Engender Health- Contraceptive Sterilization: Chapter 5

Publication date: 2002

Chapter 5 Factors Influencing Sterilization Use and Outcomes In 1985, EngenderHealth (then the Association for Voluntary Sterilization) commis-sioned a review and critical analysis of existing literature on voluntary sterilization, to be included in its international fact book on sterilization (Ross, Hong, & Huber, 1985). The summary and findings of that review (Philliber & Philliber, 1985) have for many years provided the most comprehensive overview of studies on sterilization use worldwide. In summary, the review found that socioeconomic status and religion have little im- pact on the decision to choose sterilization, but that partners’ encouragement and influ- ence do. In terms of outcomes, most sterilization users report being satisfied with the procedure and having experienced little or no change in their sexual activity or marital relations following sterilization; regret is also relatively rare. Risk factors for negative outcomes (such as regret or dissatisfaction) include coercion during decision making, unhappy marital relations, a lack of information about the procedure, and complications resulting from the procedure. Over the past 15 years, other literature reviews on facets of sterilization have been conducted. Chi and Thapa (1993), for example, examined worldwide literature on post- partum sterilization. Chi and Jones (1994) focused their global analysis on risk factors for poststerilization regret in women. In 1998, EngenderHealth (then AVSC Interna- tional) conducted a review of the literature on sterilization decision-making factors and outcomes among female users in 17 Latin American and Caribbean nations.1 Although these works have contributed to the synthesis of knowledge on the antecedents and re- 107 © 2002 EngenderHealth Highlights: • Socioeconomic status and the decision to choose sterilization as a contraceptive method do not appear to be associated. There are regional differences, however: In places such as Bangladesh and India, the likelihood of sterilization is greater among couples of lower socioeconomic status, while in Latin America and the Caribbean, couples of higher socioeconomic status are more likely to use sterilization. • Sterilization users frequently say they chose sterilization for economic reasons or because they had all the children they wanted, although they also attribute their decision to issues such as problems with other contraceptive methods, health factors (such as problems with the last pregnancy) or medical reasons, and method failure. • Much of the literature suggests that regret is generally low among sterilization users, although rates are high in a few places. Across studies, regret rates range from about 7% in Colombia and the United States to about 17% in Bangladesh and the Dominican Republic. • Risk factors for sterilization regret can generally be divided into three categories: client character- istics (such as age at sterilization and marital stability), circumstances at the time of sterilization, and changes in clients’ characteristics or circumstances after the procedure. 1 Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad and Tobago. From Contraceptive Sterilization: Global Issues and Trends, EngenderHealth 108 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS sults of the sterilization choice, their scope has been somewhat limited, either geo- graphically or thematically. To gain a better understanding of sterilization-related research in the last 15 years, EngenderHealth staff reviewed the informational database Popline� to identify new re- search on this topic. The review, which was global in focus, examined decision-making factors and outcomes for both female and male sterilization, as identified in both quan- titative and qualitative research.2 In addition, information from a few selected, unpub- lished EngenderHealth reports was also included. This chapter summarizes selected literature on female and male sterilization pub- lished since 1985. We consider if the findings of newer research are inconsistent with those identified in the previous global review. In addition, we assess the extent to which the more recent body of literature has addressed the gaps identified by Philliber and Philliber (1985) and identify new areas for future social science research in sterilization. Factors Influencing Sterilization Use Myriad factors can influence a couple’s decision to end childbearing by means of ster- ilization. Users’ characteristics, societal norms, religious beliefs, family planning poli- cies, economics, fear of child mortality, the sex of living children, and pressure from the partner or family to have more children are some of the factors considered when exam- ining decision making for sterilization. To augment the data on characteristics of sterilization users drawn from standard- ized population-based surveys (see Chapter 3) and illustrate the broad range of variables covered, this chapter presents research focusing on additional characteristics of steril- ization users. Moreover, most of the information is derived from special studies, which tend to have smaller sample sizes; as a result, this chapter includes findings from stud- ies on vasectomy that, because of the small number of users, might otherwise not be available in population-based studies. Socioeconomic status In their 1985 review of the literature, Philliber and Philliber could draw no overarching conclusion about the association between socioeconomic status and the decision to choose sterilization as a contraceptive method. Certain regional patterns emerged, how- ever. The likelihood of sterilization increased with lower socioeconomic status in Bangladesh and India, while higher socioeconomic status was associated with a greater likelihood of sterilization use in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the United States, female sterilization use was more likely among those of lower socioeconomic status, whereas male sterilization use was more common among couples of higher social and economic means. More recent studies appear to corroborate many of these findings (Table 5.1). Socioeconomic status drops out as a predictor of sterilization use in multivariate analy- ses, supporting the conclusion that sterilization is not affected by socioeconomic status (Groat, Neal, & Wicks, 1987; Hunt & Annandale, 1990; Miller, Shain, & Pasta, 1986). No overarching pattern is identifiable. In the United States, vasectomy use continues to be associated with higher socioeconomic status (Abma et al., 1997), whereas reliance on female sterilization is linked with lower socioeconomic status (Bumpass, Thomson, & Godecker, 2000; Chandra, 1998; Cushman et al., 1988). Some researchers have specu- lated that these disparities exist because tubal ligation is easily available in both the pri- vate and public sector, while vasectomy is less available in the public sector (Luick et al., 2000). In studies conducted in the Dominican Republic, India, and Nicaragua, no © 2002 EngenderHealth 2 In the reference list at the end of this chapter, we have noted the type of approach to data collection used in each study cited. Information from qualitative studies should not be considered generalizable data, but is instead presented to add to the breadth of findings. © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 109 Table 5.1. Key findings on relationship between sterilization use, socioeconomic status, and education, by study country, study population, results, and source Country Population Socioeconomic status Education Source Bangladesh Female tubal Largest percentage (83%) had Landry, 1990 ligation users no education Bangladesh* Couples using More than half of male users had Landry & Ward, 1997 vasectomy at least some secondary education Brazil, Colombia, Male vasectomy At least some had secondary Vernon, 1996 and Mexico users education Colombia Female tubal Largest percentage had 1–3 Williams, Ojeda, & ligation users years of education Trias, 1990 Colombia Female tubal Largest percentage (56%) had Landry, 1990 ligation users primary education Colombia† Female tubal Largest percentage (52%) had Landry et al., 1992 ligation users secondary education or higher Dominican Republic† Female tubal Largest percentage (65%) had Landry et al., 1992 ligation users primary education Dominican Republic Female tubal Sterilization distributed 34% had 5–8 years of education Loaiza, 1995 ligation users equally across all and 31% had 1–4 years of socioeconomic levels education El Salvador Female tubal Largest percentage (42%) had Bertrand, Landry, & ligation users 4–6 years of education Zelaya, 1986 El Salvador Female tubal Largest percentage (56%) had Landry, 1990 ligation users primary education Guatemala Female tubal Largest percentage (55%) had Landry, 1990 ligation users primary education India† Female tubal Largest percentage (46%) had Landry et al., 1992 ligation users no education India Population at large No relationship identified No significant difference between Dharmalingam, 1995 (one community) between socioeconomic users and nonusers of sterilization status and sterilization use Indonesia Female tubal Largest percentage (50%) had Landry, 1990 ligation users primary education Kenya* Couples using More than half of male users had Landry & Ward, 1997 vasectomy at least some secondary education Kenya† Female tubal Largest percentage (53%) had Landry et al., 1992 ligation users primary education Latin America and Female tubal Majority had at least some primary AVSC International, the Caribbean‡ ligation users school education 1998 Mali Female tubal Largest percentage (58%) had Landry et al., 1992 ligation users no education Mexico* Couples using Majority had at least one year of Alarcon et al., 1995 vasectomy secondary education Mexico* Couples using More than half had at least some Landry & Ward, 1997 vasectomy secondary education Nepal Female tubal Largest percentage (79%) had Thapa & Friedman, ligation users no schooling 1998 (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth 110 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Nicaragua Population at large No significant difference Zelaya et al., 1996 between users and nonusers of sterilization Puerto Rico Female tubal 43% had 0–8 years of Boring, Rochat, & ligation users education; 23% had a high Becerra, 1988 school diploma only Rwanda* Couples using Majority of male users had Landry & Ward, 1997 vasectomy completed some level of primary education Scotland Female population Inverse relationship between Hunt & Annandale, at large sterilization use and 1990 socioeconomic status (significant in univariate analysis, but not in multivariate analysis) Senegal Female tubal ligation Largest percentage of tubal Diadhiou et al., 1994 and Norplant implant ligation users (63%) had no users education Sri Lanka Couples using Majority of male users had Landry & Ward, 1997 vasectomy completed some level of primary education Tunisia Female tubal Largest percentage (75%) had Landry, 1990 ligation users no education Turkey Female tubal Largest percentage (77%) had Landry et al., 1992 ligation users primary education United States Female vasectomy No significant difference Shain, Miller, & and tubal ligation between female vasectomy Holden, 1985 users and tubal ligation users United States Population at large Education was not a predictor of Groat, Neal, & Wicks, (married couples in use vs. nonuse; education was a 1987 one city) predictor in choice of sterilization (husband’s higher education was associated with vasectomy use) United States Female tubal ligation Inverse relationship between Cushman et al., 1988 users and nonusers sterilization and wanting no more socioeconomic status children (significant difference) United States Couples using All but two male users had Landry & Ward, 1997 vasectomy completed secondary school United States Male vasectomy Average annual income of 48% had bachelor’s degree Luick et al., 2000 users male users was or higher; almost all had $50,000–$75,000 completed high school * Qualitative study. † Study was limited to postpartum women. ‡ Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad and Tobago. Note: Empty space indicates that the study did not report information on the variable. Table 5.1. Key findings on relationship between sterilization use, socioeconomic status, and education, by study country, study population, results, and source (cont’d.) Country Population Socioeconomic status Education Source © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 111 conclusive evidence linked socioeconomic status to sterilization use (Dharmalingam, 1995; Loaiza, 1995; Zelaya et al., 1996). Religion Sterilization is used by people from a broad variety of religious faiths (Bertrand et al., 1991; Campos Machado, 1996; Cleland & Mauldin, 1991; Hunt & Annandale, 1990; Khan & Patel, 1997; Stycos, 1984). In some cases, even though a religion may restrict or forbid the use of sterilization as a family planning method, followers will still use it. For example, even though Roman Catholicism prohibits use of contraceptive steriliza- tion, the method is widely used in the overwhelmingly Catholic Latin American and Caribbean region (Stycos, 1984). Opposition to the use of sterilization also has been noted among Muslim groups in India and the Philippines (Population Council, 1993; Khan & Patel, 1997). Many coun- tries where sterilization prevalence is low are located in the Middle East, in North Africa, and in Sub-Saharan Africa. The low prevalence in these countries may be a prod- uct of sterilization policies based on the strict interpretation of Islam or on individual op- position to sterilization. (See Chapter 4 for more information on sterilization within Is- lamic law.) Nevertheless, in a few predominantly Muslim countries, such as Bangladesh and Tunisia, sterilization represents a fair portion of contraceptive use.3 A few recent studies have used multivariate analysis to explore the importance of religion in sterilization decision making. Among these, an analysis of 1995 U.S. data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) found a significantly lower likeli- hood of tubal sterilization among Catholic wives than among non-Catholic wives (Bumpass et al., 2000). In Hunt and Annandale’s study of women in Scotland (1990), the association between being Protestant and not choosing sterilization was strong in the bivariate analysis, but disappeared in the multivariate models. Marital or union status In general, most women and men who use sterilization tend to be in union, though this may reflect the study populations chosen, since nearly all studies that we examined fo- cused on women in union. One U.S. study indicated that married women were more likely to use a permanent method than were unmarried women—48% and 11%, respec- tively (Forrest & Fordyce, 1993). Nevertheless, sterilizations among unmarried women do not appear to be unusual; another U.S. study found that one in three sterilizations took place among unmarried women (Bumpass et al., 2000).4 Table 5.2 (page 112) indicates the marital or union status of participants in recent studies on sterilization use. Number of children According to Philliber and Philliber (1985), sterilization is most common among high-parity couples. Couples in Asia and Latin America who used sterilization aver- aged 4–5 children, whereas those in Canada, Europe, and the United States had smaller families. Although the differences between developed and developing regions largely continue today, recent literature suggests that the gap between regions has nar- rowed. The number of living children among sterilization users in Asia and Latin America now peaks at 3–4 rather than at 4–5. In fact, in Brazil, Colombia, and the Do- minican Republic, a large number of sterilization users report having been sterilized after 2–3 children (AVSC International, 1998b; Loaiza, 1995). Sterilization users in 3 In Bangladesh, data from the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey indicate that sterilization represents nearly 50% of all contraceptive use. In Tunisia, the 1994 PAPCHILD survey shows that close to 60% of contraceptive use can be attributed to sterilization (see Chapter 2). 4 In this study, the “unmarried” category combined women who were never married with those who were formerly married and who were cohabiting (either formerly married or never married). © 2002 EngenderHealth 112 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Table 5.2. Key findings on relationship between sterilization use and selected life-cycle variables, by study country, study population, results, and source Country Population studied Age at sterilization Marital/union status Presence of son/daughter Source Bangladesh Female users of Respondents averaged 2.1 Landry, 1990 tubal ligation male children and 1.8 female children Bangladesh* Couples using Majority had children of both Landry & Ward, vasectomy sexes 1997 Brazil Female users and 86% were in union; Barbosa & nonusers of tubal 67% of nonusers Villela, 1995 ligation were married Brazil Female users of In Alcantil, 37% were Rodrigues & tubal ligation 25–29, 26% were Moji, 1995 30–34; in Caapora, 34% were 20–24, 33% were 25–29 Brazil Female users of Median of 28; 94% 93% were in union Vieira & Ford, tubal ligation were �35; 65% 1996 were �30 Brazil, Colombia, Vasectomy users Nearly all were in union Vernon, 1996 and Mexico Colombia Female users of Respondents averaged 1.8 Landry, 1990 tubal ligation male children and 1.6 female children Dominican Female users of When sterilized, 36% Loaiza, 1995 Republic tubal ligation were 25–29, 28% were 30–34, 23% were 20–24 El Salvador Female users of Mean of 28 63% were in union Bertrand, tubal ligation Landry, & Zelaya, 1986 Guatemala Female users of Respondents averaged 2.2 Landry, 1990 tubal ligation male children and 2.1 female children India Population at large Half were 30–39, half Dharmalingam, (one community) were 20–29 1995 Indonesia Female users of Respondents averaged 2.4 Landry, 1990 tubal ligation male children and 2.3 female children Kenya* Couples using Majority had children of Landry & vasectomy both sexes Ward, 1997 Latin America Female users of Majority were sterilized AVSC and the tubal ligation at 25–34 International, Caribbean† 1998b Mexico* Vasectomy users Mean of 31 Alarcon et al., and their wives 1995 Mexico* Couples using Majority had children of Landry & Ward, vasectomy both sexes 1997 Nepal Female users of 36% were 25–29; 74.5% had at least one son Thapa & tubal ligation 25% were 15–24; and 68.4% had at least one Friedman, 1998 21% were 30–34 daughter (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 113 Rwanda* Couples using Majority had children of Landry & Ward, vasectomy both sexes 1997 Sri Lanka* Couples using Majority had children of Landry & Ward, vasectomy both sexes 1997 Sweden Male users of Mean of 39 98% were in union Ehn & vasectomy Liljestrand, 1995 United States Female users of Tubal ligation users Shain, Miller, & vasectomy and were about 1 year older Holden, 1985 tubal ligation than vasectomy users United States Female users of Yes Miller, Shain, & vasectomy and Pasta, 1986 tubal ligation United States Female users and Mean of 28.4 for both Cushman et al., nonusers of tubal those planning and 1988 ligation, both of those not planning to whom wanted no be sterilized more children United States Female users of 30% were 30–34; 63% were in union Wilcox et al., tubal ligation 28% were 25–29; 1991 26% were 34 or older United States Couples using Mean of 32.5 Miller, Shain, & vasectomy or Pasta, 1991a tubal ligation United States Couples using Mean of 32.5 Miller, Shain, & vasectomy or Pasta, 1991b tubal ligation United States* Couples using Majority had children of Landry & Ward, vasectomy both sexes 1997 United States Female population Significantly high Bumpass, at large proportions of tubal Thomson, & ligation among Godecker, unmarried women; 2000 1 in 3 overall, 1 in 5 among white, non- Hispanic women, 2 in 3 among black women United States Male users of Mean of 35.6 91% were in union Luick et al., vasectomy 2000 Zaire‡ Female users of Mean of 36.9 92% were in union 98% had at least one son Bertrand et al., tubal ligation and one daughter 1991 * Qualitative study. † Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad and Tobago. ‡ Now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Note: Empty space indicates that the study did not report information on the variable. Table 5.2. Key findings on relationship between sterilization use and selected life-cycle variables, by study country, study population, results, and source (cont’d.) Country Population studied Age at sterilization Marital/union status Presence of son/daughter Source © 2002 EngenderHealth Africa report higher numbers of living children than do those in Asia and Latin Amer- ica, with numbers among African women averaging five or more (Bertrand et al., 1991; Diadhiou et al., 1994). Among users of permanent methods, vasectomy users appear to have fewer chil- dren than do tubal ligation users. Among vasectomy users in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico, for example, researchers found that clients had fewer than three children (Ver- non, 1996). In Miller, Shain, and Pasta’s U.S. study (1986), those relying on vasectomy had fewer living children (2.1) than did those using female sterilization (2.4). Sex of children Coupled with parity, the sex of children also continues to remain an important factor af- fecting the choice of sterilization. Sterilization users in a number of studies and across countries (including Bangladesh, Colombia, Guatemala, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, the United States, and Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo) had at least one child of each sex (Bertrand et al., 1991; Landry, 1990; Landry & Ward, 1997; Thapa & Friedman, 1998). Table 5.2 indicates the presence of a son or a daughter among sterilization users in recent studies. Age at sterilization In general, population-based survey data show the median age at sterilization for female users to be somewhat higher in Africa than it is in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and North America. (See Chapter 3 for more information.) Most men who use vasectomy report having been in their mid-to-late 30s when they underwent the pro- cedure (see Table 5.2). Among U.S. researchers who have examined differences in age at sterilization be- tween users of tubal ligation and vasectomy, Shain, Miller, and Holden (1985) found that married women undergoing tubal ligation were approximately one year older than wives of vasectomy users. A study examining findings from the 1995 NSFG found that vasectomy is more common among the husbands of women who are in their late 20s; in general, tubal sterilization is more common among women who have younger husbands (Bumpass et al., 2000). There also are differences in age at sterilization between postpartum and interval tubal ligation clients in the United States (MacKay et al., 2001). The authors of that study concluded that postpartum sterilizations were highest among women aged 25–29, while interval sterilizations were highest among those aged 30–34. Researchers suggest that this trend reflects childbearing trends, in which most women have the number of children they want by age 35. Race and ethnicity Most research examining the importance of race and ethnicity as factors in sterilization use has been undertaken in the United States (Table 5.3). Although race is not identified as a predictive factor in the decision to choose sterilization, it is related to the type of sterilization chosen (Chandra, 1998). Female sterilization remains widely used among black, Hispanic, and white women alike, but is most common among black women (Mosher & Pratt, 1990). Within this group, tubal sterilization is common among both married (37%) and never-married women (31%). Although Cushman et al. (1988) also studied U.S. women, they observed a different relationship, with female sterilization use highest among white and Hispanic women and lowest among black women; the authors speculate that differences in social class may have contributed to this discrepancy. A comparison of island-born and U.S. mainland–born Puerto Rican women with the pop- ulation of sterilization users at large revealed that Puerto Rican women born on the U.S. mainland rely on sterilization at a rate comparable to that of the U.S. population, whereas island-born Puerto Rican women have higher rates (Salvo, Powers, & Cooney, 1992). The authors recommended additional research to determine if these differences 114 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS © 2002 EngenderHealth are cultural, are related to socioeconomic status, or are caused by variations in the avail- ability of methods and services. A study of tubal ligation clients in the United States between 1994 and 1996 (MacKay et al., 2001) determined that postpartum and interval sterilization rates were higher for black women than for white women; however, only the differences in post- partum rates were found to be statistically significant. The researchers suggest that these race-related differences in sterilization rates may be linked to white women’s greater re- liance on vasectomy than on tubal ligation (9.8% vs. 1.2%). In the United States, male sterilization is used most widely by white men. Bumpass et al. (2000) found that while use of vasectomy among white men has grown over time, it has remained fairly steady among black men. They suggested that black women’s greater use of tubal sterilization than vasectomy may be linked to the higher prevalence of female-headed households. Other reasons for the lower use of vasectomy services among black men include a lack of information about vasectomy, a lack of available va- sectomy services in the public sector (which mostly serves minority groups), and tradi- tions in the black and Hispanic community, where women have historically borne the responsibility for family planning (Luick et al., 2000). Social and psychological factors Regardless of geography, sterilization users frequently say they chose sterilization for eco- nomic reasons or because they had all the children they wanted (Alarcon et al., 1995; Bertrand et al., 1991; Diadhiou et al., 1994; Hunt & Annandale, 1990; Landry & Ward, 1997; Loaiza, 1995; Mumford, 1983; Vieira & Ford, 1996; Williams, Ojeda, & Trias, 1990). Problems with other contraceptive methods, health factors (such as problems with the last pregnancy) or medical reasons, and method failure are also mentioned, though to a lesser extent (Alarcon et al., 1995; Barbosa & Villela, 1995; Bertrand et al., 1991; Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 115 Table 5.3. Key findings on relationship between sterilization use and race and ethnicity, by study country, study population, results, and source Country Population studied Race and ethnicity Source Australia Lebanese, Turkish, and Vietnamese immigrant women 15–16% of Lebanese and Turkish immigrant women and 9% of Vietnamese women had undergone sterilization, compared with a higher percentage among Australian women; only two women (both Vietnamese) reported using vasectomy Yusuf et al., 1993 United States Male users of vasectomy 90% of vasectomy users were white, 5% were black, and 5% were Hispanic Luick et al., 2000 United States Female users of tubal ligation Rates of postpartum and interval sterilization were higher for black women than for white women, but only rates for postpartum sterilization were significant MacKay et al., 2001 United States Population at large Black men were less likely to use vasectomy than were white men (1% vs. 10%) Abma et al., 1997 United States Couples using vasectomy and tubal ligation 71% were white, 13% were Hispanic, 8% were Asian, 3% were black, and 5% were “other” Miller et al., 1991 United States Female tubal ligation users and nonusers, both of whom wanted no more children Percentage of women planning to use sterilization was higher among Hispanics and whites than among blacks, who were in the majority (62%) Cushman et al., 1988 Puerto Rico and United States Puerto Rican women in New York and in Puerto Rico 30% of Puerto Rican women born in the New York area were using tubal ligation, compared with 26% born in Puerto Rico and 13% of all U.S. women; 0.1% of Puerto Rican women born in the New York area reported using vasectomy, compared with 3% born in Puerto Rico and 6.1% of all U.S. women Salvo, Powers, & Cooney, 1992 116 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Chibalonza, Chirhamolekwa, & Bertrand, 1989; Diadhiou et al., 1994; Ehn & Liljestrand, 1995; Hunt & Annandale, 1990; Landry, 1990; Landry & Ward, 1997; Loaiza, 1995; Luick et al., 2000; Miller, Shain, and Pasta, 1991b; Vieira & Ford, 1996; Williams et al., 1990). These factors only partly describe why people choose sterilization, however. As Philliber and Philliber (1985) note, “people cannot always explain why they decide to have a sterilization, and often they give superficial reasons.” Further understanding requires ad- ditional knowledge about sources of influence, about information on and attitudes toward sterilization, and about alternative contraceptive methods, among other factors. Sources of information and influence Among tubal ligation users in Brazil, Colombia, Kenya, and the United States, friends, relatives, other sterilization users, and health care workers (including family planning workers) appear to be important sources of information (Bertrand et al., 1991; Vieira & Ford, 1996; Williams et al., 1990). Many vasectomy users in Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Kenya, Mexico, Rwanda, and the United States similarly noted the impor- tance of “significant others” and health workers in providing them with information about the procedure (Alarcon et al., 1985; Landry & Ward, 1997; Luick et al., 2000; Vernon, 1996). In some countries, particularly those with vasectomy information cam- paigns (such as Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Kenya, and Mexico), health care work- ers played a particularly prominent role as information-givers (Alarcon et al., 1995; Landry & Ward, 1997; Vernon, 1996). The importance of other vasectomy users was particularly highlighted in studies in the United States, as well as in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico (Miller et al., 1991b; Mumford, 1983; Vernon, 1996). The media (televi- sion, radio, and, in the United States, the Internet) have also been cited as an important source of information among vasectomy users in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and the United States (Alarcon et al., 1995; Luick et al., 2000; Vernon, 1996). Besides being sources of information, family, friends, and health care workers may also influence the decision to choose sterilization. Most female sterilization users par- ticipating in focus groups in Zaire stated that they chose sterilization upon the recom- mendation of health care providers, who suggested they obtain sterilization for medical reasons (Chibalonza et al., 1989); few women consulted with friends, as this decision was deemed a confidential one. In Nepal, women who were not using contraception noted that vasectomy was not an option because they feared family disapproval (Shrestha, Stoeckel, & Tuladhar, 1988). In rural Bangladesh, the likelihood of steriliza- tion use within a household increases if the head of the extended family dwelling unit (or bari) himself has ever used contraception, either permanent or temporary (Kamal, 1996). Tubal ligation users in Senegal described their husbands as being influential in their decision to choose sterilization, while friends and neighbors played a minimal role (Diadhiou et al., 1994). In Colombia, two-thirds of female sterilization users identified their partner as the second most important influence in their decision-making process (citing themselves as most important) (Williams et al., 1990). Male partners may also be influential in the decision not to choose sterilization. Among Honduran women who never fulfilled their plans for sterilization, about 50% of respondents in Tegucigalpa and 22% in San Pedro Sula reported that they did not obtain a sterilization because of their husband’s opposition (Janowitz et al., 1985). Similarly, in Jamaica, among women who broke their appointments for sterilization, some stated that despite their desire to limit births, they felt unable to broach the issue of steriliza- tion with their partner (Bailey et al., 1994). Contraceptive knowledge and previous contraceptive experience Chapter 3 provides information on prior contraceptive use among female sterilization users, as derived from population-based data. According to the literature, with a few ex- ceptions, sterilization users generally know about and in many cases have used other meth- ods (see Table 5.4). Landry’s (1990) six-country review of female sterilization use (in © 2002 EngenderHealth © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 117 Bangladesh, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Indonesia, and Tunisia) noted that all re- spondents knew of at least one method besides tubal ligation, and about half in all coun- tries except Bangladesh had previously used a contraceptive method (including with- drawal). In Colombia, 91% of tubal ligation users knew of other contraceptive methods, and 88% of those had used another method, usually the pill (46%) (Williams et al., 1990).5 Hunt and Annandale (1990) found high levels of prior experience with contracep- tion, particularly with the intrauterine device (IUD) and the pill, among tubal ligation users in Scotland. Previous contraceptive experience was similar among wives of va- sectomy users in that study, though these women used the IUD less often than did women relying on tubal sterilization. Some researchers attribute this association be- tween pill or IUD use and sterilization use to the former methods’ high effectiveness standard; when the desired parity has been met, only sterilization is deemed capable of exceeding that standard when clients have “little tolerance for failure” (Bumpass et al., 2000; Hunt & Annandale, 1990). Studies in Kenya and the Dominican Republic similarly report that tubal ligation users know about and have experience with other contraceptive methods (Bertrand et al., 1989; Loaiza, 1995). In comparison, researchers in Nepal found prior use of contracep- tion to be low, with about 80–82% of women reporting that female sterilization was the 5 Knowledge of family planning in general is high among most women of reproductive age in Colombia, with more than 50% able to name nine contraceptive methods (Rutenberg et al., 1991). Table 5.4. Key findings on relationship between sterilization use and contraceptive knowledge and previous contraceptive experience, by study country, study population, results, and source Knowledge of at least Previous Experience with Country Population studied one other method contraceptive use contraceptive failure Source Bangladesh Female users of 100% 27% Landry, 1990 tubal ligation Bangladesh* Couples using Majority knew of Majority had used Landry & Ward, vasectomy another method a method 1995 Brazil Female users and 42% of users and 47% of sterilized Barbosa & nonusers of tubal 37% of nonusers women, compared Villela, 1995 ligation had used another with 23% of method nonusers Brazil Female users of 100% 85% 43% Vieira & Ford, tubal ligation 1996 Brazil, Colombia, Male users of 56–98% Vernon, 1996 and Mexico vasectomy Colombia Female users of 99% 78% Williams et al., tubal ligation 1990 Dominican Female users of 67% Loaiza, 1995 Republic tubal ligation El Salvador Female users of 98% 65% Bertrand, tubal ligation Landry, & Zelaya, 1986 El Salvador Female users of 98% 65% Landry, 1990 tubal ligation Guatemala Female users of 94% 58% Landry, 1990 tubal ligation India Population at large Most were not aware None Dharmalingam, (one community) 1995 (cont’d.) 118 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS first method they had ever used (Thapa & Friedman, 1998). Landry and Ward (1997) found that among vasectomy users in six countries, knowledge of and prior use of other contraceptive methods was nearly universal; female and male respondents reported hav- ing used at least one other modern method, on average. Miller, Shain, and Pasta (1991b) observed in their U.S. study that methods previously used by vasectomy clients were usually those requiring greater male involvement and planning: Couples using vasec- tomy had primarily used methods such as the condom and the diaphragm, whereas those using tubal ligation were more likely to have used methods requiring less planning, such as the IUD or withdrawal. Misconceptions and misinformation Misconceptions and misinformation about tubal ligation, vasectomy, and other contra- ceptive methods may either encourage or discourage an individual’s decision to utilize © 2002 EngenderHealth Indonesia Female users of 100% 73% Landry, 1990 tubal ligation Kenya* Couples using Most were aware Majority had used Landry & Ward, vasectomy another method 1997 Latin America Female users of 13–46% had only AVSC and the tubal ligation used sterilization International, Caribbean† 1998 Mexico* Couples using Majority had used Alarcon et al., vasectomy another method 1995 Mexico* Husbands and wives Most were aware Majority had used Landry & Ward, using vasectomy another method 1997 Nepal Female users of 92% of those 19% had used Thapa & tubal ligation sterilized in the another method, 20% Friedman, 1998 hospital; 92% of those sterilized in of those sterilized the hospital and 18% in camps of those sterilized in camps Rwanda* Couples using Most were aware Majority had used Landry & Ward, vasectomy another method 1997 Sri Lanka* Couples using Most were aware Majority had used Landry & Ward, vasectomy another method 1997 Tunisia Female users of 98% 62% Landry, 1990 tubal ligation United States* Couples using Most were aware Majority had used Landry & Ward, vasectomy another method 1997 Zaire‡ Female users of 96% 67% Bertrand et al., tubal ligation 1991 * Qualitative study. † Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Peru. ‡ Now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Note: Empty space indicates that the study did not report information on the variable. Table 5.4. Key findings on relationship between sterilization use and contraceptive knowledge and previous contraceptive experience, by study country, study population, results, and source (cont’d.) Knowledge of at least Previous Experience with Country Population studied one other method contraceptive use contraceptive failure Source © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 119 sterilization. Misconceptions regarding vasectomy are the most notable. In a study con- ducted in Uttar Pradesh, India, men, women, and even providers stated that female ster- ilization is easier to perform and has fewer complications than vasectomy (Centre for Operations Research and Training, 2000). Focus-group participants in Nepal expressed similar concerns (Shrestha et al., 1988). Similarly, respondents participating in studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, Kenya, and Nepal expressed fears that men who obtained a va- sectomy would experience physical and sexual impotence and would be less able to per- form physical labor (Bertrand et al., 1989; Schuler, Hashemi, & Jenkins, 1995; Shrestha et al., 1988; Vieira & Ford, 1996). Education is an important factor in clarifying myths about vasectomy (Guzman Garcia, Snow, & Aitken, 1994; Landry & Ward, 1997). Vasectomy users in Landry and Ward’s six-country study (1997) observed that correct information from providers and from other vasectomized men was important in counteracting negative comments ex- pressed by friends and family. Misconceptions about tubal ligation also exist. Three out of 10 focus groups from one study in Mexico reported nervousness and insanity as two side effects related to female sterilization (Guzman Garcia et al., 1994). In Nepal, focus-group participants expressed concern that tubal ligation would physically weaken women (Shrestha et al., 1988). In the United States, a comparative study of prospective sterilization users and nonusers (Cushman et al., 1988) revealed a number of concerns among nonusers, including fear of scarring, loss of femininity, and emotional upset. Nearly one-third cited adverse effects from anesthesia as a concern. In addition, many of the women be- lieved they would face logistical problems, such as the need for several clinic visits and high costs (even though public assistance would probably have covered the cost of the service for many of these women). Among women in Kenya, many stated that tubal ligation leads to diminished interest in sex (Bertrand et al., 1989). Future expectations about life after the procedure may also influence women’s de- cision to choose sterilization. In Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo), users of temporary methods stated that they would continue using temporary methods, rather than a permanent one, because of the fear of being abandoned by their husbands (Chibalonza et al., 1989). Positive expectations may also be associated with sterilization. In one U.S. study, for example, sterilized women were more likely than nonsterilized women to believe that having a sterilization procedure would improve their family life, facilitate their ed- ucation and personal development, and better their sex life (Cushman et al., 1988). Re- searchers noted that some women may not realize these high expectations, resulting in disappointment, especially with the method. In some instances, men and women may choose sterilization as a result of their per- ceptions, experiences, or information about other methods. The majority (70%) of women interviewed in a Brazilian study (Vieira & Ford, 1996) felt that sterilization is the only reliable method. Seventy-nine percent said that the condom is unreliable and 40% that oral contraceptives fail, even if taken properly; many of these perceptions may have been based on personal experiences with the method, especially given the fact that 43% reported they had experienced contraceptive failure with the pill. Sixty-four percent stated that all methods affect women’s health. A study of physicians, also conducted in Brazil, indicated that physicians recommend tubal ligation or vasectomy to couples who fear side effects of other methods or want no more children (Bailey et al., 1991).6 In Scot- land, negative media coverage of the pill in the 1980s and 1990s was deemed a factor in the noted increase in sterilization use there (Hunt & Annandale, 1990). Among women interviewed in Brazil and Mexico, sterilization becomes the method of choice because of its finality (Zelaya et al., 1996), the women’s dissatisfaction with 6 As was noted in Chapter 4, large numbers of sterilizations have been performed in Brazil, despite a lack of clarity over the procedure’s legal status that existed until the 1996 enactment of a law permitting ster- ilization for contraceptive purposes. © 2002 EngenderHealth or distrust of other methods (Grilo-Diniz, de Mello e Souza, & Portella, 1998), or the lack of access to other contraceptives (Ortiz-Ortega, Amuchástegui, & Rivas, 1998), es- pecially where abortion is illegal and unsafe. Factors related to gender, culture, and empowerment In the past 15 years, a number of studies have examined sterilization and decision mak- ing within the scope of gender, culture, and empowerment. Men’s and women’s roles in society may affect the acceptability of both the decision to terminate fertility and the method chosen. As previously mentioned, husbands, family members, and health care providers are often cited as influential players in the decision-making process, and much of the literature reveals that power dynamics within these relationships—particularly between men and women—influence the decision-making process. In Southern India, men’s opposition to female sterilization stemmed from an at- tempt to maintain control over their wives (Dharmalingam, 1995). Men appeared to be- lieve that female sterilization makes it easier for women to have extramarital relations, generating suspicion among husbands and general familial tension. Neither vasectomy nor the condom was a contraceptive option because of men’s disapproval of these meth- ods. In a study in six rural villages in Bangladesh, Schuler et al. (1995) described how women circumvent expressing their own desires for family planning, including steril- ization, by telling their husbands that family planning workers recommended contra- ceptive use. Power dynamics may also affect the type of permanent method that couples select. In Kenya, researchers found that most men and women whom they interviewed knew about vasectomy but never considered it an alternative method of sterilization because of assumptions about women’s childbearing roles. Some reported that because Muslim law permits men to divorce and remarry, Muslim men would oppose vasectomy, since having the procedure done would close off any opportunity to have more children with new wives (Bertrand et al., 1989). In addition, some women never suggested vasectomy to their husbands because they feared their husbands would abuse them for discussing it. In Landry and Ward’s six-country qualitative study of vasectomy use (1997), some vasectomy users in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka excluded their partners from the decision- making process because they considered themselves the heads of households and in charge of making those decisions. In comparison, couples from Bangladesh, Kenya, Mexico, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, and the United States who were using vasectomy viewed contraceptive use within their re- lationship as an equitable pact. These couples perceived contraceptive use for birth spac- ing as the female partner’s responsibility. Once family size was complete, it became the “man’s turn” to contribute to family planning through the use of sterilization (Alderman, 1988; Groat et al., 1987; Landry & Ward, 1997; Luick et al., 2000). Studies in Brazil, Honduras, and Mexico found that among female respondents, sterilization may represent an attempt to “take control over one’s body and reproduc- tion” (Grilo-Diniz et al., 1998; Ortiz-Ortega et al., 1998; Zelaya et al., 1996). Tempo- rary methods may not be seen as an option at the onset of sexual relations, either because of the woman’s inability to “negotiate more flexible forms of contraception,” because she perceives contraception as “sinful,” or because she sees herself fulfilling the tradi- tional childbearing role deemed natural by her culture. After having at least two chil- dren, women assume a more active role in controlling their fertility, since they have completed their childbearing duties. In many cultures, age or one’s phase in life may be seen as a way of advancing one’s position within existing power structures. Saavala (1999) found that female sterilization users in one southern Indian village were using the procedure as an artificial means of ad- vancing their age. There, young women sought sterilization as a means of indirectly chal- lenging their mothers-in-law and obtaining the prestige and seniority associated with the nonprocreative phase of life. This use of sterilization to advance one’s age contributed to a trend toward younger age at sterilization in the community. 120 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS © 2002 EngenderHealth Informed choice and consent Chapter 1 discusses many of the concepts as well as ethical and quality issues concern- ing informed choice and consent. In summary, informed choice refers to a client’s health care decision making, made in an environment in which the client has full understand- ing, knowledge, and available options regarding treatment or methods. Coercion, in- centives, payments, and quotas are a few of the more commonly discussed obstacles to full and voluntary decision making. Imbalances in power and knowledge (both within and outside of the health system), a lack of information, providers’ adherence to med- ical models, and a lack of real method choice also undermine informed choice in steril- ization decision making (AVSC International, 1999). It is worth noting that these ob- stacles may be products not only of the health system, but also of relationships in communities and families, as well as relationships between partners. Within the context of sterilization, informed consent means that a user is aware of the nature of the sterilization procedure and grants his or her consent voluntarily, with- out “inducement, force, fraud, deceit, duress, bias, or other forms of coercion or mis- representation” (AVSC International, 1998a). Allegations of informed consent abuses in sterilization have long existed. In the United States, until about World War II, women who were poor, disabled, or from non-European countries were sometimes sterilized in- voluntarily (Moskowitz, Jennings, & Callahan, 1995; Reilly, 1991). Many of these same groups also faced violations in such countries as Denmark, Japan, Norway, and Sweden (Anonymous, 1997; Ramsay, 2000). Bauza (1994) states that informed consent abuses occurred in Puerto Rico during the 1940s. One of the best-documented instances of abuse was in India during the 1970s, when women and men alike were sterilized during a series of campaigns (Saavala, 1999). Over the past 15 years, newspaper articles have reported allegations of informed consent abuses among women and men in countries such as Bangladesh, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, and the United States, among others. Abuses have also been reported in India, despite the elimination of sterilization campaigns. In response, a num- ber of studies have examined voluntarism in the decision to choose sterilization (Bertrand, Landry, & Araya Zelaya, 1986; Bertrand et al., 1991; Cleland & Mauldin, 1991; Landry, 1990; Perea, 1994; Saavala, 1999). In general, these studies concluded that decisions about sterilization appear to have been made voluntarily, though excep- tions do exist. Ten percent of sterilized women participating in a national survey in Mex- ico reported that they had not been involved in the process of choosing sterilization (Perea, 1994). One study in Guatemala reported pressure from husbands (Landry, 1990). In Zaire, 14% of female sterilization users interviewed reported that they had felt pres- sured to choose sterilization, with more than half indicating they were pressured by their husbands and 37% by their physicians (Bertrand et al., 1991). Incentives and disincentives have also existed in a number of countries, such as Bangladesh, China, France, and India, as a means of either encouraging or discouraging small families (Freedman & Isaacs, 1993). These may be directed at both users and providers, and they may vary in type (e.g., as money or as goods) as well as in intent (as an outright means of influencing decisions or as compensation for lost time or employ- ment). In general, the importance of incentives in motivating individuals to choose ster- ilization seems minimal, though this may be because only a few studies have explored this issue. For example, in India, Saavala (1999) found that the poor women interviewed reported that “undergoing sterilization just for the money would make no sense,” be- cause of the surgical risk of the procedure. Payments to clients, rather than being considered incentives, are viewed as com- pensation for their time and travel. Two studies noted similar results in Bangladesh. In one (Landry, 1990), one-third of female users stated that although compensation contributed to their decision to choose sterilization, they would have done so regard- less of whether the payment was available. In the other (Cleland & Mauldin, 1991), for users of both tubal ligation and vasectomy, monetary incentives were judged to act “as an additional spur to action, only when there is a latent desire to stop having more Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 121 © 2002 EngenderHealth children.” Although money may contribute to the decision (a pattern noted more fre- quently among men than among women), it is rarely the only motivational factor. In addition, the study suggested that incentives offered to self-employed recruiters pose a greater threat to choice, since the recruiters will often provide inaccurate informa- tion about sterilization and promote this method exclusively. Other barriers to informed choice are a lack of knowledge about and access to al- ternative contraceptive methods. Studies conducted in Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Indonesia, Mexico, and Tunisia (Landry, 1990; Perea, 1994; Vieira & Ford, 1996) have cited a lack of information about alternative contraceptive methods (usually temporary methods). Also, a lack of awareness regarding the intended permanence of sterilization has been noted in Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and the United States (Cushman et al., 1988; Loaiza, 1995; Vieira & Ford, 1996). Informed choice may also be compromised if adherence to medical models takes precedence over a full understanding of a client’s needs and preferences (AVSC Inter- national, 1999). Physicians in Brazil appear to have recommended postpartum steriliza- tion to “high-risk” maternity clients, in some cases without providing adequate coun- seling (Berquo et al., 1996; Marques, 1996). The risks of future pregnancy cited may include advancing age, a history of three or more cesareans, difficult deliveries, and chronic diseases (Berquo et al., 1996; Rodrigues & Moji, 1995). Although doctors who recommended sterilization for cliients with these risk factors may have been acting with the best of intentions, they may also have been limiting clients’ choices by failing to ex- plore a full range of options, including effective long-term reversible methods. Commodity supply systems (including importation laws), pricing issues, the policy environment, and access to trained providers also may curtail the availability of different methods and limit choice (AVSC International, 1999). However, information on these factors is often hard to find. Cleland and Mauldin (1991) noted that cost and distance re- strict the range of methods to which poor rural women in Bangladesh have access. An- other study (AVSC International, 1998b) peripherally explored lack of method choice in Brazil as part of a larger study of sterilization decision making in Latin America and the Caribbean. Findings suggested that import regulations for IUDs and stringent condom testing requirements limited available family planning methods to two: female steriliza- tion (although use of female sterilization at the time was limited to medical indications) and the pill. In Brazil, oral contraceptives can be purchased at pharmacies without a pre- scription; however, little or no counseling on side effects or proper use is provided. Not surprisingly, Brazilian sterilization users frequently report method failure and side effects (usually stemming from oral contraceptive use) as reasons for choosing tubal ligation (Vieira & Ford, 1996). Decision-making process Many factors identified as being antecedents of sterilization use comprise the elements of sterilization decision-making models. Mumford’s model of vasectomy decision mak- ing (1983) is one such model. Within this model, couples proceed through several steps before choosing vasectomy: increased awareness of vasectomy, usually through discus- sions with other vasectomy users; a decision to have no more children; serious consid- eration of vasectomy; growing discontent with temporary methods, because of dissatis- faction with or fear of side effects or ineffectiveness; a decision that vasectomy is the best alternative; and a “scare,” usually a missed period, an unintended pregnancy, or contraceptive side effects. The model also suggests that the overall decision-making process takes two years or more. In general, the overall duration of the decision-making process may vary, and de- lays may also occur in getting a vasectomy, for such reasons as “fear of pain,” cost, lack of availability, or inconvenience (Mumford, 1983). A “scare” may occur at this time, and represents the ultimate impetus in the decision to choose sterilization. Among va- sectomy users in the United States, nearly 34% reported that their last child was mis- 122 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 123 timed or unwanted; about 7% reported having an unplanned pregnancy or a pregnancy scare (Luick et al., 2000). Some studies have noted deviations from the model proposed by Mumford. Among vasectomy users in Mexico, many obtained information from the mass media (Alarcon et al., 1995); wives appear to have played a more prominent role as a source of infor- mation than did other vasectomy users. In addition, no pregnancy scare took place, and the duration of time during which vasectomy was seriously considered (as opposed to the entire decision-making process) was 2–20 months, a period considerably shorter than the Mumford model’s two years or more. A shorter duration for this consideration process—of about four months—has also been noted in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico (Vernon, 1996). Miller, Shain, & Pasta (1991b) simplified Mumford’s model into three steps, ap- plying it to sterilization in general: Couples make the decision to end childbearing; they decide to use sterilization; they then choose between female or male sterilization. They further noted that motivations, attitudes, the nature of the decision-making process it- self, and context all affect these processes. As with the vasectomy model proposed by Mumford, delays may also occur in the decision to choose tubal ligation. Among tubal ligation users in Zaire, delays in the de- cision-making process occurred because one partner was indecisive. In some cases, these delays resulted in the birth of one or two more children (Bertrand et al., 1991). Although the decision to choose a permanent method is often presented as a joint decision, some of the literature suggests that the decision to choose sterilization can be an autonomous one. In Nicaragua, Zelaya et al. (1996) compared men’s and women’s reports of sterilization prevalence and found that women reported greater use of female sterilization than did men; the researchers suggested that some men may be unaware that their partners are using sterilization. In Landry and Ward’s six-country study (1997), Bangladeshi, Rwandan, and Sri Lankan vasectomy users often made the decision to choose sterilization on their own, excluding their partners; Rwandan men in the study justified their decisions on the basis of their roles as household heads. The choice between female and male sterilization Models that delineate the decision-making process usually include a step related to the decision to choose between male or female sterilization. Couples often decide together which partner will be sterilized, with those choosing vasectomy over female steriliza- tion often stating that they did so because vasectomy is easier, safer, and more effective (Alarcon, 1995; Groat et al., 1985; Luick et al., 2000; Vernon, 1996). In Canada, Al- derman’s interviews with physicians as clients (1988) found that some respondents chose vasectomy over tubal ligation because of concerns about postprocedural syn- dromes with female sterilization. In Bangladesh, Kenya, Mexico, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, and the United States, Landry and Ward (1997) also observed that among a few couples, fear of female sterilization was an impetus for choosing vasectomy. Many men also ex- pressed concern over their wives’ health and a desire to assume more responsibility in family planning. Providers’ recommendations against tubal ligation also were found to be a reason for choosing vasectomy in one U.S. study (Miller et al., 1991b). Both men’s and women’s misconceptions about and fear of vasectomy, as well as the convenience of having this procedure immediately after delivery, are a few of the reasons individuals report for choosing tubal ligation instead of vasectomy. In Brazil, women’s fears that vasectomy results in sexual impotence led them to choose tubal lig- ation, even though vasectomy was also available (Vieira & Ford, 1996). In a study of U.S. couples choosing tubal ligation or vasectomy, women whose husbands were fear- ful of vasectomy and its possible side effects were more likely to choose female steril- ization over male sterilization (Miller et al., 1991b). Thirty-nine percent of women who sought tubal ligation in fact did so because their husband refused vasectomy. In other cases, women undergoing tubal ligation stated that female sterilization was a matter of Couples often decide together which partner will be sterilized, with those choosing vasectomy over female sterilization often stating that they did so because vasectomy is easier, safer, and more effective. © 2002 EngenderHealth convenience, since it was easier to have the procedure done at the same time as a deliv- ery or a cesarean section. Outcomes Related to Sterilization Much of the literature on poststerilization experiences has examined postprocedure ef- fects on sexual and marital relations, satisfaction and dissatisfaction, sterilization regret, and requests for reversal. Impact on sexual and marital relations In general, female and male sterilization users reported either no change in their sexual or marital relations or a change for the better, often because sterilization removed much of the anxiety related to the threat of an unintended pregnancy (Bertrand et al., 1989; Bertrand et al., 1991; Ehn & Liljestrand, 1995; Groat et al., 1987; Landry & Ward, 1997; Oddens, 1999; Williams et al., 1990). Some studies have indicated that sterilization, particularly tubal ligation, might have had a negative impact on a few women’s sexual and marital relations. Among ster- ilized women in Sao Paulo, Brazil, who reported a negative outcome related to steril- ization, 19% said that it was more difficult for them to refuse sex with their partners, and 28% stated that their partners had grown more jealous of them (Barbosa & Villela, 1995), probably fearing that the women would become unfaithful. In one study in the former Zaire, 13% of wives who had a tubal ligation reported that their husbands en- gaged in extramarital affairs to have additional children (Bertrand et al., 1991). Regret for and satisfaction with sterilization Comparing and interpreting information on outcomes related to sterilization use is often a difficult task because of the range of terms used to measure these results. Some studies have specifically inquired about regret, asking respondents “Do you have any regret?” or “Do you regret being sterilized?” even though the term “regret” alone might be difficult to define (Loaiza, 1995). In one study in Sao Paolo, Brazil, participants themselves were asked to describe how they define regret. Some defined it as “feelings of sorrow, sadness and loss,” sometimes mixed with other feelings, such as “grief over the death of a child or loss of future opportunities in life” (Vieira & Ford, 1996). Other researchers have attempted to avoid using the term “regret,” asking respon- dents instead whether they “ . . . still think tubal sterilization as a permanent method of birth control was a good choice.?” or whether they “are pleased with ___ [the] decision to have had an operation that would keep ___ [them] from having any (more) children?” (Bertrand et al., 1991; Boring, Rochat, & Becerra, 1988; Loaiza, 1995; Wilcox et al., 1991). “Satisfaction” with sterilization is another concept used to assess outcomes, though for some this term applies to short-term impact, since regret is usually related to more long-term changes, such as remarriage or the death of a child (Landry, 1990). In Loaiza’s study of sterilization regret in the Dominican Republic (1995), regret and sat- isfaction were combined to form one composite indicator. Besides differing definitions, other factors also contribute to the variability in mea- suring outcomes related to sterilization. Study samples sometimes exclude sterilized users who have experienced failures, which may lead to lower regret rates (Chi & Jones, 1994). In addition, the length of time following sterilization at which clients are inter- viewed tends to vary, with periods ranging from a few months to several years after the procedure (Boring et al., 1998). The prevalence of regret varies from country to coun- try, largely as a function of the frequency of divorce and the age and parity at which most sterilizations occur. On the whole, much of the literature suggests that regret is generally low among 124 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS © 2002 EngenderHealth users, though a few high rates were noted. Regret rates across studies ranged from about 7% in Colombia and the United States to about 17% in Bangladesh and the Dominican Republic (Loaiza, 1996; Population Council, 1996; Wilcox et al., 1991; Williams et al., 1990). According to the few existing longitudinal studies, regret rates also varied by the time that had passed since the procedure, though the conclusions regarding the direction of this relationship differed. In one U.S. study, couples relying on tubal ligation or va- sectomy reported improved feelings about sterilization after three years, though the ster- ilization users expressed an increasing desire that their partner had had the sterilization instead (Miller, Shain, & Pasta, 1990). Ehn and Liljestrand’s study of vasectomy clients in Sweden (1995) found that regret declined over time, presumably because many prob- lems (pain, soreness, and sexual problems) had disappeared. In comparison, Hillis et al. (1999) noted that the occurrence of regret increased from seven to 14 years postprocedure, particularly among women who were 30 or younger when sterilized. A few researchers also found that feelings surrounding sterilization can be transitory, with sterilization users expressing regret at least once over the course of multiple interviews (Ehn & Liljestrand, 1995; Miller et al., 1990; Wilcox et al., 1991). Warren et al.’s 1988 cross-national study of regret (in Panama, Puerto Rico, and the United States) found a direct relationship between regret or desire for reversal and time elapsed since the procedure. Studies examining satisfaction among sterilization users suggest that users are largely satisfied with their decision to choose sterilization (Barbosa & Villela, 1995; Bertrand et al., 1989; Diadhiou et al., 1994; Landry, 1990; Loaiza, 1995; New ERA, 1996; Oddens, 1999; Vieira & Ford, 1996). Most female sterilization users interviewed in Senegal reported that they were satisfied with the method, explaining that they felt “peaceful” and “rested” because their risk of pregnancy had greatly diminished (Diad- hiou et al., 1994). One comparative study of all contraceptive users in West Germany found that method dissatisfaction was lower among sterilization users (4%) than among those who had ever used oral contraceptives (14%), condoms (42%), IUDs (34%), and natural family planning (33%) (Oddens, 1999). In general, satisfaction rates among fe- male respondents across studies ranged from 76% in Sao Paolo, Brazil, to 98% in Sene- gal (Diadhiou et al., 1994; Vieira & Ford, 1996). Vernon’s study of vasectomy clients in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico (1996) found that almost all men reported being satis- fied with the procedure. Among both men and women, one of the most common reasons for regret is the de- sire for more children, usually as the result of the death of a child or remarriage. Chi and Jones (1994) found loss of a child to be an important factor for regret in developing countries. In Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), the Do- minican Republic, Nepal, Puerto Rico, and Sweden, the most common reasons for re- gret were related to the desire for more children (including as the result of the death of a child) or regret about the inability to have any more children (Bertrand et al., 1991; Boring et al., 1988; Loaiza, 1995; Platz-Christensen et al., 1992; Thapa & Friedman, 1998; Williams et al., 1990). In Brazil, the majority of women reporting regret did so be- cause they wanted to have a child of a particular sex, usually a girl (Vieira & Ford, 1996). A study in Puerto Rico found similar results, with women who had sons and no daughters more likely to express regret than women with daughters but no sons (Boring et al., 1988). Researchers in the Puerto Rican study noted that these results contradict Philliber and Philliber’s findings associating regret with a lack of sons, suggesting that these differences may be due to the fact that much of the research reviewed in 1985 fo- cused on Africa and Asia. However, one study in Asia found similar results: Bangladeshi women with daughters and sons were less likely to express regret than were those with children of one sex, reflecting a preference for a “balance” of sexes in chil- dren (Population Council, 1996). Other reasons cited for regret include change in marital status, perceived side ef- fects and health changes, and contraceptive failure (Bertrand et al., 1991; Boring et al., 1988; Chi & Jones, 1994; Chi & Thapa, 1993; Loaiza, 1995; Miller et al., 1990; Miller, Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 125 Among both men and women, one of the most common reasons for regret is the desire for more children, usually as the result of the death of a child or remarriage. © 2002 EngenderHealth Shain, & Pasta, 1991a; Thapa & Friedman, 1998; Vieira & Ford, 1996). Religious mis- givings were also cited, but less frequently (Bertrand et al., 1991; Boring et al., 1998; Chi & Jones, 1994; Loaiza, 1995; Thapa & Friedman, 1998; Vieira & Ford, 1996; Williams et al., 1990). Regret from the loss of fertility or perceived loss of interest in sexual relations following surgery has also been noted (Vieira & Ford, 1996). Zairian women in Bertrand et al.’s study (1991) indicated an association between those women expressing regret and those reporting that their husbands had tried to have children with other women. Much of the literature also tends to agree on a number of key risk factors. In their review, Chi and Thapa (1994) noted that risk factors for sterilization regret can gener- ally be divided into three categories: client characteristics at the time of sterilization (e.g., young age at sterilization and marital instability), circumstances at the time of ster- ilization (e.g., stress of difficult labor, abortion, or cesarean section, and someone else making the decision), and changes in clients’ characteristics or circumstances after the procedure (e.g. remarriage, death of a child, or change in the desire for more children). Table 5.5 (page 128) describes risk factors for sterilization that were identified in the studies reviewed. Overall, young age at sterilization and changes in marital situation were the two most commonly noted predictors of sterilization regret. Miller et al. (1991a) found that feelings of regret are not limited to the individual obtaining the procedure. Observing regret among husbands of tubal ligation users and among wives of vasectomy users, they noted that poor couple communication, per- ceived regret in the other individual, and dominance by one spouse in the decision are risk factors for regret among spouses of users of tubal ligation and vasectomy. Few other studies to date have examined regret for sterilization from the perspective of the non- sterilized partner. Request for reversal An estimated 2–6% of sterilized men and women in developed countries and 0.2% in developing countries seek information about sterilization reversal (Marcil-Gratton et al., 1988; Potts et al., 1999). In developing countries, the percentage of women potentially interested in the return of fertility is probably underestimated, given the inaccessibility of reversal services and the corresponding lack of knowledge about reversal. The au- thors of one study conducted in Brazil argued that because of the “objectivity” of the number of individuals who request sterilization reversal, estimates of regret should be based on this number (Hardy et al., 1996). However, in another Brazilian study, the re- searchers noted that doing so would largely underestimate the level of regret (Petta et al., 1995), since not all of those who regret the procedure will initiate consultations about reversal. In many ways, the parallels between request for reversal and regret are indeed quite close. In their review of literature on sterilization regret for tubal ligation, Chi and Jones (1994) found similarities between factors related to regret and those related to requests for reversal. A younger age at sterilization, a change in marital status, influence or pres- sure from others (e.g., a spouse or partner), and sterilization for medical purposes were all associated with requests for reversal, as well as with the risk of regret. In one U.S. study, Schmidt et al. (2000) identified a 14-year cumulative probability of requesting re- versal of 14% among female sterilization users, with the cumulative probability in- creasing to 40% among women who were aged 18–24 when they were sterilized. Potts et al. (1999) drew similar conclusions from their study of male sterilization users, with increased vasectomy reversal among men sterilized when they were younger than 30. Reasons for requesting sterilization reversal largely mirrored those stated as reasons for regret: divorce and remarriage, the death of a spouse, the death of a child, a change of mind about family size, and (in the case of vasectomy) a desire to regain mas- culinity. Moreover, the risk of regretting a vasectomy was highest when the procedure was performed during an emotional crisis. These findings are echoed in a smaller study 126 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS © 2002 EngenderHealth conducted in England of tubal ligation and vasectomy clients: Participants stated they wanted a reversal because they had changed partners or wanted to increase family size (Rowlands & Feasey, 1992). Addressing Gaps in Sterilization Research Besides providing a comprehensive overview of sterilization decision making and the consequences of those decisions, Philliber and Philliber (1988) also offered a critical analysis of the research literature, highlighting gaps and needs for future research. They concluded that research on antecedents to voluntary sterilization has been more successful in demonstrating what is not important than what is. At this point, there is little rea- son to believe that the decision to have a voluntary sterilization is affected very much by socioeconomic status, culture, attitudes, or stages in the life cycle. [How- ever,] researchers and practitioners alike continue to believe that these factors are what matter in the decision to be sterilized. They have failed, therefore, to pursue efforts in other directions. It is time to look at new variables. To fill this gap, Philliber and Philliber called for research to examine the role of user characteristics, influences in decision-making, and outcomes related to the decision to choose sterilization. Rather than descriptive and retrospective studies, the body of liter- ature on decision making should also include longitudinal studies that follow users through part of the decision-making process and then at different points after the proce- dure. To provide a more complete picture of the decision to choose sterilization, studies could also look at couples who do not choose sterilization or those who postpone the de- cision to use sterilization. In general, much of today’s research is predominantly descriptive and retrospective. A better understanding of why women and men opt for sterilization over other methods is still needed. Nevertheless, a few longitudinal and case-control studies have been carried out over the past 15 years. Groat, Neal, and Wicks (1987) interviewed married couples in one U.S. city within the first five years of their marriage and then 10 years later. Commu- nication between couples and joint commitment to family planning were predictive factors affecting the decision to choose sterilization, as well as the method of sterilization chosen. Another of these studies, conducted by Miller et al. (1990) in the United States, compared factors affecting decision making among non-Hispanic white couples choos- ing vasectomy and among similar couples choosing tubal ligation, and looked at out- comes as well. In this study, most significant predictors of sterilization decision making were related to communication and to the decision-making dynamics of the couple, such as motivation to end childbearing and conflict and dominance during decision making. Through interviews with the same population three years later, the researchers observed that predictors for regret (in this case, regret among both the sterilized and the nonster- ilized partner) were also aspects of couple dynamics. The U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization (CREST), reported in Wilcox et al. (1991) and later in Hillis et al. (1999), is another longitudinal study on regret that looked at women before they underwent sterilization and then contacted them annually for 14 years after the procedure, to identify presterilization characteristics associated with re- gret. Young age at sterilization was found to be the strongest predictor of regret. In the United States, in a prospective, longitudinal study of 1,200 poor women who were planning sterilization, Davidson et al. (1990) looked at reasons for failing to obtain a sterilization. Among women who had planned sterilization, 41% did not obtain the procedure. Reasons for not having done so were analyzed separately for women plan- ning postpartum procedures and those planning interval procedures. Among postpartum women, the most common reason for not obtaining a sterilization included bureaucratic and institutional barriers, such as a lack of available staff or space, a loss of records, or payment problems (32%), followed by influence from others, including partners or Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 127 © 2002 EngenderHealth 128 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Table 5.5. Commonly cited presterilization and poststerilization risk factors for regret, by country Category* Client Change of Circumstances characteristics characteristics surrounding at time of after Country Sex Risk factor decision sterilization sterilization Source Australia M Divorce and/or remarriage/new partner . . . . . . X Jequier, 1998 Desire for more children . . . . . . X Bangladesh M, F Sterilized individual and nonsterilized partner Population Young age at sterilization . . . X . . . Council, 1996 Regret at being unable to bear . . . . . . X another child Decision made by someone else X . . . . . . Did not want sterilization X . . . . . . (wanted other method) Too many children of one sex . . . X . . . Bangladesh F Decision made by husband X . . . . . . Schuler et al., 1996 Partner opposed to sterilization X . . . . . . Brazil F Young age (�25) . . . X . . . Hardy et al., 1996 Less information about the procedure . . . X . . . Fewer contraceptive methods known . . . X . . . Brazil F Young age (�30) . . . X . . . Vieira & Ford, 1996 Divorce and/or remarriage/new partner . . . . . . X Pressure to have sterilization X . . . . . . More years of education . . . X . . . Did not pay for sterilization . . . X . . . Previous contraceptive failure . . . X . . . Canada M Divorce and/or remarriage/new partner . . . . . . X Alderman, 1991 Colombia F Widowed and/or remarried/new partner . . . . . . X Williams, Ojeda, & Trias, 1990 Denmark M, F Desire for more children . . . . . . X Kjersgaard et al., 1989 Dominican F Young age (�30) . . . X . . . Loaiza, 1995 Republic Divorce and/or remarriage/new partner . . . . . . X Low parity (�3 children) . . . X . . . Death of a child . . . . . . X Sterilization was first contraceptive . . . X . . . Nepal F Death of a child . . . . . . X Thapa & Friedman, 1998 Puerto Rico F Young age (�25) . . . X . . . Boring, Rochat, & Divorce and/or remarriage/new partner . . . . . . X Becerra, 1988 Decision made by someone else X . . . . . . Death of a child . . . . . . X Sterilized for medical reasons X . . . . . . Absence of a daughter . . . X . . . Sri Lanka F Young age (�25) . . . X . . . Hapugalle et al., 1989 Decision made by someone else X . . . . . . Death of a child . . . . . . X Low parity (�2 children) . . . X . . . Absence of a child of each sex . . . X . . . Partner opposition to sterilization X . . . . . . Married �5 years . . . X . . . (cont’d.) © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 129 Sweden F Young age (�30) . . . X . . . Platz-Christensen Desire for a child with a new partner . . . . . . X et al., 1992 Sweden M Divorce and/or remarriage/new partner . . . . . . X Ehn & Liljestrand, Lack of information on alternatives . . . X . . . 1995 Desire for more children . . . . . . X Thailand F Death of a child . . . . . . X Pitaktepsombati & Low parity (fewer than preferred) . . . X . . . Janowitz, 1991 Concurrent cesarean section X . . . . . . Sterilization for medical reasons X . . . . . . United States F Young age . . . X . . . Henshaw & Singh, 1986 United States F Young age (�30) . . . X . . . Wilcox et al., 1991 Concurrent cesarean section X . . . . . . History of abortion . . . X . . . Use of public funds for sterilization . . . X . . . United States F Young age (�30) . . . X . . . Hillis et al., 1999 Divorce and/or remarriage/new partner . . . . . . X Decision without adequate consideration X . . . . . . Death of a child . . . . . . X United States F Young age (�25) . . . X . . . Miller, Shain, & Ambivalence about future childbearing . . . X . . . Pasta, 1991a Negative attitudes toward sterilization . . . X . . . Partner dominated decision making X . . . . . . Partner conflict during decision making X X . . . United States M, F Sterilized partner Miller, Shain, & Unresolved motivation for more . . . X . . . Pasta, 1991b children Desire for more children . . . . . . X Nonsterilized partner Partner conflict X . . . . . . Poor couple communication X . . . . . . Dominance by partner in decision making X . . . . . . Perceived regret of partner . . . . . . X United States F Young age (�30) . . . X . . . Grubb et al., 1985 Concurrent cesarean section X . . . . . . Zaire† F Low parity (�5 children) . . . X . . . Bertrand et al., 1991 Pressure to have sterilization X . . . . . . Sterilization for medical reasons X . . . . . . Behavior change of partner . . . . . . X * Major risk factors can be divided into three categories: those related to clients’ characteristics at the time of sterilization, to the circumstances under which the sterilization is performed, and to changes in clients’ characteristics after sterilization (Chi & Thapa, 1993). † Now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Table 5.5. Commonly cited presterilization and poststerilization risk factors for regret, by country (cont’d.) Category* Client Change of Circumstances characteristics characteristics surrounding at time of after Country Sex Risk factor decision sterilization sterilization Source © 2002 EngenderHealth providers (26%), and fear of the procedure (17%). Women who had been planning in- terval procedures named influence or pressure from others, institutional and bureau- cratic barriers, and fear of the procedure as reasons for the change in their plans. The au- thors noted that while 6% of those who obtained a sterilization later regretted the decision, 47% of those who did not obtain one experienced regret. Janowitz et al. (1985) also examined unfulfilled plans for sterilization. Among women from two urban cities in Honduras who had been considering sterilization, the most commonly cited reasons for not obtaining one included spousal opposition, eco- nomic barriers (e.g., no money for the procedure), and time and family restrictions (e.g., a lack of time, inability to leave the family, or poor family health). In some cases, women did not undergo the procedure because they decided they wanted more children or they had separated from their partner and felt that there was no need to do so. Providers’ attitudes toward sterilization is an area that requires further research (AVSC International, 1998b), with much of what we know based on information col- lected from client interviews. However, in a few cases, other means of data collection, such as interviews with providers, have been conducted (Bailey et al., 1991; Centre for Operations Research and Training, 2000; Harrison & Cooke, 1988; Landry et al., 1992). Future research should continue to probe into the attitudes of providers and should make use of data collection methods besides interviews (e.g., observations) to strengthen the quality of the data. As Bailey et al. (1991) found, provider interviews do not necessarily depict provider practices accurately: Most providers interviewed in Sao Paulo, Brazil, used sterilization themselves (including vasectomy) and would recom- mend both methods to clients. Most physicians’ positive attitudes toward vasectomy failed to match the situation regarding sterilization in Brazil, where tubal ligation rather than vasectomy is the norm. Analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data from var- ious sources would provide a clearer picture of whether providers do indeed recommend vasectomy to their clients. Additional Needs in Sterilization Research There is a clear continued need for a better understanding of why men and women choose sterilization rather than other methods, as well as for more longitudinal research on sterilization and for more studies on provider attitudes. However, the literature indi- cates that other gaps exist. For example, in recent years, the international dialogue on re- productive health has focused on the need for more comprehensive services. Re- searchers, program developers, and advocates have stressed that reproductive health services should be more integrated into the health sector, so that providers and clients alike use their interactions to explore more fully and attend to needs other than those that brought the client to seek services. Some women and men who use sterilization may see no need for reproductive health care once they have obtained the method and end their fertility (Cates & Stone, 1992). The need to broaden reproductive health services is embedded in much of the ex- isting sterilization literature. Chapter 1 describes some of the research that has examined the reproductive health needs of sterilization clients, and identifies challenges in pro- viding continuity of care to sterilization clients who perceive minimal need for addi- tional reproductive health services once their fertility ends. Interactions with the health care system, such as at the time of the sterilization pro- cedure, provide excellent opportunities to educate, screen, and treat clients. Screening for cervical cancer, for example, could be tied in with sterilization services. One study of 642 U.S. women who had cervical carcinoma found that increases in screening would have the “greatest potential effect in reducing the incidence rate of invasive cervical car- cinoma” (Sung et al., 2000). The authors recommend encouraging screening among women of childbearing age, particularly when they receive antenatal or postpartum care. By extension, sterilization services could provide another opportunity, given that the same population of women of childbearing age is receiving care. 130 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Future research should continue to probe into the attitudes of providers and should make use of data collection methods besides interviews (e.g., observations) to strengthen the quality of the data. Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 131 Another area meriting attention is that of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Like many other family planning methods, sterilization fails to offer any protection against STIs, including HIV and AIDS. Landry and Ward’s study (1997) among vasec- tomy users in Kenya, Mexico, and Rwanda found that although some men described protection against pregnancy with more than one partner as a benefit of vasectomy, none noted that having more than one partner would put them or their partners at increased risk for transmitting STIs. Among female sterilization users in Sao Paulo, Brazil, half believed that their partners were unfaithful to them, but refused to address the problem with their partners (Barbosa & Villela, 1995). Despite the extent to which these women had contact with men who were at risk for HIV and AIDS, few liked condoms, and none had used them during the month prior to the interviews. Nearly half of the sterilization users reported symptoms characteristic of an infection. Additional research is necessary to learn about the reproductive health needs of sterilized men and women, such as cervical cancer and STIs, and then to identify the most effective ways to address them. Informed choice and consent is another area warranting attention. Over the past 15 years, a number of allegations regarding informed consent abuses have emerged. In the future, researchers need to continue monitoring incentives, disincentives, targets, quo- tas, and allegations of coercion, while also exploring more subtle barriers to choice: lack of information and knowledge, provider adherence to medical models, power dy- namics within relationships, and a lack of available method choice, among others. Few studies have examined the issue of choice as a whole, such that it is difficult to form an overall picture. Attention often is focused on client-provider interactions, while more personal, familial, or social issues that also bar choice are overlooked. In addition, re- search should also consider the factors that keep women from obtaining the steriliza- tion services they desire, as these, too, compromise full and voluntary choice (Bena- giano & Cottingham, 1997). A study among women in New York City reveals that many women who failed to obtain the sterilization they wanted also faced barriers to choice (Davidson et al., 1990). Lastly, as demonstrated in Chapter 2, the high prevalence of sterilization is a world- wide phenomenon, yet research still tends to focus on a preconceived notion of who ster- ilization users are. Bumpass et al. (2000) observe that one-third of all women using ster- ilization in the United States are unmarried. In addition, many of these women are black. Longitudinal studies such as those of Miller, Pasta, and Shain (1990 and 1991a) on the predictors of sterilization and sterilization regret need to be extended so that samples go beyond non-Hispanic white married couples in the United States. In addition, few studies outside of the United States have examined sterilization use beyond the developing country context. In their study of sterilization use in Scotland, Hunt and Annandale (1990) highlight this gap, stating that “recent studies of social, be- havioral, and attitudinal correlates of contraceptive method use have largely been lim- ited to studies in developing countries.” Australia, Canada, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States are but some of the developed countries in which female and even male sterilization are two of the most widely used methods. Future research should examine sterilization use in these countries as well, thereby broadening and creating a fuller understanding of the antecedents and outcomes of sterilization use. References Abma, J., et al. 1997. Fertility, family planning and women’s health: New data from the 1995 Na- tional Survey of Family Growth. Vital and Health Statistics, series 23, no. 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. (Sample used: in-person interviews with a na- tional sample of 10,847 women aged 15–44.) Alarcon, F., et al. 1995. Vasectomy decision-making in Mexico. Unpublished report prepared for EngenderHealth. (Sample used: interviews with 15 vasectomy users and their wives, 10 nonusers and their wives, and 30 service providers—doctors, social workers, and nurses.) © 2002 EngenderHealth © 2002 EngenderHealth Alderman, P. M. 1988. Vasectomies: Motivations and attitudes of physicians-as-patients. Cana- dian Family Physician 34:1749–1752. (Sample used: 42 medical doctors who are also va- sectomy users.) Anonymous. 1997. Japan discloses 16,520 “eugenic” sterilizations. JOICFP News 281:6. AVSC International. 1998a. Basic principles in family planning service delivery: Informed choice. New York. AVSC International. 1998b. Female sterilization decision making in Latin America and the Caribbean. Unpublished report, New York. (Sample used: review of Demographic and Health Survey data on user characteristics and literature review.) AVSC International. 1999. Informed choice in international family planning service delivery: Strategies for the 21st century. Report of a global working group meeting held at the Rocke- feller Foundation Bellagio Study and Conference Center, Bellagio, Italy, November 18–24, 1998. Bailey, P. E., et al. 1991. Physicians’ attitudes, recommendations and practice of male and female sterilization in Sao Paulo. Contraception 44(2):191–207. (Sample used: 660 family physi- cians at seven major hospitals in Sao Paulo.) Bailey, W., et al. 1994. Show, no show and sterilization. West Indies Medical Journal 43(2):46–47. (Sample used: 100 women, 50 who had shown up for their sterilization ap- pointments and 50 who had not. All were matched for socioeconomic profile.) Barbosa, R. M., and Villela, W. 1995. Sterilization and sexual behavior among women in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Reproductive Health Matters 3(5):37–46. (Sample used: 357 women, 174 sterilized and 183 nonsterilized.) Bauza, V. 1994. Puerto Rico: The covert campaign to sterilize women. Ms. 5(2):14. Benagiano, G., and Cottingham, J. 1997. Contraceptive methods: Potential for abuse. Interna- tional Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 56(1):39–46. Berquo, E., et al. 1996. A saude reprodutiva no contexto atual. Unpublished report. Campinas, Brazil: Estudos em Saude Campinas. (Sample used: survey of 304 physicians providing re- productive health and obstetric practices at 53 private and public institutions in Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais.) Bertrand, J., Landry, E. G., and Araya Zelaya, J. D. 1986. Is sterilization voluntary in El Salvador? International Family Planning Perspectives 12(2):40–43. (Sample used: 648 women who underwent the operation in one of seven facilities located in four cities in 1984; data from this study are also reported in Landry, E., 1990.) Bertrand, J. T., et al. 1989. Attitudes toward voluntary surgical contraception in four districts in Kenya. Studies in Family Planning 20(5):281–287. (Sample used: 32 focus-group discus- sions with men and women, both users and nonusers of sterilization, in four areas in Kenya.) Bertrand, J. T., et al. 1991. Social and psychological aspects of tubal ligation in Zaire: A follow- up study of acceptors. International Family Planning Perspectives 17(3):100–107. (Sam- ple used: 453 women who underwent tubal ligation, excluding those with sterilizations more than four years before the time of the study, those living far distances from selected hospital, and those whose last delivery was not by cesarean section.) Boring, C. C., Rochat, R. W., and Becerra, J. 1988. Sterilization regret among Puerto Rican women. Fertility and Sterility 49(6):973–981. (Sample used: data on sterilization regret collected during the 1982 Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment. Only women reporting that they had a contraceptive sterilization were included in the review— i.e., those who had medical sterilizations or hysterectomies or those who used vasectomy as their method were excluded; a total of 846 women aged 15–49 comprised the sample.) Bumpass, L. L., Thomson, E., and Godecker, A. L. 2000. Women, men and contraceptive steril- ization. Fertility and Sterility 73(5):937–946. (Sample used: various subsamples from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth and the National Survey of Families and House- holds.) Campos Machado, M. D. 1996. Sexual values and family planning among charismatic and Pen- tecostal movements in Brazil. Reproductive Health Matters 4(8):77–85. Cates, W., Jr., and Stone, K. M. 1992. Family planning, sexually transmitted diseases and con- traceptive choice: A literature update—part II. Family Planning Perspectives 24(3): 122–128. Centre for Operations Research and Training. 2000. Attitudes towards male and female steriliza- tion in Uttar Pradesh. Unpublished report prepared for EngenderHealth, New Delhi, India. (Samples used: 334 randomly selected adults [in survey]; eight focus groups, four each per sex; and 30 health providers.) 132 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 133 Chandra, A. 1998. Surgical sterilization in the United States: Prevalence and characteristics, 1965–1995. Vital and Health Statistics, series 23, no. 20. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. (Sample used: 1965–1995 data from the 1965 National Fertility Sur- vey and the 1973, 1982, 1988, and 1995 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, as reported by U.S. women aged 15–44.) Chi, I. C., and Jones, D. B. 1994. Incidence, risk factors and prevention of poststerilization regret in women: An updated international review from an epidemiological perspective. Obstetri- cal and Gynecological Survey 49(10):722–732. (Sample used: review of literature pub- lished after 1980 on incidence of and the risk factors for sterilization regret in women and requests for sterilization reversal in both developed and less-developed countries.) Chi, I. C., and Thapa, S. 1993. Postpartum tubal sterilization: An international perspective on some programmatic issues. Journal of Biosocial Sciences 25(1):51–61. (Sample used: lit- erature review of programmatic issues concerning postpartum sterilization, including de- mand for postpartum sterilization relative to interval sterilization; appropriate timing of postpartum sterilization; effects on lactation; risk factors for regret in women after postpar- tum sterilization; dual protection issue; and actual service provision.) Chibalonza, K., Chirhamolekwa, C., and Bertrand, J. T. 1989. Attitudes toward tubal ligation among acceptors, potential candidates and husbands in Zaire. Studies in Family Planning 20(5):273–280. (Sample used: 29 focus groups, which included female sterilization users, temporary method users, and husbands of temporary method users.) Cleland, J., and Mauldin, W. P. 1991. The promotion of family planning by financial payments: The case of Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning 22(1):1–18. (Sample used: clinic- based survey of 638 sterilized men and 674 sterilized women, as well as client follow-up in- terviews with 587 sterilized women.) Cushman, L., et al. 1988. Beliefs about sterilization among low-income urban women. Family Planning Perspectives 20(5):218–221, 233. (Samples used: across three urban cities, 1,814 women in total; 1,213 in the sterilization group, and 601 in the comparison group.) Davidson, A. R., et al. 1990. Sterilization decision making and regret: The determinants and con- sequences of unfulfilled sterilization plans. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, May 3–5, Toronto, Canada. (Sample used: prospec- tive, longitudinal study of 1,200 poor women planning sterilization and 600 women not planning sterilization.) Dharmalingam, A. 1995. The social context of family planning in a South Indian village. Inter- national Family Planning Perspectives 21(3):98–103. (Samples used: survey of 196 cur- rently married women younger than 50; 10% of married women and men selected for in- depth interviews; included observations.) Diadhiou, F., et al. 1994. Client decision making for use of Norplant� and tubal ligation in Dakar, Senegal. Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, October 30–November 3, Washington, DC. (Sample used: 88 women who had had tubal ligations and 130 women who were current Norplant implant users.) Ehn, B. E., and Liljestrand, J. 1995. A long-term follow-up of 108 vasectomized men: Good coun- selling routines are important. Scandinavian Journal of Urology 29(4):477–481. (Sample used: 108 vasectomized men at two follow-up intervals two and seven years later.) Forrest, J. D., and Fordyce, R. R. 1993. Women’s contraceptive attitudes and use in 1992. Fam- ily Planning Perspectives 25(4):175–179. (Sample used: 6,955 women aged 15–50.) Freedman, L. P., and Isaacs, S. L. 1993. Human rights and reproductive choice. Studies in Fam- ily Planning 24(1):18–30. Grilo-Diniz, S., de Mello e Souza, C., and Portella, A. P. 1998. Not like our mothers: Reproduc- tive choice and the emergence of citizenship among Brazilian rural workers, domestic workers, and housewives. In Negotiating reproductive rights: Women’s perspectives across countries and cultures, ed. by R. P. Petchesky and K. Judd. London and New York: Zed Books, pp. 31–68. (Sample used: in-depth interviews and focus groups with women from three groups representing Brazilian women’s most frequent activities—rural workers in the Northeast, domestic servants in Rio de Janeiro, and low-income housewives active in the popular health movement in Sao Paulo’s outskirts.) Groat, H. T., Neal, A. G., and Wicks, J. W. 1987. Psychosocial aspects of contraceptive steriliza- tion. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University. (Sample used: survey of a stratified sample of 610 married couples in Toledo, Ohio, interviewed in 1978 and 1985–1986.) Grubb, G. S., et al. 1985. Regret after decision to have a tubal sterilization. Fertility and Sterility © 2002 EngenderHealth 134 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS 44(2):248–253, as cited in Chi, I. C., and Jones, D. B. 1994. Incidence, risk factors and pre- vention of poststerilization regret in women: An updated international review from an epi- demiological perspective. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 49(10):722–732. Guzman Garcia, S., Snow, R., and Aitken, I. 1997. Preferences for contraceptive attributes: Voices of women in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. International Family Planning Perspectives 23(2):52–58. (Sample used: 10 focus groups consisting of married or cohabiting low-in- come women ages 15–78.) Hapugalle, D., et al. 1989. Sterilization regret in Sri Lanka: A retrospective study. International Family Planning Perspectives 15(1):22–28, as cited in Chi, I. C., and Jones, D. B. 1994. In- cidence, risk factors and prevention of poststerilization regret in women: An updated inter- national review from an epidemiological perspective. Obstetrical and Gynecological Sur- vey 49(10):722–732. Hardy, E., et al. 1996. Risk factors for tubal sterilization regret, detectable before surgery. Con- traception 54(3):159–162. (Sample used: case-control study in Brazil in which 216 women requesting tubal ligation reversal and 216 sterilization clients consulting the clinic for other reasons were interviewed.) Harrison, D. D., and Cooke, C. W. 1988. An elucidation of factors influencing physicians’ will- ingness to perform elective female sterilization. Obstetrics and Gynecology 72(4): 565–570. (Sample used: survey consisting of clinical vignettes analyzed from 341 gyne- cologists.) Hillis, S., et al. 1999. Poststerilization regret: Findings from the United States Collaborative Re- view of Sterilization. Obstetrics and Gynecology 93(6):889–895. (Sample used: 11,232 women sterilized between 1978 and 1987 who were interviewed 14 years after the proce- dure.) Henshaw, S. K., and Singh, S. 1986. Sterilization regret among U.S. couples. Family Planning Perspectives 18(5):238–240. Hunt, K., and Annandale, E. 1990. Predicting contraceptive method usage among women in West Scotland. Journal of Biosocial Science 22(4):405–421. (Sample used: 985 female respon- dents in a cohort of 35-year-olds.) Janowitz, B., et al. 1985. Why women don’t get sterilized: A follow-up of women in Honduras. Studies in Family Planning 16(2):106–112. (Sample used: a total of 437 women in two ur- ban cities.) Jequier, A. M. 1998. Vasectomy related infertility: A major and costly medical problem. Human Reproduction 13(7):1757–1759. Kamal, N. 1996. Influence of family head’s reproductive behavior on the use of modern contra- ceptive methods by other members of the family in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science 28(3):297–303. (Sample used: 2,774 women and their husbands from 16 rural clusters surveyed in 1991 Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.) Khan, M. E., and Patel, B. C. 1997. Reproductive behaviour among Muslims in Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Population Council, Asia and Near East Operations Research and Technical As- sistance Project. Kjersgaard, A. G., et al. 1989. Male or female sterilization: A comparative study. Fertility and Sterility 51(3):439–443. Landry, E. 1990. How and why women choose sterilization: Results from six follow-up surveys. Studies in Family Planning 21(3):143–151. (Sample used: survey of 5,258 sterilized women in six countries [N�920 in Bangladesh, N�1,443 in Colombia, N�648 in El Sal- vador, N�642 in Guatemala, N�1,000 in Indonesia, and N�605 in Tunisia]; data for El Salvador are also reported in Bertrand et al., 1986.) Landry, E., et al. 1992. Postpartum contraception: Perspectives from clients and service providers in six countries. New York: AVSC International. Landry, E., and Ward, V. 1997. Perspectives from couples on the vasectomy decision: A six-coun- try study. In Beyond acceptability: Users’ perspectives on contraception, London: Repro- ductive Health Matters, pp. 58–67. (Sample used: 218 men who chose vasectomy and their partners, in Bangladesh, Kenya, Mexico, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, and the United States.) Loaiza, E. 1995. Sterilization regret in the Dominican Republic: Looking for quality-of-care is- sues. Studies in Family Planning 26(1):39–48. (Sample used: 1991 Demographic Health Survey, 1,565 sterilized women.) Luick, M. K., et al. 2000. Characteristics of men receiving vasectomies in the United States, 1998–99. Unpublished. (Sample used: prospective nationally representative sample of men with vasectomies, performed in 1995.) © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 135 MacKay, A. P., et al. 2001. Tubal sterilization in the United States, 1994–1996. Family Planning Perspectives 33(4):161–165. (Sample used: women aged 20–49, as recorded in the 1994–1996 National Hospital Discharge Survey and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery.) Marcil-Gratton, N., et al. 1988. Profile of women who request reversal of tubal sterilization: Com- parison with a randomly selected group. Canadian Medical Association Journal 138(8): 711–713. Marques, M. 1996. Esterilizacao femenina e informacao. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Miller, W. B., Shain, R. N., and Pasta, D. J. 1986. A model of the determinants in married women of sterilization method choice. Population and Environment 8(3–4):223–239. (Sample used: 422 non-Hispanic married women, 255 of whom were seeking tubal ligation and 167 of whom were seeking vasectomy.) Miller, W. B., Shain, R. N., and Pasta, D. J. 1990. The nature and dynamics of poststerilizaton re- gret in married women. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 20(6):506–530. (Sample used: 350 married women aged 18–49 who were tubal sterilization users or wives of va- sectomy users; longitudinal study carried out prior to sterilization and then three years an- nually poststerilization.) Miller, W. B., Shain, R. N., and Pasta, D. J. 1991a. The pre- and poststerilization predictors of poststerilization regret in husbands and wives. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 179(10):602–608. (Sample used: 141 couples protected by tubal sterilization and 162 cou- ples protected by vasectomy; longitudinal study carried out prior to sterilization and then one and two years poststerilization.) Miller, W. B., Shain, R. N., and Pasta, D. J. 1991b. Tubal sterilization or vasectomy: How do mar- ried couples make the choice? Fertility and Sterility 56(2):278–284. (Sample used: 200 married couples seeking tubal sterilization and 200 married couples seeking vasectomy.) Mosher, W. D., and Pratt, W. F. 1990. Contraceptive use in the United States, 1973–1988. Ad- vance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, no. 182. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Moskowitz, E., Jennings, B., and Callahan, D. 1995. Long-acting contraceptives: Ethical guid- ance for policymakers and health care providers. Hastings Center Report 25(Supplement): S1–S8. Mumford, S. D. 1983. The vasectomy decision-making process. Studies in Family Planning 14(3): 83–88. New ERA. 1996. A study on client’s satisfaction with sterilization in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: AVSC International. Oddens, B. J. 1999. Women’s satisfaction with birth control: A population survey of physical and psychological effects of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, condoms, natural family planning and sterilization among 1466 women. Contraception 59(5):277–286. (Sample used: 1,466 West German women.) Ortiz-Ortega, A., Amuchástegui, A., and Rivas, M. 1998. Because they were born from me: Ne- gotiating women’s rights in Mexico. In Negotiating reproductive rights: Women’s per- spectives across countries and cultures, ed. by R. P. Petchesky and K. Judd. London and New York: Zed Books, pp. 145–179. (Sample used: 141 women from 12 grassroots orga- nizations and three trade unions participating in group interviews in three distinct geo- graphic areas in Mexico.) Perea, J. G. F. 1994. The introduction of new methods of contraception: Ethical perspectives. Re- productive Health Matters 2(3):13–19. Petta, C. A., et al. 1995. Follow-up of women seeking sterilization reversal: A Brazilian experi- ence. Advances in Contraception 11(2):157–163. (Sample used: 394 women who re- quested sterilization reversal in Brazil.) Philliber, S. G., and Philliber, W. W. 1985. Social and psychological perspectives on voluntary sterilization: A review. Studies in Family Planning 16(1):1–29. (Sample used: review of literature on sterilization antecedents and outcomes.) Pitaktepsombati, P., and Janowitz, B., 1991. Sterilization acceptance and regret in Thailand. Con- traception 44(6):623–637, as cited in Chi, I. C., and Jones, D. B. 1994. Incidence, risk fac- tors and prevention of poststerilization regret in women: An updated international review from an epidemiological perspective. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 49(10): 722–732. Platz-Christensen, J. J., et al. 1992. Evaluation of regret after tubal sterilization. International © 2002 EngenderHealth 136 CONTRACEPTIVE STERILIZATION: GLOBAL ISSUES AND TRENDS Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 38(3):223–226. (Sample used: 2,253 women in Sweden who had undergone sterilization 5–11 years earlier.) Population Council. 1993. Introduction of an IEC package for rural women of Maguindanao. Manila: Commission on Population, Population Council. Population Council. 1996. Regret after sterilization: Can it be averted? Dacca: Population Coun- cil Policy Dialogue. (Sample used: data from the 1993–1994 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey on women using vasectomy or tubal ligation.) Potts, J. M., et al. 1999. Patient characteristics associated with vasectomy reversal. Journal of Urology 161(6):1835–1839. (Sample used: review of medical charts for 365 patients who underwent vasectomy and 290 who underwent vasectomy reversal between 1990 and 1997 in the United States.) Ramsay, S. 2000. Enforced sterilisations in Sweden confirmed. Lancet 355(9211):1252. Reilly, P. 1991. The surgical solution. New York: John Hopkins University Press. Rodrigues, J., and Moji, K. 1995. Factors affecting choice of sterilisation among low income women in Paraiba, Brazil. Journal of Biosocial Science 27(3):339–345. (Sample used: 1,073 women in two low-income communities in Brazil.) Ross, J. A., Hong, S., and Huber, D. H. 1985. Voluntary sterilization: An international fact book, New York: Association for Voluntary Sterilization. Rowlands, S., and Feasey, L. 1992. Requests for sterilisation and sterilisation reversal in general practice. British Journal of Family Planning 18:16–17. (Sample used: 34 female and 44 male clients attending sterilization counseling sessions.) Rutenberg, N., et al. 1991. Knowledge and use of contraception. Demographic and Health Sur- veys Comparative Studies No. 6. Columbia, MD: Institute for Resource Development/ Macro International. Rutenberg, N., and Landry, E. 1993. A comparison of sterilization use and demand from the De- mographic and Health Surveys. International Family Planning Perspectives 19(1):4–13. Saavala, M. 1999. Understanding the prevalence of female sterilization in rural South India. Stud- ies in Family Planning 30(4):288–301. (Samples used: 396 in a household survey, 44 in extended unstructured interviews with village residents, and participant observations.) Salvo, J. J., Powers, M. G., and Cooney, R. S. 1992. Contraceptive use and sterilization among Puerto Rican women. Family Planning Perspectives 24(5):219–223. (Sample used: repre- sentative sample of 2,033 women who were born in Puerto Rico, or who had at least one parent born there, and who were living in 10 counties of New York or New Jersey.) Schmidt, J. E., et al. 2000. Requesting information about and obtaining reversal after tubal steril- ization: Findings from the U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization. Fertility and Steril- ity 74(5):892–898. (Sample used: 11,232 women who had obtained sterilization between 1978 and 1987, interviewed 14 years after the procedure.) Schuler, S. R., Hashemi, S. M., and Jenkins, A. H. 1995. Bangladesh’s family planning success story: A gender perspective. International Family Planning Perspectives 21(4):132–137. (Sample used: 104 women and 92 men, including 85 couples.) Shain, R. N., Miller, W. B., and Holden, A. E. 1985. Factors associated with married women’s se- lection of tubal sterilization and vasectomy. Fertility and Sterility 43(2):234–244. (Sample used: 248 married women scheduled for tubal sterilization and 165 wives of men scheduled for vasectomy.) Shrestha, A., Stoeckel, J., and Tuladhar, J. M. 1988. Factors related to non-use of contraception among couples with an unmet need for family planning in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: New Era. (Sample used: national survey of 1,630 Nepali women who wanted to space or limit their number of births but were not using family planning.) Stycos, J. M. 1984. Sterilization in Latin America: Its past and its future. International Family Planning Perspectives 10(2):58–64. Sung, H., et al. 2000. Papanicolau smear history and diagnosis of invasive cervical carcinoma among members of a large prepaid health plan. Cancer 88(10):2283–2289. (Sample used: 642 U.S. women of varying ethnicities, diagnosed as having invasive cervical carcinoma.) Thapa, S., and Friedman, M. 1998. Female sterilization in Nepal: A comparison of two types of service delivery. International Family Planning Perspectives 24(2):78–83. (Sample used: 445 women who had been contraceptively sterilized in hospitals and 372 in “camps,” out of a total of 8,429 ever-married women aged 15–49 who participated in the 1996 Nepal Fam- ily Health Survey.) Vernon, R. 1996. Operations research on promoting vasectomy in three Latin American countries. International Family Planning Perspectives 22(1):26–31. (Sample used: data from six op- © 2002 EngenderHealth Chapter 5 • FACTORS INFLUENCING STERILIZATION USE AND OUTCOMES 137 erations research projects on vasectomy in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico, including clinic records, surveys, and focus-group discussions with vasectomy users.) Vieira, E. M., and Ford, N. J. 1996. Regret after female sterilization in Brazil. International Fam- ily Planning Perspectives 22(1):32–37, 40. (Sample used: survey of 407 sterilized women from two low-income areas of greater Sao Paulo, with a subsample participating in in-depth interviews.) Warren, C. W., et al. 1988. Tubal sterilization: Questioning the decision. Population Studies 42(3):407–418. (Sample used: cross-country study of national survey data from Panama, Puerto Rico, and the United States.) Wilcox, L. S., et al. 1991. Risk factors for regret after tubal sterilization: 5 years of follow-up in a prospective study. Fertility and Sterility 55(5):927–933. (Sample used: 7,590 steriliza- tion users in 12 medical centers across the United States, studied as part of the Collabora- tive Review of Sterilization [CREST] study.) Williams, T., Ojeda, G., and Trias, M. 1990. An evaluation of PROFAMILIA’s female steriliza- tion program in Colombia. Studies in Family Planning 21(5):251–264. (Sample used: three survey populations—5,035 in first survey to determine user characteristics; 1,676 women in second, retrospective survey; and 1,881 women in prospective survey.) Yusuf, F., et al. 1993. Family planning practices among Lebanese, Turkish and Vietnamese women in Sydney. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 33(1):8–16. Zelaya, E., et al. 1996. Contraceptive patterns among women and men in León, Nicaragua. Con- traception 54(6):359–365. (Samples used: survey sample consisting of 10,687 women and 9,558 men and interview sample consisting of 413 women and 388 men.) © 2002 EngenderHealth

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