTERED IN COLUMN 2 MUST BE THE SAME AS THE NUMBER OF INTERRUPTIONS OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE IN COLUMN 1. ASK WHY SHE STOPPED USING THE METHOD. IF A PREGNANCY FOLLOWED, ASK WHETHER SHE BECAME PREGNANT UNINTENTIONALLY WHILE USING THE METHOD OR DELIBERATELY STOPPED TO GET PREGNANT OR BECAUSE OF OTHER REASONS. IF SHE GETS PREGNANT AFTER STOPPING, ASK NOW MANY MONTHS AFTER STOPPING DID SHE BECAME PREGNANT. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: COLUMN 1: -When was the las t t ime you used a method? Which method was that? -When d id you s tar t using that method? How Long a f te r the b i r th of (NAME)? -Now tong d id you use the method then? COLUMN 2: -Why d id you stop using the (METHOD)? -Did you become pregnant wh i le using (METHOD), or d id you stop to get pregnant? 17 165 NO. 435 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CHECK CALENDAR: METHOD USED IN MONTH OF JANUARY 1985 I see that you were using (METHOD) in January 1985. When did you start using (METHO0) that time? (THIS DATE SHOULD NOT PRECEDE SIX MONTHS BEFORE THE DATE OF BIRTH OF ANY CHILD BORN BEFORE JANUARY 1985). SKIP COOING CATEGORIES TO I NO METBO0 USED I I IN MONTH OF JANUARY 1985 r--] ~436 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 4 4 0 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 438 I Did you use a method between the birth of (NAME OF LAST CHILD BORN BEFORE JANUARY 1985) and January 19857 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~440 441 I HECK 201 FOR CURRENTLY MARRIED AND SEPARATED ~3MAN: Do you intend to use a method to delay or avoid pregnancy at any time in the future? I I YES, NEXT YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES, AFTER NEXT YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . 2~,443 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 | WIDOWED/DIVORCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8~445 18 166 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 442 What i s the main reason you do not in tend to use a method? RECORD VERBATIM SKIP COOING CATEGORIES TO WANTS CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 - LACK OF KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HUSBAND OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 COST TOO MUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 ACCESS/AVAILABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 RELIGIDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 OPPOSED TO FANILY PLANNING . . . . . 09 FATALISTIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 OTHER PEOPLE OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . 11 INFREQUENT SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 DIFFICULT TO GET PREGNANT . . . . . . 13 MENOPAUSAL/HAD HYSTERECTOMY . . . . 14 INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 OTHER 16 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . o ,o . . . . . . . ,98 ~445 443 When you use a method, which method woutd you pre fer to use? P i l l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 DIAPHRAGM/FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . D4 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . 06 HALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 PERIOOiC ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 PROLONGED BREASTFEEDING . . . . . . . . 1D OTHER 11 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 445 I 19 167 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 444 Where can you get (METHO0 MENTIONEO IN 443)? (NAME OF PLACE CODING CATEGORIES GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 MCH/HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 FP ASSOCIATION CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . 03 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O4 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 08 (SPECIFY) DK . 98 SKIP I TO ! t 446 ~ 449 445 Do you know of a p lace where you can obta in a method of fami ly p lann ing? IF "YES": I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~449 (NAME OF PLACE) 446 Hoe tong does i t take to t rave l f rom your home to th i s MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 [ ~ I place? I HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 447 I Is i t easy or d i f f i cu l t to get there? EASY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I I DIFFICULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 448 GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 MCH/HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 FP ASSOCIATION CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . 03 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 08 Jb449 (SPECIFY) J Was there anyth ing you may d is l i ke about the serv ices you (your husband) would rece ive f rom that place? TOO EXPENSIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WAIT TOO LONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STAFF DISCOURTEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MALE STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DESIRED METHO0 UNAVAILABLE . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 IF "YES": What is i t ? RECORD MAIN PROBLEM. (SPECIFY) NO COMPLAINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 " ' I i s i t acceptab le to you fo r fami ly p lann ing in fo rmat ion ACCEPTABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I to be prov ided on the rad io or te lev i s ion? NOT ACCEPTABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I DX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 20 168 SECTIOH 5. BREASTFEEDZHG AND HEALTH CHECK ]19 : ONE ON MORE LIVE BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 1985 NO LIVE BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 1985 I I ~ (SKIP TO 5,5) 502 m ENTER THE LINE HUMBER, NAME, AND SURVIVAL STATUS OF EACH BIRTH SINCE JANUARY 1985 IN THE TABLE. I ASK THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL OF THESE BIRTHS. BEG[N WITH THE LAST BIRTH. (IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 BIRTHS, USE ADDITIONAL FORMS). How I would Like to ask you some more questJot~s about the health of chiLdre~ you had in the past f i ve yeBrs. (We wiLL ta lk abo~t one ch i ld at a t ime,) - - I BIRTH ORDER I LAST B IRTH NEXT'TO-LAST'BIRTH 1 SECOND'FROM-LAST'BIRTH m I LIHE H.ER FRON 0. I - -N I NAME FROM Q, 309 SURVIVAL STATUS FROM O. 313 593 I At the time you became I pregnant with (NAME), did you want to become pregnant then, did you want to wait unt i l tater or d id you want no ch i ldren at alL? NAME ALIVE [~ DEAD [~ ] V ~ V THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 505), LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 (SKIP TO 505)4 l NAME ALIVE E~ DEAD E~ v i v THEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 505)q / LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3~ / (SKIP TO 505)~ NAME ALIVE E~ OE~ [~ v m v m THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1] (SKIP TO 5OS)u LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . / (SK IP TO 505)4 50, m Ho. tonger WouLd you I Like to have uaited? . . . . . . . . . . . . MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 I 505 ~ you were preg~nt with (NAME), did you see imy~ for antet~atai care for th i s pregnancy? iF YES, ~hom did you see? Anyone etse? OOCTO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE/N%DUI FE . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TRADIT]ONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 511)4 DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 OTHER (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 511)4 DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE/N I DWI EE . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . OTHER I- NO O~E (SPECIFY) 1 (SKIP TO 511)4 506 k'nere did you see th i s person the f i r s t time? PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER . . . . . I MCH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GOVT, HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 4 GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SPECIALIST CLINIC . . . . . . . . 6 OTHER 7 (SPECIFY) PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER . . . . . 1 NCH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 4 GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER SPECIALIST ~ CLINIC . . . . . . . . 6 7 PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER . . . . . 1 NCH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . ] PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 4 GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SPECIALIST CLINIC . . . . . . . . 6 OTHER 7 (SPECIFY) 21 169 j S'RTH~DER LANT ',RTH H'KT'TO'LAST'SIR,H SEO~D-,RON-LAST-.IRTH i L,HE.RER,. D. 30. FF I F I~ M SO? | t~r~d you chose to go I LESS COSTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CONVENIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BETTER RELATIONSHIP MITH SERVICE PROVIDER . . . . . . . . 3 OTHERTECHNICAL ~CONPETGNCE . . . . . S4 LESS COSTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CONVENIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BETTER RELATIONSHIP WITH SERVICE PROVIDER . . . . . . . . 3 TECHRiCAL C(]4PETENCE . . . . . 4 OTHER (SPECIFY) LESS COSTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 | CONVENIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I BETTER RELATIONSHIP WITH SERVICE PROVIDER . . . . . . . . ' TECHNICAL CONPETENCE . . . . . 4 OTHER S 508 I Has the v i s i t e regutar check- REGULAR CHECKUP . . . . . . . . . . 1 REGULAR CHECKUP . . . . . . . . . . I REGULAR CHECKUP . . . . . . . . . . I I up, because o f f i tness re ta ted iLLNESS RELATED TO ILLNESS RELATED TO iLLNESS RELATED TO to the pregnancy, o r because THE PREGNANCY . . . . . . . . . . . 2 THE PREGNANCY . . . . . . . . . . . 2 THE PREGNANCY . . . . . . . . . . . 2 of iLLness unre la ted to the ILLNESS UNRELATED TO ILLNESS UNRELATED TO ILLHESS UNRELATED TO pregnancy? THE PREGNANCY . . . . . . . . . . . 3 THE PREGNANCY . . . . . . . . . . . ] THE PREGNANCY . . . . . . . . . . . ] '°'1H''°V ~°th. °'Rna°t m m m were you when y~J f i r s t MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOIdTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sam someone fo r an antenata[ check on th i s pregnancy? DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ,,0m H- - , .°t.-t.i v i . i t .oo ,~ h.v. ~,eg TINES . m TINES . M TINES . m that pregnancy? DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 511 | t /~en you were peegnant I with (HANE) were yc~J Riven YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | an in jec t ion in the arm to p revent the baby from NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ,sKiP TO ,sKIP TO , , , , . "j DK. . . . . . _ . _ . _ . . . . . . . . . . DK • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "~l "°'-V t i - °'°'ou D [ ] [ ] get th i s in jec t ion? TINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 513 I Wilere d id you g ive b i r th to (MANE)? HONE . . . . . . . . . . ° . . , . , ooo . .1 GOVERNNENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . 2 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER 4 HONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GOVERNNENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . 2 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . ] OTHER 4 HO~E. . . .o . ° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GOVERNNENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . 2 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . ] OTHER 4 22 170 BIRTH ORDER LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO'LAST-BiRTH I SECORD'FRON-LAST'BIRTN m 514 LINE NUMBER FROM O. 309 NAME FROM O. 309 Who ass i s ted wi~h the de l ivery o f (NAME)? PROBE FOR THE TYPE OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL PERSONS ASSIST)MS. fT] NAME A. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I B. NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . 1 C. TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . ; .1 O. RELATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 E. OTHER 1 (SPECIFY) F. NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NAME A. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . 1 C. TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 D. RELATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 E . OTHER 1 (SPECIFY) F, NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I M NAME A. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. NURSE/MIDWI FE . . . . . . . . . I C. TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 D. RELATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 E. OTHER 1 (SPECIFY) F. NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 515 What was the durat ion o f the LESS THAN 7 MONTHS . . . . . . . 1 LESS THAN 7 MONTHS . . . . . . . 1 LESS THAN 7 MORTNS . . . . . . . t | p regnancy? 7 MOB. TO LESS THAN 7 NOS. TO LESS THAN 7 MOS. TO LEES THAN [ 9 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 MONTHS+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9 MONTHS+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9 MONTHS+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B DN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 516 | Was (NAME) de l ivered normal ly NORMALLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NORMALLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NORMALLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im i or by caesar ian sect ion? CAESARIAN SECTION . . . . . . . .2 CAESARIAN SECTION . . . . . . . . 2 CAESARIAN 5ECTIOII . . . . . . . . 2 I s, H. 0i0 (.E) weiOh? ]AI GRAMS . . . . . . . . . GRAMS . . . . . . . . . GRAMS . . . . . . . . . DN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 ] OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999e | 518 When (NAME) was born , was he /she : very Large, VERY LARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 VERY LARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 VERY LARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Larger than average , LARGER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . 2 LARGER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . 2 LARGER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . 2 average , AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 smal le r than average , SMALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . 4 SMALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . 4 SMALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . 4 o r very smal l ? VERY SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ VERY SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 VERY SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . B DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B 519 Dur ing The s ix -week per iod ( i .e . , N i faz per iod) fo l low ing the b i r th o f (NAME) d id you see anyone fo r a check on your hea l th? IF YES, Whom d id you see? PROBE FOR THE TYPE OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL PERSONS SEEN. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE/N IDWI FE. . : . . . . . . . . . 1 TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER NO ORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO $21)4 DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- OTHER NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- (SKIP TO 523)~ DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER 11 NO ON~l (SNIP TO 523)4 23 171 LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST-BIRTH l SECOND'FRON'LAET'SIETN - i +++ I-7] L INE NUMBER FROM 0 . 309 520 ~here did you see th i s person the f i r s t Time? PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER . . . . . 1 NCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . 5 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 4 GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SPECIALIST CLINIC . . . . . . . . 6 OTHER 7 (SPECIFY) PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER . . . . . 1 MCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . 3 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . BP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SPECIALIST CLINIC . . . . . . . . 6 OTHER 7 (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO 523) PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER . . . . . 1 MCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . ] PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 4 GP CL IN IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SPECIAL IST CL IN IC . . . . . . . . 6 OTHER 7 (SPECIFY) (SK IP TO 523) 521 I Has your period returned ~ince the b i r th of (NANE)T YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 (SK IP TO 523)4 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . + + + "+]+'m +H+IWJIflM JmliiJH+Im U+ g I] JlJfliliH : I I + i ra l+l ~ J i i ] i J ! I ! ! ! I .+ l . l . : f i l l ; ; ; : ; I I ' I J ; t ; I+I I] I~I l+l++l!l lt J t I l l " ; t +m; ,++++++++++++,++++++,+++++++++,++:+=+++,+++.++,:,++++++.+++++++++:L J + +++++++++.+++++th+l+l,++,+++ ,,lhltl.tIlUtUMMIIHfilllllI~+i+I+I +t++++ttt++t+l++tt+l+++++++i+++H++++lt+HlEltl+t;lt+llHH++H++++++i++++++l tt++ m+H[l+++fii+i+llt+illil++;t;i . ]l+mlIl+UllJHl Iiii 522 ENTER "X =* IN COL.3 OF CALENDAR IN MONTH AFTER B IRTH ,.==:=.=+!=::!:!!:!!.!!+~=::;~;=:~*:.:=::~:!::==:!=:~-+;=+;=:. i !~!!~!H[~i[i+~]~!i!~i] i i ili~!iEil~li~!!!]]!!!!!~l 523 I Hou many months a f te r the ENTER "X" IN COL.3 OF CALENDAR FOR THE NUMBER OF SPECIFIED MONTHS I b i r th of (NAME) did your WITHOUT A PERIO0, STARTING IN THE MONTH AFTER BIRTH. period return? IF LESS THAN ONE MONTH U]THOUT A PERIOD, ENTER "0" IN COLD3 IN MONTH AFTER BIRTH. 52¢ of (NAME)? NO . . . . . . (IF PREGNANT, CIRCLE '1 ' ) 525 ENTER "X" IN COL.4 OF CALENDAR IN MONTH AFTER BIRTH AND IN EACH MONTH TO CURRENT MONTH. (SKIP TO 527) 526 | For how many months a f te r I The b i r th of (NAME) did you not have sexual re lat ions? : ::;:.:=:: = : Have you resumed sexual YES (OR PREGNANT) . . . . . . . . 1 I +!ii+ +ii+: i!ii!i!!ii!!!!i+!+!!i!iiiiiiiiiiiZitiiiiiiiii! ] +m ++ , I L , J+Jl u.,~Ul re la t ions s ince The b i r th (SK IP TO 526)4 ] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . + m+mmmmmmmzm+mlp lU j+ l J j , mp+ j+l l ] im" [ Hl I]tlIlIB~ .2 1 11 +++i+}i+l++ H [++l EI+I H++T +++ H +++lJ+l++t +i+ilt t E+iJ+t + ++l EI++J+H + + + + + + + + + + + [+++++++i++++~+]+ +J++J+ +++ iJ+J+t+++[+++++!+ I +i 51+l Ei++illi+lt+l E+t +l ++ 51+ +ilii+ H ;++l++l E! ++ ii +;ilJ+li +;+it+l+ fl +;i fl +itli+l+iJiii]l b + l l + + j + + +J[+l+[i'!IZltl +i Im lJ+jjl++j++]j++ ram++ + , . ,+ . i=mH +U i+,m. .+.~ : mm: : . :m: : : : : : .+m.m:m, I t++++t++t+I+++++E++++++++++++I++++Z+++++~I+Zlt+IFlt++t+t+++++ +++ ++IE++H+I I ++lU++l++lt++++l+lt+l+H+l+++++H+i+lttlfiltll+l+lt+l++mttt+l+ll l +[l+lff I t+I+lt+I+~lt+EI+++++I+I++I+lt~lt+i++tp+++IiH++t++E++I++I++I+I++I++IHlll++i I ++t++t+++i++lt+ltH+lEll+lt+ltlt+lt+HlJ+liti+Ittilli+tltlflJllitl+Hlt+Ellt I I iH+;J+l++++l++l++E+l+l+++tlt~+++t+++il++liilJlSi+iJ++++iJ+i+l+Jl++li~E;++] I tli+l++i++i+]i+ii~i+l+tli+iiHliE++;tlltilt;l+liHitiiiitiHJ+itli+iHt+ilig I Zlc :+ t ; ; : t ] j ;Zl ,=+ ++++++++m m + L + ++L,.+L,t+l+H.L m+Ll+m.++.+L.+ . . : : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +: : z* : - . . : . . . . + l i t i : ]+ I t l :::: : t++Z++ZlZ++E+EI +,=+:.h l : . . .mm+Ju ++5+E+++++J+H+J+HJ~E+t + ] H+++ i HdltiH I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a ENTER "X" IN COL.4 OF CALENDAR FOR THE NUMBER OF SPECIFIED HONTHS WITHOUT SEXUAL RELATIONS, STARTING [M THE MONTH AFTER BIRTH. IF LESS THAN ONE MONTH WITHOUT SEXUAL RELATIONS, ENTER "0" IN COL.4 OF CALENDAR IN THE MONTH AFTER BIRTH. 24 172 LAST 81RTH NEXT-TO-LAST-BIRTH SECONO-FRON-LAST-BIRTH | I BIRTH ORDER LINE HLR4BER FRQI4 D. 30~ I NAJ4E FROI4 D. 309 52? | D id you ever I breast feed (MAHE)? HANE HAHE YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1] YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1] (SKIP TO 529)~ (SKIP TO 53?) . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1] (SKIP TO 537)~ HO, . . . . . . . . oo , . . , . . . . . . . . 2 528 ~ny d id you not b reast feed (HAME)? EHTER "R" IM COLUNM 5 OF CALENDAR IN THE MONTH AFTER BIRTH NOTHER ILL/~EAK . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHILD ILL/~IEAK . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NIPPLE/BREAST PROBLEN,.,4 NO MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 W(~RKIHG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 MOTHER DOES NOT KHOW HO~ TO BREASTFEED . . . . . . . 7 OTHER D (SPECIFY) RECORD VERBATIN (SKIP TO 539) I~THER ILL/t,~AK . . . . . . . . . . I CHILP I LL /WEAK . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NIPPLE/BREAST PROBLEM.A MO N[LK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 WORKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 MOTHER DOES HOT KNOW HI~J TO BREASTFEED . . . . . . . ? OTHER B (SPECIFY) RECORD VERBATIN (SKIP TO 539) MOTHER I LL /WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHILD ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 H[PPLE/BREAST PR~LEN. . . .A NO MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ~ORKIHG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 HOFHER DOES NOT KNOW HOW TO BREASTFEED . . . . . . . ? OTHER 8 (SPECIFY) RECORD VERBATIN (SKIP TO 539) 529 Hou (ong a f te r b i r th d id you f i r s t put (NAJ4E) to the breast? 530 | DO you know that co los t rum I i s impor tant fo r the baby? 531 | I F ST ILL ALIVE: I Are you s t i l l b reast feed ing (NANE)? (%F DEAD+ CIRCLE '~ ' ) 1 532 I ENTER "X" IN COL.5 OF CALENDAR IN MONTH AFTER BIRTH I AND [H EACH NOHTH TO CURRENT MONTH 533 How many Times d id you NUMBER OF breastfeed Last n ight DAYLIGHT FEEDINGS,. I [ I between sunset and surpr i se+ and yesterday dur ing the NUHBER OF day l ight hours? NIGHTIME FEEDINGS,. I l l TOTAL IN 24 HCORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ - ~ +][+][+++J++J+ ++++++; EJ++;;;J++; ++++++iJ+JJ++i+J+ +J+ +[+i[++[ +iJFi+ ++~ H zJJzJJ IMMEDIATELY . . . . . . . . . . . . ODD +H~t++++++Z+{Z;+;++;++;+++++++i++t++t+tt+++it+i+E+E+++++H+~++i+++HUZ+j+it mmm:mm!::=,m,= = = mmmmmm~mq !I:~:!!:!i!!!!! ! : :i!*:c~:c:!!!!it! !~ i H~RS . . . . . . . . . . . • . • ~ !!![!!!!!!!!!.!!!~+i!;~iii!!iii~i!i~!!!~!!!!!~![!!!!.+,.!,!: i~i;+i: != : i~iiiiii!~!iI!~!!*!!~!!!!!!!~!!!!! :![:! ! i :1~i i i i i i i i i i i i i111,1~ !!! !!gi!i!~ilgi$1!!! M!!!!!!+!!+!!~!!!i!!!i!i[!!!i!!!!.i+ii!ii~i~! M !!!!!!I • + ++E+Z+++++++;++E+;;;+;¥;+; ;t ;++t+ +it+iJti+tittt+++++++++ YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 mm+mmmmm{mm¥+~j ; +~+mmmimmm: im m mm ,:.m ,,=.=mm:mmm+mm m~hm,L :d : . . : t ,= l . . . - . t . miiiiiiiiTl p+" ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t . I=,+ . mh l (SK IP TO i ii~ii~iMi!iiiii!iiii!i!!!iiji jii i i i i i i i i i i i[ i i i~Miii i i ::+:m m::~:m m mm~,= m mmmm~:mm:::mm~:m =m =:: "" ~ii~iiii~i!ii!iiiiii!!!!!!!ii!i!ii!ii+!iiiiJiiJi[i J~iJliiiiiiiJiiJiiJi!i~ ++ y+t ++++'++ H E++ +++~++;++.++;+~+++;+++++t +i+ +i+ +++ +i++t ++ E+ E+++++++++++ +t +++++++++l++++++++++;++++++++t +;;++++;~i++i+i+++++++t+i++++++++ E+++ H+++++I +;+;J; + ++++++it+t++++it++t]H+t+++++E+++++++++Z+;++;+;;t~;t++++++it++t+ +t++++++h+++-+-+m m m m m m= m m=:::t++:+:p==-:-= m m = ~:+::~:+t:++t:++t+;t+L++: :+:: : := t:tt:;:::::::+:+::+t:+t : :mm: :+:mm=;m.+ :i :+ : :mm: : : :+mmm: :re=m=:: : : . . :mmma:+ + i++;+++ t; ;++t+;;+~++t++i+i++Jt+tt +++it+iEtt+t+++++tJH++;+t+~;J+;;H++++tE+ ;;++J;+++++++ + E++i+++; ;+ +=:m: : . i . :m m m mmmmn:+:+::mm++:+i++Zp . . mm:m ++i+H • .:+.:.+++i +H Z J ++++i+i++i+ii+i+++++t++tflt+t+[tt+t+ ++ +EzEi+Zii+i+iiiiEil+ :=, : = mmmm:=:i = [iiJiiJiJ!i![iJ!i!![J~+[ J[i I ] iiiJiiJiiJiJJ!~ZJ!i]II I,+;++.,,,~ . l,,+,,.,,,,+,,+!II+.,~i~,,,t+. N ~ ++++t+++i+:iiii+E+++++++i+++;;++;+t++t+ti+tt+++t+t++i+it++++d+iEi~i!iEm+ i+m +m+m m m m m++++it+i++ilii+ii++iilt+i+:+l++a m m++m m U m ~ : Ii*:i*l~*Jl*:!l!~ltJ!l!!!i,~: i:~t "~i~ I Ic i . ;= : ; . LJ]J. . .+II~IIU im l l IN . + +i++++ligEt++t+E+~t+ttt+t .t ~ mm.,+,.++pmtt.Jm tit +++++++E+t++++++++++i++it+i+ti+tt+tt+it iI++Ei +t++!ili[+i]+llilJtigi[1~l +L; . . . . . . +; ++++++it +++ it +++++++++i H +++++ ++ h+j~hI+H+l 1 t}mi:'ill! l~jll] l j j~++ .+i +-* i !~ tlll~!l!li~HEHHllitligU!IIl~H~!ttlt!llltlltllUlXlilUflll + ttit;ii++ +{i++iiii E+i ii;+;{ ;;+ + i;t +t +i; Jl;i i i +i; u + j~ +j+ + ji j~ E tlii+iiii" +t++t+tt+t't "+~[ + . I ++lJlZiJlJti+jtJl]lj~lj t t +i I++++H+H+Jt+H+!+ t n+iu EttlnHII]II+I] ~I t+it~tgJt]t+H+iHitg~IZU+ I t ++il!]lll[illlHlli~lillPl+l u~ ! i : i :!i i~ii~iii i i i i i i !i! !ii~! i~11 !1~!!~1! I !*j* :~; i * I .11:. z +m ~+mmmmmmmmmm+mmm~l lm+hmm~J~m!l l J ] l + +t++++t++t+tt++t rE++ + + HE++t++t+t+ttt~r +Et+t ] +i+tt+tt++ H++E+E+++++++++++++++++++++++i++t + + ++++i++i+ itl!!+i+++++i++++ii+ii++i+i++i+ii+iiiii+iti++Mt++++++++++++++ i+++++t++l ' , , ,I . ' + ,,,m,.,Im,.=t+++ " ' I +EH + +++;+i++++++++++ ++t++t +t ++ E+i+++ ~+t+t HZ+ZZi+Z+ZitEi++iZliiEi++t+i +t++t++t++ +++++++++++++++;+++JZ++Z+++i+i++t+++++t++ + ++++ +J+Zi+EZ+lim ++:+:m+=m:m=: : ++:m::mm =+:m .L._?+:+:++t++++++++++++;++H+!++++++.+_.+j:tl+ttl!tl!lllflE!~+lhi+i iiiiiiiii!i[!i[~iiliiiiiii ~lJi~!ifl!!llJllliltll i~ l i i i i i i i i i+miiiiii~iMi~[iiiiii!i~I[+li!ii~!ll~ ~'I~!++!~++ ~ JJN.+J ~ + iilt+++++ +!+++++j++i+++iiii+iiiiiit ill++i++i flu ~+ilt++j+[:i~+j~:i+ii+i, ]+++++t++k:m m+:h::++J+tJ+~+iJ+t++Ji+i++i+~b mm .= ::Zc Z~++++i:.i t:t:jt+ t+ + t ro t :t+lt::=:J[:'=. pr. : l j I I I+lltl+ll¢" . ]+$+~+ + ~ t I il+l . +++,,; . . . .=.+=t . . . . . . . . . t.,+t+zllt+.,li+hlP, i . ++t++i++++]ti:tiJ++J+~J++H+ii~++iliJ+]++t++J+ilb+~i?}+Jldiil: mml+l [~++++++:: m m m m m++++Zt++tZlE+ti+t++t++t+U m ,++umml~l++ig~ 2S 173 BIRTH ORDER J LkST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST-B IRTH SECOND-FRQI4-LAST-BIRTN | I I I I I 534 535 536 537 L INE NLI4BER FROBG. 309 MANE EROM Q. 309 Do you breast feed (MANE) whenever he /she ~anEs or accord ing to a F ixed schedu le? INANE DEI4AMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I SCHEDULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A t any t ime yesterday or Las t n ight uas (NANE) g iven any o f the fo tLo~ing? : PLa in water? SuDar uaEer? Ju ice? Berba l tea? Yansoon (D i l L )? Baby fo rmuta? F resh mi lk? Tinned or poudered miLk? Other L iqu ids? Any soL id or mushy food? CHECK 535 : FOQO DR L IQUID GIVEN YESTERDAY? i YES NO PLA]H t4ATER . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 SUGAR ~ATER . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 JUICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 HERBAL TEA . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 YANSOUN (D ILL ) . . . . . . . 1 2 BABY FORMULA . . . . . . . . . 1 2 FRESH MILK . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TINMED/PO~OERED MILK,1 2 OTHER L IQUIDS . . . . . . . . 1 2 SOL[D/HIJSHY FO~O . . . . . 1 2 YES TO HO TO ALL ONE OR v (SK IP TO 560) (SN IP TO 5~1) For ho~ many months d id you breast feed (NANE)? MANE ~it l i i i i i i i i i i i t i i i~ i i i ! i i ! t ! i ! ! i i i ! i ! i t l=~.=h,:l:+,h,!h;,,;,;,=;;,+,+:=;;mm+==z=+!! d=+=,l , l t i l ! l i ! ! t~ i t E~llii i ! !~ !9 ! i ! t ! ! t{ I !E I I I= h:E! f i~I~I~I I=I~I i~HIEH!! E IH IE I I{E I+t i i ! i i ! i J i J i [ ! i i i i i i i i i i~i l i i i i l~[ i l l l l i J J i l l i ! i i i i [ I J i [ i l ] i i l i l ! i !mmmmmmmmmi imi+t i i i i i i i i i + + =ammm= ; l i l i l i i i i i i i J i i i h i i i im:m:n :=:a : i i i i~ i , i pp :==: , i i ] - i l l i : +b; ; G+++;+:++ ! R! : +l+ ++ ! +: +:; ro l l ; ; ; ;*;+; ; ;h ; ; ;+; J+,;,+H,t =l l+; i i : i i : : : : := : ;hmmm.:mmnF l+ l l lq i : l i I + h : d+ m=++!! i ! ! ! i i i i i i i f i i i t : ;= m I ; + +t iJ l ; i ; t+==l !==l l l l i l i i l i i i i l J+ i J ;+ l= lh=; l J : i+ l + t l l l ! ! l !p l lm m mi l ' i l m+' i lm l + l l ] ' l l I I " I t 1 mmmmm!mm.!+, ml+ + I I. I I i i i l i t i l l J i i i~ i~f i t i l E i i i t l t t l l i t l l t i t t l t l t i t i~ ~ t t i i i~ iE i i l i i i~ i l l l l i i~t i~ l l t i i i~ i l ! E I I I E t f~ I l t l t " l i i i i j i i j ' i i l i i iH l l i l l l i I ! I I I l i i l l L=.=,lh,, LI+I,.,L.,I,I,Lt.LI,LI,.t 1 li}i~liilllitllt t I I U Itllfl m fl [fl m { ~illi}illl i l lt U [:p:h~.m u h { t [=~:E:t: lqLh- I . :::*11~:111~ii~iiii;ii~i111~11+ 1~ + : i!!!~!~lcl] IlLILL.,.,.~ LE I J E I I . I~Hl t i l I I= I I I I I~ IL LI~ . H!JI!J~H!!!!! ~!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!!!~!!!!~!! I !!!!! i ~ m a :iiii+i+ii+iiii! + mmi i+ i i i i i i i d i l i i+ i= i+ + :i++;;: :; ; : ; ;;:~+ +++++++++++ ++ J++ J+! ++! Et ! : t +:! ++!:+ +:: C:::+: +;:i;+ ++++++++++ ~i i iH i i i i l l l i~E i lE i i i i l l l J l l i i lH i i i i i i l E I I{ I IE I !~!~! !~:~! !~! ! , 1 i ! ! t i ! [ ! !! ! t ! !~! i~: i i :*: i i , i i i i l i i im i+ i l l B i l l l ! i i i~ i +ill ) i *i[il Jilii[ Ji~ill i i i l i i Jl + E i )h i i i i~ i l J i~ i l~ i i i i i ! i i i i i i i l J I ! ! !EH! I~! I~! ! I ! ! I I I I I ! I I I I I I E I I~H! !H I !~!E~!! ! '~ E i i i i i i E i iE I IH IE~I ! I~RI I I I~ I I I~Hi i i i iU I iH~I I~ I I I ' ~ !F ! ~i[! i ! i II 1 t,,d , i d , i i i i i i i i i~ E i i . ~ E i ~ i l~i i L . i l i id , i . i d i i i i i +iiiL t MANE i i i i i i i ! i i E I t I~t l I l t~t l t l I t t ; t l t t t l I I t t t l ,~i!l!!=~p! ~=!i !p t l • , q . Imm!mm&mlmlm Itlltllttltlllllull t{ttiiiii!ii~i~i~ltlt~l ] ! LRI i I RtlIttWIIttltlIIItl t t t111t l i I i I I t l t II i i i i tlltnll~ulllttlll t I . !.:::, .f nIL,tI"WIh~W I p~ f ~ I i El ~ l i i! i i i i i i i J i !~i)~ii+flltl l ittlLt]tl~Bmqqql~ ! I t t I l l l l ' l l i ' l l l !L,,=,d,,=,d,d,,,.,,ltl!l,It . I l l~ l l~!m I H ! l !h ml=hhn~h. lh l I BI~ i] BI~I,~ EIIII~II;IE I ! I I i i i i l i i i l i l~ i l~ l i l l f l f i l l l J f l~B l~ l l l i l~ l l~Aml l I i I " " I} i i I I I I { "L ~ ImL~ hmttm=!tm=l.ltl,ll,lt,llll I~llllllll 111111; i l l I i l i l E i l l i l l I I I I I~ I I I l t i i j t ! iZ i l i l l i i t J i i i t l 1• J I; I i I I I I I I~lllltlllllllltlll~ I l l t ! i l l l t ! t l ! l t ! l l l l l l l l lml l l l l l t l l l l l l l lt11111~1t R l lml t11 ; l l IIIH i J f l l l t l l l l l l l i l i f l l l l IIIIIIII i l i i l i l i l l l l l l l l l l lt= IIllI Iit ' l Ii, . m+. 1 11 B I tt31,, '] ! ! t t i tE i i l E t lhml I ~l]~l]t]ll] BflflZttBt i i i iH i i t ! i J iH i f J J i !ti!lJElltttltm~ltl~]t~(t~l [~ J I~ . ~=,,,.,,I,,t1,tt11=1,1111111t t i l l i i l ; ;~ i~ iL i ; i l i ;~ i f l tg lg l t t l lU i J l~tl;i;~tfll,~ • i l l J~ J Jii~[i~i~tililili~i F!~ i i t l [ L{ i i ii~ll i t l i I [ !,=+,++++++,+=+,+,++.I,I . , II,.llll,ll~t t ! ! t ! ! ! ! t ! ! ! l t ! l l l t twt t l t l l l l l l l~ lnu l~ l l lU l l l t l l i i i i i i i i i i i i ! !~ i i ! ! ! i l ! l t~t lE l l i l t l ] l t f~ l t zhuzlzNt izhn uH J t I I El l ! . i i i i i i i i i i i , i= i : =+ . I fij.l l i~ I . I I + . . . . . +, =!====!+L,.,:=:tl,t. L l lm,,llm,,t+.,I +=i:;;;n;;;;h+l+1i~+[!]tt!!+~ I ! i ! t i i idhhm=[lt l~l l! l!! l+!~ t~i~i i i~ i i i i sm mlm i i l+~i t l l ; J t i t th i ia=u. m ate I E I I I I I I E I I I I E I{ H i I l l i t t f i{~ i i H i f i E ! I{ I I i~ti l+i+ = EH l l t l t t t lq l tm=mm=mmm t.tm.mmtm | i i t111~i t i i i i i~ i i i lUE i i l i i i i i i i l i i lN i i t l l i f i f~E i~ i l i I [ I I I I I I I I I I I~ I I~ IEENHt~t~NI{t l t111tll!,1 IN l t~It i l l i i i i~ i i f i i i i i *Nt t ~ i I t I . .===+++.=.=!+.+@lllllllllll~l+llll I f i tR i l l l I I t t l i l t l I I U I I l~ I l l l t I I i S l lE • 1 i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i t l i~ i i i i i t i t l l t i11 f1111t l FOR EACH BIRTH RECORD THE NLJMBEB OF MONTHS BREASTFED IN THE BONES ENTER "X" IN COL.5 OF CALENDAR FOR THE NLH4BEH OF SPECIF IED 14OMTHS OF BREASTFEED[NGj STARTING IN THE MONTH AFTER S IRTH, IF DREASTFED LESS THAN OHE MONTH, ENTER "O" IN COL.5 |M HONTH AFTER B IRTH, 538 Mhy d id you s top breast feed ing (NAME)? 14OTHER ILL/MEAN . . . . . . . . . 01 CHILD ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 HIPPLE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . 04 NO MILK/NOT SUFF IC IENT. .O5 k '~RKING OUTS IDE HOME. , , ,06 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MEANING AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . D8 BECAHE PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . 09 OTHER 10 (SPECIFY) MOTHER ILL/MEAK . . . . . . . . . 01 CHILD ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 NIPPLE PHOBLEM . . . . . . . . . . 04 NO MZLK/NOT SUFF IC IENT. ,05 WORKIHG OUTSIDE HOHE. , . .06 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MEANING AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 BECAHE PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . 09 OTHER 10 (SPECIFY) MOTBER ILL/WEAN . . . . . . . . . 01 CHILD ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 NIPPLE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . 04 NO MILN/NOT SUFF IC IENT. .OS WORKING OUTSIDE HCI4E . . , .06 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . 07 WEANING AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 BECAME PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . 09 OTHER tO (SPECIFY) 26 174 LAST BIRTH NEXT'TO-LAST-BIRTH SECOND-FRON'LAST'BIRTN I BIRTH ORDER LINE NUMBER FRON g. 309 54o I waa (NAME) ever g iven any I water, or something e l se to dr ink or eat (o ther than breastmi tk )? I NAME I NAME I NAME I ALIVE [~ v DEAD ! ALIVE [~V DEAD ~ (SKIP TO 541) (SKIP TO 541) v YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2~ / (SKIP TO 544)4 (SKIP TO 5441~ L,VEo O. J (SNIP TO 541) YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 541 Hou many mo~ths o ld was (MANE) xhen you s tar ted g iv ing the fo l low ing on a regu lar I~msis as pa~t of the da i ly d ie t : Formula or mi lk o ther than breastmiLk? Water or other l iqu ids? ~ny so l id o r mushy food? IF LESS TNM~ BIdE MONTH. RECORD ~OO% 542 CHECK 313: CHILD ALIVE? 545 I D id (NAME) dr ink anyth ing I f rom a bot t le w~th a n ipp le yes terday? 544 I GO HACK TO 503 FORMULA OR MILK: AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . . ~ - MOT GIVEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 UATER/LIGUIDS: AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . . NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 SOLID/MUSHY FO~O: AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . . ~-~ NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ALIVE ~ DEAD To~V (SKIP 544) v FORMULA OR MILK: AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . . ~ - ~ NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 WATER/H~UIDS: AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . . NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 SOLID/MUSHY FGOD: AGE IS MONTHS . . . . . . . ~ - NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 (SKIP TO 544) ~LL ~ ~ ." ~; L;~;=.~=~m m m.n.;;;~;.;mmmmm~:~=n;.;~.n;nt YES o. * • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . 1 EI~I~EI~EE~ ~ ~i~ i i~ i~;~;~E~i~i~ i~ i ~EE~EIEE~]~]EIE U~U~i~Ii~E~E~ ~ ~ E EiEiEI NO * . . o , , o . . , , . . , , ° ° . . . . . .2 . i . ;'E'E'; . ;'i;E~'"" "rr FOR NEXT BIRTH; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 545. I FogHu~ Oil NILE: AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . . NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 I I WATER/~QUIDS: m ~ AGE IN MOIdTHS . . . . . . . HOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 I I SOLIDINOSHY F(~O: AGE IN MOMTNS . . . . . . . NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 (SKIP TO 544) lll11111] 1 ] ill iiii11 it i1 i11 iht l n i i i m .::~[: ::::i,i:~!!~ L L ! ~iLii,::::l n : . : . . t ! t )L. L. U . . ,m:L3.~*dL~ ] t l ~ i [z i ~ I i l i ra I=[ . ~1111I,,,,,,,,1t1~1,,~ Ul,liitm hz m z !!~!ii!~!l!ii!!Jiu!HiJiiiilil~hl!!!~nlnltl[llll@lm~Llll~ iiii~iiiii~i i iiq[ PI~ ' a " "~ '~ " " ' JEZifiE~EZEEE~EEZ IZHZHZE~ JEUZEEEiJiEZ EiEZ.nEI]tm/I JI~IE~]~[J~;Z[ZZ[ZZU Efi~IIt~IZ~IiiZZ~E~I]IEtI~NEi311;E ! N El i t~E N :I 2T 175 NO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS I COOING CATEGORIES CHECK 312: ANY BIRTH IN 1982, 1983, OR 19847 YES ~] V NA/4E OF LAST BIRTH PRIOR TO 1985: (NAME) NO BKIP I ~550 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 546 Did you ever feed (NAME) at the breast? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~548 5471Howmny~nthsdidyoubreastfe~(NAME)? IMONTHS . F~ I OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 S481F°rh°wmny~nths'ftertheb'rth°f(NANE)d,d you ~o__~t have a per i l ? I MONTHSNOT RETURNED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-~196 ,~,1 ~o~ ~o. oo~ oo~ ~,~o~ ~ ~,~ o, ~ . ~ , o , o ~o~ oo_~ ~.~o~, ~,.t,o°~ I ~°~'~°' ~°~° . . ~1 '~ ONE OR MORE LIVE BIRTHS [~ NO LIVE BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 1985 SINCE JANUARY 1985 F~ ~701 28 176 SECTION 6. IMMUNIZATION. MORBIDITY AND CHILD MORTALITY LAST B IRTH NEXT-TO-LAST-B IRTH SECO~D-FROR-LAST-BIRTR I-I-1 M 601 L INE NUMBER FROR Q. 309 I NAME DO you have a card where (NAME,S) vaccinat ions are ~r i t ten clown? IF YES: May Z see i t , please? RARE YES, SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES, NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 603)4 NO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAME YES, SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES, NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 (SKIP TO 003)4 J NO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAME YES e SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES, NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 603)4 NO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 602 (11 COPY VACCINATION OATES FOR EACH VACCINE FROM THE CARD. (21 ~/RITE "441 lN ALL COLUMNS IF CARD SHOWS THAT k VACCINATION WAS GIVEN BUT NO DATE RECORDED. SCG POLIO 17 POLIO E? POLIO 3? POLIO BOOSTER? OPT 1? OPT E? OPT 3? OPT BOOSTER? MEASLES? YEAR P~) DAY (SKIP TO 605) YEAR #40 DAY P1 P2 P3 [ Pe ! 01 02 03 DB MEA (SKIP TO 6051 YEAR 140 DAY P1 P2 P3 PO 01 02 03 "l o6 i HEA J I _ L (SKIP TO 605) 603 | Has (RARE1 received I any vaccinations? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DK . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 17'7 BIRTH ORDER I LAST BIRTH i NEXT'TO'LAST'BIRTH $ECORB'FROR-LAST-BIRTH m 6O4 LINE NUH8ER FRON O. ]09 NAI4E PLease teLL me i f (NAME) (has ) rece ived any o f The foLLowing vacc inat ions : A BCG vacc inat ion aga ins t tubercuLos is , that i s , an in jec t ion in the arm or shou lder that Le f t a scar? Po l io vaccJna, that i s , d ro fx in The mouth? IF YES: RO~ many t imes? OPT vacc inat ion aga ins t d iphtery , per tus i s and tetal~JS, that i s an in jec t ion in the arm? IF YES: Howmany timesT An injection aga ins t measLes? NAHE YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ° . .+° .2 BK+. . .H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ° ° .8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o~ OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NUMBER OF TINES . . . . . . . . l J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 HUMBER OF TINES . . . . . . . . TES. . . . ° , . . , ° °° . . . .o . °° . .1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 WE YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO. . . . ° ° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES. . . . ° °°°°°° . . . . . . . . . . . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B NUHBER OF TINES . . . . . . . . I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 HLe4BER OF TINES . . . . . . . . [ ] YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 .c33 L ! ALIVE ALIVE CHILD ALIVE? v v (SKIP TO 607) (SKIP TO 607) GO BACK TO 601 FOR NEXT BIRTH; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, SKIP TO 626. HAHE YES.° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .1 NO.° . ° . . . .o . . °o . . , , . ° . , , °2 BK°°°° . ° . . °oo . . . .H° . .oo .8 YES . . . . . . . , , , , , , , * * , , , . , ,1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I'--1 IdU#(BER OF TINES . . . . . . . . J J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . . . ° °°°° . .Ho°o . . .H° .2 OK° .°° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 HUMBER OF TINES . . . . . . . . [ ] YES . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ° . , ° .2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ALIVE [~ DEAO v (SKIP TO 607) 30 178 ] LAST BIRTH I NEXT-TO-LAST-BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST-BIRTH M I BIRTH ORDER LINE NUMBER FROM O. 309 I NAME 607 | Has (NAME) been i t t w i th I any i t tness a t any t ime in the las t 2 weeks? NN4E I NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 609)~ 21 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 609)~ 21 NANE YES . . . . . . . . . . . . ° °°°° . °°°°~ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2~ (SNIP TO 609)~ 608 I krnat i s Care) the i t tness (es )? IF NO OTHER ILLNESSES ENTER "00" 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 1 . °° , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2°° . . ° . . . . . o° . . . . . 3.°°° . ° . . . . .o° . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 1 . . . . . . . . . ° . . . , ° °o 2 . . . . . . . . ooo°°° . . ° 3 . . . . . . ° . ° °°° . ° . ° . DK . . . . . . . ° ° . °° . °° .o°°°°°9~ 6O9 Dur ing the past two weeks, d id (NAME) have one or more o f the fo t towing symptoms? FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RED/TEARY EYES . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WHOOPING COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RED HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Sk~)LLEN FACE AND FEET . , . .1 VOMITT[NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 EMACIATED/VERY THIN . . . . . . 1 DIFFICULT AND RAPID BREATHING . . . . . . . . . 1 CONVULSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RED URZNE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YELLOU EYES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DIFFICULTY IN SUALLOUING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 BLDO0 IN STOOLS . . . . . . . . . . 1 FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RED/TEARY EYES . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WHDOPING COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RED HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SEIOLLEN FACE AND FEET . . . ,1 VOI41TT]HG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 EMACIATED/VERY THIN . . . . . . 1 DIFFICULT AND RAPID BREATHING . . . . . . . . . 1 CONVULSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RED URINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YELLOU EYES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DIFFICULTY IN SWALLOUING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 BLO00 IN STOOLS . . . . . . . . . . 1 FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RED/TEARY EYES . . . . . . . . . . . 1 UH(X~P I NG COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . ( RED HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 S~/OLLEN FACE AND FEET . . . .1 VOMITTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 EMAC ; ATED/VERY THIN . . . . . . 1 DZ FFICULT AND RAPID BREATHING . . . . . . . . . 1 CONVULSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RED URINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YELLOW EYES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | DIFFICULTY IN SWALLOWING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 BLOOD IN STOOLS . . . . . . . . . . ( 31 179 LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST-BIRTH BECOND-FROR-LAST-BIRTB BIRTH ORDER LINE NUMBER FROM Q, 309 610 J CHECK 608 AND 609: I ANY ILLNESS/SYMPTOM? 611 OLd you seek adv ice o r t reatment fo r the iLLnesses? I NAME YES NO %SKip m To 6131 v YES. , - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- (SKIP TO 613 I ; m M I NAME I NAME YES NO v YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 (SKIP TO 6131d / YES liO (SKIp TO 6131 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2] (SKIP TO 613)~ 612 F r~ ~om d id you seek adv ice o r t reatment? (CIRCLE EACH MENTIONED) YN GOVT, HOSPITAL . . . . . . . 1 2 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . 1 2 MCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 PHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 SPECIALIST CL IN IC . . . .1 2 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 HONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Z OTHER 1 2 (SPECIFY) Y H GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . 1 2 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . 1 2 MCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 PHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 SPECIALIST CL IN IC . . . .1 2 PHARMACY. . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 OTHER 1 2 (SPECIFY) Y N GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . 1 2 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . 1 2 MCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 PHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 GP CL%NIC . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 SPEC%AL[ ST CL IN IC . . . .1 2 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 HONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 OTHER I 2 (SPECIFY) 613 | Has (NAME) had d ia r rhea I i n the Last two weeks? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1] (SKIP TO 615)4 gO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B YES . I] (SKIP TO 61B)u NO . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 GO BACK TO 601 FOR HEXT CHILD; OR, IF NO MORE CHILDREN, SKIP TO 624. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *o . I (SKIP TO 61B]~ 2 ] NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B 32 180 615 616 BIRTH ORDER LAST BIRTH I NEXT-TO-LAST-BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST'gIRTH LINE NUMBER FROM O. 309 NAME CHECK 531: LAST CHILD STILL BREASTFED? Dur ing (NAME)=S d ia r rhea , "d id you change the f requency o f b reast feed ing? MN4E YES NO [~ (SKIP TO 6181 v YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NAME RN~E +: :,~:,+,, : .:+:m+:+::++;+::+::+::: :::+;:::::;=m:+::+ m =:++: +,+ ~+ . i + :Z+~=,+m,p,:+,++=,+++;m++m++:=:+:m:mmm; :E ~ m + +m++++++t+mm++m++m~ m ++++++H+++++ ++++++.+++:,++++:++++:++;F.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++t++++++t ++t +++++t +++t+++++ . "+:++~+++++++F+: I l++]+:l*iJ;lJ;~:lJ+;JJ{liJ+lJ+J~lt:lJl:JJl+l~$~;+l~]l:]++ll+~:+,31+:IJ:l~+:+ ~.~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : ,+, , : 1,+:+ ,+] .+]+Zl++::] IZ]]] I: l i+IZ; ; . J ] + ~ I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 6181,~ I 617 Did yOU increase the nul lber of INCREASED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ilii m~mmmmmmemmm!!~+ ~t I!!!!m!z!!+!m!mm+~!~m~m+'~m~!'~m+'-'mmume~m feeds or ~ them, o r d id REDUCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . [iiiii[$iiiiiiiiiiiliJiiiiiiiiiii[~ ~iii~[~i~iiiiiiiii:ii[i~iiiii[iii~i~[m~iU~i[~t~lii~ I you s too comotetety? STOPPED COI4PLETELY . . . . . . . 3 l+;:;;;:;:;;+;+::+!~+::::~3::':t;l;::+::+;;;;;;;+;;;;~+~ ~ Z:t'::;t:;t'tt;;':;'~;;;~;+~';;~+;;;''~ " 61B Was (NAME) Riven any of the A. ARTIBIOTICS . . . . . . . . . . . I A, ANTIBIOTICS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 lo t tou ing : CIRCLE ALL APPLICABLE COOES. A. ANTIBIOTICS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. ORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C, READY I~E HERBAL TEA.1 D, YAN,~K~ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 E. TEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F. SUGAR WATER . . . . . . . . . . . 1 G, NERN4YA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 H. BABUM[J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Z. RICE WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J. OTHER 1 (SPECIFY) B, ORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C. READY MADE HERBAL TEA.1 O. YANS(X~N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 E. TEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F, SUGAR WATER . . . . . . . . . . . 1 G. NERAMYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 H. BABUR]J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I . RICE WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J , OTHER 1 (SPECIFY) El ORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C" READY P'N) E HERBAL TEA'1 O. YANSOON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 E. TEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F. SUGAR WATER . . . . . . . . . . . 1 G, NERAMYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 R. BABUNIJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I . R%CE WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J . OTHER 1 (SPECIFY) YES 1 I (SKIP TO 622) . ] I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YE~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 619 Did you seek adv ice o r t reatment fo r the NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 d iar rhea? ] (SKIP TO 622) ; ] (SKIP TO 622)4 33 181 I BIRTH ORDER I LAST BIRTH . . I ,. . ,NEXT-TO-LAST-BIRTH I SECOND-FROM-LAST-BIRTH 620 621 LINE MLINBER FRONO. 309 MANE Af te r how Long d id you s tar t seeking advice? i n • N1 NAME I MANE I MANE HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~ - ~ DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 [ ~ DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 From whom did you seek adv ice o r t reatment? CIRCLE EACH MENTIONED. l ~VT" HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~VT, HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ! PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 1 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 1 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 1 INCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~CH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GP CL]M%C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ! GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SPECIALIST CLINIC . . . . . . . . 1 SPECIALIST CLINIC . . . . . . . . 1 ! SPECIALIST CLINIC . . . . . . . . 1 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 i PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FRIEHDS/RELAT]VES . . . . . . . . 1 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . 1 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER 1 OTHER 1 OTHER 1 l (SPECIFY) l (SPECIFY) l (SPECIFY) 622 I GO BACK TO 601 FOR NEXT BIRTH; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 623. 623 CHECK 618: ORS SOLUTION NEMTIONED FO~ ANT CHILD I I IN 618 (ITEN #2 ON THE LIST) I 624 I Have you ever heard of a spec ia l product caLled (AQUA I CELL OR PARALAIY) you can get fo r The t reatment of d ia r rhea? ~626 ORS SOLUTION I MOT HEMTIORED 618 NOT ASKED ! YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~626 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I I I I 625 I Have you ever seen a packet t Jke th i s before? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I ! (SHOW PACKET) MO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - - -~628 626 I Have you ever prepared a so lu t ion with one of these YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I packets to t reat d ia r rhea in yourse l f o r s~eone else? I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 =628 34 182 NO. ] 627 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS Where did you get Information to prepare the home made fluid made from sugar, salt a~ water given to (NAME)? CIRCLE ALL PERSONS MENTIONED. COOING CATEGORIES GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PRIVATE HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GP CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I SPECIALIST CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER . . . . . . . 1 (SPECIFY) SKIP TO 628 629 CHECK 618: HOME-MADE SOLUTION MENTIONED Y Who taught you to prepare th i s f lu id? CIRCLE ALL PERSONS MENTIONED. HOME-MADE SOLUTION NOT MENTIONED [~ DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER . . . . . . . 1 (SPECIFY) I ~630 i 630 RECORD THE TIME. N RS . V-- I MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~V~ 35 183 631 632 633 CHECK 309, 313 AND 319: ORE OR 140RE CHILDREN DIED ANONG BIRTHS THAT OCCURRED SINCE JANUARy 1985 BIRTH ORDER ? v LAST BIRTH NO CHILD DIED AMONG BIRTHS THAT OCCURRED SINCE JANUARY 1985 I J ~- (SKIP TO 701) LIME NOMBER FROM Q. 309 BANE SURVIVAL STATUS FROM 0. 313 I BERT-TO-LAST-BIRTH I SECOND*FRON-LAST-BIRTH M M I'E I'E ALIVE [~ J DEAD [~ I ALIVE [~ j DEAD [~ V V NOW 1 would Like to ask you some to you in the Last f ive years. questions concerning your deceased ch i ld ( ren) among those ACCIDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ACCIDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 BIRTH INJURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BIRTH INJURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 63S)a ~ (SKIP TO 635I~ 3] DISEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mas the death of (NAME) caused by an accident or by a disease? IF ACCIDENT: Was i t an accident such as fa l l ing or burning, or a b i r th in ju ry / problem? M I NN4E ~- f~(SK IP TO 63r) I I ALIVE f~ DEAD ~v I~mJ born I ACCIDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 I BIRTH INJURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 635)4 D I SEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 What k ind of accident? FALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DROWNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT . . . . . . . . . 3 BURNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 POISON ZNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S (SKIP TO 632 FOR NEXT BIRTH FALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DROWNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT . . . . . . . . . 3 BURNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 POISONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SKIP TO 632 FOR NEXT BIRTH) FALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DROP/BINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT . . . . . . . . . 3 BURNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 POISONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) CX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . o° . . °8 (SKIP TO 637) 36 184 635 LINE NLX4BER FROM D. 309 NAME FRON q . 309 Vnat was the d i sease(s ) that caused the death o f (NAME)? RECORD THE NAME(S) OF THE DISEASES GIVEN BY THE RESPONDENT. LAST BIRTH NN4E DISEASE(S): M M NEXT'TO-LAST'BiRTH NAME DISEASE(S) : m [-]-1 SECOND" FBON- LAST "B] RTN NAHE DISEASE(S) : M 636 Dur ing the i l l ness Leading to the death o f (MANE), d id he /she have one or more o f the fo l low ing symptoms? a . Unable to suck mi lk o r d id not suck nor r~t ty a f te r b i r th? b. UnabLe to open mouth to c ry? c . Fever? d . Rash? e . cough? f . Red, teary eyes? g. P ro longed cough fo t towad by vomi t t ing? h. k 'nooping cough? i . Red ha i r? j . SwoLLen face and feet? k . ER~aciated/very th in? t . Three or chore s too ls per day? m. D i f f i cu l t and rap id breath ing? n . Convu ls ions? RECORD THE TIME. YES NO UNABLE TO SUCK . . . . . . . 1 2 UNABLE TO CRY . . . . . . . . 1 2 FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 RASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 RED, TEARY EYES . . . . . . I E PROLONGED CQUGN FOLLOWED BY VONITTING . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 WHOOPING COUGH . . . . . . . I 2 RED HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 StrOLLER FACE & FEET.1 2 EMACIATED . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 THREE OR MORE STOOLS PER DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 DIFFICULT AND RAPID BREATHING . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 YES NO UNABLE TO BUCK . . . . . . . 1 2 UNABLE TO CRY . . . . . . . . 1 2 FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 RASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 RED, TEARY EYES . . . . . . 1 E WHCOPING COUGH . . . . . . . 1 2 PROLONGED COUGH FOLLOWED BY VQMITTiNG . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 RED HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 SWOLLEN FACE & FEET,,1 2 EMACIATED . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 THREE OR MORE STOOLS PER DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 DIFFICULT AND RAPZD BREATHING . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 YES NO UNABLE TO SUCK . . . . . . . 1 2 UNABLE TO CRY . . . . . . . . 1 2 FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 MASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 COUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 RED, TEARY EYES . . . . . . I 2 MHOOP ING COUGH . . . . . . . 1 2 PROLC~GED COUGH FOLLOIJED BY VOMITTING . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 RED HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 S~LLER FACE & FEET.1 2 EMACIATED . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 THREE OR )lORE STOOLS PER DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 2 DIFFICULT AND RAPID BREATHING . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ] MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 185 NO. 701 702 703 CHECK 414P: NEITHER STERILIZED CHECK 201: SECTION 7, IONS AND FILTERS v~ HE OR SHE STERILIZED ROT CURRENTLY [~ CURRENTLY HARRIED/ MARRIED ~-] SEPARATED Now I have some questions about the future. CHECK 322 AND HARK BOX: NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE [ ] Uould you l i ke to have a (another) chi ld? PREGNANT r - - ] A f te r the ch i ld you are expecting, would you l i ke to have another chi ld? FERTILITY PREFERENCES COOING CATEGORIES HAVE A (ANOTHER) CHILD . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO NORE/NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SAYS SHE CAN'T GET PREGNANT . . . . . ] UNDECIDED OR DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SKiP I TO ~706 I 711 I ,709 704 CHECK 322 AND HARK BOX: NOT PREGRART OR UNSURE [ ] Hou tong would you l i ke to wait from now before the b i r th of a (another) chi ld? PREGNANT [~ Hoe tong would you l i ke to ua i t a f te r the b i r th of the ch i ld you are expecting before the b i r th of another chi ld? DURATION i t , l - - I NONTNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I ~-~ YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I~__ . ~709 OTHER 996 I (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 705 I CHECK 313: IF NO LIVING CHILDREN, CIRCLE '96* How old would you l i ke your youngest ch i ld to be before having another chi ld? 1709 I I I 706 J Do you regret that you (your husband) had the operation J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I not to have any (more) chi ldren? I I • NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~708 38 186 NO. OUESTIONS AND FILTERS 707 Why do you regret i t? SKIP COOING CATEGORIES I TO RESPONDENT WANTS ANOTHER CHILD,,1 HUSBAND WANTS ANOTHER CHILD . . . . . 2 SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~711 OTHER REASON 4 (SPECIFY) = 708 Given your present circumstances, if you had to do i t YES. over again, do you th ink you voutd make the same 711 decision to have a s ter i l i za t ion? NO . . . . 709 I Have you and your husband ever discussed " I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I the number of ch i ldren you would Like to have? I HOoo. ,o ,o . . . . . , , o .o . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I Do you th ink your husband rants the san~ number of ch i ld ren that you want, or does he want more or fewer than you want? SAME NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 FEWER CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 711 CHECK 313 AND HARK BOX: NO LIVING CHILDREN [~ I f you could choose exact ly the number of ch i ldren to have in your whole l i fe , how many would that be? HAS LIVING CHILDREN r--~ I f yOU could go back to the time you did not have any ch i ld ren and could choose exactly the number of ch i ldren to have in your whole Li fe, how many would that be? BOYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIRLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~-] AS MANY AS POSSIBLE . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 DEPENDS ON GOO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 OTHER ANSWER 96 (SPECIFY) 39 187 NO. I 801 I SECTION 8. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS Did your ( las t ) husband ever at tend schoo[? IF "NO": Can he read and wr i te? HUSBAND'S BACKGROUND= RESIDENCE AND ~HAN'S t/ORK COOING CATEGORIES YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO, LITERATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO, ILLITERATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SKIP I TO I 1 ~804 802 What uas the h ighest leve l of school ing your husband attended? PRINARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PREPARATORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 INSTITUTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 UNIVERSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 HIGHER STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 DK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ° , ° ° . . . . . 8 803 What was the h ighest grade your husband completed? Og E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 806 Does (d id ) your husband/partner work main ly on h is own rand or fami ly land, or on someone etse 's rand? HIS/FAMILY LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SOHEONE ELSEIS LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 807 Have you l i ved in on ly one or in more than one cccnmunity s ince January 1985? I ONE COHHUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I HORE THAN ONE COHHUNITY . . . . . . . . . 2 ~809 I ENTER (IN COL.7 OF CALENDAR) THE APPROPRIATE COOE FOR CURRENT COHNUNITY I I BEGIN IN THE NONTH OF INTERVIEW AND CONTINUE WITH ALL PRECEDING MONTHS BACK TO JANUARY 1985 ¢810 40 188 NO. 809 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP TO In what ntonth and year d id you move to (NAME OF CQHHUN]TY OF INTERVIEW)? ENTER (IN COL.7 OF CALENDAR) "X" IN THE MONTH AND YEAR OF THE MOVE, AND IN THE SUBSEQUENT MONTHS ENTER THE APPROPRIATE CODE FOR TYPE OF COMMUNITY ( "1" CITY, "2" TOWN, AND "3" VILLAGE). CONTINUE PROBING FOR PREVIOUS C(~4MUNITIES SINCE JANUARY 1985 AND RECORD MOVES AND TYPES OF COMMUNITIES ACCORDINGLY. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS - Where d id you l i ve before . . . . . ? - In what month and year d id you ar r ive there? - Is that p lace in a c i ty , a town, or in a v i l l age? 810 REFER TO PLACE OF RESIDENCE IN JANUARY 1985: When d id you move to th i s / that place? LIVED THERE SINCE BIRTH . . . . . . . . 96 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~] DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~-~ DK YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 I ~812 811 Was the p lace you moved from a c i ty , a town, or a v i l l age? I CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I TOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I VILLAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 812 ] would l i ke to ask you some quest ions about working. Are you now doing any work other than housekeeping, ins ide and outs ide the house, for cash or kind? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I ~815 I 813 I Have you ever worked s ince January 19857 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~815 I I N O . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . ,2 I 816 I ENTER "0" IN COLUMN 8 OF CALENDAR IN EACH MONTH FROM JANUARY 1985 TO CURRENT MONTH. ~B191 815 What is (wee) your (most recent) occupation? That i s , what k ind of work do (d id ) you do? 41 189 NO. J 816 818 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS SKIP I COOING CATEGORIES I TO USE CALENDAR TO PROBE FOR ALL PERIODS OF WORK, STARTING WITH CURRENT OR HOST RECENT WORK, BACK TO JANUARY 1985. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS - When d id th i s job begin (and when did i t end)? - What d id you do before that? - How long did you work at that time? - Were you paid for th i s work? - Did you work at home or away from home? M 1985 I see that you were working in January 1985. When did you s tar t that job? DID NOT WORK IN JANUARY 1985 V7 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 821 YEAR . . . . . DKYEAR. . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : _ _ .98 1 ~8191 I 819 I see that you were not working in January 1985. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I Did you ever work pr io r to January 19857 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~821 820 When d id your last job pr io r to 1985 er~? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ DK YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 821 822 823 CHECK 312/313/31S: HAS CHILD BORN SINCE YES NO JANUARY 1985 AND LIVING AT HONE? I~ F ] CHECK 812: YES NO CURRENTLY ~RKING? White you are working, do you usua l ly have (NAME OF YOUNGEST CHILD AT HDHE) with you, sometimes have him/her with you, or never have him/her with you? USUALLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SOMETIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~825 I I ~825 I ! ~825 I 42 190 NO. 824 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS Who usuaLLy takes care o f (NN4E OF YOUNGEST CHILD AT HONE) wh i le you ere work ing? RECORD THE TINE. CODING CATEGORIES HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 OLDER CHXLD(REN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 OTHER RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O] NEIGHBORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 FRIENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 SERVANTS/HIRED HELP . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CHILD IS IN SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 INSTITUTIONAL CHILDCARE . . . . . . . . 08 OTHER 09 (SPECIFY) SKIP TO 43 191 SECTION 9. WEIGHT AND LENGT H CHECK 319: ONE OR MORE L IV ING CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1985 NO L IV ING CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1985 U-7 • • END INTERVIEWER: IN 902-904, RECORD THE L INE NUMBERS, NAMES, ~ND BIRTH DATES OF ALL L IV ING CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY I, 1985 STARTING WITH THE YOUNGEST CHILD. RECORD WEIGHT AND LENGTH IN 905 AND 906. [i~ YOUNGEST ~2~ NEXT-TO- ~3~ SECOND-TO- L IV ING CHILD YOUNGEST YOUNGEST L IV ING CHILD L IV ING CHILD 902 FROM Q.309 (NAME) (NAME) (NAME) 903 NAME FROM Q.309 904 DATE OF B IRTH FROM Q.312 AND ASK FOR DAY DAY . MONTH . YEAR . DAY . MONTH . YEAR . DAY . MONTH . YEAR . 905 WEIGHT ~ D ~ ~ ~ . ~ (in kg.) • • 906 (in cm.) • • 907 METHOD OF STANDING . i STANDING . 1 STANDING . 1 M~S~E- MENT LYING . . . . . . . . . 2 LY ING . . . . . . . . . . 2 LY ING . . . . . . . . . 2 44A 192 9O8 A. Arm fa t ( in mm.) B. Arm c i r - cumference ( in cm. ) C. Head c i r cumference ( in cm. ) 909 DATE CHILD WEIGHED AND MEASURED 910 RESULT W YOUNGEST ~2~ NEXT-TO- [3] SECOND-TO- L IV ING CHILD YOUNGEST YOUNGEST L IV ING CHILD L IV ING CHILD FAT FAT ARM HEAD DAY . . . . . . MONTH . . . . YEAR . . . . . ARM HEAD DAY . . . . . . MONTH . . . . YEAR . . . . . FAT ~ HEAD DAY . . . . . MONTH. . . YEAR . . . . CH ILD MEASURED. I CHILD S ICK . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED. .4 MOTHER REFUSED.5 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) CHILD MEASURED. I CHILD S ICK . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED. .4 MOTHER REFUSED.5 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) CHILD MEASURED. I CHILD S ICK . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED. .4 MOTHER REFUSED.5 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) 911 NAME OF MEASURER : NAME OF ASS ISTANT: 44B 193 194 SERVICE AVAILABIL ITY QUEST IONNAIRE CONFIDENTIAL JORDAN DEPARTMENT OF STAT IST ICS IDENTIF ICAT ION GOVERNORATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D ISTR ICT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRATUM NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ULT IMATE AREA BLOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLUSTER NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I CLUSTER V IS IT START DATE DAY MONTH CLUSTER V IS IT END DATE DAY MONTH INTERVIEWER NAME CODE 195 196 SECTION IA. HOG I 101 102 103 TYPE OF LOCALITY* ( in wh ich c lus ter i s found/neares t to c lus ter ) COHMUNiTY CHARACTERISTICS QUESTIONS J COOING CATEGORIES QUESTIONS 101 TO 103 ARE TO BE ANSWERED BY THE INTERVIEWER UPON ARRIVAL AT THE CLUSTER. AHMAN/IRSID/ZAROA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER URBAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RURAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 What i s the name o f the neares t u rban center? HOW far i s i t in k i lometers to the neares t u rban center? KILOMETER TO THE NEAREST URBAN CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . J SKIP TO ] m* 104 THE RENAINING QUESTIONS IN SECTIONS ONE AND TgO ARE TO BE ANSWERED BY KNOWLEDGEABLE INFORMANTS FR(]4 THE CLUSTER. 104 105 106 What i s the major economic ac t iv i ty o f the (LOCALITY) inhab i tants? (CIRCLE ONE) AGRICULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TRADING/NARKETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MANUFACTURING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MIRING/QUARRYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Are there o rgan ized soc ia l g roups ( fo r example , cooperat ives )? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 -- ~ 107 What a re the i r programs? (CIRCLE ALL APPLICABLE) COOPERATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 SOCIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 CULTURAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 RELIGIOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 VOCATIONAL TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 1-1 SECTION lB. AVAILABILITY OF PUBLIC SERVICES NEAREST TO ON IN THE CLUSTER, INTERVIEWER: Now l would t i ke to ask you about d istances to the nearest of var ious types of schools and serv ices , how you usua l ly go there and how Long f t takes to get from here. SERVICE A, EDUCATION I. Secondary School 2. Un ivers i ty /C~muni ty Col lege 3. Vocat ional School B. GENERAL SERVICES 1. Post Of f i ce 2. Da i ly Market 3. Weekly Market 4. Cinema 5. Bus s ta t ion 6. Bus stop 107 HOW far is i t to the nearest [SERVICE] in km? [a] IF '00 ' F-n--; IF '00 ~ nz-] IF ' 00 ' - - IF +00' ~-]-] IF '00' ~--1-] IF 'OO ~ F-n-] IF '00' IF '00' FF-1-] 108 What is the most cos=non t ranspor t to [SERVICE]? [b] I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LI 109 How long does it take to get to [SERVICE]? HOURS MINUTES I I[--1~ ILFT~ I I~F] i[-n i r~ COOES: COMMENTS: [a] 97 = 97+ 00 = Less than I / l ocatnd in c lus ter 98 = No known fac i l i ty [b] Motor i zed . . . . 1 Eyct ing . . . . . . 2 Animal . . . . . . . 3 Walking . . . . . . 4 Other . . . . . . . . 5 1-2 198 SECTION 1C. HEALTH AND FANILY PLANNING PROGRAHS IN THE CLUSTER. NO. 110 QUESTIONS Is there a t rad i t ionat b i r th a t tendant avaiLabLe to women here who regu lar ty ass i s ts dur ing ~t ivery? COOING CATEGORIES YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 N O , . * * . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 2 - - SKIP TO • SECTION m 111 Has the t rad i t iona l b i r th a t tendant had any spec ia l t ra in ing YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 from the NOH or other organ izat t~? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DONMT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 m i 112 Is the area covered by a t ra ined midwi fe? i YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 i NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 i i 113 Does anyone come to ta lk to you about fmt iy p lann ing in the YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 past one month? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COHHENTS: 1-3 199 SECTION 2. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION SECTION INTERVIEWER: I am going to v i s i t health and fami ly planning fac i l i t i es throughout Jordan and together we can ident i fy those l am interested in . I plan to v i s i t hosp i ta ls , pr ivate d~tors /pr ivate doctor=s c l in i cs , health centers, and pharmacies. What is the name of the nearest hospi ta l provid ing general health services to th i s coomunity? What is the name of the nearest doctor /pr ivate doctor 's c l in i c provid ing general health services to th i s commJnity? What is the name of the nearest health center providing general health services to th i s comnunity? What is the name of the nearest pr ivate pharmacy to th i s con~Jnity? 2-1 200 INTERVIEWER: Now I am GOinG to ask some add i t iona l quest ions about the fac i l i t i es that you jus t ment ioned. I A. HOSPITALS I NO. A201 A202 A203 A204 A205 A206 A207 QUESTIONS NAME OF HOSPITAL (COPY FROR SECTION 2 COVER PAGE). Where is i t Located? How fa r is i t ( in kms) f rom here? (WRITE IN 'GO' IF LESS THAN 1KILC~4ETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS, WRITE IN HUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN '97'.) What is the most common type of t ranspor t to the hosp i ta l ? How tong does i t take to get f rom here to (HOSPITAL NAME) us ing most common type of t ranspor t? Does (HOSPITAL NAME) prov ide fami ly p lann ing supp l ies? How many hosp i ta l s in to ta l are there w i th in 30 k i lometers? COOING CATEGORIES HOSPITAL NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 - - -~ ADDRESS KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . IF MORE THAN 30 KM- MOTORIZED (E.G, BUS) . . . . . . . 1 CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ANIMAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 HOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON'T KNO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 THREE OR FOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 FIVE OR MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 COMMENTS: SKIP TO • -~ B201 --* A206 II II tl 2-2 201 J B. PRIVATE DOCTOR/PRiVATE DOCTOR'S CLINIC ] No. B201 B202 8203 B204 B205 B206 B207 QUESTIONS HARE OF PRIVATE DOCTOR/CLINIC (COPY FROM SECTION 2 COVER PAGE). Where is the pract i ce located? How far i s i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN '00 ' IF LESS THAN 1 KILORETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS, WRITE IN NUNGER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR NORE, WRITE IN '97 ' . ) ~at is the most common type of t ranspor t to the doctor ' s p ract i ce /c l in i c? How tong does i t take to get from here to (PRIVATE DOCTOR IS NANE/CLINIC) using most common type of t ransport? Does th i s doctor /c l in i c provide fami ly p lann ing services? How many pr ivate doctor p ract i ces and pr ivate doctor ' s c l in i cs in to ta l are there w i th in 30 k i lometers? COOING CATEGORIES PRIVATE DOCTOR/CLINIC NANE NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ADDRESS KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . IF NORE THAN 30 KR-- NOTORIZED (E.G. BUS) . . . . . . . 1 CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ANIMAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 H=RS . I I MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 T~O. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 THREE OR FOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 FIVE OR NORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SKIP TO - - -~ C201 B206 I I I I I ] COf~MENTS: 2-3 202 I C. HEALTH CENTER J No. C201 C202 C203 C204 C205 C206 C207 QUESTIONS NAME OF HEALTH CENTER (COPY FROM SECTION 2 COVER PAGE). Where is i t located? COOING CATEGORIES HEALTH CENTER NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 - SKIP TO --~ D201 ADDRESS How far is i t ( in kms) from here? r ~ x ~ (WRITE iN '00' IF LESS THAN 1KILOHETER. iF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . I l l I I WRITE IN NUHBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, I 1 [ I I WRITE IN '97 ' . ) IF MORE THAN 30 KN--~" C206 I I What is the most common type of transport to the health center? MOTORIZED (E.G. BUS) . . . . . . . 1 How tong does i t take to get from here to (HEALTH CENTER NAHE) using most common type of transport? CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ANINAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 HOURS . I I MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . .~ DONIT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 T~O . . . . . . . . . o , . , , , . . . . . . . . .2 THREE OR FOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 FIVE OR HORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Does th i s health center provide fami ly planning supplies? How many health centers in to ta l are there w i th in ]O kilometers? I I I I i [ I I COMMENTS: 2-4 203 I D. PHARMACY ] |O. )201 )202 )203 )204 )205 )206 )207i QUESTIONS NAME OF PHARMACY (COPY FROM SECTION 2 COVER PAGE). Where is i t located? How far is i t ( in Ions) from here? (WRITE IN '00 ~ IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS, WRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN '97~.) What is the most common type of t ranspor t to the pharmacy? How tong does it take to get from here to (PHARMACY NAME) us ing most common type of t ransport? Does th i s pharmacy se l l famfty p lanning suppl ies? How many pharmacies in total are there within 30 kilometers? COOING CATEGORIES PHARMACY NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 - ADDRESS KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . IF MORE THAN 30 104- MOTORIZED (E.G. BUS) . I CYCLING . 2 ANIMAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 NOUHS . I L MINUTES . ~ - ~ YES . I N0°oo.o.°.,.,,.,,,.2 DON'T KNOW . 8 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 THREE OR FOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 FIVE OR MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SKIP TO --~ 208 ~-~ D206 11 COMMENTS: 2-5 204 CONTRACEPTIVE NETHOD IDENTIFICATION ] No. 2O8 209 210 211 212 213 215 QUESTIONS CODING CATEGORIES NEAREST PILL PROVIDER MANE What is the name of the nearest fac i l i ty or prov ider to th i s co¢nmunity where b i r th cont ro l p i l l s can be obtained? How far is i t ( in kms) frcrn here? (WRITE IN =00' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILCt4ETERS, MITE IN NUNBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILONETERS OR NORE, WRITE IN '97 ' , ) Would people in the cotmuni ty go to th i s fac i l i ty fo r b i r th cont ro l p i l l s? Why would not they go to th i s fac i l i ty? ghat is the name of the nearest fac i l i ty or prov ider to th i s co~znunity where condoms can be obtained? HOW far is i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN I001 IF LESS THAN 1 KILOHETER. IF I TO 96 KILOMETERS WRITE IN NUNBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR NORE, WRITE IN '97 ' . ) KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . ~ V ~ YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TOO EXPENSIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WAIT TOO LONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STAFF DISCOURTEOUS . . . . . . . . . . ] HALE STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 PILL UNAVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) NEAREST COHDOH PROVIDER NAHE KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . [ - ~ 1 - "~ 212 Would people in the community go to th i s fac i l i ty for condoms? i YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - -~ 216 Why would not they go to th i s fac i l i ty? TOO EXPENSIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I WAIT TOO LONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STAFF DISCOURTEOUS . . . . . . . . . . 3 HALE STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 COND(~4 UNAVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . . S OTHER 6 SKIP TO (SPECIFY) 2-6 205 ~0. !16 !17 .~18 .~19 220 221 222 223 QUESTIONS COOING CATEGORIES SKIP TO What is the name of the nearest fac i l i ty or provider to th i s co~ni ty where in jectables can be obta in~? NEAREST INJECTABLE PROVIDER NAME How far is i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN 'CO' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . I I WRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOHETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN a97'.) i I I Would people in the community go to th is fac i l i ty for YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - - -~ 220 injectabtes? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . , . . . , . . , , .2 Why would not they go to th i s fac i l i ty? What is the name of the nearest fac i l i ty or provider to th i s community where foaming tablets can be obtained? How far is i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN '00' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS, WRITE 1N NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER, IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN '97 ' . ) Would people in the community go to th i s fac i l i ty for foaming tablets? Why would not they go to th is fac i l i ty? TOO EXPENSIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WAIT TOO LONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STAFF DISCOURTEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . 3 HALE STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 INJECTABLE UNAVAILABLE . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) NEAREST FOAMING TABLET PROVIDER NAME KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 -- BOoooooooooo , , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TOO EXPENSIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WAIT TOO LONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STAFF DISCOURTEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . ] HALE STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 FOAMING TABLETS UNAVAILABLE.5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) I -~ 224 2-7 206 ~10. 224 225 226 227 QUESTIONS COOING CATEGORIES SK%P TO i NEAREST IUO PROVIDER NAME What is the ~ of the merest fac i l i ty or provider to th i s c~n i ty where IUDa can ~ inserted? How far is i t ( in km) f r~ here? r - - - ' l - - ' - I ( l~lTE IN '00' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . I I I WRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN iN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN '97 ' . ) i W~ld ~opte in the c~i ty go to th i s fac i l i ty to have YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - -~ 228 IUD inserted? NO. . , , , , , , . . , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Why would not they go to th is fac i l i ty? TOO EXPENSIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WAIT TOO LONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STAFF DISCOURTEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . ] HALE STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 IUD UNAVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 2-8 207 228. CLUSTER INFORMANTS A° B. C. D. 229. N A M E POSIT ION/T ITLE /~PAT iON EDUCATION* I I I I I I TO,ALNU.EROFIHFOHMAHTSINTHEOLUSTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I END OF CLUSTER INTERVIEU. LOG OF FAC%LIT]ES TO BE VISITED DIRECTIONS: LIST BELOW ALL FACILITIES THAT WERE CITED AS BEING WITHIN 30 KILO- METERS OF THE CLUSTER. GET THiS iNFORMATiON FROM QUESTION A-D203. FACILITY TYPE & HARE: DISTANCE FRO#4 CLUSTER A. O. ADDRESS: DATE VISITED: *COOES FOR EDUCATION: None/ i t t i te ra te . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 None/ t i te ra te . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 P r imary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] P reparatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 H igher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 -9 20~ I I SECTION 3. Date: ]HOSPITAL VISIT J Hospital Na~e: m IF THE HOSPITAL IS 30 KILOMETERS ON LESS AVAY. IT IS TO RE VISITED. CONPLETE QUESTIONS 300 TO 302 UPON ARRIVAL AT THE FACILITY BASED ON YOUR QUH OBSERVATIONS. THEN FIND A KMQULEDGEABLE SOURCE AT THE FACILITY TO AHSI~ER THE REMAINING QUESTIONS. IF THZS FACILITY HAS ALREADY BEEN VISITED FOO A DIFFERENT CLUSTER, REC.DRD CLUSTER NUMBER HERE: %f THE FACILITY HAS ALREADY BEEN ViSiTED, A SECOND VISIT IS NOT NEEDED. 300 ~01 102 IF THIS IS THE FIRST FAC]LITY VISITED AFTER THE CLUSTER VISIT RECORD DISTANCE FROM CLUSTER FROM THE ODOMETER. DISTANCE FRQN CLUSTER . . . . J ] J NOT FIRST FACILITY VISITED . . . . . . 98 DO YOU THINK THAT THE ESTIMATE OF DISTANCE TO THE FACILITY REA.T~Ot~BLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OIVEN ig THE CLUSTER IS REASONADLE? OVERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNDERESTINATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DO YOU THINK THAT THE ESTIMATE OF THE TIME TO THE FACILITY GIVEN IN THE CLUSTER IS REASONABLE? REASONABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OVEREBTIHATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNDERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED OF STAFF PERSON AT FACILITY: ~o. 503 304 305 306 307 308 QUESTIONS COOING CATEGORIES SKIP TO in what year did th i s hospita l open? YEAR OPENED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 I l l Under uhat author i ty is th i s hospitat operated? Are there res t r i c t ions c~ c l ients b~ho can use th is fac i l i ty? IF YES. what res t r i c t ions? GOVERNMENT/ARMED FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PRIVATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ASS(X~IATIOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] OTHER .4 YES . . . . . . . . . 1 RESTRICTIONS: NO, , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 How many beds does th i s hospitat have? r ~ gUilDER OF BEDS . . . . . . . . I I I I On average, how many pat ients spend the n ight at th i s NUM8ER OF OVER- fac i t i ty? RIGHT PATIENTS . . . . . . . . I I I I On average, how many outpat ients are seen da i ly at th i s fac i l i ty? 3-1 209 NO. 3O9 310 311 312 313 314 OUESTIO~S CCOING CATEC4~IES SKIP TO Hou many reoutar s ta f f of the fo l low ing types does the hosp i ta l have? ~nat p ropor t ion of medical s ta f f (doctors and nurses) have worked =t th i s fac i l i ty fo r more then a year? Does th i s fac i l i ty normal ly use disposable needles when 9 iv ing in jec t ions? Has th i s fac i l i ty run out of i t s suppLy of d isposable needles at any t ime In the last 6 months? What i s the method most f requent ly used for the s ter i l i za t ion of medical instruments? NURSER OF: GENERAL PRACTITIONERS . . . . . SPECIALISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ - ~ TRAINED NiDWIVES . . . . . . . . . . ~ - ~ AUXILLASY STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . ~ - - ~ PRDI~TION AT FACILITY FOIl . . . . . . . . . . . . MORE THAN A YEAR YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - - , '313 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . ° . . . . . . . . . 2 Does the facility have the roll. ins items in workins order: Blond bank? Table fo r gynecolog ica l examination? Exem;ination l ight fo r gynecologica l examit~ation? Nicroscope? AIDS test? ELECTRIC STERILIZER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AUT(X;LAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STEAM PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 J I OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 HONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 YES NO SLOOO BANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TABLE-GYR EXAMS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LIGHT-GYN EXANS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MICROSCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AIDS TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CO)~4EMTS: 3-Z 210 SERVICES AVAILABLE AT THE FACILITY: Roe I uould Like to ask you about maternal and ch i ld health, and fami ly planning services avai lab le at th is hospi ta l . ASK D.315 FOR THE FIRST SERVICE. IF THIS SERVICE IS AVAILA8LE, CONTINUE ACROSS THE TABLE, IF NOT, ASX ABOUT THE NEXT SERVICE. SERVICE 1 J Antenatal care 2 J DeLivery care 3 ] Poat~ta l care 6 J ChiLd immuniza- t io~ sessions 5 J Chi ld growth ~o~itor ing 6 I Oral rehydratioo therapy 7 J Family planning 1315 l s (SERVICE) ava i lab le? YES . . . .1 NO . . . . . 2 I YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 I YES,,,,1 NO . . . . . 2 I YES, , , ,1 NO . . . . . 2 I YES,,,, 1 NO . . . . . 2 I YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 I YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 321~ 316 Hoe many 317 Whet is the 318 On average, 319 On average, 320 In what year days per week average fee for whBt proport ion ho~ many pat ients ~as (SERVICE) is {SERVICE) (SERVICE)? of pat ients pay ~ seen dai ry f i r s t offered avaiLabLe? 9~JD+=LEssFREE "96"THAN95 $JD=OO for (SERVICE)? (SERVICE)? here? P T'~-- 1 JDr--N ~- - l * J °~ FTT* JD FF--] ~* JD FI--1 ~' JD ~ .L n ~-~ ,gl-n n ~ ,9~ n ,gF-~ ~-n n ,9~- 1 NO. $21 QUESTIONS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP TO Is there a dispansary/l~armacy a f f i l i a ted u i th th is hospital? YES. 1 , NOo.o . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oo+° .2 , VACCIMATIQ~ AVAILABILITY AT THE FACILITY: No~ I would l i ke to ask you about vaccines avai lable at th is fac i l i ty . ASK 0.322 FOR EACH MEDICATIOR, VACCINE IS AVAILABLE, ASK Q*323. IF THE VACCINE IS NOT AVAILABLE, CONTINUE UITH THE NEXT VACCINE. IF THE VACCINES 1 J DPT vaccine I 2 J Pol io vaccine 3 ] Tetanus vaccine 4 J Measles vaccine S I BCG vaccine 322 Is (VACCINE) avai lable now? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 YES° .° . . , , , , ° ° . . . . . . . ° °°°° . .1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 YEB. . °° . ° . . . .o** . ° . . . . ° . ° °° . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i~ i '~ 323 At any time in the last 6 months d id you run out of (VACCINE)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RO.o .o , , , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I rio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3-3 211 NO. 324 325 326 327i 328 329 330 QUESTIONS , CODING CATEGORIES SKIP TO i Are ORS packets ava i lab le r~d? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z -~ 326 i At any time in the last 6 months did you run out of ORS YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 packets? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 INTERVIEWER: CHECK 315 FOR ITEM 7. FAMILY PLANNING. IF "YES", COMPLETE 326-334. IF "NO", SKIP 326-334, AND GO TO 335. Nou many of the fo l lowing types of s ta f f in th i s hospital are t ra ined and provide f~f ty planning services? Are any doctors t ra ined in s te r i l i za t ion procedures? IF "YES"s RECORD NUMBER. IF "NONE", WRITE 00. Are any doctors/other s ta f f t ra ined in IUO insert ion? IF "YES", RECORD NUMBER. ZF "NONE", WRITE OO. On average, how many new c l ients for fami ly planning are seen monthly? On average, ho~ many c l ients v i s i t monthly for resupply? DOCTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUXILLARY STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . NUMBER OF DOCTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FT7 NEU PATIENTS . . . . . . . . . . RESUPPLY PATIENTS . . . . . 3-4 212 COIdTRACEPTIVE NETHOD AVAILABILITY: NOM I k~Jtd Like to ask you about which fami ly pLsnning methods are avaiLabLe at th i s hospitaL. ASK ABOUT THE FIRST METHOD° IF THIS METHOD IS AVAILABLE FROM THE HOSPITAL, MOVE ACROSS THE TABLE. IF NOT, MOVE DOWN THE TABLE. HETHOD 01 PiLL OZ IUD 03 In jec t ion 04 Condom OS Foaming tab le ts / foal/ JeLLy 06 FemaLe s ter i l i za t ion 07 Other methods Specify 331 Is (HETHOD) avoLtabLe? YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO.,°. . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . • I YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO.° . . . . . . . ~] 335 332 Hou many days pot ~eek is (NETHOD) avaiLabLe? I I 3] ] Have you run out of (HETHOD) in the Last 6 monthsT YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO* . . . , . . . , . . . . . . 2 334 In what year did you f i r s t o f fer (I~ETHOD)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I f . . , ,9 -~ YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | I I Bo . , ,9 - - -~ YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I J Ho . , " - -F1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I J NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 " ----[----I I I TE S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ,9r- ]35 lahat is your pos i t ion or t i t le here? QUESTII~S 336 AND ] ]7 ARE TO BE ANSMERED BY 3]6 DID THE IHFORMANT SEEM KNOMLEDGEABLE? 337 ADDITIONAL COI4MENTS: THE INTERVIEWER AFTER THE FACILITY VISIT IS COMPLETE. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO. . . . . . * . . . . . o.° . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3-5 213 f 1 SECTION 4. Date: /PRIVATE DOCTOR/ PRIVATE DOCTOR'S CLINIC VISIT / I (NON-OUVERHMENTAL) i CLinic ge~: IF THE CLINIC IS 30 KILOMETERS OR LESS AWAY, IT IS TO BE VLSITED. CONPLETE QUESTIOUS 400 TO 402 UPON ARRLVAL AT THE FACLLITY BASED ON YOUR OWN ONSERVATIONS. THEN FIND A KNO~LEDGEARLS SOURCE AT THE FACILITY TO ANSi/ER THE REklAINING GUESTIONS. IF THIS FACILITY HAS ALREADY BEEN VISITED FOR A DIFFERENT CLUSTER, RECORD CLUSTER NUMBER HERE: IF THE FACILITY HAS ALREADY BEEN VISITED, A SE~ VISIT IS MOT NEEDED. 400 ~gl ;02 IF THIS IS THE FIRST FACILITY VISITED AFTER THE CLUSTER VISIT RECORD DISTANCE FROg CLUSTER FROg THE ODONETER. DISTANCE FROg CLUSTER . . . . i l l NOT FIRST FACILITY VISITED . . . . . . 98 DO YOU THINK THAT THE ESTLI4ATE OF DISTANCE TO THE FACIL ITY REASO$1ABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GIVEN IN THE CLUSTER IS REASONABLE? OVERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNDERESTINATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DO YOU THINK THAT THE ESTIMATE OF THE TINE TO THE FACILITY GLVEN IN THE CLUSTER IS REASONABLE? REASOIIABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OVERESTINATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNDERESTINATED . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . 3 QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED OF STAFF PERSON AT FACILITY: LO. '-O3 ;05 ;08 G4JESTIO~S C~OIMG CATEG~IES SKIP TO In MIOt year did th i s c l in i c open? YEAR OPENED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 I l l Under what author i ty is th i s c l in i c operated? PRIVATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ASSOCIATIC~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Are there res t r i c t ions on c l ients who can use th i s fac i l i ty? YES . . . . . . 1 ]F YES, what res t r i c t io r~? RESTRICTIONS: On average, ho~ many outpat ients are seen da i ly at This fac i l i ty? NO . . . . . . . * * ,o . . .~ . . . . . . ,o . . . . . . . ° . .~ DONIT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4-1 214 No. 4O9 411 412 &13 414 QUESTIONS C~OING CATEGQR%ES SKIP TO HOW many regu lar s ta f f of the fo t tou ing types does the c l in i c have? NUHaER OF: GENERAL PRACTITIONERS . . . . . ~ - ~ SPECIALISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ - ~ NURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRAINED MIDWIVES . . . . . . . . . . AUXILLARY STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . J - ~ Does th i s fec i t | ty normaLLy use d isposable needles t~hen g iv ing YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 in jec t ions? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - -~413 Has th i s fac i l i ty run out of i t s supply of d isposable needles YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 at way t ime in the Last 6 months? HO. . . . . , . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . o. . . . . . . . . p What i s the method most f re~Jent ty used for the s ter i L i za t t~ l ELECTRIC STERILIZER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 of medical Instruments? AUTOCLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STEAM PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DOel the fac i l i ty have the fo l low ing items in uork ing order: BLood bank? TabLe for gynecoLogicaL examination? Examinat ion L ight fo r gynecoLogicaL examirmtion? Microscope? AIDS test? YES NO BLOOD SANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | TABLE-GYN EXAMS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LIGHT-GYN EXAMS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MICROSCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I AIDS TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CCletERTS: 4-2 215 SERVICES AVAILABLE AT THE FACILITY: HOW I WC~Jtd Like to ask you about maternal and ch i ld hea l th , and fami ly p lann ing serv ices ava i lab le at th i s c l in i c . ASK O.415 FOR THE FIRST SERVICE. IF THIS SERVICE IS AVAILABLEj CQ~4TIIIUE ACROSS THE TABLE, IF MOTe ASK ABOUT THE NEXT SERVICE. 415 Is (SERVICE) SERVICE avaiLabLe? 1 J Antenata l care YES. . .1 I NO . . . . . 2 I 3 I Postrmtat care YES. . . .1 I NO . . . . . 2 I 4 [ Ch i ld immunize- YES. . . . t I t loe sessiorus NO . . . . . 2 I 5 I Ch i ld growth YES. .1 I moni tor i r~ NO . . . . . 2 sessions t ]---.- 6 I Oral reh~rati(m YES. . .1 I therapy NO . . . . . 2 Q16 HOW many 419 On average, 420 In what year days per week how many Pat ients was (SERVICE) i s (SERVICE) are seen da i ly f i r s t of fered ava i lab le? fo r (SERVICE)? here? [] 417~nat is the 418 On average, average fee fo r nat pr~oort ion (SERVICE)? of pat ients pay 95JD+= 95 FREE "96" for (SERVICE)? LESS THAN 1JDsO0 JD - 7 JD [ - ~ X 7 I Family ptann ing YES. . .1 . . . . . 2 JDr-- 422~--J [a) 0 = Whenever a pat ient requests the serv ice . VACCINATIC~M AVAILABILITY AT THE FACILITY: Now I would Like to ask you about vaccines avaiLabLe at th i s fac i l i ty , ASK Q.422 FOR EACH MEDICATION. VACCINE IS AVAILABLEe ASK 0.423. IF THE VACCINE IS NOT AVAILABLE, CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT VACCINE. IF THE VACCINES 1 I DPT vacc ine I 2 l Po l io vacc ine 3 I Tetem~s vacc ine ' l MeasLes vacc ine 5 I BCG vacc ine 422 is (VACCINE) ava i lab le now? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2"7 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO.o . , , ° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 ~-~ 423 At any t ime in the Last 6 months d id you run out of (VACCINE)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO. . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l HO. . . . . .o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ,2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4-3 216 ~o° Q24 Q25 ;26 &27 428 429 430 QUESTIONS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP TO i Are ORS packets ava i lab le ~? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - - -P 426 At ~y t ime in the fast 6 ~ths d id y~ r~ ~t of ORS YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 packets? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTERVIEI,~R: CHECK 415 FOR ITEN 7. FAMILY PLANNING. IF "YES", ~LETE 426"4~. IF uNO m, SKIP 426-434, AND GO TO 435. Hou may of the fo t low ing types of s ta f f in th i s c t in ic mre t ra ined and prov ide f~ i ty p lann ing serv ices? Are any ~tors t ra ined In s te r i t i za t i~ procedures? i I IF "YES", RECORD NUMBER. IF "NONE", WRITE 00. Are any doctors~other s ta f f trair~-~d in IUD i r~er t i~? IF "YES*'. RECORD NUMBER. IF "NURE', WRITE 00. DOCTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUK ] LLARY STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . N~R OF I ~ D~T~S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :T ::NaO:F, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? - l - -q On average, how ,;any new c l ients fo r fami ty p ta~ing are seen i ~ monthly? NEW PATIENTS . . . . . . . . . . I i I I On average, hou many c l ients v i s i t mo~thIy fo r resuppty? RESUPPLY PATIENTS . . . . . 4-4 217 C~4TRACEPTIVE HETHOD AVAILABILITY: Nov I v~Jtd t |ko to ask you st~Jt which fami ly planning methods ere evaitabLe st th i s c l in i c . ASK AE~JT THE FIRST HETHOO. I f THIS NETHOD IS AVAILABLE FRON THE CLINIC, k~VE ACROSS THE TABLE. IF NOT e HOVE OOtSl THE TABLE. HIETHOD 01 PiLL 02 IUD 03 In j$( : t ion OS fo~ing tabtets / foam/ je l l y 07 Other methods Specify 431 Is (METHCO) oveitsble? YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 No . . . . . . . . ~ i i~ 432 HOT many days per week is (NETHOD) avai lable? [a] I I 433 Hsve you run out of (NETIICO) In the test 6 months? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 43/, In what year did you f i r s t o f fer (METHCO)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I i l No . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ,~-1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 No . 2 " l - l -1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I [ ] No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ , , l - l -1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 [ ] No . 2 , ,~-~ YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ,9~- 1 ta] O - Wtlenever method is ¢eq~stod. 435 Mhet is your pos i t ion or t i t le here? QUESTIONS 4~ AND 437 ARE TO BE ANSI~REO BY THE INTERVIEWER AFTER THE FACILITY VISIT IS COI4PLETE. 454) 43;' DID THE INFC~NAHT SEEM KNOWLEDGEABLE? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ADDITIOMAL COIq4EMT$: 4-5 218 SECTION 5. Date: IHEALTH CENTER VISIT f HeaLth Center Name: IF THE HEALTH CENTER IS 30 KILOMETERS OR LESS AWAY, IT IS TO 6E VISITED. CC~LETE QUESTIONS 5130 TO SOS UPON ARRIVAL AT THE FACILITY BASED OR yOUR OId4 ORSERVATIORS. THEN FIND A KNOWLEDGEABLE _e~__~CE AT THE FACILITY TO ANSWER THE REMAINING QUESTIORS. IF THIS FACILITY HAS ALREADY BEEN VISITED FOR A DIFFERENT CLUSTER, RECORD CLUSTER NUMBER HERE: IF THE FACILITY HAS ALREADY ~EEN VISITED, A $EC(X~D VISIT IS NOT NEEDED. 500 501 502 IF THIS IS THE FIRST FACILITY VISITED AFTER THE CLUSTER VISIT RECORD DISTANCE FROR CLUSTER FROM THE ODOMETER. REASONABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OVERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNDERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DISTANCE FROM CLUSTER . . . . I I I NOT FIRST FACILITY VISITED . . . . . . 98 DO YOU THINK THAT THE ESTIMATE OF DISTANCE TO THE FACILITY REASONABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GIVER IN THE CLUSTER IS REASONABLET OVERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNDERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DO YOU THINK THAT THE ESTIMATE OF THE TIME TO THE FACILITY GIVEN IN THE CLUSTER IS REASONABLE? GUESTIORS TO BE ASKED OF STAFF PERSON AT FACILITY: IO . ;03 ;04 iOS 506 SO7 S08 QUESTIONS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 10 In d la t year did th i s health center open? YEAR OPENED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1911 I i i Under what author i ty is th i s health center operated? GOVERNMENT/ARMED FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Are there res t r i c t ions on c l ients who can use th i s fac i l i ty? IF YES, k~hat restrictions? How nmny beds does th i s health center have? On average, ho~ many pat ients spend the n ight at th i s fac i l i ty? On average, ho~ many outpat ients are seen da i ly at th i s fac i l i ty? PRIVATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ASSOCIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER ,4 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RESTRICTIONS: RO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DO'iT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NL~4BER OF BEDS . . . . . . . . NLLqHER OF OVER- NIGHT PATIENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 219 I0o ;O9 ~I0 ~11 514 QUESTIONS CCOIHG CATEGORIES SKIP TO Hard many regutar s ta f f of the fot tou ing types does the health center have? NLMBER OF: GENERAL PRACTITIORERS . . . . . SPECIALISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRAINED NIDW|VES . . . . . . . . . . /dJXILLARY STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . What proport ion of medical s ta f f (doctors and nurses) PRSPORTIOR AT have tdOrked at th i s fac i l i ty for more them a year? FACILITY FOR . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I MORE THAN A YEAR DOes th i s fac i l i ty normaLLy use disposable needtes when giv ing YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 in ject ions? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - - - '513 Has th i s fac i t t ty run out of i t s supply of disposable needles YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 at any time in the Last O months? NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 i~hat is the method most f rech~ntty used for the s ter i l i za t ion ELECTRIC STERILIZER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 of medical instruments? AUTOCLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STEAN PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sacs the fac i t l ty have the foLLowing items in t,orking order: Stood bank? TabLe for gynecotogicat examination? Examination t ight for oynecoLogicat examination? Nicroscope? AIDS test? YES NO BLOOG BANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TABLE-GYN EXAHS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 LiGHT-GYN EXAHS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 MICROSCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 AiDS TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 COI~4ENTS: 5-2 220 SERVICES AVAILABLE AT THE FACILITY: NOW I would Like to ask you about maternal end ch i ld heaLth services avaiLabLe at th i s health center. ASK Q.515 FOR THE FIRST SERVICE. IF THIS SERVICE IS AVAILABLE, C(X~TINUE ACROSS THE TABLE, IF MOT, ASK AGOUT THE NEXT SERVICE. !515 Is (SERVICE) SERVICE avaitabte? 1 ~t~tat care YES.1 NO . . . . . 3 Poat~ta l care YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 I i • & ChiLd Immunlza- YES.1 t in sessions NO . . . . . 2 I i • 5 ChiLd gr~th YES.1 ~ i to r ing NO . . . . . 2 aeaa i~ 4 i • 6 Oral rehydratton YES.,1 therapy NO . . . . . 2 I i • 7 Family planning YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 521~ I $16 N~ many days par wek is (SERVICE) ava I Iabt e? I II 517What is the average fee for (SERVICE)? FREE "96 # LESS THAN 1JDwO0 ~SJD÷= 95 J° I -Y-] 52E In ~hat year Has (SERV%CE) f i r s t offered here? II !,oF-1 F-l* 518on average, 519 On average, ~hat propor t ion how many pat ients Df pat ients pay are seen de i ty for (SERVICE)? for (SERVICE)? F- l , I I JOl- 9n-1 (a] 0 • Whenever a pat ient requests the service. ~EST]O~S COOING CATEGORIES SN%P TO 18 there a diapensary/~armBcy a f f i l i a ted with th i s c l in i c? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 , NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 , JO° i21 VACCINATION AVAILABIL[TY AT THE FACILITY: HOM I ~ Id t i re to ask you about vaccines avaiLabLe at th i s Fac iL i ty . ASK O.522 FOR EACH MEDICATION. IF THE VACCIME |S AVAILABLE, ASK Q.$23. IF THE VACCINE IS ROT AVAILABLE, COBTINUE MITH THE NEXT VACCINE. VACCINES 1 I OPT vaccine ) 2 I PoLio vaccine 3 I Term vaccine , j MeasLes vaccine 5 I BCG vaccine 522 Is (VACCINE) avaiLabte r~w? YES . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . ° . . . . . . . . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-~ YES. . . . . . . ° ° . . . ° . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-- I YES, , ° . °° . . . . . . . . . . ° . . . . . . . . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-~ YES . . . . . . . . . . ° ° . . . . . . ° . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-- 1 TES. , °°°°° . . . ° °° .oo . . . .o°o , .1 RO . ~ 523 At any time in the Last 6 ~ths did you run out of (VACCINE)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO, . . , . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ROH. . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , .2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; ) YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5-3 221 He, 524 525 526 527 5:)8 529 530 QUESTIONS CCOIHG CATEGORIES SKIP TO m Are ORS packets avaiLabLe now? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - -~ 526 m At any t ime in the Last 6 n~ths d id you run out of ORS YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 pockets? 140 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 INTERVIE~R: CHECK $15 FOR ]TEN 7. FAMILY PLANNING. IF "YES", COMPLETE 526-534. IF -H4~, SKIP 526-534, Ak~ GO TO 535. Ho~ many of the foLLowing types of s te f f in th i s heo i th center are t r s lned and prov ide fmi ty p lann ing services? DOCTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUX I LLARY STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . ~ [ ~ Are any doctors t ra ined in s te r l i l zo t lo r l procedures? NUI48ER OF DOCT~S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I J ]F "YES", RECORD HUMBER. IF "NONE", WRITE 00. Are ony doctors /o ther s te f f t ra ined in ILK) inser t ion? HUMBER OF DOCTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ ~ IF "YES ta , RECORD NUMBERo IF "HONE'e ~RITE 00. NUMBER OF OTHER STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l On average, how many new c l ients fo r f~'~i iy pLarlning are seen monthLY? NEW PATIENTS . . . . . . . . . . i E l i On average, how many c l ients v i s i t manthiy fo r resu~oty? RESUPPLT PATIENTS . . . . . I I I I 5-4 222 CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD AVAILABLLLTY: NOV ! z~utd Like to ask you ~'~-JH vh ich fam|ty p lann ing methods ere eve l t ld) te at th [8 c l in i c . ASK ABOUT THE FLRST METHOD. IF THIS METHOD IS AVAILABLE FROM THE CLINIC, MOVE ACRONS THE TABLE. IF NOT# ROVE DOUR THE TABLE. 532 Is (METHOD) 533 Hou many days 5]4 Have you run out of I METHOD* ava i lab le? per Week is (METHOD) (NETI~O) in the Last ava i lab le? [a] 6 months? O1 J ~itt 02 J IUD I 03 J In jec t ion 04 J Conda~ 05 J Foaming tab le ts / i foam/jeLLy 06 J Female steril ization! 07 I Other metheds g Speci fy YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . E YES . . . . . . . . . . NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 .o . . . . . . . . iii [] 535 In what year d id you f i r s t o f fe r {METHO0)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ] YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 19~' - "~ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 [ ] YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 9 ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 [ ] YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 19~ NO. . . . . . . . . . . .Ho2 NoYES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 19~-~- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (a) 0 = Uhenever mth~ Is requested. 535 What Is your pos i t ion or t i t le here? QUESTIONS 536 AND 537 ARE TO BE ANSWERED BY THE INTERVIEWER AFTER THE FACLLLTY VISIT IS COMPLETE. 536 537 DID THE IRFORNANT SEEN KROktLEDGEABLE? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ADOITIONAL CCI4NENTS: 5-5 223 r i SECTION 6. Date: J PHARMACy VISIT I Pharmacy Ra~e: L ~ IF THE PHARMACY IS 30 KILOMETERS ON LESS AWAY, IT IS TO BE VISITED. CONPLETE GUESTIONS 600 TO 602 UPON ARRIVAL AT THE FACILXTY BASED ON YOUR OMN OBSERVATIONS. THEN FIND A KROMLEDGEABLE SOdRCE AT THE FACILITY TO ANSWER THE REMAINING G4JESTIONS. iF THIS FACILITY HAS ALREADY BEER VISITED FOR A DIFFERERT CLUSTER, REC(~D CLUSTER HOBBER HERE: IF THE FACILZTY HAS ALREADY BEEN VISITED. A SEC~D VISIT Z~ NOT ~FFDFD I I I I 600 [F THIS IS THE FIRST FACILITY VISITED AFTER THE CLUSTER VISIT RECORD DISTANCE FROM CLUSTER FROl4 THE ODOMETER. DO YOU THINK THAT THE ESTIMATE OF DISTANCE TO THE FACILITY GIVEN IN THE CLUSTER lS REASONABLE? DO YOU THINK THAT THE ESTIMATE OF THE TIME TO THE FACILITY GIVEN IN THE CLUSTER IS REASONABLE? 602 QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED OF STAFF PERSON AT FACILITY: MO. ~3 ~6 DISTANCE FROM CLUSTER . . . . i l l NOT FIRST FACILITY VZSITED . . . . . . 98 REASONABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OVERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNDERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 REASONABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OVERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNDERESTIMATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 QUESTIONS HOW many hours per week is the pharmacy open? Ho~ many days per week is the pharmacy open? CCOING CATEGORIES HOURS PER MEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . ~-~ DAYS PER WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j j I Is there 8 t ra ined p~arma¢ist avai lable? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . o .oo° . . . . . . o° . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 i [n kthat year did the pharmacy open? SKIP TO YEAR OPENED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 J j i i i I I ] KED1CATION AVAILABILITY AT THE FACILITY: NOW I would l i ke to ask you about medication~ ava i lab le at th i s fac i l i ty . ASK g.608 FOR EACH MEDICAT]ON, IF THE MEDICATION IS AVAILABLE, CONTINUE ACROSS THE TABLE. IF THE MEDICATION IS NOT AVAILABLE, ASK ABOUT THE NEXT MEDICATION. MEDICATION 1 I Chtoroquine 2 J Quinine/Fansidar 3 J Pen ic i l l i n 607 Is (MEDICATION) [608 ava i lab le noa? Idid YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2~ YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2~ i , [ & I I ron - fo la te tab lets YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.- 1 q 5 J ORS packets YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO . . . . . . . °o . °°°q° ,2 - 610 At any time in the tast 6 rnonthsJ 609 Do you carry a social marketing you run out of (MEDICATION)? YES . I HO . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H . . .oH ,2 brand of (MEDICATION)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . ° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °o . . . ,1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . O ,H .OHH.oo . ,2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6-1 224 ao. QUESTIONS COOING CATEGORIES SKiP TO $10 Does th i s phaPouscy car ry fami ly pLanninG methods? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - -~ 614 C~TRACEPTIVE METHOD AVAILABIL ITY HOW I wo~td L ike to ask you about wh ich fami ly p lann ing methods are ava iLabLe a t th i s pharmacy. ASK ABOUT THE FIRST METHOD. |F THiS METHOD IS AVAILABLE FROM THE PHARMACY, MOVE ACROSS THE TABLE. IF THIS METHOD IS ROT AVAILABLE e MOVE DOWN THE TABLE. 14ET~ 01 ] P iLL 02 I IL l) 03 I Cor=~E~a 04 I Foa~ling tab le ts / I fo&m/ jeL ty 05 I Other methods Spec i fy 611 I s (METHCO) ava iLabLe? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 NO . . . . . . . . . . ° ° . . . . . . .2 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES° . ° . , . , ° . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 At any t ime in the Last 6 months d id you run o~t o f (METHOD)T YES , , . . . . . , , . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . .1 613 Are you a d i s t r ibutor o f th i s (METHOD)? YES° . ° . . ° ° . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO.o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ° . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO. QUESTIONS 614 What i s your pos i t ion o r t i t l e here? CODING CATEGOR]ES SKIP TO gUESTIONS 615 AND 616 ARE TO BE ANSWERED BY THE IRFERVIEMER AFTER THE FACILITY V iS iT IS COMPLETED. 615 DID THE INFORMANT SEEM KNOWLEDGEABLE? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 616 ADDITIONAL COW4ENTS: 6 -Z 225 Front Matter Title Page Contact Information Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Preface Acknowledgments Summary and Recommendations Map of Jordan Chapter 01 - Introduction Chapter 02 - Characteristics of Households and Respondents Chapter 03 - Fertility Chapter 04 - Family Planning Chapter 05 - Nuptiality and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy Chapter 06 - Fertility Preferences Chapter 07 - Infant and Child Mortality Chapter 08 - Maternal and Child Health Chapter 09 - Infant Feeding and Childhood Nutrition References Appendix A - Sample Design Appendix B - Estimates of Sampling Errors Appendix C - Data Quality Tables Appendix D - Questionnaires Household Questionnaire Individual Questionnaire Service Availability Questionnaire

View the publication

You are currently offline. Some pages or content may fail to load.